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Field Internship Report

Submitted By:
Muhammad Ihsan

Submitted To:
Internship Report Field Working

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Internship Report Field Working

Table of Contents
1. Circulation system: ................................................................................................................................. 6
1.1 Mud pumps: ............................................................................................................................................ 6
1.2 Retainers: ................................................................................................................................................ 6
1.3 Pulsation dampeners: .............................................................................................................................. 6
1.4 Pipe manifold: ......................................................................................................................................... 7
1.5 Standpipe manifold: ................................................................................................................................ 7
1.6 Superchargers:......................................................................................................................................... 7
1.7 Rotary hose: ............................................................................................................................................ 8
1.8 Gooseneck:.............................................................................................................................................. 8
1.9 Wash pipe: .............................................................................................................................................. 8
1.10 Bleed off valve: ..................................................................................................................................... 9
1.11 Pup off valve: ........................................................................................................................................ 9
1.12 Seat: ...................................................................................................................................................... 9
1.13 Jumper hose: ......................................................................................................................................... 9
1.14 Suction and discharge line: ................................................................................................................... 9
1.15 Bell nipple: ............................................................................................................................................ 9
1.16 Possum belly: ........................................................................................................................................ 9
1.18 Shale shakers:........................................................................................................................................ 9
1.19 Desilters and desanders: ........................................................................................................................ 9
1.20 Degasser: ............................................................................................................................................. 10
1.21 Centrifuge: .......................................................................................................................................... 10
1.22 Parallel mode: ..................................................................................................................................... 11
1.23 Series mode: ........................................................................................................................................ 11
1.24 Agitator: .............................................................................................................................................. 11
1.25 Gun line:.............................................................................................................................................. 11
1.26 Auger: ................................................................................................................................................. 11
1.27 High Gravity dryer: ............................................................................................................................. 11
1.28 Sand trap: ............................................................................................................................................ 11
1.29 Mud pit:............................................................................................................................................... 11

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Internship Report Field Working

1.30 Active mud tanks: ............................................................................................................................... 12


1.31 Slug tanks:........................................................................................................................................... 12
1.32 Pre-Mix tank: ...................................................................................................................................... 12
1.33 Reserve tanks: ..................................................................................................................................... 12
1.34 Trip tank:............................................................................................................................................. 12
1.35 Mixing Lines: ...................................................................................................................................... 12
1.36 Transfer Lines: .................................................................................................................................... 12
1.37 Water Line: ......................................................................................................................................... 12
2. Hoisting system:.................................................................................................................................. 15
2.1 Mast or derrick: ..................................................................................................................................... 15
2.2 Substructure: ......................................................................................................................................... 15
2.3 Draw works: ......................................................................................................................................... 15
2.4 Crown block:......................................................................................................................................... 16
2.5 Travelling block and hook: ................................................................................................................... 16
2.6 Supply reel: ........................................................................................................................................... 16
2.7 Deadline anchor: ................................................................................................................................... 17
2.8 Drill line: ............................................................................................................................................... 17
2.9 Elevator: ................................................................................................................................................ 17
2.10 Block and tackle:................................................................................................................................. 17
2.11 Slip and cut method: ........................................................................................................................... 18
3. Rotary system: .................................................................................................................................... 18
3.1 Top drive system: ................................................................................................................................. 18
3.2 EZ torque: ............................................................................................................................................ 19
3.4 Pin boss: ............................................................................................................................................... 19
3.5 Tongs: .................................................................................................................................................. 19
3.6 Makeup tong/lead tongs: ...................................................................................................................... 19
3.7 Breakup tong: ....................................................................................................................................... 19
3.8 Chain tongs: ......................................................................................................................................... 20
3.9 Rotary table: ......................................................................................................................................... 20
3.10 Master bushing: ................................................................................................................................... 20
3.11 Insert bowl: ......................................................................................................................................... 20
3.12 Slips: ................................................................................................................................................... 20
3.13 Safety clamps: ..................................................................................................................................... 21

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3.14 Stabbing board: ................................................................................................................................... 21


3.15 Catwalk: .............................................................................................................................................. 21
3.16 Pipe ramp: ........................................................................................................................................... 21
3.17 Pipe rack: ............................................................................................................................................ 21
3.18 Bit breaker:.......................................................................................................................................... 21
3.19 Stabbing board: ................................................................................................................................... 22
3.20 Monkey board: .................................................................................................................................... 22
3.21 Finger board: ....................................................................................................................................... 22
3.22 Set back: .............................................................................................................................................. 22
3.23 V-door: ................................................................................................................................................ 23
3.24 Dog house: .......................................................................................................................................... 23
3.25 C plate: ................................................................................................................................................ 23
3.26 Hole cover: .......................................................................................................................................... 23
4. Mud logging: ....................................................................................................................................... 24
4.1 Draw works sensor .............................................................................................................................. 24
4.2 Hook Load............................................................................................................................................ 24
4.3 Standpipe/casing sensors.................................................................................................................... 24
4.4 SPM Sensor.......................................................................................................................................... 24
4.5 RPM sensor ......................................................................................................................................... 24
4.5 RPM sensor: ......................................................................................................................................... 26
4.6 Flow out sensor: ................................................................................................................................... 26
4.7 Temperature sensors: ........................................................................................................................... 26
4.8 Gas detection sensors: .......................................................................................................................... 26
4.9 Conductivity sensors: ........................................................................................................................... 27
4.10 Pit volume sensors: ............................................................................................................................. 27
4.11 H2S sensor: .......................................................................................................................................... 27
5. Well Control Equipment: .................................................................................................................... 28
5.1 BOP Stack: ........................................................................................................................................... 28
5.2 Annular Preventer: ............................................................................................................................... 28
5.3 Pipe Rams: ........................................................................................................................................... 29
5.4 Shear Blind Rams: ............................................................................................................................... 29
5.5 Accumulator:........................................................................................................................................ 29
6. Power system:...................................................................................................................................... 31

