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Chapter 01

Test Bank

1. There is only one best way to manage people, teams, or organizations. A particular management practice that worked today will work tomorrow. This
is called the contingency approach.
FALSE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.
Topic: Contingency Theory

Feedback: There is no single best way to manage people, teams, or organizations. An important part of your success is your ability to know which tools
to use and under what circumstances. This is described as a contingency approach to managing people and is the foundation of contemporary OB.

2. Common sense focuses on the past, and because of this, it is strong in responding to the unexpected.
FALSE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.
Topic: Contingency Theory

Feedback: Common sense is especially weak in responding to the unknown or unexpected. And because it focuses on the past, common sense lacks
vision for the future.

3. When major league baseball officials failed to notice they had created conditions that encouraged players to use steroids, this was an example of
“motivated blindness.”
TRUE

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Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Describe the ways in which you can apply OB knowledge to effectively solve problems.
Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: In Table 1.2 the example of “motivated blindness” is: Baseball officials failed to notice they’d created conditions that encouraged steroid use.

4. OB includes topics such as managing your peers and your bosses, as well as managing your subordinates.
TRUE

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Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.
Topic: Organizational Behavior (OB)

Feedback: Organizational behavior includes knowing about managing yourself, as well as others, up, down, and sideways.

5. Soft skills are job specific; they are useful only in certain jobs.
FALSE

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Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.
Topic: Conceptual Skills
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Feedback: Soft skills are not job specific. They are portable skills, more or less relevant in every job, at every level, and throughout your career.

6. Problem solving is a systematic process for closing the gap between an actual and a desired outcome.
FALSE

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Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.
Topic: Outcomes

Feedback: A problem is a difference or gap between an actual and a desired state or outcome. Problems arise when our goals (desired outcomes) are not
being met (actual situation). In turn, problem solving is a systematic process for closing these gaps.

7. John is spending 12 hours a day at work and is exhausted. He decides that he will work no more than 8 hours—no matter what. This is a good example
of the Three-step Problem-Solving Approach.
TRUE

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Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-03 Describe the ways in which you can apply OB knowledge to effectively solve problems.
Topic: Organizational Behavior (OB)

Feedback: The Three-Step Problem-Solving Approach notes that you should (1) define the problem in terms of desired outcomes, (2) identify potential
causes using OB concepts and theories, and (3) make recommendations or take action. In this case, John has noted a problem (but not necessarily the
outcomes he wants) and has completely skipped step 2.

8. Unethical behavior erodes trust, but has no effect on cooperation in organizations.


FALSE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Teamwork
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.
Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: Unethical behavior reduces cooperation, loyalty, and contributions, which of course hurts the performance of individuals, teams, and
organizations.

9. American Airlines pilots created widespread slowdowns in flights to pressure their company in negotiations with their union. This was illegal.
FALSE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Ethics
AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.
Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: In 2012, American Airlines pilots created widespread slowdowns in flights to pressure the company in negotiations with their union, a
notable instance of how widespread unethical behavior has resulted in virtually no legal consequences.

10. Research shows that sustainable businesses are led by CEOs who take a people-centered, inclusive approach.
TRUE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Ethics
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
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Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.
Topic: Ethics

Feedback: Research shows that sustainable businesses are led by CEOs who take a people-centered, inclusive approach rather than a controlling,
target-driven one. They are people who listen and who foster cultures in which employees are not scared to point out problems, and in which staff feel
they have a personal responsibility to enact corporate values, be they health and safety concerns or putting the client’s interests first.

11. According to research, the most common predictor of cheating in school is peer behavior.
TRUE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Ethics
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.
Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: A study of graduate students, including MBAs, in the United States and Canada found that peer behavior was by far the strongest predictor of
why students cheated, followed by severity of potential penalties, and certainty of being reported.

12. A decision is a gap between an actual and a desired situation.


FALSE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-03 Describe the ways in which you can apply OB knowledge to effectively solve problems.
Topic: Decision Making

Feedback: A problem is a difference or gap between an actual and a desired situation.

13. OB concepts and theories can be classified into three broad categories: person factors, group characteristics, and environmental characteristics.
FALSE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-04 Explain how OB can help you organize a problem in order to achieve a solution effectively.
Topic: Organizational Behavior (OB)

Feedback: OB concepts and theories can be classified into two broad categories: person factors and environmental characteristics.

14. The interactional perspective states that behavior is a function of interdependent person and environmental factors.
TRUE

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-04 Explain how OB can help you organize a problem in order to achieve a solution effectively.
Topic: Organizational Behavior (OB)

Feedback: Notably, the interactional perspective states that behavior is a function of interdependent person and environmental factors.

15. The “organizing framework” for understanding and applying OB is based on the systems approach.
TRUE

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Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-05 Classify OB knowledge and tools for problem solving with the support of the Organizing Framework.

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Topic: Organizational Behavior (OB)

Feedback: To assemble our framework, we use the systems approach as our foundation.

16. Maria is having an argument with her father. He believes that focusing on her computer skills is the most important of Maria’s college experience.
Maria disagrees, arguing that ______ is/are the more critical.
A. overall technical expertise
B. self-awareness
C. problem-solving skills
D. an ethical perspective
E. business knowledge

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.
Topic: Conceptual Skills

Feedback: Regardless of your area of study, the greatest benefit of your education is developing problem-solving and critical-thinking skills.

17. ______ is the interdisciplinary field dedicated to understanding and managing people at work.
A. Management theory
B. Management dynamics
C. Organizational behavior
D. Organizational dynamics
E. Organizational theory

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.
Topic: Organizational Behavior (OB)

Feedback: The term organizational behavior (OB) describes an interdisciplinary field dedicated to understanding and managing people at work.

18. Which of the following fields is not a field from which OB draws?
A. Political Science
B. Accounting
C. Statistics
D. Economics
E. Vocational Counseling

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.
Topic: Organizational Behavior (OB)

Feedback: OB draws on research and practice from many disciplines to deal with how people behave at work, including: anthropology, economics,
ethics, management, organizational theory, political science, psychology, sociology, statistics, and vocational counseling.

19. OB is important in all facets of school and work because


A. hard skills are a critical factor to your success.
B. this indicates that you have common sense.
C. this technical knowledge is in great demand.
D. a career in OB will ensure a high salary.
E. it helps us to understand and manage people.

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Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
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Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.
Topic: Organizational Behavior (OB)

Feedback: Organizational behavior includes knowing about managing yourself, as well as others, up, down, and sideways.

20. Javier is dealing with several employees who are chronically late. He unilaterally decides to dock everyone’s daily pay 5 percent if they are more
than 10 minutes late. Javier will have better results using
A. the contingency approach.
B. the “one-best-way” approach.
C. the environmental theory.
D. ethical decision making.
E. the human capital theory.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.
Topic: Contingency Theory

Feedback: A contingency approach calls for using OB concepts and tools as situationally appropriate, instead of trying to rely on “one best way.”

