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Assalam o Alaikum All This thread will have current affairs notes and will be updated regularly inshaAllah. I am a new member and preparing myself for PSC AJK. I just started my preparation with current affairs and Pakistan Affairs. (I will start another thread for Pakistan Affairs soon. These notes will not only hlep us in Current Affairs but in Essay as well, as both the papers are almost intelinked. So let's start, your criticisim and guidelines are highly appreciated. Seniors are requested to give comments on each of my post so that I know my self where I am standing. PSC AJK aspirants are welcomed to comment
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Clash of Civilizations (A study of Hungtington thoery 1993)
Clash of Civilization Clash of Civilization theory by Samuel Hungtingon Fakayama in 1989, wrote a thesis “End of History” saying that there is no rivalry of ideology of liberal democracy. Later on Mr. Samuel Hungtington 1993, wrote “Clash of Civilization” and further elaborated it in his book “The Clash of Civilization and The Remarking fo World Order” in 1996 According to Samual Hungtington “the fundamental clash will be between Western & Sinic-Islamic civilization”. Sinic and Islamic Civilization are great threat to Western Civilization as they oppose to west’s universal democratization. The clash between west and Islam going on from 1300 years Journey of Civilization He said after falling down treaty of Westphalia in 1648, conflict used to occur between princes till 1900. After French Revolution it shifted to Nations of States. After First World War and Russian revolution 1917, conflict yielded to Conflict of Ideology. He argued local politics has been changed with ethnic politics, global with Politics of Civilization and Rivalry of superpowers in to Clash of Civilization. Different Civilizations according to Samuel
He said civilization is a way of life and Religion is the most important objective element defines civilization. He divided civilization into 7 categories; Islam, Japanese, Sinic, Hindu, African, Latin America and West. (Some don’t agree to call Japanese and African a civilization) He argued that widespread of western ideology of “Universal Democracy” will antagonize with other civilizations. The power is shifting to other civilizations, civilizations with common culture come together and that is why Sinic-Islam civilization is a threat for west. He said that Sinic civilization is flourishing due to its economic development; Islam and Sinic have common interests in terms of “weapon proliferation, human rights and democracy” He said Russia, Japan and India are “Swing Civilization” which can go to either side as Russia can strong its relations with Iran, while China with Pakistan and Iran. He said Modernization is taking place at individual and society level, resurgence to religion and culture. Major Factors of West-Islam Civilization Clash Unemployment due to increase in population, Islamic resurgence, west’s ideology of universal democracy, demise of SU removed common enemy of West and Islam. He said West-Islam conflict will be bloodies which later on proven as 9/11, Iraq and Afghanistan War. Flaws in the Theory in context of current situation 1. He discusses “Sinic Islam Civilization quoting example of Stallin and his allies and Hitler”, but that was ideological period which is over now. 2. Confusion about world power blocs as now Islamic world is not Islamic power in real sense 3. He says “world is becoming modernized due to relations with each other” but why this was not done in 11th century when Islam and west enjoyed a good relationship. 4. He states that “there is no core state in Islamic world”, then how come Islamic world can go against west as a whole even they do not have leadership. 5. He said “people sharing same culture will come together” but most of the Islamic countries are engaged in their internal matters and civil wars, how they can get together? 6. He says “religion as a most important factor for civilization” but this was not the case in secession of Bangladesh from Pakistan 7. Amarty Sen wrote “A world is not neatly divided” quoting example of anti-globalization protesters which are from whole world. (Source: World Times Magazine December 2009) The Following 4 Users Say Thank You to rose_pak For This Useful Post: fahadfa (Thursday, February 25, 2010), Sajid Sadeem (Friday, January 01, 2010), Umme (Tuesday, January 19, 2010), uzma khan youzaf zai (Wednesday, December 30, 2009)
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Energy Crises in Pakistan
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This topic will also be helpfull in English Essay
Energy Crises in Pakistan
• Energy is important for every country to be alive. Energy consumption per capita is a key indicator of the quality of work life of the citizens • In Pakistan energy gap has increased from 3500 MW in 2008 to 5,000 MW I October 2009 • Per capita energy consumption in Pakistan is only 15 MBTU as compared to 54 in China, 104 in Malaysia and 106 in Iran. • Our trade deficit is roughly about 9.34 % of GDP in 2007-08 fiscal year, shortfall of electricity is one of the main factors • Our Oil imports increased by 56 % and food imports increased by 46 % in fiscal 2008 • In this current situation with the demand increasing day by day, Pakistan cannot increase its dependence on furnace oil.