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6.1 Electric cable tray: ............................................................................................................................... 31


6.2 DC motor: ............................................................................................................................................ 31
6.3 AC motors: ........................................................................................................................................... 31
6.4 Hydraulic and pneumatic power: .......................................................................................................... 31
7. Well shut in procedure while tripping ................................................................................................... 32
8. Well shut in procedure while drilling ................................................................................................... 32
9. Blow out preventer (BOP) test: ............................................................................................................ 33
10. Measurement while drilling (MWD): ................................................................................................... 34
11. Logging while drilling: .......................................................................................................................... 34
12. Bottom hole assembly: ........................................................................................................................ 34

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1. Circulation system:
Circulation system is used to circulate drilling mud into the hole and out of the hole
which imparts a lot of functions for efficiently making a hole. This system allows drilling the
hole and removal of cuttings from bottom to top. It consists of mud pumps, mud tanks, pipe
manifold, standpipe manifold, solid control equipment’s, different flow line, etc. Flow line size is
16” and flow exit at either shale shaker or trip tank.
1.1 Mud pumps:
Mud pumps takes mud form the mud tanks and increase its pressure by using pistons
against the close end. WTI Rig 811 has three single acting triplex mud pumps. Single acting
means suction and discharge at different time. One liner of a muds pump has one inlet and one
outlet. During suction inlet is open and liner filled up with mud whereas in forward stoke outlet
opens discharging the mud into the discharge line. Pistons are synchronized at 120° with each
other. At one time only two mud pumps are in the working mode.

1.2 Retainers:
Retainers have a screen which distill small objects so that these objects do not
contaminate mud. If however these objects are not filter out, they will circulate with mud and
unfortunately plug bit nozzles.

1.3 Pulsation dampeners:


Pulsation dampener is installed in the discharge line to convert mud flow into laminar
state. It has a rubber element above which nitrogen is compressed at 600-700 psi.

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1.4 Pipe manifold:


It is an arrangement of valves and pipes to control the flow of fluids. Upstream of pipe
manifold, three pipes conduct mud but in the downstream direction only two pipes conduct mud.

1.5 Standpipe manifold:


Standpipe manifold is a set of vertical pipe rising along the side of the derrick or mast. It
joins the discharge line leading from the mud pump to the rotary hose and through which mud is
pumped going into the hole.

1.6 Superchargers:
These are the motors which are used to conduct mud from the mud tanks to the mud
pumps. They ensure that line between the mud pump and mud tanks are always full of mud. If
suction lines are not full of mud then air will entrap into the lines which will exerts backpressure
on the mud pumps causing reduction in efficiency.

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1.7 Rotary hose:


Rotary hose is a flexible pipe to conduct mud from the stand pipe to the gooseneck in the
swivel.

1.8 Gooseneck:
It is a curved shaped pipe integrated with swivel used to conduct flow of mud from rotary
hose.
1.9 Wash pipe:
Wash pipe have to parts rotating and non-rotating. Rotating part is attached to the end of
tubular in the well bore whereas non-rotating part is attached to the goose neck.

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1.10 Bleed off valve:


If pressure in the discharge line increases then these valve will automatically bleed off the
excessive pressure to muds suction tanks
1.11 Pup off valve:
Pup off valves are manual valves set at pressure 80% of the maximum allowable pump
pressure for a given liner diameter.
1.12 Seat:
Each cylinder of a single acting pump has two valves. The pump piston draws mud in
through the suction valve and pushes it out through the discharge valve. The valve move up and
down in valve seats. Intake and discharge pressure opens the valves. A heavy duty spring keeps
the valves closed in absence of intake or discharge pressure. The seat fits into valve pots
machined into the fluid end body.
1.13 Jumper hose:
Jumper hoses are flexible pipes in the downstream of mud tanks which are used to
connect ends of different pipes.
1.14 Suction and discharge line:
Lines in the downstream of mud pumps are known as the discharge line whereas line in
the upstream of the mud pumps is known as suction line.
1.15 Bell nipple:
It is a large diameter hose to connect BOP to the rig floor. Mud return line and trip tanks
lines are connected to bell nipple.
1.16 Possum belly:
Possum belly is connected to the mud return line to reduce the momentum of cuttings out
of well installed upstream of shale shakers.
1.18 Shale shakers:
Shale shakers are solid control equipment’s has screens to remove relatively larger
cuttings out of the mud by using the mechanical force. A shale shaker has three vibrating screens
with different mesh size. The size of screens is 170 mesh, 140 mesh and 120 mesh stated in the
downstream direction. The concept is larger the mesh size of screen smaller is the amount of
solids it remove rather only large sized particles it will remove. On the other hand a smaller mesh
size screen will remove more solids with relatively small size.
1.19 Desilters and desanders:
The desander consists of 20, 4” polyurethane cones with diameter decreasing down the
cone. The working principle is the same as desander that decrease in the diameter creates a
vortex action allowing the solids being heavier to stick to the walls of the cone and a low