21. The contingency approach suggests that


A. there is one best way to manage.
B. OB theories apply to all situations.
C. a manager needs to learn a set of hard-and-fast rules.
D. the best answer depends on the situation.
E. management practices from the past can be applied to today’s situations.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.
Topic: Contingency Theory

Feedback: A contingency approach calls for using OB concepts and tools as situationally appropriate, instead of trying to rely on “one best way.” This
means there is no single best way to manage people, teams, and organizations.

22. Which of the following statements is false?


A. The contingency approach is just common sense.
B. Common sense excels in well-known scenarios with predictable outcomes.
C. Common sense requires less effort than finding the real problem.
D. Common sense can be overly subjective.
E. Common sense is weak in unexpected situations.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.
Topic: Contingency Theory

Feedback: At first glance the contingency approach may look like simple common sense. But it’s different. It attempts to overcome the limits of
common sense with how it does not settle for traditional options if another solution may be more practical and effective. Similarly, understanding the
systems approach to issues provides more insight than common sense alone. The goal of OB is to give you more than common sense and instead
enhance your understanding of situations at work and guide your behaviors.

23. Problem solving and critical thinking are ______ because they use logic and reasoning to develop and evaluate options.
A. technical skills
B. soft skills
C. common sense
D. hard skills
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E. personal attributes

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.
Topic: Conceptual Skills

Feedback: Soft skills relate to human interactions and include both interpersonal skills and personal attributes. They include problem solving, critical
thinking, active listening and judgment and decision making.

24. Which of the following is not one of the top four skills desired by employers?
A. Teamwork
B. Critical thinking
C. Problem solving
D. Judgment and decision making
E. Active listening

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.
Topic: Conceptual Skills

Feedback: According to Table 1.1, the top four skills most desired by employers are critical thinking, problem solving, judgment and decision making,
and active listening.

25. Justin and Edwardo were hired by the same network support firm. One year later, Edwardo receives a promotion to team leader. Justin believes he
has stronger technical skills and asks his supervisor why he did not get the promotion. The supervisor says that Edwardo has better people skills. Having
____ can enable a person’s promotion.
A. soft skills.
B. hard skills.
C. technical skills.
D. team skills.
E. the right degree.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.
Topic: Conceptual Skills

Feedback: For most jobs you are selected for your technical skills, your ability to do the given job (i.e., hard skills). What it takes to get promoted is your
perceived ability to get things done through others and manage people. Figure 1.1 illustrates how technical or job-specific skills decline in importance
as you move to levels of higher responsibility, while the need for personal skills increases.

26. Soft skills are ______; they are more or less relevant in every job, at every level, and throughout your career.
A. portable
B. inflexible
C. rigid
D. narrowly applied
E. hard-and-fast

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.
Topic: Conceptual Skills

Feedback: According to Table 1.1, the four skills most desired by employers are critical thinking; problem solving; judgment and decision making; and

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active listening. All are soft skills, the skills you need to interact with, influence, and perform with others.

27. “When you know yourself, you are comfortable with your strengths and not crippled by your shortcomings....” This is
A. a soft skill.
B. self-awareness.
C. common sense.
D. hindsight.
E. objectivity.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.
Topic: Self-Awareness

Feedback: Soft skills are the skills you need to interact with, influence, and perform with others. Soft skills relate to our human interactions and include
both interpersonal skills and personal attributes.

28. Regarding the relative importance of personal and technical skills,


A. they remain equal and this does not change throughout careers.
B. technical skills are more important regardless of job level.
C. personal skills are more important regardless of job level.
D. technical skills become more important as job level increases.
E. personal skills become more important as job level increases.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.
Topic: Knowledge and Skill

Feedback: Figure 1.1 illustrates how technical skills decline in importance as you move to levels of higher responsibility, while the need for personal
skills increases.

29. Pop’s Ice Cream Store sales were down 15 percent this summer. The owner, Pop, says that in his experience rainy summers mean lower ice cream
sales. Jonathan, his assistant, notices the staff at Pop’s appear uninterested and slow to serve customers. He would like to replace at least one of them
with a younger college student for the rest of the summer. Jonathan is using a(n) ______ perspective.
A. experience
B. management theory
C. hindsight
D. contingency
E. common sense

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.
Topic: Contingency Theory

Feedback: Common sense is often based on experience or logic, both of which have limits, and it suffers three major weaknesses you need to be aware
of—over-reliance on hindsight, lack of rigor, and lack of objectivity. An important part of your success is your ability to know which tools to use and
under what circumstances. This is described as a contingency approach to managing people.

30. At work, Jenna always volunteers to help others on their projects. But, she really resents the extra work and constantly complains to her friends that
she is doing everyone else’s job. Jenna is not _____; she needs to be more self-aware of what she takes on.
A. authentic
B. objective
C. fake
D. credible
E. a leader
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AACSB: Analytical Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.
Topic: Self-Awareness

Feedback: Self-awareness gives you the capacity to learn from your mistakes as well as your successes—to find out what works for you. You need to
know yourself in order to be authentic—real and not fake.

31. Kamal argues that 9 AM is a bad time to sign up for a small discussion group because he will be too tired from the previous night’s activities. He
prefers to sign up for a large lecture class at that time. Raoul disagrees, noting that this small discussion group is something they both wanted to do and
will require their attention, while they may not focus in the lecture class. Kamal says that this is not a commonsense approach. What weakness does
Kamal exhibit?
A. lack of rigor
B. lack of self-awareness
C. lack of authenticity
D. over-reliance on hindsight
E. lack of objectivity

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.
Topic: Self-Awareness

Feedback: Commonsense is often based on experience or logic, both of which have limits. In this case, Kamal is relying on hindsight, believing that
what worked before should work again. Kamal is not considering how much he wanted to join the discussion group and how high his interest level is.

32. _________, with which you can build goodwill, include personality, teamwork and leadership.
A. Interpersonal skills
B. Commonsense skills
C. Hard skills
D. Technical expertise
E. Personal attributes

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.
Topic: Social Capital

Feedback: Personal attributes with which we build goodwill and trust and demonstrate integrity include attitudes, personality, teamwork, and
leadership.

33. Joe expresses concern with Rita, an intern scheduled to work on his team for three weeks. José, Joe’s manager, quickly decides to move Rita to
another team. Which key problem-solving step has Jose skipped?
A. define the problem
B. take action
C. find a solution
D. defuse the situation
E. implement changes

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-03 Describe the ways in which you can apply OB knowledge to effectively solve problems.
Topic: Decision Making

Feedback: The three steps in our applied approach to problem solving begin with defining the problem. José doesn’t know WHY Joe is unhappy.

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Instead, he jumps right to taking action.