Causes of Energy Crises
• No major project undertaken by previous government: No big project was launched in Musharaff regime. Generation capacity also declined. As installed generation capacity had increased by 53 % in 1994 to 1999. (11320 MW to 17400MW) but it increased only 12 % in 1999 to 2007, 19420 MW. Even this increase was due to completion of Ghazi Brotha project which was started before Musharaff in 1990s. • Failure to increase the generating capacity: Hydel electricity generation goes down by 60 % in winter naturally but the generation from thermal plants has also declined by 4000 MW which generated 5000 MW shortfall. • Problem of Circular Debt: in 2007 government did not have money to pay the subsidy amount to the electricity companies due to its debts. This problem became more serious when oil prices jumped up from $100 to $147 per barrel in international market. • Losses in Transmission and Distribution: In Pakistan the losses are over 20 % compared to 8 to 10% in other countries. • Wastage of Energy: Industry sector uses 30 % of electricity while they can generate solar energy like China. Transport sector uses 28 % of total energy due to its poorly tuned engines. • Domestic and Household consumption: This consumption is more then estimated as well. Now this sector uses 45 % of total electricity
Effects of Energy Crises
• Less exports due to shortfall • Unemployment • Many industries closed • In 19500 MW, about 60 % are from imported oil or domestic natural gases. While only 3o % is generated by thermal plants. This reduces our foreign reserves
Capital cost of 1500 MW of new plant considered to be $3 billion. Capital cost of project should also be considered. bio fuel can be used as alternative energy sources. It will not only reduce the cost of energy but attract foreign financing. solar energy. . Email: shakeel_pak@ymail. 3134 MBPTU = 1 Kilowatt hour) (Source: World Times Magazine December 2009) The Following 6 Users Say Thank You to rose_pak For This Useful Post: cngfitted77777 (Wednesday. December 31. Umme (Tuesday.3 % • Regional Gas and Oil Pipelines: Iran-Pakistan-India gas line. 2010). pepco or any other company should be paid on priority basis so that they can work on full efficiency. Tarbela extension (960). Kalabagh dam controversy makes the situation more worse. January 01. • Building smaller Power Plants: New projects have been identified but not implemented.8 % but it could not move forward as they were offered only 5. Some non controversial projects are being delayed as well like Neelum Jehlum (969 MW). • Autonomy to WAPDA to undertake new projects • Exploit the coal reserves: Thar has one of the largest deposits of coal in the world. (1 MBTU mean 1 Million British Thermal Unit. January 19. • Update the system of transmission and Distribution • Maga Dams: In coming 5 years hydel-thermal electricity generating capacity should be 60:40 to tackle the problem on the long run. TurkmenistanAfghanistan-Pakistan gas pipeline can be considered. b) new IPP thermal project (375 MW). c) Rehablitation of WAPDA power plants (2oo MW). Khan dabbar (130). 2009) rose_pak View Public Profile Find all posts by rose_pak #4 Thursday. As they produce only 70 % of power as new one do. Allai (126) and Jinnah Hydro (96 MW).com Posts: 138 Thanks: 199 Thanked 140 Times in 54 Posts Waziristan Operation Challenges and Opportunities (Important Notes) Waziristan Challenges and Opportunities (Rtd) Muhammad Shahbaz (Important Points)By Lt. crazy bird (Friday. Col. China has offered project in 2005 to generate 3000 MW at 5. d) loss reduction (80 MW). January 01. Some of them are a) addition of rental power plants (950 MW). Noor_2009 (Saturday. February 27. On completion more electricity at price of 12 to 14 Rs per unit can be added but will not be affordable. • New Gas Power Plants: new plants should be installed and existing should be updated. 2010).• Resolving the Circular Debt Problem: Any payable amount to oil companies. Suki Kinara (840). uzma khan youzaf zai (Wednesday. • Alternative sources of energy: wind power. 2009 rose_pak Senior Member Join Date: Nov 2009 Location: Islamabad. January 13. 2010). To use this will reduce dependence on imported energy. December 30. Sajid Sadeem (Friday. 2010). 2010). Wapda.
