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TUTORIAL 1

NUMBER SYSTEM AND EQUATIONS

CONCEPT PRACTICE

 5 3 
1. Given that set S   7, 2,  , 0, , e , π, 6  . List all the elements of the S subset
 3 2 
according to :
(a) N , natural numbers (b) Z , integers (c) Q , rational numbers
(d) Q , irrational numbers (e) R , real numbers (f) W , whole numbers
(g) Prime numbers

2. (a) Show that d  2.312 is a rational number


2
(b) Determine whether is rational number or irrational number. Explain your
18
answer.
(c) Z , R, N , Q and W are the sets of number system .Write a mathematical statement to
show the relationship among the five given sets.

3. Write each of the following inequalities using interval notation and state the type of
interval. Hence, represent it on the Real number line:
(a) {x : x  5} (b) {x : 4  x  6}
(c) {x : 3  x  6} (d) {x : 12  x  8}

4. (a) Show each of the following intervals on the Real number line and write the solutions:
(i) - 4,-3   0,1 (ii) - ,-8  8,   (iii) - ,0  1,4 (iv) 1,4  3,8

(b) Given that A  2,6, B  - 1,5, C  0,7 and D  1,9 .


Find the interval for the following operations:
(i) A  B (ii) B  C (iii) A  B  D (iv) A  C  D

5. Without using calculator, find the value of each of the following:


1 1 3 1 2
1  2
(9 )(3 3 )
3  16  4 (25 )(8 3 )
2
(a) (0.008) 3 (b) (c)   (d) 2
(e) (64) 3
6  81 
125 3
6. Simplify the following in the form of a  b c :
1 1 5 3 3 2 1 1
(a) (b) (c) (d) 
2 3 1 5 2 3 2 1 2 1 2
1
(e) 2 2  7 8  4  8 32
2

1
7. Without using calculator, evaluate the following expressions:
(a) log 4 2 (b) log 1 8 (c) log 2 3 2
2
(d) 2 log 2 12  3 log 2 5  log 2 15  log 2 150

8. Express y in the terms of x : (a) log x  log y  log 2 (b) log 5 y  2 log 5 x  2

ANSWERS

 5   3 
1. (a) 6 (b) 2, 0, 6 (c) 2,  , 0, 6  (d)  7, , e,   (e) S (f) 0, 6
 3   2 
(g)   @ 
289 1
2. (a) d  (b) Rational, (c) N  W  Z  Q  R 3. DIY
125 3
4. (a) (i)  (ii)  (iii)  , 0   1, 4 (iv) 1,8
(b) (i)  1, 6  (ii)  0,5  (iii)  2,5  (iv) 1,9 
1 27 4
5. (a) -0.2 (b) (c) (d) (e) 16
2 8 5
3 5 6
6. (a) 2  3 (b)   (c) 2  (d) -2 (e) 22 2
2 2 2
1 1
7. (a) (b) -3 (c) (d) 3
2 3
2
8. (a) y = (b) y = 25x2
x

2
CONSOLIDATION EXERCISES

1. Given the intervals A  [5,3) , B  (0,6) and C  {x : 7  x  2, x  Z } . By using the


number line, find the interval of
(a) A  C (b) A  C (c) B  C (d) B  C
(e) A  B  C

2. Solve the following equations:


1 x 2 x 1
(a) 4 x  2  1281 x (b) x  3  2 (c) 16  5(2 ) 1  0
x 1 x
(d) 32 x  9 x1  9 (e) 4  5(2 )  1  0 (f) 4 x 1  2 5 x  2 x  2 3  0

3. Simplify the following expressions without using a calculator.


3 3 3  2 10 3  2 10
(a)  3 (b) 
2 3 3  10 3  10

4. Solve the equations below:


(a) 4 x  13  x  1  12  x (b) x  x7  7
(c) 2 x  5  x  1  2

5. If log 3 2  p and log 3 5  q , write in terms of p and/or q:


3
(a) log 3 10 (b) log 3 2.5 (c) log 3 15 (d) log 3 1
5
log 3 18
(e)
log 3 2

6. Solve the following equations


1 x 1
(a) log x  3 (b) log 2 (2 - 32 2 )  x (c) log 3 x  log x 9  3
27
2
(d) 3 x 1  4 x 1 (e) log 2 (2 x  4)  2  log 2 ( x  6)
(f) log 3 ( x  2)  2 log 3 x (g) 2 (log 4 x  log x 4)  5

7. (a) Determine the value of x that satisfies the following equation,


ln( x  7)  ln x  ln(5 x  3) .
2
y 1 .
(b) Express y in terms of a such that 2 log a 
16

8. (a) Without using calculator, determine the value of t such that log 2 (log3 t )  4
(b) Given that 23n  e 4mn , find the exact value of m.