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pressure zone is created in the center of the cone due to this centrifugal action allowing the liquid
mud to flow up while solids being removed through a jet at the bottom.

Equipment Particle size


Shale shaker > 68 μ
Desander > 32 μ
Desilter > 16 μ
Centrifuges >5μ

1.20 Degasser:
Degasser is used to remove gas out of mud because gas cut mud will reduce the
hydrostatic pressure causing well to flow. There is a vacuum type Degasser on Rig 811 which is
a vessel containing befalls. The mud containing gas enters the vessels and comes down falling on
the befalls which separate gas from it and gas being lighter escape from a vent on the top while
the mud being heavier collected at the bottom. In vacuum degasser there is a vacuum pump at
end of the vent pipe which creates vacuum in the tank to speed up the gas removal process. The
gas then goes to the flare pit away from the rig where it is burnt.

1.21 Centrifuge:
Centrifuge is also solid control equipment installed downstream of desilters and
desanders to remove cuttings which are not removed by these equipment’s. Centrifuges are used
for two different purposes bariting and de-bariting. They operate at two different modes: parallel
and series mode. Centrifuge is used to remove solids less than 7 microns. Barite the main
weighing agent in the mud and it has size of about 7 microns which cannot be removed by shale
shakers, de sander, and desilter. So mainly a centrifuge is used for barite removal because barite
being expensive if allowed freely to be wasted along with fluid leaving the system into the waste
pits more and more barite needed to be added to keep the mud weight as per requirement. Mostly

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two centrifuges are used on the rigs one is for barite removal and other is used to remove solids
from the filtrate of first to supply clean mud in the system.

1.22 Parallel mode:


In parallel mode, only one function will be done we can add or remove LGS and HGS.
If cuttings are being added from the formation these will be regarded as LGS and we have to
remove it. If mud weight goes up then we need to go fir de-bariting.
1.23 Series mode:
In series mode we can go for both de-bariting and removal LGS at the same. First
centrifuge is operated at 1500 RPM and second one at 2500 RPM.
1.24 Agitator:
Agitators are used to stirrer the mud in tanks to avoid thickening of mud, settling of
added solids, solids from the formation and to maintain uniform mud properties.
1.25 Gun line:
It is pipes having square shape ends connected to all tanks to lift settled cuttings at
corners of mud tanks.
1.26 Auger:
Auger is spiral shape road, removed cuttings from shakers with traces of mud move to
agar and further transferred to high gravity dryer.
1.27 High Gravity dryer:
Cuttings from agar move to high gravity dryer which separate traces of mud from
cuttings and then dispose of these cuttings to mud pit.
1.28 Sand trap:
This is Non Rectangular tank in which the filtrate from shale shakers falls. It has a V
shaped bottom to allow solid particles still present in cleaned mud from shakers to settle down.
1.29 Mud pit:
Mud pit is a large hole dug into the ground. All removed cuttings are dumped into the
mud pit.

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1.30 Active mud tanks:


It is a dynamic term which specifies to those tanks taking part in the circulation of mud.
Active mud tanks include sand trap, settling tank, intermediate tanks, suction tanks, etc.
1.31 Slug tanks:
Slug tank is used to prepare slug which have high density and is injected into the
wellbore during the tripping operations to avoid mud coming out of the drill string. Slug tank is
also used to prepare pill which is used to suspend cutting in the hole while making a connection
to avoid the chip hole down effect.
1.32 Pre-Mix tank:
It is a mud tank in which fresh mud is being prepared. Different types of muds are
required to drill a well completely. Each type of is prepared in this and then transferred to the
corresponding tan.
1.33 Reserve tanks:
There are four reserve tanks which keep the excessive mud or mud which is needed to
drill the next section of hole or mud to be used in the event of kick.
1.34 Trip tank:
It is used to fill the hole and to monitor swab and surge during tripping operations
1.35 Mixing Lines:
There are two mixing lines of 8” diameter and are used to mix solids in the drilling fluid
using the two hoppers.
1.36 Transfer Lines:
Transfer lines are used to transfer the drilling fluid between the mud tanks.
1.37 Water Line:
Water line is used to transfer water from water tank to different mud tanks, fire pump and
the service companies.