34. In some business situations, you will make recommendations to solve a problem. Which of the following actions can help improve the quality of
your recommendations?
A. Check with Human Resources to be sure that you are following protocol.
B. Make sure that your suggestions don’t upset any team members.
C. Make sure that your recommendations address the causes of the problem.
D. Make sure you offer a quick fix for the problem.
E. Ask your superior to present the recommendations.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-03 Describe the ways in which you can apply OB knowledge to effectively solve problems.
Topic: Decision Making

Feedback: If you map recommendations onto the causes of the problem, you can be more confident that as you remedy the causes, you will solve or at
least ease the underlying problem.

35. ______ highlight the fact that choosing among available options is not always a choice between right and wrong.
A. Organizational theories
B. Ethical dilemmas
C. Ethical lapses
D. Management theories
E. Ill-conceived goals

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Ethics
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.
Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: Ethical dilemmas are situations with two choices, neither of which resolves the situation in an ethically acceptable manner.

36. Suzette is a bank manager charged with determining which employees are downsized. Her only guidelines are to keep those employees who
contribute the most to the overall organization. When the list of employees downsized is presented, none of her personal friends are on it. This might be
viewed as ______ behavior.
A. rational
B. unbiased
C. unethical
D. illegal
E. organizational

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Ethics
AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.
Topic: Ethics

Feedback: Some researchers would contend that instead of ill intent, cognitive biases and organizational practices “blind managers to unethical
behavior, whether it is their own or that of others.” Suzette’s behavior may be partially unconscious, and partially a desire to protect her friends, whom
she may consider to be excellent employees. With lack of distinct direction from above, she makes her own choices.

37. Simone wants to become a partner in her Atlanta law firm. She knows that if she bills the most revenue, it will help her get her partnership. This
_____ can lead to unethical behavior.
A. overvalued outcome
B. motivated blindness

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C. ill-conceived goal
D. indirect blindness
E. slippery slope

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Ethics
AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.
Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: When we set goals and incentives to promote a desired behavior, they can encourage a negative one. In this case, Simone might unconciously
pad her bills.

38. Which of the following statements is true?


A. Ill-conceived goals occur when we set goals and incentives to promote a desired behavior, and that behavior is achieved.
B. The slippery slope refers to seeing the ethical actions of others as an example to follow.
C. Motivated blindness occurs when we overlook the unethical behavior of another because it’s in our interest to remain ignorant.
D. If the outcome is good, then the behavior must be ethical.
E. Direct blindness occurs when we hold others less accountable for unethical behavior because it’s carried out through third parties.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Ethics
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.
Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: To address motivated blindness, which occurs when we overlook the unethical behavior of another because it’s in our interest to remain
ignorant, we need to root out conflicts of interest.

39. _____ is knowing who you are and what you want.
A. Self-esteem
B. Self-efficacy
C. Self-awareness
D. Self-disclosure
E. self-assessment

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.
Topic: Self-Awareness

Feedback: To have a successful career, you need to know who you are and what you want. Bossidy and Charan said it best in their book, Execution:
“When you know yourself, you are comfortable with your strengths and not crippled by your shortcomings. . . . Self-awareness gives you the capacity
to learn from your mistakes as well as your successes. It enables you to keep growing.”

40. Ethics is primarily concerned with


A. right and wrong.
B. legal and illegal.
C. moral and immoral.
D. religious and nonreligious.
E. public and nonpublic.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Ethics
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.
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Topic: Ethics

Feedback: Ethics is concerned with behavior—right versus wrong, good versus bad, and the many shades of gray in between.

41. Sustainable businesses tend to be run by CEOs who are


A. intelligent.
B. controlling.
C. target-driven.
D. people-centered.
E. egotistical.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Ethics
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.
Topic: Ethics

Feedback: Research shows that sustainable businesses are led by CEOs who take a people-centered, inclusive approach rather than a controlling,
target-driven one.

42. In an ethical dilemma,


A. there are two choices, neither of which resolves the situation in an ethically acceptable manner.
B. there are two choices, either of which resolves the situation in an ethically acceptable manner.
C. there are two choices, one of which resolves the situation in an ethically acceptable manner.
D. there is only one choice.
E. there are no choices.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Ethics
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.
Topic: Ethics

Feedback: Ethical dilemmas involve situations with two choices, neither of which resolves the situation in an ethically acceptable manner.

43. Ronald works for a small biotech firm. When the firm presents the results of its clinical trials to the FDA, Ronald realizes that the results are not
accurate. He reports this to the FDA. Ronald is a(n)
A. ethicist.
B. whistleblower.
C. traitor.
D. mole.
E. deviant.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Ethics
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.
Topic: Ethics

Feedback: Whistleblowing is revealing a behavior that troubles you to management or to the authorities.

44. _______ are goals and incentives set to promote a desired behavior, but instead encourage a negative one.
A. Ill-conceived goals
B. Motivated blindness
C. Indirect blindness
D. The slippery slope
E. Overvaluing outcomes

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AACSB: Analytical Thinking
AACSB: Ethics
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.
Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: Table 1.2 states that ill-conceived goals occur when we set goals and incentives to promote a desired behavior, but they encourage a negative
one.

45. Pascal is a customer-service representative who handles phone inquiries. He has a goal of handling 12 calls per hour. When he gets a customer with
a complex situation, he tends to become short with that person to keep the call short. This is an example of
A. ill-conceived goals.
B. motivated blindness.
C. indirect blindness.
D. the slippery slope.
E. overvaluing outcomes.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Ethics
AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.
Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: The effect of setting goals and incentives to promote a desired behavior, but instead these goals encourage negative ones, is described as
ill-conceived goals in Table 1.2. Pascal’s goal of handling 12 calls per hour encourages his negative behavior toward customers with complex
situations.

46. Ilsa is part of a team working on a project. Vanessa’s role on the team is to update and present status reports to management. Ilsa knows that
Vanessa’s reports do not show the delays that have occurred, but she doesn’t say anything because she does not want upper management more involved.
Which of the following is Ilsa is exhibiting?
A. ill-conceived goals
B. motivated blindness
C. indirect blindness
D. the slippery slope
E. overvaluing outcomes

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Ethics
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.
Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: According to Table 1.2, motivated blindness is when we overlook the unethical behavior of another when it is in our interest to remain
ignorant.

47. Harriet saw Josephine cheating on a test in their OB class. However, she did not report this because Josephine is on her team in the class and she
feared that Josephine might be kicked out of the class and that this would hurt her team’s chances of doing well on their project. Harriet is experiencing
A. ill-conceived goals.
B.motivated blindness.
C. indirect blindness.
D. the slippery slope.
E. overvaluing outcomes.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Ethics
AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
12-1
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McGraw-Hill Education.
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.
Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: According to Table 1.2, motivated blindness is when we overlook the unethical behavior of another when it is in our interest to remain
ignorant. Harriet believes it is in her best interest for Josephine to remain on her team, and therefore, she overlooks Josephine’s unethical behavior.