3
e x  2e  x 1
9. Find, correct to two significant figures, the value of x such that  .
2e x  e  x 5

10. Solve each of the following equations, expressing x in terms of p where p > 0.
(a) p 2 x  e x 1
(b) 2 ln( 2 x)  2  ln p

2
11. Given x  , show that x 2  2 x  2  0 .
3 1

1 1
12. If x  3  2 and y  3  2 show that   1.
x 1 y 1

1 1
13. If log( x  y )  log 3  log x  log y , prove that x 2  y 2  7 xy .
2 2

a b b c c a
 xa   xb   xc 
14. If x  0 , show that  b   c   a  1
x  x  x 

ANSWERS

1. (a) {7,6}  [5,3) , (b) {5,4,3,2,1,0,1,2} , (c) {1,2} ,


(d) {7  x  0, x  z}  (0,6) (e) {1,2}
1 1 1 1
2. (a) (b) (c)  , (d) 1 (e) 0, -2 (f) -2, 3
3 8 2 2
3. (a) 3 (b) -58 4. (a) 3 (b) 9 (c) 2, 10
2 p
5. (a) q  p (b) q  p (c) q  1 (d) 3p  q (e)
p
11 5
6. (a) 3 (b) (c) 3, 9 (d) 8.638 (e) (f) 2 (g) 2, 16
2 2
a 3
7. (a) 1 (b) 8. (a) 81 (b) ln 2 9. x = 0.65
a 4
1 e
10. (a) x  (b) x  p
2 ln p  1 2
11. DIY 12. DIY 13. DIY 14. DIY

4
TUTORIAL 2
INEQUALITIES AND ABSOLUTE VALUES

CONCEPT PRACTICE

1. Solve the following inequalities:


(a) 2 x  3  5 (b) 2  3x  3  x
(c) 8( x  2)  2( x  1) (d)  5  3 x  2  2

2. Find the ranges of values of x that satisfy the following inequalities:


(a) ( x  1)( x  2)  0 (b) 3 x 2  5 x  2  0 (c) 3 x 2  7 x  2  7 x  3
x 1 3x  1
(d) 1  x 4  x   x  11 (e) 3 x  4  x 2  6  9  2 x (f)  
2 3 4

3. Rewrite the following expression without the modulus symbol:


(a)  8   5 (b) 3   (c) 5  3
(d) 2 1 (e)  4  2

4. Solve the following equations:


x 1
(a) 3 x  2  6 (b) x  3  2
2
(c) 2 x  1  3 x  4 (d) x  7  2

5. Solve the following absolute value inequalities:


(a) 2 x  3  6 (b) 3 x  4  5
(c) x  5  4 x  8 (d) 2 x  1  3 x  2

ANSWERS
 1  7  7 4
1. (a) x : x  4 (b)  x : x    (c)  x : x    (d)  x :   x   
 4  3  3 3
 1  1
2. (a) x : x  1  x  2 (b)  x : x  2  x   (c)  x : 5  x  
 3  3
 1
(d) x : x  1  x  7 (e) x : 5  x  2 (f)  x  
 3
3. (a) 8-5 (b) π – 3 (c) 5 - 3 (d) 2  1 (e) 4+2
8 4 5 3
4. (a) x  or x   (b) x  7 or x  (c) x  5 or x   (d) x  3 or x   5
3 3 3 5
 9 3 1   3 
5. (a)   ,  (b)  ,3   ,   (c)  ,1 (d)   ,  
 2 2 3   5 

1
CONSOLIDATION EXERCISE

1. Solve the following inequalities


1 1 x  2 2x  7
(a) 5  x  2  x (b) 
5 3 6 4
3 5 x 11  y
(c) x  2 (d)  y4
7 6 4

2. Solve  2  4 x  6  18 . Express the solution in interval notation.

7x  5
3. Solve  3   0 . Express the solution in interval notation.
2

4. Solve the following inequalities:


(a) x 2  2 x  24 (b) 3 x 2  5 x  12  0 (c) ( x  9) 2  4 x 2

5
5. Find the value of k if  2  x  3 is equivalent to x  k  .
2

6. Find the value of a and b if x  7 or x  2 is equivalent to x  a  b .

ANSWERS
 45   1  119   5
1. (a)  x : x    (b)  x : x  6  (c)  x : x   (d)  y : y   
 2  4  11   3
2. (2,3]
 1 5
3.  7 , 7 
 
4
4. (a) {x : x  4 or x  6} (b) {x : 3  x  } (c) {x : 9  x  3}
3
1
5. k
2
9 5
6. a ,b
2 2

2
TUTORIAL 3
SEQUENCES

CONCEPT PRACTICE

1. Write the first four terms of the following sequences


n
(a) Tn  2(n  3) (b) Tn  2  1
n n
(c) Tn  (2) (d) Tn  n

2. Determine the common difference, the fifth term, the nth term and the 100th term of the
arithmetic sequence.
(a) 2,5,8,11,... (b)  12,8, 4,0,...