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Mud Report Hyper Field Working
pit Pool

Water
Shale Sand
shaker1
Trap Trip
P Shale tank 1
shaker2
B

Strip Tank
Trip
Shale Settling tank2
shaker3
Tank TDS

Inter 1
Desilter

Desander

Inter 2

Centrif
uges

Inter 3

Pump 1

Reserve Suction 1
1A

Reserve 3
Pump2

Reserve
1B Suction2

Pump3

Reserve
Pre
2A
Mix
Reserve 4

Reserve
Slug
2B
Tank Water
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RESERVE # 4 RESERVE # 3
CAPACITY=463 bbl CAPACITY=463 bbl
VOLUME=5.61 bbl/in VOLUME=5.61 bbl/in

DRILLER
DIRECTION
Internship Report

RESERVE RESERVE RESERVE RESERVE 1A


2B 2A 1B CAPACITY=
CAPACITY CAPACITY CAPACITY= 215 bbl
=242 bbl =215 bbl 242 bbl VOLUME=2.9

MOL Pakistan Oil & Gas CO B.V.


VOLUME VOLUME VOLUME= 6 bbl/in
=2.63 =2.96 2.63 bbl/in
bbl/in bbl/in

PRE-MIX SUCTION 2 SUCTION 1


SLUG PIT CAPICITY CAPACITY= CAPACITY=215 INTERMEDIATE 1 SETTLING TANK
CAPICITY= =251 bbl 215 bbl bbl CAPACITY=350.7 CAPACITY=118 SAND TRAP
117bbl VOLUME VOLUME= VOLUME=2.63 bbl bbl CAPACITY=85
VOLUME= =2.63 2.96 bbl/in bbl/in VOLUME=4.1
1.38bbl/in VOLUME=1.44 bbl
bbl/in bbl/in
bbl/in

TRIP 3 Trip 1
CAPACITY= 57 CAPACITY Water
bbl =57bbl 3CAPACITY=
VOLUME= 0.70 VOLUME
bbl/in 57bbl
=0.70
bbl/in
VOLUME=0.
TRIP 2 70bbl/in
Field Working

CAPACITY= 30
bbl
VOLUME
0.36 bbl/in

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2. Hoisting system:
Hoisting system is used to hang the drill string into the wellbore. It enables the motion of
the drill sting into and out of the hole and to apply the required weight on the bit. The weight on
bit is important because to overcome the compressive strength of the rock, required compressive
weight must be put down.
Hoisting system consist of
 Mast or derrick
 Draw works
 Crown block
 Travelling block and hook
 Supply real
 Dead line anchor
 Drill line
 Fast line
 Dead line
 Elevator
2.1 Mast or derrick:
A mast is a large pole shaped assembly placed over the substructure used to provide a
vertical height to raise and lower the sections of pipes into and out of the hole. The greater the
height, more joints can be lowered and raised into and out of hole. Masts and derricks are rated
according to the load and wind rating.

2.2 Substructure:
Substructure is installed in order to provide the vertical height between the ground floor
and the rig floor to allow the installation of blowout preventers. It supports the drilling floor.
Hence, supporting the mast, heavy equipment’s and stands of pipes in the finger board.
2.3 Draw works:
It is a control center from which driller can control the rig hoisting operations. It consists
of clutches, chains, sprockets, engine throttle, two motors and brakes. The spool of the

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drawworks is used to spool around and spool off as the drilling line moves up and down in the
mast between the crown block and the travelling block.
 2 main motors,
 2 blower motors,
 2 lube oil pump(1 is standby)
 3 brakes cooling tanks motors

2.4 Crown block:


Crown block is an assembly of sheaves and pulleys installed side by side on a shaft. The
drilling line is mounted over the sheaves. It is located on the top of the mast, essentially lifting
the weight of the travelling block, top drive system and the drill string.
 The Hook Load: 45000 KN (500 US tons)
 Diameter of fitting steel ropes: 38mm (1-1/2 in)
 Diameter of pulley: 1524mm (60 in)
 Number of main pulleys: 6
 Number of guided pulleys: 1
2.5 Travelling block and hook:
Travelling block also have side by side sheaves but a steel housing encloses them. The
drilling lines from the crown block are mounted on the travelling block. Number of sheaves on
the travelling block is always one less than the number of sheaves on the crown block. A hook is
attached on the bottom of the travelling block. The hook suspends swivel, top derive and the drill
string.
2.6 Supply reel:
Supply reel is a large drum located at the ground surface which is attached to the dead
line anchor. Its main purpose is to store the excess wire rope. When the drilling line performs job
according to the given load rating, it must be replaced by using the supply reel.

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2.7 Deadline anchor:


Deadline anchor opt a locking mechanism to lock the drill line when required drilling line
is being replaced. It allows measurement of the hook load.

2.8 Drill line:


Drill line is a wire rope round the drawworks to the block and tackle and then to the
deadline anchor. The portion of the drilling line between drawworks and the crown block is
known as fast line whereas drilling line between crown block to the deadline anchor is dead line.
2.9 Elevator:
Elevators are used for lifting tubular from wellbore, mouse hole and the rig floor. It is of
different types:
 Side-door collar type elevator
 Heavy duty elevators
 Light duty elevators
 Casing elevators
 Tubing elevators
2.10 Block and tackle:
Block and tackle is comprised of crown block, travelling block and the drilling line. Its
main purpose is to gain the mechanical advantage. Travelling block suspends the load while
drawworks control that load.

