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Fourth International Conference on Networked Computing and Advanced Information Management

A Database Design of RFID Document Management System

with e-Ink Technology
Bae Soon Hark, Jong Hwa Choi*, Choon Seong Leem

Dept. of Information and Industrial Engineering, Yonsei University


2.1. Definition of e-ink
Although information of several organizations
becomes digitized in the digital era, hardcopy is still As you see, we can define e-ink as possible as we
used in important business process, such as signature can apply various applications like semiconductor or
process or process requiring legal force. If you print display, electronic industrial etc because of ink
hardcopy whenever you need some information, it is bringing out electromagnetic feature. And this
waste of money. Besides, there are in more danger of technology based on ink-jet printing technology comes
leak of the confidential information if you can get the into the spotlight in simplification of RFID creation
hardcopy documents easily. So we suggest database process and cost saving [3]
design of RFID document System based on e-ink As the characteristic of manufacturing process,
technology in order to replace the existing RFID there are various types and forms of e-ink. But in this
production method. research, the term e-ink limited to print RFID on
hardcopy or to print directly.
1. Introduction
2.2. RFID Creation process using e-ink
With the advent of the Information Technology
around the 1990s, a lot of organizations have been The best features of e-ink are that they can apply to
mounting an effort to improve business process various materials and areas. There are two major
efficiency and effectiveness. The growth of the phases in RFID Creation process using e-ink. (you can
Information Technology makes the flood of see that [Figure. 1])
information, [4]
To digitize information has been an argument about
the method for efficient management of information
resource; it goes on studies on e-document
management system for digitizing and managing all of
the information.
Even though digitizing of information brings
convenience of management and cost saving, many
organizations still use hardcopy instead of using
digitized information form. Hardcopies are published
on the first, those can be permanent in the next [Figure. 1] RFID Creation phase using E-ink
hundred or thousand years. Moreover it has legal force.
For these reasons, many prefer to use hardcopy rather The first phase is the general printing process. The
than e-document. [6] viscosity of an ink is an important parameter during the
However, as each individual member of the tag printing phase. In general, if low viscosity ink
organization produces a duplicate hardcopy soaks into the paper, RFID Tag causes a decreasing
thoughtlessly, there may cause problems such as conductivity because the tag is not thick enough. This
wasting time and money, and becoming more exposed limits the density of the printed image. On the
to security problems. contrary, if the viscosity is too high, it can’t get the
2. What is the e-ink? desired tag shape because the ink doesn’t spray equally.

“ This work has been supported by Yonsei University Institute of “u-City Research Institute(uCRI), a Brain Korea
21 program, Korea.”

978-0-7695-3322-3/08 $25.00 © 2008 IEEE 14

DOI 10.1109/NCM.2008.155
The second phase is the post process of the first In the latter half of 1990s, most hardcopy is
phase to maintain the printed tag in various conditions. digitized with the progress of information technology.
Post-process is important such as heat treatment, As the research on e-Document has continued,
ultraviolet treatment, laser treatment, gas treatment, air computer replaces letterpress printing in creating
treatment and tag adhesive strength. Tag durability is documents.
the hallmark of a successful post-process. In this atmosphere the type of document exists as e-
document. (When printing a document, e-document is
2.3. Examples of RFID Creation using e-ink converted into hardcopy. However, the original
document is still available on the computer, and it is
The following [Figure. 2] is actual examples of managed as an e- document form.)
RFID printing on PET film, Imide film and Glass panel. When the information in organization is managed as
(from (A) to (C)). Because this technology can create e-document, we can save much money. [1] However,
tag by low cost, it is reasonable to use e-ink for general government related reports from the Office of
documents. Management and Budget, General Accounting Office,
and other relevant information have still used hardcopy.
As frequent uses of hardcopy create duplicated
documents, they cause unnecessary cost. Moreover,
staffs waste their time and effort to find previously
printed hardcopies, and they often lost their documents.

4. RFID document management system

[Figure. 2] Example of RFID Creation using E-ink 4.1. Definition of RFID document management
system (RDMS)
3. Literature Review
What is the RDMS? We can define this system
3.1. e-Document Management System Protect to create duplicated document, to track
locations of document, to manage security of document
e-Document Management System(EDMS) is through the RFID technology. [8]
defined as a system used for managing various
documents, and allowing users to integrate divergent
information systematically. Thus, EDMS requires user-
centered interface, it has to work as informative
platform to support activity concerning information.
Core technologies of EDMS are e-content
management, computer printing management, work-
flow and etc. [2],[5]

[Table. 1] Type of e-Document Management System

Type Description
e-Document e-Document management based on
Management text made by O/A program.
Management of atypical document
(catalog, picture) with scanner and
Image Document
camera. These document can be [Figure. 3] Framework of RFID Management System
searched, save, modified and
Management of typical computer Fundamental concept of RFID document
Management of computer
printing material
printing document with mass optical management system is to create both printing
disk. document and creating RFID tag. In this process,
Pre-definition and management of individual document take ID code as identifier. (You
staff’s business and business rule can see that [Figure. 3])
3.2. Limitation of existing EDMS Antennas and sensors are set to recognize internal
RFID document in working site. RFID/USN system is
constructed for RFID document management. Thus,

this system has to be interlocked with existed e-
document systems, be conducted integration system to Data Dictionary is to predefine data is going to use
manage hardcopy. in the system. Actually, Data required in existing e-
Document Management System (EDMS) is more than
4.2. RDMS Document Structure that we suggest data in [Table.2].
But we were restricted with to define data like a
RFID Document Management System is comprised coordinate data for tracking hardcopy and relation data
of system architecture layer, document structure and between e-Document and hardcopy distinguished from
security model. Among the rest, we were focusing on existing Document Management System.
database design reflected in characteristic of RFID
Document Management System. [Table. 2] Data Dictionary
Document structure of Document Management
System has the title of document, type and version
label as attribute of object. And that can be defined by
object in the Document Management System because
that also contains operation of routing, printing
function. [7] So we could design the database on the
basis of the document structure.