3. Given the arithmetic progression: 2,5,8,11,…The common difference is 3, find


(a) T5 (b) T20 (c) Tn

ANSWERS

1. (a) 8, 10, 12, 14 (b) 1, 3, 7, 15 (c) -2, 4, -8, 16 (d) 1, 4, 27, 256

2. (a) d=3, T5=14 , Tn=3n-1 , T100=299 (b) d=4, T5=4 , Tn=4n-16 , T100=384
3. (a) 14 (b) 59 (c) 3n-1

CONSOLIDATION EXERCISE

11 2n  1
1. Determine whether is a term of the sequence given by a n 
75 3n 2

55 7
2. The 10th term of an arithmetic sequence is , and the second term is . Find the first terms
2 2

3. The 100th term of an arithmetic sequence is 98, and the common difference is 2, find the first
three terms.

4. (a) If 4 and 1 are the second and third terms of an arithmetic sequence respectively, find the
seventh term.
(b) For the arithmetic sequence -1, 3, 7, …, which term is 47?
(c) What is the first term of an arithmetic sequence, if the fifth term is 2 and the
ninth term is 8?

1
5. Find x if it is known that the sequence 4x + 1, x + 2, x – 9 is an arithmetic progression.

6. (a) The sum of the first n positive integers is 4950. What is the value of n?
(b) Given an arithmetic progression with T3 = 17 and T9 = 49, find S20.

7. The sum of the first 3 terms of a GP is 14. If the first term is 2, find the possible values of the
sum of the first 5 terms.

1 1
8. Given a geometric sequence 3 , 1, , ,.........., find
3 3
(a) the 10th term
(b) the sum of the first 10 terms of the Geometric Progression.

9. (a) The sum, S, of the first n terms of a certain progression is given as


2n 2  3n
S= . Find the value of the eight term of the progression.
2
(b) The sum of the first 8 terms of a certain Arithmetic Progression is 56 and the sum of the
first 20 terms is 260. Find the values of the first term and the common difference.

10.The positive numbers p and q are the second and fourteenth terms of an Arithmetic
Progression respectively. The first term of the AP is 1. Given also that p, 9 and q are three
successive terms of a Geometric Progression, find the values of p and q.

11. The sum of the first 12 terms of arithmetic sequence is 54 and the sum of next 12 terms is
486. Find the first term and the common difference.

12. The price of a unit in a condominium is RM300000 for the first level, RM302500 for the
second level, RM305000 for the third level and so forth with an increment of RM2500. Find
(a) the price of a unit at the tenth level,
(b) the total price of a unit at every level from the first to the twelve level,
(c) the total price of 2 units at level five and 3 units at level eight.

13. A smartphone costing RM2000 depreciates at a rate of 10% every year. Find
(a) the value of the smartphone after 5 years,
(b) how long for the value of the smartphone to become less than RM1000.

ANSWERS

11
1. is a term of the given sequence.
75
1
2. a  3. -100, -98 , -96 4. (a) -11 (b) 13th term (c) -4
2
5. x = 4 6. (a) n = 99 (b) 1140

2
1 121
7. 122, 62 8. (a) (b) ( 3  1) or 4.081
81 81
33 7
9. (a) (b) a = ,d=1 10. p = 3 , q = 27 11. a = -12 , d = 3 ,
2 2
12. (a) RM322500 (b) RM3765000 (c) RM1572500
13. (a) RM1180.98 (b) 8 years

3
TUTORIAL 4
MATRICES AND SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS

CONCEPT PRACTICE

1. Find the value of a, b, c and d if


2  a 3 4  6 3  c 4  2 a  c 2 
(a)  4 2b 2 =  2  4 d  8 2 (b) 2   3d 4  b = -3 1 2  b
    

2 2 2  3 3 3  4 4 4
    5  1 0 
2. Given that A= 2 1  3 , B= 3 0 5  , C=  
1 0 4  6 9  1 7 8  1
Simplify each of the following :
(a) 3A – 6B + 9C (b) 7A – 2 ( B – C )

 1  5 3 4 0
1  3 0   4  3  
3. Given that B= 3  6  2 , C=   and D=  2 4 3
    5 2  1 3 2
Find D2 - CB

 3  1 2 1 
 4 0   1  2 3 4
4. Given that A=   , B=   and C= 2 2
 2 1    
1 1 
Find (a) (A + B)T (b) BTA (c) ( BC )T (d) BC T

 1
1 0 2
 2
5. Evaluate the minor and cofactor using the matrix A=   3 5 
0 0 4
 
(a) M33 , C33 (b) M23 , C23
Write the cofactor matrix of A.