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2.11 Slip and cut method:


When drilling line completed its job, it must be replaced in order to reduce the wear.
Travelling block is moved to the rig floor and stop the motion of the travelling block by using a
special hang line. The locker on the deadline anchor is unclamped and drilling line from the
drawworks is pulled to reel new drilling line form the supply reel. The drilling line moves from
the supply reel to crown block and the stationary travelling block. The excess line on the
drawworks is pulled and cutoff the worn line to discard it.
3. Rotary system:
Rotatory system is used to revolve the string and bit into the well. It provides torque and
revolutions per minutes (rpm). Top drive system (also known as the power swivel) and rotary
system are the main components of the rotary system.
3.1 Top drive system:
A TDS system is a specially designed electric or hydraulic motor that provides the
rotating power of a conventional rotary table drive while eliminating the need to “pick up” the
weighty swivel/Kelly combination. With the top derive system the rotary table does not move. It
is installed on the guide rails which guides the linear motion of the top derive system. It keeps
the TDS whole unit from rotating. TDS is composed of a motor, drive shaft, swivel, pipe handler
assembly. The pipe handler assembly in the top drive contains the upper IBOP which controls
the influx of fluids from inside of the string in case of kick. Pipe handler assembly also includes
the link tilt assembly which allows the motion to the elevator bails. It allows picking the tubular
from the mouse hole. Also enables the motion of the elevator to the derrick man to set back the
joint of pipe in the finger board. TDS assists in well control because of upper IBOP and the
lower IBOP.
Advantages:
 Reduces the drilling time
 Rotates the drill string more efficiently
 Variable rotating power
 Allows rotation at any time
 Back reaming and the reciprocating is easy
Disadvantages:
 Costly
 Drilling line wear more rapidly
 Difficult to transport
Working:
Service loops are the hydraulic and pneumatic hoses which provide the required power to
the TDS for power supply. The motor in the TDS turns the main drive shaft through the gear
box which in turn revolves the whole drill string and the bit. Floor man makes the connection

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with the drive shaft. Drive shaft owns a saver sub which reduces the wear and tear on the threads
of the drive shaft.

27,000 lb
Weigh
Stack-up Height 17.8 ft
Power Requirements 700 KVA @ 575-600 VAC
Horsepower 800 hp
Output torque (continuous) 37,500 ft lb
Tool torque (intermittent @ stall) 55,000 ft lb

Maximum Speed @ full power 228 rpm

3.2 EZ torque:
It is used to provide the twisting force to make torque by using the tongue pull line as
moment arm. Tong pull line is spiral shape line between the tong and ez torque.

3.4 Pin boss:


Pin boss holds the backup tong by using the snub line.
3.5 Tongs:
Tongs are the large wrenches which are used apply turning force while making up or
braking up a connection. There are of two types of tongs
3.6 Makeup tong/lead tongs:
Lead tongs are connected to the makeup cathead by using a tong pull line. Cathead uses
the power from the draw works motor.
3.7 Breakup tong:
These are used to grip the body of pipe while making a connection

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3.8 Chain tongs:


Chain tongs are the manual tongs used to provide the twisting by using the hands. They
grip the OD of pipe and the maximum output torque depends on the ability of the person using it.

3.9 Rotary table:


It is a component of rotary system to support the drill string and sometimes used to
makeup connection in case of TDS system. Rotary table turn is key component in case of Kelly
system.
3.10 Master bushing:
It fits inside rotary table to transmit rotary motion to the tubular inside the bore hole for
certain cases.
3.11 Insert bowl:
Insert bowl is a c shape fitting after master bushing to accommodate slips placement to
keep the drill string falling down.

3.12 Slips:
Slips are wedge-shaped pieces of metal with gripping elements are used to prevent pipe
from slipping down into the hole or to hold pipe in place. Rotary slips fit around the drill pipe
and wedge against the master bushing to support the pipe. Power slips are pneumatically or
hydraulically activated devices that allow the crew to dispense with the manual handling of slips
when making a connection. Packers and other down hole equipment are secured in position by
slips that engage the pipe by action directed at the surface.

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3.13 Safety clamps:


Safety clamps are installed above the slips to grip the tubular that do not have the elevator
shoulder. If the gripping elements or the dies fails to grip the tubular, safety clamps will slides
down to hold the tubular. So, avoiding it sliding down all of the way into the wellbore.
3.14 Stabbing board:
It is the working platform for the for the derrick man while running casing or tubing into
the hole. The derrick man guides the casing and the tubing into the hole by using the stabber. It is
adjustable and is operated by using a motor.
3.15 Catwalk:
It is pathway on the side of the drilling rig where pipes are laid down to be lifted to the
rig floor by using the air wrench or to move these pipes back the catwalk.

3.16 Pipe ramp:


It is an inclined pathway which assists the hoisting of tubular from catwalk to the rig
floor or rig floor to the catwalk.
3.17 Pipe rack:
Pipe rack is just like a stand which is used to place tubular prior to movement towards the
catwalk or to inspect the drill string.
3.18 Bit breaker:
It is a squared shape plate which holds the bit when it is screwed or unscrewed from the
drill stem.