48. _____ is(are) when we hold others less accountable for unethical behavior that is carried out through third parties.
A. Ill-conceived goals
B. Motivated blindness
C. Indirect blindness
D. The slippery slope
E. Overvaluing outcomes

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Ethics
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.
Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: Table 1.2 states that indirect blindness occurs when we hold others less accountable for unethical behavior when it’s carried out through third
parties.

49. Javier asked Maria for general advice on homework. Then he asked her to let him see specific problems. Now he wants to copy her assignment,
claiming he has no time and the content is too difficult. This is an example of
A. ill-conceived goals.
B. motivated blindness.
C. indirect blindness.
D. the slippery slope.
E. overvaluing outcomes.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Ethics
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.
Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: When we are less able to see others’ unethical behavior when it develops gradually, this is called the slippery slope (see Table 1.2).

50. Because the auditors of XYX Company accepted a client firm’s questionable financial statements when the infractions have occurred over time,
James believes that they are
A. setting ill-conceived goals.
B. exhibiting motivated blindness.
C. showing indirect blindness.
D. on a slippery slope.
E. overvaluing outcomes.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Ethics
AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.
Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: Table 1.2 states the slippery slope occurs when we are less able to see others’ unethical behavior when it develops gradually (e.g., auditors
may be more likely to accept a client firm’s questionable financial statements if the infractions have accrued over time).

51. _____ is when we give a pass to unethical behavior if the outcome is good.
A. Ill-conceived goals
13-1
Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.
B. Motivated blindness
C. Indirect blindness
D. The slippery slope
E. Overvaluing outcomes

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Ethics
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.
Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: Table 1.2 states that overvaluing outcomes is when we give a pass to unethical behavior if the outcome is good.

52. ______ is the remedy for ill-conceived goals.


A. Rooting out conflicts of interest
B. When handing off work, asking if the assignment might invite unethical behavior
C. Rewarding solid decision processes, not just good outcomes,
D. Being alert for even trivial ethical infractions and addressing them immediately
E. Brainstorming unintended consequences

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Ethics
AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.
Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: Table 1.2 states that the remedy for ill-conceived goals is to brainstorm unintended consequences when devising goals and incentives and
consider alternative goals that may be more important to reward.

53. The remedy for motivated blindness is


A. to root out conflicts of interest.
B. when handing off work, to ask if the assignment might invite unethical behavior.
C. to reward solid decision processes, not just good outcomes.
D. to be alert for even trivial ethical infractions and address them immediately.
E. to brainstorm unintended consequences.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Ethics
AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.
Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: Table 1.2 states that the remedy for motivated blindness is to root out conflicts of interest. Simply being aware of them doesn’t necessarily
reduce their negative effect on decision making.

54. Green Care Landscaping Company minimizes attention to a price increase by selling lawn care treatments to a subsidiary, Keep It Up, Inc. Keep It
Up then increases the price of the specific treatments. The manager of Keep It Up wants to notify customers that they are a subsidiary of Green Care
Landscaping and that the increase has come from the parent company. This is an example of a remedy for
A. ill-conceived goals.
B. indirect blindness.
C. the slipper slope.
D. overvaluing outcomes.
E. motivated blindness.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Ethics

14-1
Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.
AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.
Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: Table 1.2 states that the remedy for indirect blindness when handing off or outsourcing work is to ask whether the assignment might invite
unethical behavior and take ownership of these implications.

55. Extreme examples of unethical and illegal conduct are the exception in the business community. Which of the following statements about this
behavior is false?
A. Very few unethical acts are also illegal.
B. Most unethical acts are not punished in any way.
C. Even if illegal, few of these acts are prosecuted.
D. You can rely on the legal system to manage or assure ethical conduct at work.
E. Unethical behavior negatively affects the offending employee, coworkers, and the employer.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Ethics
AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.
Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: Very few unethical acts are also illegal, most are not punished in any way, and even if illegal, few are prosecuted. This means you should not
rely on the legal system to manage or assure ethical conduct at work.

56. Why are ethics considered so important when studying organizational behavior?
A. Unethical behavior makes it easy to influence others and conduct business.
B. Unethical behavior can ensure loyalty, which helps the performance of individuals and teams.
C. You will be confronted with ethical challenges at all levels of organizations and throughout your career.
D. Unethical acts are not illegal and can benefit the company.
E. Some unethical acts are necessary to work around unfair governmental regulations.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Ethics
AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.
Topic: Ethical Behavior

Feedback: Ethics gets priority because many OB topics—reward systems, decision making, leader behavior and organizational culture—have a direct
and substantial influence on the ethical conduct of individuals and organizations.

57. Bettina wants to make the Dean’s List this semester. She is doing well in all of her courses except Accounting. This presents a(n) _____ for Bettina.
A. ethical dilemma
B. desired outcome
C. systematic approach
D. goal
E. problem

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-03 Describe the ways in which you can apply OB knowledge to effectively solve problems.
Topic: Self-Awareness

Feedback: A problem is a difference or gap between an actual and a desired situation.

15-1
Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.
58. A problem is
A. a decision that needs to be made.
B. a gap between an actual and a desired situation.
C. always due to environmental factors.
D. a situation that managers rarely face.
E. something to be ignored until it becomes serious.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-05 Classify OB knowledge and tools for problem solving with the support of the Organizing Framework.
Topic: Decision Making

Feedback: A problem is a difference or gap between an actual and a desired situation.

59. ______ is the first step on the three-step journey (or approach) of the Organizing Framework.
A. Identifying the OB concepts
B. Defining the problem
C. Making recommendations
D. Taking action
E. Delegating the problem

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-05 Classify OB knowledge and tools for problem solving with the support of the Organizing Framework.
Topic: Decision Making

Feedback: Our applied approach to problem solving proposes three activities or steps: Step 1: Define the problem. Step 2: Identify the OB concepts or
theories to use to solve the problem. Step 3: Make recommendations and (if appropriate) take action.

60. Person factors and ______ are the two broad categories of OB concepts and theories.
A. the three levels at work
B. ethical factors
C. situation factors
D. problem solving
E. system processes

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-04 Explain how OB can help you organize a problem in order to achieve a solution effectively.
Topic: Person-Environment Fit

Feedback: OB concepts and theories can be classified into two broad categories: person factors and situation factors.

61. Research has shown that


A. person factors influence a person’s performance more than situation factors.
B. situation factors influence a person’s performance more than person factors.
C. person and situation factors influence a person’s performance equally.
D. a person’s behavior and performance are a function of interdependent person and situation factors.
E. neither person nor situation factors significantly influence behavior or performance.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Explain how OB can help you organize a problem in order to achieve a solution effectively.
Topic: Person-Environment Fit

Feedback: Many observers believe that some people are by their nature better suited than others to perform well at work. In contrast, others believe that

16-1
Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.
some people are clearly better in a given job or situation. Nobody is the best at everything. This common view is supported by research in psychology
and OB. Notably, the interactional perspective states that behavior is a function of interdependent person and situation factors.