6. Find the determinant of the matrix below using the row or column given. Determine whether
the matrix has an inverse without calculating the inverse.
1 3 7   1 2 5
   2  3 2
(a) A= 2 0  1 (b) B=  
 0 2 6   3 5 3
i. First row i. First row
ii. Third row ii. First column

1
7. Find the inverse matrix of the following using
(a) adjoint method (b) ERO method
 1 2 3  1 1 1 0 1 1
     5 1  1
i. A= 4 5 6 ii. B= 2 3 3 iii. C=  
7 8 9  3 4 5  2  3  3

ANSWERS

4
1. (a) a= -4, b= -4, c=0, d (b) a= -3, b=14,c=
3
 24 24 24  16 16 16   31 1 2 
     
2. (a)  33  6  39  (b) 18 5  31 3.  22 27 12 
 30 18  10 19 17 
 9   9  2 28 
   
 5  5 3 12  1  8  7 5  10 6 
4. (a)   (b)  
(c)   (d)
 0  2 2 13 0  10  8 6   
 11 6 
 7 4 
 
 
 20 12 0
5. (a) M33 = 5 C33 = 5 (b) M23 = 0 C23 = 0, cofactor matrix of A  0 4 0
 5 7 
  5
 2 2 
6. (a) (i) - 6 (ii) -6 (b) (i) 0 (ii) 0
 3 1 0 
 
-1
7. (a) & (b) (i) A does not exist (ii) B 1    1 2  1 , B  1
 1 1 1 
 
 3 1 
 0 
 2 2 
 13 1 5
(iii) C 1  , C  4
 4 2 4 
 17 1 5 
 
 4 2 4 

2
CONSOLIDATION PRACTICE

2k 2 1
1. Calculate the values of k given that 2 4 2  0
3 k 2 k 3

 2  1
2 2
2. If A=   5 3  , find A . Hence, find constants p and q such that A + pA + qI = 0. By using

this result, find A-1 and A3.
1 2 1
 
3. Given that M= 1  1 0 and M3 = M2 + 6M + I, where I is the identity matrix, deduce that
3 1 1
M-1 = M2 – M – 6I. Hence find M-1.

4. Without using adjoint and ERO method, verify that the inverse of the matrix
 1 3 2   1 2 3
  3 3  1  
M=   is  2 4 5
 2  1 0   3 5 6
 p  5 
   
Hence, find the value of p, q and r if M  q  =  3
 r   1 

3 2 2  1 4 2 
4 1 2  2  , find MN. Hence, find M-1.
5. If M=   and N=   8 5
 2 1 3  2 1  5
In a Supermarket, there were three promotion packages A, B and C which offer shirts,
trousers and neckties. The number of each item and the promotion price for each package is
given in the following table :

Package No. of shirts No. of trousers No of neckties Promotion


price ( RM )
A 3 2 2 256
B 4 1 2 218
C 2 1 3 173
Write a matrix equation to represent the information above. Then solve the equation to
determine the price of each item.

1 1 1
6. Show that a b c = a  b b  c c  a  .
a2 b2 c2

3
ANSWERS

4 1 3 1 3  43  24 
1. k = 1 , k
3 2. p = -5 , q = 1 A   5 2  A    120 67 
 
1 1 1 
1
 
3. M  1  2 1  4. p = 2 , q =3 , r = 6
4 5  3 

 1 4  2
 
 9 9 9   30 
 
8 5  2
5. MN = - 9I M 1  ,  68 
 9 9 9   15 
2  
1 5 
 
 9 9 9 

4
TUTORIAL 5
FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS

CONCEPT PRACTICE

1. Find the domains and the ranges of the following functions and sketch the graphs:
(a) f ( x )  x 2  4 x  3 (b) f ( x )  7  x
(c) f ( x)  x  3 (d) f ( x)  x2  4
(e) f ( x )  ln( x  2) (f) f ( x )  e x 1

2. Find the domains of the following functions:

6 1
(a) f ( x )  (b) f ( x ) 
x2 4x
5x  1 x2
(b) g ( x )  (d) p( x )  2
( x  3)( x  1) x  2x  3

3. If f ( x )  2 x  3 and f  g ( x )  2 x  1, find g (x) .

4. If f ( x)  x  1 and g  f ( x )  3  2 x  x 2 , find g (x) .

5. Find the inverse of each of the following functions :


2
(a) f ( x )  x 2  1, x0 (b) h( x)  , x3
x3
x2
(c) h( x)  , x2 (d) h( x)  5  x , x5
x2

ANSWERS

1. (a) D=(-, ), R= [-1, ) (b) D=(-, 7], R=[0, )


(c) D=(-, ), R=[0, ) (d) D=(-, -2]  [2, ), R=[0,)
(e) D=(-2, ), R=(-, ) (f) D=(-, ), R= (0, )
2. (a) (-, -2) (-2, ) (b) (-, 4)
(c) (-,-1)  (-1, 3)  (3, ) (d) [ -2, 1)  (1, )
3. g ( x )  x  2
4. g ( x)  4  x 2
2
5. (a) f 1
( x)  x  1 (b) h 1 ( x)  3
x
2x  2
(c) h 1 ( x )  (d) h 1 ( x)  5  x 2
x 1

1
CONSOLIDATION EXERCISE

1 2
1. A function f is defined as f ( x )  x  x  3 for x  1. Find the inverse function f 1 and
2
determine domain and range of f 1 . Sketch the graph of f and f 1 on the same coordinate
axes. If g ( x )  x  1 , find f  g (x ).