Involve people in . These people started killing Maliks and getting power in the region. Faqir run away to Afghanistan again. Europe. Faqir started Jihad against them • In 1937. people are given trainings in Waziristan and sent to Afghanistan for Jihad. Then government (Musharaff) did not pay its attention to this severe problem and let these people to settle down in the area. Those people include foreigners fighting Jihad in Afghanistan as well. It seems that they want Pakistan • Pakistan to be busy in western border. • The local government system further weakened the situation. so that India becomes free to contain China • US can withdrew from Afghanistan and keep tow Muslims countries fighting each other as was done in case of Cambodia and Iraq WHAT SHOULD PAKISTAN DO? The situation is worsening then ever. In early 1947 Army was withdrawn on the recommendation of the committee. Tribal had expressed their views to join Pakistan through referendum but Pakistan lost the opportunity to give them a status of province. British government started its operation to establish their write in the area. Africa. Mr. Resent vacation of NATO forces along Durand line is out of sense. So there was peace in 1941-1945. • In early 50s. Two army brigades entered the area and made Mr. Pakistan needs to take some quick steps to get the loyalty of tribal. Need of the hour is to try to win over the local tribes. • A committee headed by Gen. British took over the area and Faqir run away to Afghanistan. Faqir started Jihad against Pakistani government on the pretext of Pakhtunistan in 1949. • After 9/11 those trained people run away from Afghanistan and made their hidouts in Waziristan. They are fed up with terrorists. Franceis Tuker was made to analyse whether british should stay in the area or withdraw it forces. • Mr. • During Zia era when so called Jihad started (1979-1989). Birith Army was withdrawn to fight in Burma.BACKGROUND • In 1936. a wazir young man abducted a girl and fled to Waziristan. WAZIRISTAN UNDER PAKISTAN RULE • No new social contract was signed by the new government of the Pakistan nor was the area given a status of province. It is said that RAW/CIA is involved in tribal areas by Indian consulates in Afghanistan. Once again army was withdrawn from the area leaving that a safe heaven for the criminal from all over Pakistan. Tribal are loyal people but terrorists are blackmailing them.
2010). January 01. crazy bird (Friday. 2010 rose_pak Senior Member Global Warming (Important Points) Join Date: Nov 2009 Location: Islamabad. mostly Carbon Dioxide and lesser by Methane. • Development works should be started on priority basis (Source: World Times Magazine December 2009) The Following 8 Users Say Thank You to rose_pak For This Useful Post: abdullahkhan5 (Saturday. their dignity. Noor_2009 (Saturday. the concentration of carbon dioxide was 5o % more then what was in the start of industrial revolution in late 90s. 2009) rose_pak View Public Profile Find all posts by rose_pak #5 Friday. Umme (Tuesday. • UN formed a group of scientists (International Panel on Climate Change) to work on . 2010). January 30. 2010). 2010).com Posts: 138 Thanks: 199 Thanked 140 Times in 54 Posts GLOBAL WARMING (Important Points) INTRODUCTION • Global warming is the expected gradual. slow warming of the lower layer of earth's lower atmosphere by greenhouse gases. January 01. keep the earth cool. February 25. 2010). Sajid Sadeem (Friday. February 27. December 31. fahadfa (Thursday. These gases trap infra red radiations which otherwise. ethics and norms must be observed • All political parties should establish their offices in FATA. December 31. 2010). Email: email@example.com making and empowering them • All stakeholders meeting should be held by PM to formulate a national strategy • Political activities should be started in FATA • Committee to be formed to write a new social contract for FATA • Election should be held like rest of country • Self respect of common man should be restored • Assistance to IDPs should be with respect and honour. nageen (Thursday. January 19. 2009). uzma khan youzaf zai (Thursday. • In 2003. January 01.