62. “Different people may perceive similar situations in different ways and similar people may perceive different situations in the same way.” This
represents the _____ perspective.
A. interactional
B. ethical
C. problem-solving
D. contingency
E. individualistic

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-04 Explain how OB can help you organize a problem in order to achieve a solution effectively.
Topic: Person-Environment Fit

Feedback: The interactional perspective states that behavior is a function of interdependent person and environmental factors.

63. People bring their abilities, goals, and experiences to each and every situation, which often changes the situation. Conversely, because situations
have unique characteristics, such as opportunities and rewards, they change people. This dynamic reflects the interactional perspective, which explains
that behavior is a function of
A. interdependent person and situation factors.
B. interdependent ethical and unethical factors.
C. interdependent human and social factors.
D. independent person and situation factors.
E. independent human and social factors.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Explain how OB can help you organize a problem in order to achieve a solution effectively.
Topic: Person-Environment Fit

Feedback: The interactional perspective states that behavior is a function of interdependent person and situation factors.

64. Joe, a hard and productive worker, quit because he couldn’t get along with his coworkers. This would be diagnosed as a(n) ________ level problem.
A. individual
B. group
C. organizational
D. interactional
E. situation

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-04 Explain how OB can help you organize a problem in order to achieve a solution effectively.
Topic: Group Cohesion

Feedback: Some people quit because they can’t get along with their boss/leader or coworkers (a group/team level process).

65. Sharon quit her job because she felt that her department’s reward system favored men. This would be diagnosed as a(n) _________ level problem.
A. individual
B. group
C. organizational
D. interactional
E. situation

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

17-1
Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.
AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-04 Explain how OB can help you organize a problem in order to achieve a solution effectively.
Topic: Organizational Behavior (OB)

Feedback: A faulty reward system (an organizational-level process) that unfairly distributes raises, bonuses, and recognition is another common reason
people quit.

66. Alexa quit her job because she felt it was boring. This would be diagnosed as a(n) ______ level problem.
A. individual
B. group
C. organizational
D. interactional
E. situation

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-04 Explain how OB can help you organize a problem in order to achieve a solution effectively.
Topic: Organizational Behavior (OB)

Feedback: Some people quit because their job just doesn’t fulfill what they value, such as challenging and stimulating work (an individual-level input).

67. Three months ago, XYZ Corporation changed the way the typing pool is organized from a self-managed team to a more traditional structure in
which employees receive their assignments from a direct supervisor. Since then, three of the seven employees have left the organization. ______ is the
OB perspective applied here.
A. Individual
B. Group
C. Organizational
D. Interactional
E. Situation

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Knowledge Application
AACSB: Teamwork
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-04 Explain how OB can help you organize a problem in order to achieve a solution effectively.
Topic: Group Cohesion

Feedback: Group/team level considerations include: Have there been any changes or other causative factors in a work group, including the manager,
which might make work less satisfactory? How does turnover in a specific group compare to other groups in the organization?

68. Several people have quit the administrative support unit of the company recently. About that time, a new company moved into the area with a better
health care plan and comparable wages. ______ is the most likely OB perspective to apply.
A. Individual
B. Group
C. Organizational
D. Iinteractional
E. Situation

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-04 Explain how OB can help you organize a problem in order to achieve a solution effectively.
Topic: Person-Environment Fit

Feedback: Situation characteristics include: Have there been changes in the situation (such as a sudden increase in employment opportunities at better
18-1
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McGraw-Hill Education.
wages)? Have the working conditions changed in any meaningful way?

69. Recently, the Acme Explosives Company was sold to a new owner, Roadrunner Inc. The operations of the two organizations are going to be merged,
with several of the manufacturing locations possibly to be eliminated. ______ is the most likely OB perspective to apply.
A. Individual
B. Group
C. Organizational
D. Interactional
E. Situation

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-04 Explain how OB can help you organize a problem in order to achieve a solution effectively.
Topic: Organizational Behavior (OB)

Feedback: Organizational-level considerations include: Has the organization changed ownership, or rewritten company policies, or is it enforcing
policies differently?

70. In the Organizing Framework,


A. inputs lead to processes, which lead to outcomes.
B. inputs lead directly to outcomes.
C. outcomes never affect inputs.
D. outcomes never affect processes.
E. inputs are unrelated to processes.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-05 Classify OB knowledge and tools for problem solving with the support of the Organizing Framework.
Topic: Outcomes

Feedback: As shown in Figure 1.3, this is the case because inputs affect processes, and processes affect outcomes. Also, feedback loops exist from
outcomes to inputs and processes.

71. In the Organizing Framework, inputs (in part) consist of


A. individual-level processes.
B. group/team outcomes.
C. situation characteristics.
D. individual outcomes.
E. organizational outcomes.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-05 Classify OB knowledge and tools for problem solving with the support of the Organizing Framework.
Topic: Person-Environment Fit

Feedback: Figure 1.3 identifies personal factors and situation characteristics as inputs. This framework implies that person factors and situation
characteristics are the initial drivers of all outcomes that managers want to achieve.

72. In the Integrative Framework, which of the following is an outcome?


A. situation characteristics
B. personal factors
C. organizational processes
D. organizational turnover
E. awarding bonuses for good performance

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

19-1
Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-05 Classify OB knowledge and tools for problem solving with the support of the Organizing Framework.
Topic: Outcomes

Feedback: This framework implies that person factors and situation characteristics are the initial drivers (inputs) of all outcomes that managers want to
achieve. This is the case because inputs affect processes, and processes affect outcomes. And since events are dynamic and ongoing, many outcomes
will in turn impact inputs and processes. See Figure 1.3. Organizational turnover is an outcome. The Life is Sweeter on Mars example in OB in Action
box lists one outcome as: Mars posts a very low turnover rate (5%) which is a sign that employees are highly satisfied with their jobs.

73. What kind of a response is a manager making when he or she chooses a satisfactory, but not ideal, solution?
A. resolving
B. solving
C. dissolving
D. ignoring
E. avoiding

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-05 Classify OB knowledge and tools for problem solving with the support of the Organizing Framework.
Topic: Decision Making

Feedback: Resolving problems is arguably the most common form of response for managers and simply means choosing a satisfactory solution, one
that works but is less than ideal.

74. In solving a problem, a manager


A. selects the optimal response.
B. chooses a satisfactory solution.
C. changes the situation in which the problem occurs.
D. settles for less than ideal.
E. eliminates the problem situation.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-05 Classify OB knowledge and tools for problem solving with the support of the Organizing Framework.
Topic: Decision Making

Feedback: Solving problems is the optimal or ideal response.