2. The functions f and g are defined by


1
f : x  ln x, x>0 g : x x , x0
2
Find (a) f -1 and state its domain.
(b) the composite function g  f -1( x ) and state its range.

3. Find the inverse of each of the following functions. In each case, sketch the graph of the
function and its inverse.
(a) f ( x )  x 3  3 .
(b) f ( x )  2 x .
(c) f ( x)  ln( x  1) .

4. The functions f and g are defined by


f : x  x3 , x 
g : x  2  3x, x 
Find (a) f  g (x ).
(b) ( f  g ) 1 ( x ).
2x  2
5. Given that f ( x)  log 2 (3x  2) and given g ( x) 
3
(a) prove that f (x ) is one to one function.
(b) determine domain and range of f (x ) .
(c) are f (x ) and g (x) the inverse function one to another. Verify your answer.
(d) sketch the graphs of f (x ) and g (x) on the same axes.

6. Given f (x) = (x – 1)2 – 5, x ≥ 1.


(a) Find f –1 and determine the domain and range.
(b) Sketch the graph of f and f –1 on the same coordinate axes.
(c) Find the intersection f and f –1.

7. Given the function f and g as follows:


f : x → x2 – 1 , x  R
g: x → e –x , x  R+
(a) Determine whether the function f and g are one to one functions. Give reasons.
(b) Find g –1 and g 1  f .
(c) Determine the domain of g –1.

2
ANSWERS

1 7
1. f 1
( x)  1  2 x  7 , Df-1=[-7/2, ), Rf-1 = [ 1 , ), f  g ( x )  x 
2 2
2. (a) f 1
( x )  e 2 x , Df-1=(-, ) -1 x -1
(b) g  f = e , Rgf = (0 , )
1

3. (a) f 1 ( x )  ( x  3) 3 (b) f 1
( x)  log 2 x (c) f 1
( x)  e x  1
1
3
x 2
4. (a) f  g ( x )  (2  3 x) 3 (b) ( f  g ) 1  5. (b) Df= (-2/3 , ), Rf =(- , )
3
1
6. (a) f ( x )  x  5  1 , D f 1  [5, ), Rf 1 [1, ) (c) (4,4)
7. (b) g 1 ( x)   ln x , g 1  f   ln( x 2  1) (c) ( 0,  )

3
TUTORIAL 6
POLYNOMIAL

CONCEPT PRACTICE

1. For each of the following expressions, write True if it is a polynomial, and False if it is
not. If it is a polynomial, write down the degree, the leading coefficient and the
constant term. Determine whether the polynomials are monomials, binomials or
trinomials and write down their special names.
2 2
(a) 7 x (b) x 2  x  3 (c)  x  3 (d)
x 1
2. Functions f, g and h are defined by
f ( x)  3 x  1 , g ( x)  9  2 x 2 , h( x )  2 x 3  5 x  1
Simplify the following, and in each case :
(i) state the degree of the resulting polynomial,
(ii) give the coefficient of x 2 .
(a) h(x) – f(x) + g(x) (b) 3f(x) + g(x) (c) 2h(x) – [f(x)]2

3. By using long division, find the quotient and the remainder. Write the answer in
the form P(x) = Q(x)D(x) + R(x).
x 3  27 x 4  3x 2  4 x  6 2 x 3  7 x 2  7 x  15 2 x 4  3x  6
(a) (b) (c) (d)
x3 x4 x2  3 x2  x 1

4. By using the remainder theorem, find the remainder when 2 x 4  3x 3  30 x  12 is


divided by  x  3 .

5. The remainder of P ( x )  x 3  2 x  r when it is divided by  x  1 , is the same as the


remainder when Q( x)  2 x 3  x  r is divided by 2 x  1 . Find the value of r.

6. The remainder of polynomial P(x) is 3 when divided by  x  2  and 2 when divided by



x  3 . If the remainder P(x) is  px  q  when divided by x 2  5 x  6 , find the values 
of p and q.

ANSWER
1. D.I.Y 2. (ai) 3 (aii) -2 (bi) 2 (bii) -2 (ci) 3 (cii) -9
3. (a) x  27   x  3 x  9   x  3
3 2

(b) x 4  3x 2  4 x  6  x 3
 4 x 2  19 x  80   x  4   326
(c) 2 x3  7 x 2  7 x  15   2 x  7   x 2  3  13 x  6 
(d) 2 x 4  3x  6   2 x 2  2 x  x2  x  1   5x  6
1
4. R(3)  3 5. r = 6. p= -1, q = 5,
8

1
CONSOLIDATION EXRCISES

1. The polynomial P(x) is given by P ( x )  x 4  x 3  x 2  x .


(a) Use the factor theorem to show that  x  1 is a factor of P(x)
 
(b) Write P(x) in the form  x  1ax  bx 2  c , giving the values of a, b and c.
(c) Hence solve the equation P(x) = 0.
(d) Using your solutions to P(x) = 0, write down the solutions of the equation
P(x+1) = 0.