1 to 6. Human being uses cars. factories and electricity production. 172 countries participated.climate • Climate Model Projection says that the globally surface temperature will increase by 1. Unless the sun will be red giant and I think that would be the last day of the earth • Orbital Variation: Slight variation in earth’s orbit also effect the climate as with it amount of sunlight changes • Volcanism: Volcanism is a process of conveying material from the mantle of the earth.2 % to the 1990 level. Discussed the climate change and addressed the issues 1) systematic scrutiny of patterns of production.1 to 6. Less forests are also a cause • Solar Energy: over the last 4 billion years energy output by sun is increasing and it will continue to increase. 2) alternative source of energy to replace fossil fuel.4 centigrade in 21st century • Sea level is projected to rise between 7 to 23 inches • If recent melting continues the sea level can further rise 4 to 8 inches (Extreme threat for Maldeves) • Hot extremes. MAJOR CAUSES • Greenhouse gases (Carbon dioxide and Methane) mostly come from fuel used in cars. They committed to reduce their collective emission to 5. cutting forests and many other activities which produce carbon dioxide. Other countries showed their general commitment . electricity. 3) reliance on public transport. An achievement of Earth Summit 1992 came in terms of KYOTO Protocol 1997 • KYOTO Protocol 1997: under this protocol 37 industrialized countries (called Annex I countries) committed themselves to reduce four greenhouse gases. EFFECT OF GLOBAL WARMING • Global temperature will rise 1.4 Centigrade in 21st century. This also makes the earth more and more warmer • Human Influence: Human activity is very likely the cause of rapid increase in temperature. heat waves and heavy rain would be possibilities (Extreme threat for Nepal) • More proliferation of insect pests which in turn will spread more diseases • Al Gore underlined the possibility of collapse of major ice sheet in Greenland which would result in 20 feet raise in sea level and more than 100 million of refugees GLOBAL WARMING MOOTS • Earth Summit 1992: held by UN in 1992.
2010). can be introduced for example. kashifilyas (Monday. 2010). 2010). January 01. the electricity we use. January 01. each one of us can make choices to change that with the things we buy. January 01. January 04.• Bali Summit 2007: Held in Bali Indonesia in 2007. Noor_2009 (Saturday. January 01. 2010). Umme (Tuesday. Nobel Peace Prize winner says “ Each one of us is a cause of global warming. Email: shakeel_pak@ymail. Due to cheap oil it was ignored but now with the increase in oil prices it is the best solution for energy • Cell Charge: Soon we well have a type of cells which will turn chemical energy into electricity and it will use hydrogen for generating electricity • Geothermal Energy: Geothermal energy has been used for thousands of years in some countries for cooking. Sajid Sadeem (Friday. the cars we drive. • Al Gore. fahadfa (Thursday. EU proposed “well below half” of the 2000 level by 2050 for developing countries and 20 to 40 % emission below 1990 level by 2020 for developed countries.com Posts: 138 Thanks: 199 Thanked 140 Times in 54 Posts 2009: Year of Terrorism . 2010 rose_pak Senior Member Pakistan 2009: Year of Terrorism Join Date: Nov 2009 Location: Islamabad. February 25. America opposed the proposal • Copenhagen Summit 2009: UN arranged global summit in Copenhagen in December 2009 but failed to come up with a visible solution. New model cars with good mileage. we can make choices to bring our individual carbon emission to zero” (Source: World Times Magazine December 2009) The Following 7 Users Say Thank You to rose_pak For This Useful Post: crazy bird (Friday. February 27. So solar energy is another option for reduction of greenhouse gases • Latest Technology: Latest and clean technology can be used for emission of carbon dioxide. 2010). have more than enough energy for a year. (More details of this Summit will be uploaded soon) SUGGESTIONS TO TACKLE GLOBAL WARMING • Biofuel: Biofuel is as old as the cars itself. 2010) rose_pak View Public Profile Find all posts by rose_pak #6 Friday. January 19. 2010). uzma khan youzaf zai (Friday. This energy is found in rocks beneath earth’s crust. • Solar Energy: every hour sun beams on the earth.