75. Your have an apartment within walking distance of your office. Your company moves the office to the next town. You decide to take a position with
another firm close to your apartment. This is an example of _____ the problem.
A. resolving
B. solving
C. dissolving
D. ignoring
E. avoiding

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-05 Classify OB knowledge and tools for problem solving with the support of the Organizing Framework.
Topic: Decision Making

Feedback: Dissolving problems requires changing or eliminating the situation in which the problem occurs.

76. Anne, a manager, hires the first person she interviews because she believes that person can do the job adequately. Anne is
A. resolving the problem.
B. solving the problem.

20-1
Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.
C. dissolving the problem.
D. ignoring the problem.
E. avoiding the problem.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-05 Classify OB knowledge and tools for problem solving with the support of the Organizing Framework.
Topic: Decision Making

Feedback: Resolving problems is arguably the most common form for managers and simply means choosing a satisfactory solution, one that works but
is less than ideal.

77. Halim hires a new employee who best meets the characteristics he is looking for in the ideal employee. He is
A. resolving the problem.
B. solving the problem.
C. dissolving the problem.
D. ignoring the problem.
E. avoiding the problem.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-05 Classify OB knowledge and tools for problem solving with the support of the Organizing Framework.
Topic: Decision Making

Feedback: Solving problems is the optimal or ideal response.

78. Jonathan decides that rather than hire an employee to replace someone who left, he will eliminate the position. Jonathan is
A. resolving the problem.
B. solving the problem.
C. dissolving the problem.
D. ignoring the problem.
E. avoiding the problem.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-05 Classify OB knowledge and tools for problem solving with the support of the Organizing Framework.
Topic: Decision Making

Feedback: Dissolving problems requires changing or eliminating the situation in which the problem occurs.

79. The first of the basic elements for selecting an effective solution is
A. to determine the criteria for the decision.
B. to generate alternatives.
C. to consider the consequences.
D. to decide who will make the decision.
E. to make the decision.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-05 Classify OB knowledge and tools for problem solving with the support of the Organizing Framework.
Topic: Decision Making

Feedback: The first step is determining the selection criteria, for example, the effect on bottom-line profits, you and classmates or coworkers, reputation
with customers or the community, your own values, and the ethical implications.
21-1
Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.
80. Which of the following is not one of the basic elements of selecting an effective solution?
A. determining the basic criteria for the decision
B. selecting an OB concept or topic to apply
C. deciding who will be involved in choosing the solution
D. considering the consequences of each alternative
E. agreeing on a method for decision making

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-05 Classify OB knowledge and tools for problem solving with the support of the Organizing Framework.
Topic: Decision Making

Feedback: Three common elements to selecting the most effective solution. (1) Selection criteria: Determine the basis (criteria) for the decision. (2)
Consequences: Consider the consequences of each alternative, especially the trade-offs between the pros and the cons. (3) Choice process: Decide who
will be involved in choosing the solution. If more than one person is involved, then you need to agree on the method.

81. Discuss the statement, “The contingency approach is just common sense.” Is this true? Why or why not? Why is this important for managers?

At first glance the contingency perspective may look like simple common sense. But it’s different. It attempts to overcome the limits of common sense
with how it does not settle for traditional options if another solution may be more practical and effective. Similarly, understanding the systems approach
to issues provides more insight than common sense alone. The goal of OB is to give you more than common sense and instead enhance your
understanding of situations at work and guide your behaviors.
Moreover, common sense has three main weaknesses that you need to consider and avoid. (1) Overreliance on hindsight. Common sense excels in
well-known scenarios with predictable outcomes. But much of modern business involves uncertainty and adapting to change. In other words, common
sense is especially weak in responding to the unknown or unexpected. And because it focuses on the past, common sense lacks vision for the future. (2)
Lack of rigor. If we are comfortable with our common-sense response, we may not apply the effort required to find the real problem when considering
inputs, which likely results in not choosing the optimal course of action or solution. If you lack rigor, then you are unlikely to measure the right
predictors and outcomes. (3) Lack of objectivity. Common sense can be overly subjective and lack a basis in science. In such cases we are not always
able to explain our reasoning to others, let alone apply it to new situations. One way that OB moves beyond the limitations of common sense is by its
systematic and science-based approach to understanding people and how they behave at work. OB therefore can make you more attractive to potential
employers and more effective once employed.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.
Topic: Contingency Theory

82. Explain the difference between hard and soft skills and why both are important. List what you think are your two strongest soft skills. Also briefly,
and specifically, explain how they can or do benefit you at school and work. List what you think are your two strongest hard skills. Explain specifically
how they can or do benefit you at work and school.

Hard skills are the technical expertise and knowledge to do a particular task or job function, such as financial analysis, accounting, or operations. Soft
skills relate to our human interactions and include both interpersonal skills and personal attributes. For most jobs you are selected for your technical
skills, your ability to do the given job. Often performance in the current job will be a primary consideration in being promoted. However, many
employees may fail to realize that your perceived ability to get things done through others and manage people will be another important deciding factor.
Figure 1.1 illustrates how technical or job-specific skills decline in importance as you move to levels of higher responsibility, while personal skills
increase.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.
Topic: Knowledge and Skill

83. Soft skills are not job specific. Rather, they are portable skills, more or less relevant in every job, at every level. They include personal attributes and
interpersonal skills. Provide examples of two personal attributes and two interpersonal skills and describe how they help you at school or work.

Personal attributes address attitude, personality, teamwork, and leadership. These attributes help to build goodwill and trust and demonstrate integrity.
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For example, are you outgoing? Introverted? How do you handle conflict? Interpersonal skills include active listening, positive attitudes, and effective
communication. These attributes help foster respectful interactions. For example, if you’re a member of a team and your project is off schedule, how
would your respond? Would you be annoyed and put pressure on all members? Would you look to place blame? Would you try to build consensus on a
workable solution?

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Knowledge Application
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.
Topic: Knowledge and Skill

84. Assume that you worked for Quality Investments for four years. The owners of the firm—whom you respected—have been charged with insider
trading. They deny the charge, but the firm is closing down and you need to find another job. How does the firm’s unethical behavior impact you
personally? How can you explain the situation during an interview?

Criminal or not, unethical behavior negatively affects not only the offending manager but also his or her employees. Unethical behavior by your
coworkers, including company executives, can make you look bad and tarnish your career.
First of all, you can look for a job at a sustainable business. These are companies led by those who listen, who foster cultures in which employees are not
scared to point out problems and in which staff feel they have a personal responsibility to enact corporate values.
During an interview, you need to be upfront about the approach your company took. Did you feel that their goals were ill conceived? Did they
experience motivated blindness? Indirect blindness? Did they overvalue outcomes? Was it a slippery slope situation?
Remember that while criminally minded people exist in the workplace, most people have good intentions, and you aren’t sure about your employers’
culpability.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Ethics
AACSB: Teamwork
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.
Topic: Ethical Behavior

85. What is self-awareness? Why is self-awareness important in school or in the workplace? How can you develop self-awareness? Provide one
example in which you learned from your mistakes.