5.3. Database Diagram

Database diagram uses to check constraints about

key among tables in relational database.

[Figure. 4] RDMS Document Structure

As you see [Figure. 4], Individual document is able

to structuralize as three layers. First layer, there is
content as real body of document. Second layer is
composed of meta-data for search and classification.
Third layer is composed of definition of relationship
among other documents
[Figure. 5] Database Diagram for RDMS
5. Database Design The following [Figure. 5] shows that e-document
and hardcopy refer to PD_ID as foreign key from the
5.1. Database Design Overview EMPLOYEE table, also refer to DOC_NAME as
foreign key from the DOCINFO table. PC_ID can be
We use MS-SQL 2005 as database design tool for used when joining for giving the identification code
RFID Document Management System. We make a among tables. And DOC_NAME defined as the way
database dictionary as the first step which defines data that refers from unique DOCINFO, because document
required in RFID Document Management System. name has to be the same, though document type is
Then we defined the relationship with the Database different.
Diagram among the data was defined in first step.
5.4. Table Design
Finally we could design database for RFID Document
System. Previously on [Figure. 5], as we analysis table
structure, we suggest four tables for RFID Document
5.2. Data Dictionary

Management System. And we give body to the no input record, we set the default constraints into ‘C’
database schema in [Table.3]. grade. And grade ‘A’ means security is very strictly

[Table. 3] Examples of Database Schemas 6. Conclusion

/*e-Document table creation*/
This research conducted to improve inefficiency
E_DOC_ID VARCHAR(25) NOT NULL, DOC_NAME VARCHAR(200) NOT NULL, production of hardcopy. In addition, we suggested
E_DOC_PATH VARCHAR(100) NOT NULL, E_DOC_TYPE VARCHAR(10), RFID Document Management System with e-Ink
technology as an idea for keeping information of the
--Add constraints organization from leaking out.
RFID Document Management System with the e-
ALTER TABLE E_DOCUMENT ink technology is limited to economic feasibility. But
the effort to cut down the cost has been in a developed
ADD CONSTRAINT E_DOCUMENT_FK1 FOREIGN KEY(DOC_NAME) country, e-ink technology will broaden applicable area
REFERENCES DOCINFO(DOC_NAME) around six years later.
This research also has limitations, because enough
REFERENCES EMPLOYEE(PC_ID) infrastructures for operation of systems are not
equipped and additional research about application
Primary Key on E_DOCUMENT table and programming for RFID Document Management
DOCUMENT table determine to give a separate ID. system is continued, this research will give a guideline
But we don’t concrete algorithm for creating separate for design of RFID Document Management System.
ID, we can expect that it is made by combination
between PC_ID for identification of document creator 7. References
from EMPLOYEE table and ISSUE_DATE knowing
the date of document creation from DOCINFO table. [1] H. Joseph Wen et al, “Intranet document
Besides primary key constraint, Document name is management systems”, Intranet Research, Vol.8,
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record overlapping. Because document name, most [2] Hyun-Sung Kim, “Issue and strategy of introduction
important field mustn’t input with null data, either e- of EDMS in the driven e-Government”, Conference
Document or hardcopy has the same document name of The Korean Association for Public
even though they are different in document type. administration, summer, 2000
When Hardcopy contained RFID tag is recognized [3] InkTek, “TRANSPARENT SILVER INKS AND
by sensor, gained coordinates data have to manage on THEIR METHODS FOR FORMING THIN
database. Therefore we declare DOC_LOCX and LAYERS”, The Korean Intellectual Property Office,
DOC_LOCY as variable of two dimensions on 10-2006-0097271, 2006
DOCUMENT table. And Two record indicating [4] John Van den Hoven, “Data Base Management
location coordinates may not recognize by error of IRM : An Enterprisewide View of Data”,
sensor, so we set the default constraint into the value Information Systems Management, Summer, 1995
(0,0). [5] Kim E Sook, “EDMS Core Technology”. EDMS
We thought that EMPLOYEE must contain white paper, 1998
EMPLYEE_NAME so as to collect information about [6] Kim, ik-han, “EDMS and Life-cycle of Records”,
document creator, and we defined PC_ID as primary Archival Studies, No.5, 2002
key for identification among the employees. If [7] Marijo et al, “A philosophy of the electronic
organization has the table about employee in existing document management”, Information technology
database, they had better use that than create new interface, June, 2000
database table. Information about class of document [8] Thierry Bodhuin et al, “Building an RFID
creator must manage in order to access set document document management service”, Innovations in
security. So we defined CLASS field, it is able to information technology, November. 2006
access for employee to the document by security level.
As Hard copy is also monitored by RFID Document
Management System, security requirement of hardcopy
will increase. So DOC_CQ from the DOCINFO table
declared as member field for security level. If there is