Most of the 37 terrorist acts reported from the province were incidents of sectarian violence. didn’t remain safe from the terror wave and 28 people were killed in 10 terrorist attacks. 315 people were killed in 20 terrorist attacks.Rehman Baba . Some of the militant violence has spilled into other parts of Pakistan. and this time the war is not at its borders with an enemy country. Around 66 people. Some of the important incidents include suicide attack at UN World Food Program (WFP) office and suicide attack at International Islamic University. Operation Rah-e-Rast against proTaliban groups displaced hundreds of thousands of people in April and May 2009.600 extremists killed and 158 soldiers martyred. The worst terrorist incidents were suicide attacks at Moon Market. In Balochistan. including suicide attacks. 1 cardiologist. Chairman of Hazara Democratic Party. including 228 security officials of different organizations and grades. hand grenade attacks. Attack on shrine of a 17th century Sufi poet . rocket and mortar attacks and blasts with remote control devices. the worst hit province in terms of terrorism. Analysts say Afghan Taliban groups are also using Baluchistan as a base. Balochistan Chief Mines Inspector. the capital of Pakistan. The operation wrapped up on July 7.in the Akhund Baba graveyard of Peshawar to discourage ‘shrine culture’ shocked the nation. Violence erupted in Sindh after suicide attack on Ashura procession at M A Jinnah Road. the causes of the conflicts vary in different regions. tribal militants are engaged in a long-running. around 300. . Rawalpindi. Not only displacement. Vice President of Jamhoori Watan Party. 2009 with 1. Islamabad.Pakistan is at war. leader of Fiqah Jafria.000 people of Swat took refuge in camps or with relatives. were killed in attacks during the year. In NWFP. the nature of these violent incidents and terrorist attacks seem similar all over the country. This war is with its own people and within its own territory. Balochistan Education Minister. During the operation. Around 87 such incidents took place in the province. and Punjab with violence between militants and government security forces as well as terrorist activities against innocent civilians. Pakistan's largest and poorest province. This war has plagued Pakistan's provinces of North West Frontier Province (NWFP). A letter delivered to the management of the mausoleum three days before the attack had warned against its promotion of ‘shrine culture’. Islamabad. In Punjab. At least 824 people. Though. More than 85 people were killed in the two attacks. were killed in the terrorist attacks. Some call it America’s war whereas the government and the army call it ‘Pakistan’s own war’. Those killed include 3 academicians. Balochistan. with suicide and armed attacks on troops and the country's main cities. residents of the province also bear the brunt of the terrorist attacks in the country. Those killed include 62 security officials. low-level insurgency to gain greater control of the region's natural resources and political power. Lahore and Paradeline mosque. and leader of Jammat Ahl-eSunnat Wal Jamaat Noorani. including 11 security officials.
was killed and 7 others were injured in a remote-controlled bomb blast in Momin Town in Peshawar. were killed and 27 others injured in two bomb blasts near the Polytechnic College in Dera Ismail Khan. Majority of these incidents were target killings or shooting incidents. Following is a time line of major terrorist attacks in all four provinces of the country. religious scholar Pir Hafiz Rafeeullah.Karachi on December 28. • January 17: In the first incident of its kind in Peshawar.. • February 9: At least 18 FC personnel were injured in amini-truck suicide attack on the Baran Pul check-post of the Frontier Reserve Police (FRP) in the jurisdiction of Bakkakhel police station in Bannu District. • January 26: At least 5 people have been killed and several wounded in a bomb blast in Dera Ismail Khan. The bomb. • February 11: Alamzeb Khan. injuring a dozen officers and destroying part of the building. • January 20: Four policemen and 4 civilians were injured when a police patrol van was hit by a roadside bomb on Ring Road in the Hazarkhwani area of Peshawar. Terrorist Attacks in NWFP • January 4: A suicide bomber was killed while two people sustained injuries near a check-post in Officers’ Colony in Bannu. including 4 policemen. The suicide bomber blew himself up in an attempt to target a check-post but could not succeed as the bomb exploded before he could reach his target. At least 53 people were killed in 17 terrorist activities. went off on a busy main road. which apparently had sectarian motives behind them. just 3 days before the new year. The province remained relatively safe during the year. who was kidnapped on January 16. • January 23: Two SF personnel were killed in a car suicide attack near Mingora town in the Swat District of NWFP. was reportedly slaughtered and his decapitated body was found in the Matani area of the capital on the morning of January 17. • February 17: Five people were killed and 17 injured in a car bomb blast outside the Hujra (male guest house) of the union council chief in Bazidkhel village of Peshawar. . a Member of Provincial Assembly from the ruling Awami National Party (ANP). • February 20: At least 32 persons were killed and 145 others injured when a suicide bomber exploded himself in the funeral procession of a slain employee of the Tehsil Municipal Administration near the busy Shubra Square in Dera Ismail Khan. • January 4: Ten persons. attached to a bicycle. • February 3: One man was killed and 18 others injured in a hand grenade attack on a Sunni mosque at Mohallah Joginwala in Dera Ismail Khan district.. • February 5: A suicide attacker detonated an explosive-laden car near a police station in the Mingora town of Swat District.