To be successful in school and in your career, you need to know who you are and what you want. “When you know yourself, you are comfortable with
your strengths and not crippled by your shortcomings.... Self-awareness gives you the capacity to learn from your mistakes as well as your successes.”
You need to know yourself in order to be authentic. This is essential to influencing others.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career.
Topic: Self-Awareness

86. Wanda is looking for a summer internship in her field of environmental science. On her résumé, she notes that she has taken several courses that she
actually will not take until next semester. She also describes several volunteer leadership positions that she held. In reality, she worked as a “laborer”
cleaning up the river and the local dunes.

Is Wanda behaving ethically? Define ethics and explain Wanda’s behavior.

Ethics is concerned with behavior—right versus wrong, good versus bad, and the many shades of gray in between. In terms of job hunting, an analysis
of 2.6 million job applicant background checks by ADP Screening and Selection Services revealed that “44 percent of applicants lied about their work
histories, 41 percent lied about their education, and 23 percent falsified credentials or licenses.”
Wanda hopes to get the position, thinking that she will be able to do it, and it’s only an internship....not a “real” job. She needs the experience to get a
permanent job when she graduates. She may rationalize her lies, thinking that she “will” take the courses, and she did actually work on the volunteer
projects. Besides, she thinks she could have done a lot more on the projects than just the grunt work she was assigned. Some people just don’t see their
actions as unethical.
Wanda doesn’t realize that if she is “found out,” she risks not only the internship, but looking bad and tarnishing her future career.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

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McGraw-Hill Education.
AACSB: Ethics
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.
Topic: Ethics

87. You know that several of your classmates are cheating on tests and papers with students from another school. Because the schools are not part of an
integrated system, the cheating is quite successful. The students are doing well, while not working hard at all. You are frustrated and angry and don’t
know what to do.

Use the Three-Step Problem-Solving Approach to find a solution.

Here are the three steps in our applied approach to problem solving.
Step 1: Define the problem. Define problems in terms of desired outcomes. What do you want to happen? Do you want to level the playing field? Punish
the cheaters? This is a problem for you personally.
Step 2: Identify potential causes using OB concepts and theories. Consider personal and individual factors.
Step 3: Make recommendations and (if appropriate) take action. Consider any individual or organization (in this case, institution) level processes that
could be put in place to prevent this from happening in the future.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Ethics
AACSB: Knowledge Application
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Describe the ways in which you can apply OB knowledge to effectively solve problems.
Topic: Decision Making

88. Jaclyn works as a trainer at a gymnastics academy. This is a nationwide company with academies all over the country. They have more students
accepted to the Junior Olympics and Olympics than any other group. But the corporate mission statement is to “foster a love of the sport and physical
fitness at all levels.”

Jaclyn notices that some of the senior trainers push students beyond accepted limits and work them more hours than recommended. In fact, many seem
to focus only on promising candidates, even to the point that inexperienced students are getting hurt.
When she mentions this to a colleague, she’s told that this is how things work. It’s important to “keep up their success rate.” How can Jaclyn evaluate
and address this unethical behavior?

A few suggestions for handling unethical behavior are: (1) It’s business, treat it that way. Ethical issues are business issues, just like costs, revenues, and
employee development. Therefore, collect data and present a convincing case against the unethical conduct just as you would to develop a new product
or strategy. (2) Accept that confronting ethical concerns is part of your job. Whether it is explicit in your job description or not, ethics is everybody’s
job. If you think something is questionable, then take action. (3) Challenge the rationale. Many issues occur despite actual policy against it. If this is the
case, then ask: “If what you did is common practice or okay, then why do we have a policy forbidding it?” Alternatively, and no matter the rationale,
you can ask: “Would you be willing to explain what you did and why in a meeting with our superiors or customers, or better still, during an interview on
the evening news?” (4) Use your lack of seniority or status as an asset. While many employees unfortunately use their junior status to avoid confronting
ethical issues, being junior can instead be an advantage. It enables you to raise issues by saying, “Because I’m new, I may have misunderstood
something, but it seems to me that what you’ve done is out of bounds or could cause problems.” (5) Consider and explain long-term consequences. Of
course many ethical issues are driven by temptations and benefits in the short term. It, therefore, can be helpful to frame and explain your views in terms
of long-term consequences. (6) Solutions, not just complaints. When confronting an issue, you will likely be perceived as more helpful and taken more
seriously if you provide an alternative course or solution. Doing so will also make it more difficult for the offender to disregard your complaint.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Ethics
AACSB: Knowledge Application
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result.
Topic: Ethical Behavior

89. Define and . Describe the Three-Step Approach to Problem Solving. Think of a current problem you are facing and describe it using the three-step
approach.

A problem is a difference or gap between an actual and a desired situation. In turn, problem solving is a systematic process of closing these gaps. Our
applied approach to problem solving proposes three activities or steps along the way: Step 1: Define the problem. Step 2: Identify the OB concepts or

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McGraw-Hill Education.
theories to use to solve the problem. Step 3: Make recommendations and (if appropriate) take action.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Describe the ways in which you can apply OB knowledge to effectively solve problems.
Topic: Decision Making

90. Cliff has a double major in business and technology. He is proactive and creative, but the only job he has been offered is in the credit department of
a bank.

Research in psychology and OB supports the interactional perspective, noting that behavior is a function of interdependent person and situation factors.
Given that Cliff needs a job, how would you evaluate this situation?

OB concepts and theories can be classified into two broad categories: person factors and situation characteristics. Person factors represent the infinite
number of characteristics that give individuals their unique identities. Situation characteristics consist of all the elements outside of ourselves that
influence what we do, how we do it, and the ultimate results of our actions.

For decades, researchers and managers have debated what influences behavior more—person or situation factors. Many observers believe that some
people are by their nature better suited than others to perform well at work. Others believe that some people are clearly better in a given job or situation.
No particular person would outperform every other person in every possible job. This common view is supported by research in psychology and OB.
The interactional perspective states that behavior is a function of interdependent person and situation factors. It is important to note that neither people
nor situations are static. People change, situations change, and the two change each other. The bottom-line implication for OB and your work life is that
knowledge of one without the other is insufficient.
But, someone who is proactive and creative may be a great fit for a company in the high-tech sector that would benefit from risk-taking individuals, but
may be a poor fit for a company that rewards routine and predictable behavior, such as a bank. On the other hand, the current economic climate will
impact whether Cliff can wait for another opportunity, contemplate a move to a different environment or take the position with the knowledge that he
won’t stay there long.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Explain how OB can help you organize a problem in order to achieve a solution effectively.
Topic: Person-Environment Fit