2. Find the polynomial of degree 3, if P(1) = P(-2) = 0, P(-1) = 4 and P(2) = 28.

3. The factor of polynomial, P ( x )  2 x 3  ax 2  bx  2 is  x  2  . If P(x) is divided with


x  2  , the remainder is 20.
(a) Find the value of a and b.
(b) Hence, find the other two factors of P(x).

4. Determine whether the number given is a zero of the polynomial


3
(a) P ( x)  4 x 3  8 x 2  x  13 ;
2
4 3
(b) P ( x )  2 x  3x  25 x  7 ; -2

5. Find all the possible zeroes of the polynomial if one of the zero is given
P( x)  x 3  2 x 2  5 x  6 ; -3

6. Express the following into a partial fractions;


2x  3 3x  4 15  34 x  x 2 x 2  2x
(a) (b) 2 (c) (d)
x  2x  3 x 1 3x  1x  12  
x  1 x 2  x  1
4x A B Cx  D
7. State in the form   .
4 1  x 1  x 1  x2
1 x

8. Determine the integers a and b such that x 3  2 x 2  15 x  36   x  a 2  x  b  .


5 x 2  31
Hence, express in partial fractions.
x 3  2 x 2  15 x  36

2
ANSWER
1.  
(b) P ( x )   x - 1 x  x 2  1 , a  1, b  1 and c  1 (c) x  1, x  0, x  -1
(d) x  0, x  -1, x  -2
2. P ( x )  3x 3  4 x 2  5 x  2
3. (a) a  3 , b  - 3 (b) 2 x  1 and  x  1
3
4. (a) is not a zero of P ( x) (b)  2 is not a zero of P( x)
2
5. 2, - 1 and - 3
1 9 1 7
6. (a)  (b) - 
5 x  2  5 x  3 2 x  1 2 x  1
2 1 12 -1 4x  1
(c)   (d) 
3x  1 x  1  x  1 2
3 x  1 
3 x2  x 1 
1 1 2x
7.  
1  x 1  x 1  x2
5 x 2  31 4 2 1
8. a = 3, b = -4,   
x3  2 x 2  15 x  36 x  3  x  32 x  4

3
TUTORIAL 7
LIMITS

CONCEPT PRACTICE

1. Find the limits:


x2 1 h
(a) lim 12 (b) lim (c) lim
x 5 x2 x2 1 h4
h4
1 1
  
(d) lim  s  s
3 3 

s 8
 
1
2. If f ( x)  x 2  1 and g(x) = , determine lim  g ( x)  2 f ( x) g ( x )  3 f ( x).
x2 x4

3. If f ( x )  x 3 , find the limits:


f ( x )  f (3) f ( x )  f ( 2)
(a) lim (b) lim
x 3 x3 x2 x2

4. Find the following limits :


x 1 p9 t 2  81 x  2  2x
(a) lim 2 (b) lim (c) lim (d) lim
x 1 x  1 p 9
p 3 t 9
3 t x2 x 2  2x

5. Find the limits :


2
2x  1 8x  1 2  t  2t 
(a) lim
x   5 x  2
(b) lim (c) lim (7  x  x ) (d) lim   
t   t  1  t 2  6 
x 
x2  9 x  
  

6. Find the limit of f(x) at x = 1 ( if exist).

 x , x 1

f(x) =  3 , x  1
2 x  1, x  1

7. Given the function as

 x2  2 p , x2

f(x) =  0 , 2 x4
x2  6x  q , x  4

Determine the value of p if lim f ( x)  0 . Find the value of q if lim f ( x ) exist.
x 2 x 4

1
ANSWERS
5 1 3
1. (a) 12 (b) (c) (d)
3 2 2
1 1 1
2. 40 3. (a) 27 (b) 12 4. (a) (b) 6 (c) –108 (d) 
6 2 8
2
5. (a) (b) -8 (c) -  (d) 2 6. f(x) exist 7. p = 2 q=8
5

CONSOLIDATION EXERCISES

1. Find the following limits.


x3  3 x 3 1 x 1 3 x4
(a) lim (b) lim (c) lim (d) lim
x0 x x  3 x 1  2 x0 x x 7 7 x  x2

2. Given that lim


 x  2 f  x 
 3 , evaluate lim f  x  .
2 x3  5 x2  3x  2
x2 x2

3. Two functions are given as below :


x3  3x2  x  3
f  x  x  3 g  x 
x2 1

(a) Are these two functions equivalent to each other?


x 3  3x 2  x  3 x 3  3x 2  x  3
(b) Find the values of lim and lim .
x 1 x2  1 x 1 x2  1

2 x 2  a, x  1

4. If f  x   bx  c , 1  x  3
 3
x ,x 3
(a) Determine the value of a if lim f  x   5 .
x 1

(b) Evaluate b and c if lim f  x  and lim f  x  exist.