• April 18: At least 27 SF personnel were killed and 55 others injured in a suicide attack on a security check post in the Doaba area of Hangu District. Some villagers also sustained minor injuries. in Shinkiari area of Mansehra District. Two other police guards were wounded in the attack. were killed and 9 others sustained injuries when a suicide bomber rammed his explosive-laden car into a military convoy near a filling station on the Bannu-Miranshah Road. • March 11: The NWFP Senior Minister and Awami National Party leader Bashir Ahmad Bilour survived an assassination attempt that left six persons. including 5 Army soldiers. including 2 children and a Frontier Corps soldier. dead in Namak Mandi in Peshawar. Four persons. when the guard intercepted him. including a young girl. • March 5: One person was killed and 19 others sustained injuries when a hand-grenade hurled by unidentified miscreants at worshippers exploded in Ameer Hamza mosque in Dera Ismail Khan. • April 26: 12 children were killed after playing with a bomb that resembled a football. including two suspected suicide attackers. including five policemen. The children died after the toy-like-bomb exploded in Lower Dir District. • May 1: The ISPR spokesman Major General Athar Abbas said two Frontier Corps personnel were killed when a suicide bomber blew up a booby-trapped house in the Buner District. • May 5: Seven people. two Frontier Corps personnel and a civilian. A letter delivered three days before the attack to the management of the mausoleum had warned against its promotion of ‘shrine culture’.• February 23: A police guard was killed when he flung himself onto a suicide bomber to prevent him from entering a compound in Bannu. • March 18: Five people including three policemen were killed and four injured when over 100 unidentified armed men attacked a police vehicle at the entrance of the University of Malakand at Chakdara in Lower Dir District. were killed in a remote-controlled car bombing at Mashugagr village in Peshawar.in the Akhund Baba graveyard of Peshawar. were killed and five others injured when a suicide bomber rammed an explosives-laden vehicle into the Harichand Police Post in Charsadda District. • March 5: Suspected Taliban militants blew an ancient shrine of a 17th century Sufi poet . where judges and senior police officials live and work. • April 5: Police found bullet-riddled bodies of four local aid workers. • May 4: A suicide car bomber killed 4 SF personnel and wounded 8 persons in the outskirts of Peshawar. including three women. • March 7: Eight persons. • March 30: Seven persons. grenade attack and suicide blast. The attacker was trying to enter the compound. were wounded in the firing. including nine policemen. were killed and 48 others sustained injuries when an explosives-laden car rammed into a pick-up near a .Rehman Baba . • April 15: At least 18 persons.
• May 11: At least 10 people died and 27 were injured as a suicide bomber blew up his explosives-laden vehicle near a Frontier Corps check post in the outskirts of Darra Adam Khel. including two women and two children. sustained injuries in a hand grenade-cum-suicide attack on a police party in the Lateefabad area on Ring Road in Peshawar. • June 5: A suicide bomber killed 49 worshippers. at a mosque in a remote village of the Dir Upper District. • May 22: At least 10 people were killed and 65 others were injured when a powerful car bomb exploded near the Tasveer Mahal Cinema hall in the busy Kabuli Chowk area. • May 28: Three policemen were killed and 9 others injured in a suicide attack on a police vehicle at the Sra Khawra security post on the Kohat road in the jurisdiction of Matani Police station on the outskirts of Peshawar. including 9 policemen. • May 16: Two handicapped children and 2 of their teachers were among 11 people killed in a car bomb blast at congested City Circular Road. • June 9: A massive truck suicide attack at the five-star Pearl Continental hotel in Peshawar killed 17 persons and injured 60 others. Dozens more were injured in the blast just before Friday congregation in the Hayagay Sharqi village.check-post on the Bara road near Peshawar. including 12 children. At least 33 people were injured. • June 12: Five worshippers were killed and 105 others sustained injuries when a suicide bomber rammed his explosives-laden van into a mosque during the Friday prayers in the Cantonment area of Nowshera. the NWFP capital. • June 14: Nine people were killed and over 40 injured when a powerful explosion ripped through a busy market in Dera Ismail Khan. Both leaders of banned outfits were also killed in the attack. • June 11: A man was killed and 13 others. • May 16: Six people. • May 28: A policeman and 2 passers-by were killed and 13 people wounded when a suicide attacker exploded an auto-rickshaw near a police checkpoint in Dera Ismail Khan. Peshawar. sustained injuries when a suicide bomber rammed his explosive-laden vehicle into the Thakot Police . • June 22: Two policemen were killed and 7 people. • June 7: One non-commissioned officer was killed and five others were injured in an attack on security forces' convoy transporting TNSM deputy chief Maulana Alam and spokesman Amir Izaat to Peshawar. sustained minor injuries when a low-intensity explosive device went off in a busy market in Peshawar. Two soldiers were among the four persons killed on the spot while most of the 105 wounded were reportedly Army personnel. including 3 policemen. • June 11: NWFP Minister for Prisons Mian Nisar Gul Kakakhel was seriously injured and his two guards were killed when his convoy was ambushed by suspected militants in Darra Adam Khel.