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3.19 Stabbing board:


Stabbing board is used to guide the casing into the hole.

3.20 Monkey board:


Derrick man working point during tripping operations and to stab a joint of pipe.
3.21 Finger board:
Finger board is like a rack which supports stands of pipes. It has finger like slots
connected to monkey board where a stands of pipe are supported.

3.22 Set back:


Set back is racking area to place stands of drill pipe and drill collars in a vertical position
located on the rig floor.

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3.23 V-door:
An opening at rig floor on the side of the mast. The V-door is opposite the drawworks
and is used as an entry to bring in drill pipe, casing, and other tools from the pipe rack.

3.24 Dog house:


It is a small room on the rig floor for storing small objects. There are two dog houses on
WTI rig 811 known as driller side dog house and opposite driller side dog house.
3.25 C plate:
C plate is used to cover the hole while any tubular in hole or during drilling operations.
3.26 Hole cover:
Hole cover is a plate which insides four bores on master bushing to cover hole when drill
string is out of the hole.

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4. Mud logging:
Mud logging is a well monitoring technique to find out the parameters to ensure good drilling
practice. Mud logging includes measurements by using sensors and converting these
measurements to a signal for remote access. Mud logging sensors are divided into Digital and
Analog categories according to the following:
Digital:
 Draw works Sensor
 SPM Sensors
 RPM Sensor
Analog:
 Hook Load
 Torque
 Standpipe and Casing Pressure Sensors
 Pit Level Sensors
 Flow Out Sensor
 Mud Temperature In / Out Sensors
 Mud Weight In / Out Sensors
 Mud Conductivity In / Out Sensors
 Gas Detection Instrumentation

MUD LOGGING SENSOR PLACE ON THE PARAMETERS


NAME RIG
Draw Works Sensor Photocell Pulsar Shaft of Draw Total Depth, Bit
Works Depth, TVD, ROP,
Block position
Hook Load Sensor Pressure Transducer Dead Line Anchor Hook Load, WOB,
String weight
SPP Sensor Pressure Transducer Stand Manifold Stand Pipe
Pressure
CSIP Sensor Pressure Transducer Choke Manifold Casing Pressure
SPM Sensors Limit Switches Mud Pumps No of Strokes per
Minute
Rotations Per Minute Inductive Proximity Rotary Shaft Rotary Speed in
Switch Terms of RPMs
Rotary Torque Hall Effect Based Rotary Motor Drilling
Sensor Split Core Current Power Cable Obstruction
Transducer

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4.1 Draw works sensors:


The draw-work sensor is intended to measure angular transition of a drum reel and
applicable to transition of a traveling block. This sensor is installed at the shaft of the draw
works. The information from a transmitter comes via photocell pulsar.

4.2 Hook load sensor:


The hook load sensor normally used is a pressure transducer which is tied into the rig’s
dead line anchor system.

4.3 Standpipe/casing pressure:


The Standpipe pressure sensor is usually installed at the stand manifold with the pressure
line attached with the diaphragm at the knock on head. It emits current with applied pressure.
The Casing pressure sensor has the same working phenomenon and is installed at the choke
manifold.

4.4 SPM sensor:


Limit switches are used to calculate the number of strokes of the mud pumps. A limit
switch is an electro-mechanical device that consists of an actuator mechanically linked to a set of
contacts. When an object comes into contact with the actuator, the device operates the contacts to
make or break an electrical connection.

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4.5 RPM sensor:


Rpm sensors works on the principle of magnetic field. The rotary shaft in TDS is
connected to a metallic strip and that strip is connected to a proximity switch. Every time shaft
rotated magnetic field of the strip intersect with magnetic field in the proximity switch to count
revolutions per minute.
4.6 Flow out sensor:
This sensor measures the flow rate by using a potentiometric flow paddle. Drilling mud
or other fluids passes through it and corresponding voltage is generated to find out the flow rate.
It is located on the back flow line.
4.7 Temperature sensors:
Temperature monitoring of drilling mud is very critical because temperature of mud in
the mud tanks is different from the temperature of mud coming out of the well bore. It depends
upon the depth of drilling. Temperature sensor use thermocouples. They generate a voltage
output for a given temperature.

4.8 Gas detection sensors:


Gas detection in drilling mud is important because presence of gas in the drilling mud is
hazardous causing well to kick. If H2s present above certain level will cause loss of lives if not
properly detected.

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4.9 Conductivity sensors:


Conductivity sensors find out conductivity of mud coming out of hole. Conductivity
establishes the formation fluids. In tolanj south well-1 we are drilling the given section by using
oil base mud. So conductivity of mud is zero.

4.10 Pit volume sensors:


The mud pit level-measuring device monitors single pit levels and the total pit volume
through a non-contact measuring principal for continuous level measurement with ultrasonic
pulses through the sonic sensor. Ultrasonic transducer emits ultrasonic pulses, which are
reflected by surface. The level is calculated by adding the volume of mud in all tanks.

4.11 H2S sensor:


H2S sensors are used to measure the concentration of hydrogen di sulfide. it is present on
the driller floor, cellar and in mud pumps.