x 1 x 3

x2 1 , x  1
5. If f  x   
x  1 , x  1
(a) Find lim f  x  and lim f  x  .
x 5 x 5

(b) Does lim f  x  exist? Give your reason.


x 5

(c) Find lim f  x  and lim f  x  .


x 1 x 1

(d) Does lim f  x  exist? Give your reason.


x 1

2
6. If f  x  
 x  1 x  3
 x  3
(a) Find lim f  x  .

x 3

(b) Determine whether lim f  x  exist.


x 3

x , x2

7. Given f  x   4 , x2
2 x  2 , x  2

Determine whether lim f  x  exist. If it exist, find the limit.
x2

ANSWERS

3 1 1
1. (a) (b) 4 (c)  (d)
6 2 14 3
2. 21
3. (a) f(x) and g(x) are not equivalent. (b) 2 , 4
4. (a) a  7 (b) b  16 , c  21
5. (a) 6 , 6 (b) f(x) exist (c) 2 , 2 (d) f(x) exist
6. (a) 2 (b) no
7. f(x) exist , 2

3
TUTORIAL 8
DIFFERENTIATION

CONCEPT PRACTISE

f ( x  h)  f ( x)
1. From first principles, f ' ( x )  lim differentiate the following functions:
h 0 h
2
(a) f ( x )  2 x  2 (b) f ( x)  3  x
1
(c) f ( x)  2 x  5 (d) f ( x ) 
3x  3

3
2. Find the derivative of f ( x )  x  2 x at the point where x  2 by using the first principles.

3. Differentiate each function with respect to x.


1
(b) ( x  1)( x  3)
4 2
(a) x  3x  5 x (c)
5x  2
7 x 2  5x  3
(d) ( 2 x  4) (e) 4x  2 (f)
x3

4. Differentiate the following.


3 (3 x  1) 5
(a) y  x(5  x ) (b) y  x x  1 (c) y 
( 2  x )10
3x x 1 x 1
(d) y  (e) y  (f) y 
1 x x 1 2x 2  x  3

5. Differentiate the following exponential functions with respect to x.


In 2 x 2 1 e 2x 2 x2
(a) y  e (b) y  x (c) y  5e
e  e x

6. Differentiate the following logarithmic functions with respect to x.


1 x 2
(a) y  ln( 4 x  1) (b) y  ln (c) y  (ln x )
1 x
 3x  1 
(d) y  ln   (e) y  ln[ln(ln 2 x)]
 x 1 

ANSWERS

' '
1 (a) f ( x)  2 (b) f ( x)  2 x
1 ' 1
(c) f ' ( x )  (d) f ( x)  3( x  1) 2
2x  5

1
2 14
3
3 (a) f '( x)  4 x  6 x  5 (b) f '( x)  2 x  2
5 6
(c) f '( x)   5 x  2 2 (d) f '( x)  14  2 x  4 
 
2   x  9  x  1
(e) f '( x)  (f) f '( x) 
4x  2 x4
dy 2 dy 3x  2
4 (a)  5  x  5  4x  (b) dx 
dx 2 x 1
dy 5  3 x  1  8  3 x 
4
dy 3 2  x
(c)  11 (d) dx  3
dx 2  x 2 1  x 
dy 1 dy

 3x  7 

(e) dx 3 (f) dx 3
 x  1 x  1 2  2x 2
 x  3

dy 2x dy e3 x  3e x
5 (a) dx  (b) dx  x  x 2
2
(c) 20 xe 2 x
2
x 1 e  e 
dy 4 dy 1 dy 2
6 (a)  (b)  (c)  Inx
dx 4 x  1 dx 1  x 2 dx x
dy 2 dy 1
(d) dx  (3 x  1)( x  1) (e) dx  xIn2 x( In( In2 x))

CONSOLIDATION EXERCISE

dy
1. Find for the following:
dx
2 x x
(a) y  xe x at x=1 (b) yx  ye  xe at x=0
y  x 2  e 2 x  ln 2 x 1
(c) at x  (d) y  ln( x  x 2  1 ) at y=0
2

x d2y dy
2. If y  , prove that ( 1  x 2 ) 2
 3y 0.
1 x2 dx dx

e x  ex dy
3. Given that y   1 y 2.
x  x , prove that dx
e e

2
dy
4. Find when:
dx
2 2 2 3 3 4 4
(a) y  ln( x  y ) (b) ( x  y )  ( x  y )  x  y
2 2y 2 2 xy 2
(c) y x  e x  2 y  0 (d) x  e  y  1
2 2
(e) x ln y  y ln x  2
5. Find the gradient for the given value:
(a) x 3  ln y  x at x = 1 (b) e xy  y  2 x at x = 0
(c) 2 y 3  y 2  x  0 at y=1