including an official of the UNHCR. • July 20: Suspected militants of the Mangal Bagh group killed four policemen in an ambush on the outskirts of Peshawar. injuring a 13-year-old girl and a 15-year-old boy. The blast occurred in sector N-I Phase IV of the area near the Hayatabad Medical Complex (HMC). were killed and another injured when suspected Taliban militants attempted to abduct UN officials at the Katcha Ghari Refugee Camp in Nasir Bagh. Kabir Hussain. • July 9: A Peshawar Electric Supply Company (PESCO) employee was killed and three injured when Taliban militants blew up an electricity pylon using a remote-controlled device in Merra Suraizai Payan village on the outskirts of the provincial capital Peshawar. and placed three kilograms of explosives with his body to trigger it with a remote control device in the hope that policemen would come close to it. • August 16: A soldier was killed and three others sustained injuries in a suicide attack near a SFs checkpoint in the Swat District. • July 2: Two policemen were killed and an equal number of people sustained injuries when Taliban targeted a police vehicle with a remote-controlled device in Peshawar. killing two civilians.check-post in Battagram District. Taliban militants fired three rockets from an unidentified location into the city at about 12:30pm. • June 24: Three policemen. The pre-dawn rocket attack targeted a Frontier Corps base in the city's Hayatabad neighborhood. who had come from the US and was kidnapped on his way from Peshawar airport to his village Dabori in Kohat District. • July 15: Two children were injured in a rocket attack. defused the explosives without any damage. Officials of the bomb disposal squad. • August 17: Seven people were killed and eight others injured when a bomb placed in a vehicle exploded at a filling station in the Shabqadar area in Charsadda. • July 15: Two people. • August 23: Three persons were killed and 15 others sustained injuries in a powerful . • August 2: Militants shot dead two policemen in Paharipura. including an officer. • August 10: Militants fired rockets at a paramilitary checkpoint in Peshawar. • August 22: Two persons were killed and three others injured in a suicide blast in Hayatabad area. however. A squad of the Paharipura Police Station was ambushed by unknown gunmen in Islamabad town of Peshawar around 2:30 am while patrolling the streets. were killed when some miscreants fired rockets and mortar shells at the Arbab Tapu check-post in the jurisdiction of Matani Police Station. and one of them hit a house in Sethi Town. who had been abducted on June 29. • August 18: Suspected militants beheaded a man kidnapped from the Matani area on August 12. • August 2: In the southern Mashogagar village. terrorists killed a prayer leader Qari Roohul Amin of Sulemankhel.