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5. Well Control Equipment:


The density or hydrostatic pressure of drilling fluid is considered as the primary well control
against the formation pore pressure which is pressure of the fluid in the formation pores. But
sometimes the hydrostatic pressure of drilling fluid is not enough to maintain an overbalance
against the formation fluid pressure and this allows the formation fluid to move up in the well
bore which is called a kick. In this case Secondary well control equipment is required to counter
the kick and to regain primary well control. Secondary well control equipment is known as Blow
out Preventer (BOP). The BOP system consists of following four components.
1. Blow Out Preventer BOP Stack.
2. Accumulator Unit.
3. Choke Manifold.
4. Kill Line.

5.1 BOP Stack:


On a land rig a BOP stack consists of following devices.
 Annular Preventer.
 Pipe Rams.
 Blind and Shear Rams
5.2 Annular Preventer:
It is on the top of the BOP stack. The ram closes at 700-1200 psi. Annular preventer consists
of following major parts
 Steel reinforced rubber packer.
 Solid rubber donut.
 Operating piston.
 Pusher Plate.
The biggest advantage of the annular preventer is that it can close on any shape or diameter of
tubular in the hole. This can close on square or hexagonal Kelly as well. Annular preventer
allows reciprocation and rotation of the tubular maintaining a pressure.

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5.3 Pipe Rams:


These types of rams close around the pipes of the specified size. They cannot close an
open hole and it is not recommended to reciprocate or rotate the string while ram being closed
around a ram. Working pressure of pipe rams is 1500 psi.
5.4 Shear Blind Rams:
Shear blind rams are used to shear the pipe in the hole, and then bend the lower end of the
pipe allowing the ram to close and seal or pipe is dropped. Shear blind rams can be used as blind
rams during normal drilling operations. On one side the ram body is extended while on other side
it has a recess to accept the other half. There are side packers to provide the sealing when the ram
is closed. Shear rams can handle pressure from 2700-3000 psi.
5.5 Accumulator:
The BOP control system, called an accumulator, provides the energy to operate the
blowout preventers. The two main functions of an accumulator unit are to store hydraulic fluid
under pressure by compressing a pre charged gas bladder with hydraulic fluid from the operating
or charging system. Depending on the fluid volume and pre charge pressure of the accumulator,
a limited amount of hydraulic energy is then available independent of any other power source
and it enable BOP to function. The reason of having stored pressure in case of major incident
with loss of power supplies on the rig, the well can be secured by operating the required BOP
function.

This system of consists of:


 Compressed gas (Nitrogen) bottles.
 Regulator valves.
 Electric Pumps.
 Air Operated Hydraulic Pumps.
 Hydraulic reservoir.
 Control manifold.
 Control valves.

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5.6 Compressed gas (Nitrogen) Bottles:


32 bottles in form of 4 banks of containing pre charged Nitrogen at a pre charge pressure equal to
1/3rd of the rated pressure i.e. 1000 psi maintain a constant accumulator pressure of 3000 psi.
Each bottle has a capacity of 11 gallons.
5.7 Regulator Valves:
These valves are used to regulate the operating pressure of the BOPs as per the requirement.
There are two regulator valves:
 Regulate manifold pressure between 1500 – 3000 psi to operate the rams except Annular.
 Regulate between 600 – 1500 psi to operate the Annular.

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6. Power system:
The energy source for the rig is known as prime movers which are the large internal combustion
engines. These prime movers take the diesel as chemical energy source and that energy is being
converted into the mechanical energy by using the diesel engines. There are four diesel engines
in the rig 811, three engines works at a time whereas the forth one is used as backup. These
engines provide mechanical energy to AC generators. Generators convert the mechanical energy
into electrical energy.
One generator has the ability to produce 1100 hp.
Two step down transformers converts the high voltage into smaller voltage 400 V to operate low
capacity motors which is further reduced to 110/220 V to switch on the minicamp lights and
other electronics.

6.1 Electric cable tray:


Electrical cable tray carries the transmission lines for the electricity. It is located on the
left side of driller against the rig. These transmission lines are used for the electrical
communication to the devices and the motors placed on the rig floor.
6.2 DC motor:
A DC motor is a conversion element which converts the electrical energy back to the
mechanical energy to power the heavy duty equipment’s like mud pumps, drawworks or TDS.
DC current is necessary because it causes lesser fluctuations in the service equipment and the
speed of the equipment’s can be controlled accurately.
6.3 AC motors:
AC motors are used to derive the equipment’s that do not require a lot of horse power.
These equipment’s include supercharger motors, motors for revolving agitator to homogenize the
mud in the mud tanks.
6.4 Hydraulic and pneumatic power:
Some equipment’s needs hydraulic and pneumatic power for the working purpose.
Pressure of air in the pneumatic system is 120 psi. Hydraulic power is transmitted by using the
liquid in a confined space. A cylinder contains the fluids and inside that cylinder is a shaft. Shaft
applies force on the hydraulic fluids and hydraulic energy advantage is obtained. Hydraulic
energy is being transmitted in terms of the closed loop. These include manual tongs, air
wrenches and casing tongs.