ANSWERS

dy dy
1 (a)  3e (b) 1
dx dx
dy dy
(c)  2e  3 (d) 1
dx dx

2 D.I.Y 3 D.I.Y
dy x dy  3( x  y ) 2  3( x  y ) 2  4 x 3
4. (a) dx  (b) 
y ( x 2  y 2  1) dx 3( x  y ) 2  3( x  y ) 2  4 y 3
  y 2  2 xe 2 y  dy  2 x  ye xy
dy
(c)    (d) 
dx 2 xy  2 x 2 e 2 y  2 dx xe xy  2 y

dy (2 x 2 ln y  y 2 )( y )
(e) 
dx ( x 2  2 y 2 ln x)( x )
5. (a) 2 (b) -1 (c) 1/8

3
TUTORIAL 9
APPLICATION OF DIFFERENTIATION

CONCEPT PRACTICE

1. Find the tangent and normal equation for the curves below at the given points:
(a) y = x3 + 2x – 5 (2,7) (b) x = y3 – y + 10 (1,–1)
2 2 2 2
(c) y + x = 2 (1,–1) (d) 2x – x y = 0 (1,1)

2. Given the gradient of the tangent for the curve xy + kx2 = 3 at the point (2,3) is 3. Find the
value of k.

3. Determine the stationary points for the curves below:


27
(a) y = 2x + 2 (b) y = x(x – 1)2
x

4. By using the first derivative, find the stationary points and determine whether the function
has a minimum or maximum point.
(a) y = x4 – 4x + 3 (b) y = x2 – 12x + 20 (c) y = (x – 2)(x – 1)4

5. By using the second derivative, find the maximum and minimum points for the functions
below:
(a) x4 – 4x + 3 (b) x2 – 12x + 20 (c) y = 2xex

6. Given f(x) = x3 – 6x2 + 9x. By using the 1st derivative, find the optimum points. Hence,
determine the nature of the optimum points.

ANSWER

 x 50 1 3
1. (a) y  14 x  21 , y   (b) y  x  , y  2 x  1
14 7 2 2
(c) 2 y  x  3  0 , y  2 x  1 (d) y  x , y  x  2
9 1 4
2. k  3. (a) (3, 9) (b) ( , ) , (1,0)
4 3 27
9  256
4. (a) (1, 0) min point (b) (6-16) min point (c) (1, 0) max point, ( , ) min point
5 3125
2
5. (a) (1, 0) min point (b) (6,-16) min point (c) (-1, ) min point
e
6. (1, 4) max, (3, 0) min

1
CONSOLIDATION EXERCISE

x2
1. The total revenue for cosmetic product is R(x) = 100x - . Find
2
(a) the marginal revenue function
(b) the number of units of the cosmetic product that need to be produced when the marginal
revenue is 20.

2. A company fixed the price of a product as RM20 per unit. If the cost function of the product
is C(x) = 200 + 4x + 0.002x2, find
(a) the profit function
(b) the number of the product that need to be sold to achieve maximum profit.
(c) the maximum profit

3. Given the demand function and cost function are p(x) = 8 – 0.00025x and C(x) = 600 + 7x
respectively. Find
(a) the revenue function (b) the profit function
(c) the average cost function and marginal average cost function
(d) the average revenue function (e) the average profit function

4. The demand equation for Syarikat Ting Tong is p = 400 – 2q and the average cost function
400
C (q )  0.2q  4  , where q is the number of units whereas p and C are in RM
q
Determine
(a) the output to maximize the profit
(b) the selling price to ensure maximum profit
(c) the maximum profit
(d) for controlling, the government fixed the tax RM22 per unit for the company. What is the
new price to maximize the profit?

1 2 25
5. The demand function for a product is p = q  q  100 , where 0 < q < 16, p is the price
3 2
per unit and q is the quantity of units sold. Find the value of p and q to ensure maximum
revenue.

6. ABC Sdn. Bhd company found that the demand and the average cost function are:
Demand function : p = 420 – 40x
Average cost function : C( x)  5x  30
where p – price per unit, x – quantity of the product, C(x) – the average cost function to
produce x unit of the product
(a) calculate the selling and the quantity of the product at maximum revenue
(b) calculate the selling price of the product to ensure maximum profit and also maximum
profit.

2
7. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y  3  2 x  x 2 at the point where the curve
meets the y-axis.

8. Find the intervals which the function f ( x)  4 x 3  3x 2  6 x  1 in increasing or decreasing.

ANSWER
1. (a) R ' ( x)  100  x (b) 80 units
2. (a)  ( x)  0.002x 2  16 x  200 (b)  ,( x)  0.004 x  16 x  4000 (c) RM 31800
2  600
3. (a) R ( x )  8 x  0.00025 x (b)  ( x )  x  0 .00025 x 2  600 (c) C ' ( x) 
x2
600
(d) R  8  0.00025 x (e)  ( x)  1  0.00025 x 
x
4. (a) 90 unit (b) RM220 (c) RM 17420 d) RM 230
5. q  5 , P  RM 45.83
6. (a) RM210 , x  5.25 (b) RM 220 , RM1125 7. y  2 x  3  0
1 1
8. increasing (   ,  )  ( 1,  ) ; decreasing (  , 1 )
2 2