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1.

It imposes a valuable consideration as a prestation, which


ideally is a price certain in money or its equivalent

ii. Commutative (vs. Aleatory)


1. Because a thing of value is exchanged for equal value
2. Ideally the value of the subject matter is equivalent to the
price paid
3. No requirement that the price be equal to the exact value
of the subject matter. All that is required is for the seller to
believe that what was received was of the commutative
value of what he gave.
4. If a seller sells his car for only P200,000, when the value of
the same is still P500,000. Sale is valid. But it should not be
pushed to absurdity. Such that if the seller believes that the
price of the car is P200,000, but sells it for P100.00, then it
will be considered as a donation, with different tax
implications.
5. The subjective test of the commutative nature of sale is
further bolstered by the principle that inadequacy of price
does not affect ordinary sale, except as it may indicate a
defect in the consent, or that the parties really intended a
donation or some other act of contract.
iii. Nominate
iv. Principal – does not depend for its existence and validity upon
another contract

b. Sale is TITLE and not the MODE


i. Sale is merely the title that creates the obligation on the part of the
seller to transfer ownership and deliver possession, but on its own,
SALE is NOT a mode that transfers ownership.
ii. While a sale is perfected by mere consent, OWNERSHIP of the
thing is acquired only upon its DELIVERY to the buyer.

c. Sale Distinguished from Donation