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7. Well shut in procedure while tripping


I.Take the tool joint above the rotary table.
II.Set the slips in position.
III.Install full opening safety valve.
IV. Close safety valve.
V. Torque up safety valve.
VI. Hang up the string on elevator and space out for BOP closure.
VII. Close upper pipe ram (Close annular BOP if not sure for the exact tubular OD for pipe
rams).
VIII. Open the choke line HCR valve.
IX. Report STP/NTP and client.
X. Line up trip tank to flow line to monitor any leakage in the BOP.
8. Well shut in procedure while drilling
I. Take the tool joint above the rotary table and space out for the BOP closure.
II. Close the mud pumps.

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III. Close upper pipe ram (Close annular BOP if not sure for the exact tubular OD for pipe
rams).
IV. Open the choke line HCR valve.
V. Report STP/NTP and client.
VI. Line up trip tank to flow line to monitor any leakage in the BOP.
9. Blow out preventer (BOP) test:
Blow out preventer test is conducted by using the plug type tester which includes
pressurizing the BOP and other equipment’s at high pressure by using water. Pressure at which
this test is conducted depends upon the pressure ratings of BOP, IBOP, choke manifold, etc. the
procedure for pressure testing of BOP is as follows:
I. Pull out of hole (POOH) the drill string.
II. Take a stand of pipe and stab it to TDS.
III. Screw plug type tester to bottom of that stand and run it into the bore to retrieve the
wear bushing.
IV. After retrieving the wear bushing, took two stands of pipes and screw plug type tester
to it with upside down.
V. Then make the assembly to pressure test BOP which is as follows:
VI. Fill BOP with water.
VII. Close low torque valve and pressure test lines for any leakage.
VIII. Close annular, HCR valves on kill line and stand pipe master valve and pressure test
at 300/3500 psi.
IX. Pressure test UPR, kill line and choke line HCR valves and FOSV to 300/6500 psi.
X. Pressure test UPR, kill line and choke line manual valves and lower IBOP to
300/6500 psi.
XI. Pressure test LPR and upper IBOP to 300/6500 psi.
XII. To pressure test SPR, bleed off pressure remove assembly out of hole and connect
side entry sub to the choke manifold.
XIII. Close kill line, upper IBOP and shear ram to pressure test shear rams at 300/6500 psi.

upper IBOP

lower IBOP
saver sub
pup joint

kelly cock
To schlunberger
cementing unit side entry sub
Low pup joint
Chickson
torque drill pipe
line
valve
Plug type tester

Two stands of drill pipe

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10. Measurement while drilling (MWD):


MWD is a technique used in the directional wells to find out parameters to direct a well
to a predetermine trajectory. This technique allows measurement of inclination angle, azimuth,
horizontal departure and other parameters required by client. MWD tool consist of three main
parts pulsar, electronics and battery. Accelerometer finds out the inclination angle of well by
using three right angle probe which determines the gravitational pull on a particular probe
whereas azimuth is measured by using the magnetometer. Then electronics converts it to a binary
number which is communicated to the sensor at SPP. The sensor sends signal to the HSPM
which is basically a de-modulator and converts that binary number to numeric form again.
11. Logging while drilling:
Logging while drilling is a technique which monitors the down hole parameters at the same time as
drilling continues. This tool has same construction as the MWD tool but a sensor a used to sense
required parameter like sonic data, resistivity data, temperature data, etc. It’s communication to surface
is same as MWD tool.

12. Bottom hole assembly:


The portion of drill string below the drill popes is known as bottom hole assembly or BHA. BHA
is inserted below the drill pipes which have a lot of functions. Each component in BHA serves
unique function.
Mainly BHA is composed of:
 Drill collars
 Heavy weight drill pipes
 Jars
 Reamers
 Stabilizers
 Drill bit
 X-Over
 Non-Magnetic drill collars
Drill collars:
These are the heavy weight pipes to put the weight on the bit. Numbers of collars
required depends upon the required weight in bit. The drill collars below jar must be enough to
put the required weight on bit to reduce compressive strength of rock. Drill collars must be
enough to keep the drill pipes in tension
Heavy weight drill pipe:
Heavy weight drill pipes are used to keep the drill string in tension and to accommodate
the neutral point for avoid fatigue in the drill pipes. Sometimes spiral heavy weight pipes are
used to avoid differential pipe sticking.

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Jars:
Jars are used to retrieve the drill string if stuck in the formation. Drilling jars are able to
produce the jarring effect both upward and downward but fishing jars can only produce jarring
effect upward.

Stabalizers:
These are used to provide the path to drill bit to make mud cake of good quality.
Stabilizers are of two types string stab and near bit stab. Near bit stab has box end at both ends
and a float valve catcher but the string stab has both pin and box end.

Non-Magnetic drill collars:


NMDC’s are non-responsive to radiations and are used for surveying purposes to reduce
environmental effects in the measured data.
Drill bit:
Drill bits are used to overcome the compressive strength of rock. There are of different
types of drill bit which includes PDC bit, roller cone bit, hybrid bits and milled tooth bits.

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