91. Describe the interactional perspective in OB. How can managers use this perspective?

The interactional perspective states that behavior is a function of interdependent person and environmental factors. Environments present various types
of rewards and opportunities that people achieve or realize with diverse knowledge, skills, abilities, and motivations. Different people may perceive
similar situations in different ways and similar people may perceive different situations in the same way. It is important to note that neither people nor
environments are static. People change, situations change, and the two change each other. The bottom-line implication for OB and your work life is that
knowledge of one without the other is insufficient. You need to understand the interplay between both person and environmental characteristics to be an
effective employee, and especially an effective manager. The person-environment continuum therefore provides a means for classifying OB concepts
and theories into causes of behavior.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Explain how OB can help you organize a problem in order to achieve a solution effectively.
Topic: Organizational Behavior (OB)

92. What are the levels that OB uses to view the world? Give at least one example of each.

Another lens through which OB sees the world relies on organizational levels. OB distinguishes among three: individual, group, and organizational. As
an example of how being sensitive to these levels helps in considering real-world problems, consider the many reasons why people quit their jobs: (1)
Some people quit because their job just doesn’t fulfill what they value, such as challenging and stimulating work (an individual-level input). (2) Others
quit because they can’t get along with their boss/leader or coworkers (a group/team level process). (3) A faulty reward system (an organizational-level
process) that unfairly distributes raises, bonuses, and recognition is another common reason people quit.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Knowledge Application
Blooms: Apply

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McGraw-Hill Education.
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-04 Explain how OB can help you organize a problem in order to achieve a solution effectively.
Topic: Organizational Behavior (OB)

93. Use a specific example to explain how you would use OB concepts to identify the right problem.

Nothing causes more harm than solving for the wrong problem. If you don’t define the problem accurately, then all subsequent problem-solving efforts
are adversely affected. This happens because people end up focusing on a symptom or the wrong problem. Using the person-environment distinction
allows you to consider unique individual factors as well as external factors that might be the source of the problem. The structural levels of individual,
group, and organization will allow you to look at each level for possible reasons. Such considerations could include: (1) Person factors: Do the people
who have quit share something in common? Is there anything in their personality that makes work difficult for them? Is the level of turnover greater than
for your industry as a whole? (2) Environmental characteristics: Have there been changes in the environment (such as a sudden increase in employment
opportunities at better wages)? Have the working conditions changed in any way? (3) Individual level: Can you identify any change in how the
company treats employees or what it expects of them? (4) Group/team level: Have there been any changes or other causative factors in your work group,
including your manager, that might make work less satisfactory? How does turnover in your group compare to other groups in the organization? (5)
Organizational level: Has the organization changed ownership, or rewritten company policies, or is it enforcing policies differently?

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


AACSB: Knowledge Application
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-04 Explain how OB can help you organize a problem in order to achieve a solution effectively.
Topic: Organizational Behavior (OB)

94. GBL Designs has suffered from lower profits for several years. As result, management cut back on bonuses and heath care coverage. Not
surprisingly, there has been an increase in employee turnover. Unfortunately, it is the “better,” more highly qualified employees who are leaving. How
can GBL analyze and address this problem?

Using the Three-Step Approach to Problem-Solving:


1. Define the problem: If your organization’s most valuable and high-performing people quit, then a problem likely exists.
2. Highlight the causes:
Potential Cause 1—Person factors often represent key causes of turnover. Concern about the stability of the company and lack of personal rewards
(bonuses) might cause turnover.
Potential Cause 2—Situation factors frequently are causes of turnover. For example, people may be quitting because the company culture has been
damaged by poor revenues and, therefore, a perceived lack of support exists.
Potential Cause 3—Organizational processes can also cause turnover. Perceived injustice is often a powerful driver of employee turnover; in this case,
modifying the health care plan has impacted everyone—most especially those employees with families.
3. Generate effective recommendations:
Potential Cause 1—Communication can help assure employees of the steps that company is taking to secure its future. The company can solicit
employee recommendations for rewards other than bonuses (until stability is achieved).
Potential Cause 2—GBL can work to build a team spirit, so that employees can be part of re-establishing the company’s position.
Potential Cause 3—Assuming GBL made cuts to health care with minimal employee input, the company might review the options. Perhaps employees
can choose from a series of plans that best meets their needs and budgets.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-06 Use OB knowledge to help achieve professional and personal effectiveness.
Topic: Organizational Behavior (OB)

95. Identify and explain the three applied approaches to selecting a solution. Think of a recent problem that you solved. Which solution worked for you?

First, decide how complete a response you are looking for. Do you want the problem to be resolved, solved, or dissolved? (1) Resolving problems is
arguably the most common form for managers and simply means choosing a satisfactory solution, one that works, but is less than ideal. (2) Solving
problems is the optimal or ideal response. (3) Dissolving problems requires changing or eliminating the situation in which the problem occurs.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-05 Classify OB knowledge and tools for problem solving with the support of the Organizing Framework.
Topic: Decision Making

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McGraw-Hill Education.
96. What are the basic elements for selecting an effective solution? Give examples of each.

After deciding whether to resolve, solve, or dissolve your identified problem, you then need to select the most effective solution. Three common
elements to selecting the most effective solution are: (1) Selection criteria. Determine the basis (criteria) for the decision. (2) Consequences. Consider
the consequences of each alternative. (3) Choice process. Decide who will be involved in choosing the solution. If more than one person is involved,
then you need to agree on the method.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-05 Classify OB knowledge and tools for problem solving with the support of the Organizing Framework.
Topic: Decision Making

Category
# of
Questions
AACSB: Analytical Thinking 92
AACSB: Ethics 28
AACSB: Knowledge Application 28
AACSB: Reflective Thinking 1
AACSB: Teamwork 3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 80
Blooms: Analyze 4
Blooms: Apply 30
Blooms: Remember 32
Blooms: Understand 30
Difficulty: 1 Easy 33
Difficulty: 2 Medium 44
Difficulty: 3 Hard 19
Learning Objective: 01-01 Exemplify different ways in which OB knowledge can enhance your job performance and career. 26
Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain the drivers of unethical behavior and ethical lapses, and the lessons that can be learned as a result. 29
Learning Objective: 01-03 Describe the ways in which you can apply OB knowledge to effectively solve problems. 8
Learning Objective: 01-04 Explain how OB can help you organize a problem in order to achieve a solution effectively. 16
Learning Objective: 01-05 Classify OB knowledge and tools for problem solving with the support of the Organizing Framework. 16
Learning Objective: 01-06 Use OB knowledge to help achieve professional and personal effectiveness. 1
Topic: Conceptual Skills 6
Topic: Contingency Theory 7
Topic: Decision Making 17
Topic: Ethical Behavior 22
Topic: Ethics 7
Topic: Group Cohesion 2
Topic: Knowledge and Skill 3
Topic: Organizational Behavior (OB) 15
Topic: Outcomes 3
Topic: Person-Environment Fit 7
Topic: Self-Awareness 6
Topic: Social Capital 1

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McGraw-Hill Education.