a minor girl and a boy sustained injuries when a rocket hit a house in Miskeenabad under the jurisdiction of Bhanamari Police Station. were killed and 22 others sustained injuries when a suicide bomber rammed an explosives-laden vehicle into the building of the Saddar Police Station located in the military area of Kohat. • September 26: Two suicide attackers separately rammed their explosives-laden vehicles into a Police station in Bannu and a military-owned commercial bank in Peshawar cantonment area. NWFP. • October 28: A remote-controlled car bomb killed 117 people – including women and children – and injured around 200 others at the Meena Bazaar in Peshawar. were killed when a suicide bomber rammed his explosives-laden vehicle into a car at Bannu. including two policemen. The bomb was planted in a car. were killed and 45 others were injured in a suicide attack on a military convoy in the Alpuri area of Shangla District. was killed and 12 persons. • October 12: At least 47 persons. including three policemen. were wounded when a powerful bomb exploded in a three-storey building in the officers’ colony of provincial capital Peshawar. • October 6: A woman. • October 16: At least 12 persons. • November 8: At least 18 people. Peshawar at around 2 am. were killed and 112 others were injured when a suicide attacker detonated his explosives-laden car at the crowded Soekarno Chowk in Khyber Bazaar in Peshawar. • October 23: At least 15 people were injured in a bombing outside a restaurant in the Hayatabad area. Mobin Afridi. including a prominent anti-Taliban cleric. including 3 policemen. • October 15: At least 11 persons. • September 18: At least 33 people were killed and more than 50 injured in a suicide car blast in Kohat District. killing at least 27 people and injuring around another 200. including 9 security officials. in the Momin Town area of Peshawar • August 30: At least 16 police recruits were killed and 11 others sustained injuries after a suicide bomber detonated explosives strapped to his body at the Mingora Police Station. including a local councillor heading an anti-Taliban . • October 15: An eight-year-old boy. were killed and 24 others sustained injuries after a suicide bomber rammed his explosives-laden vehicle into the CIA’s Special Investigation Unit in Peshawar. • September 12: Two policemen were injured in a suicide blast near Doaba Police Station in the Hangu District. • October 9: At least 56 persons. identified as Hamza.suicide blast close to the house of the slain AI spokesman. including a woman and seven children. • September 28: At least four persons. • September 4: Suspected militants shot dead two FC troopers in Nasir Bagh suburbs of Peshawar early in the morning while they were patrolling the area.
• December 3: A police official was injured in an explosion at a police check-post in the Ragai area of capital Peshawar. was killed and its driver injured when unidentified gunmen attacked the vehicle on the Ring Road near Tor Baba. Another 8 people. were killed and 26 injured in a suicide attack at a Police Station in the Bannu town of Bannu District. including his brother. were killed and another 35 injured when a suicide bomber detonated his explosives-laden vehicle at police check post in Pashta Kharra Chowk. • November 9: Three persons. • November 13: At least 17 people. was reportedly killed when a suicide bomber targeted a guest house where he was present. media manager of the Iranian consulate in Peshawar. including three policemen. • November 25: The cleaner of an oil tanker. Peshawar. including 10 military personnel. • November 14: At least 12 persons. • December 1: A leading politician. Jaffry was going to his office when he was shot at point-blank range as he turned his car towards the Swati Phatak. • November 19: At least 20 people. Shamsher Ali Khan. Thirty two people were killed and 80 were injured in the incident. 25 km south of the capital city of Peshawar. including a policeman and a three-year-old child. Charsadda. • November 19: A bomb attack on the police van ripped through the vehicle.Lashkar (militia). was shot dead near his home in Gulbarg. used for NATO forces in Afghanistan. police said. including 5 security officials. • November 16: Four persons were killed and more than 30 others sustained injuries in a suicide car bombing which targeted the Badhber Police Station on the Kohat Road near Peshawar. • November 26: A remote-controlled bomb blast injured three people. . including two policemen and a young girl. were injured in this attack. were killed and 44 others injured when a suicide bomber blew him up in a cattle market at Adezai village. were killed and 50 others injured when a suicide bomber blew himself up at the main gate of the Judicial Complex on Khyber Road in Peshawar. and destroyed an electricity pylon in Bashirabad area. killing two policemen on the spot and wounding five civilians on the outskirts of Peshawar. were killed and 60 injured when a suicide bomber on an explosive-laden Shehzore truck detonated the explosive material in front of the regional headquarters of the ISI in Peshawar • November 13: Twelve people. • November 30: Two police officials were injured when unidentified armed men attacked their vehicle on the Indus Highway. • November 12: Syed Abul Hassan Jaffry. including a policeman. were killed and 5 others sustained injuries when a suicide bomber riding an auto-rickshaw blew himself up at a police barricade on the Ring Road in the Latifabad area of Peshawar • November 10: Suicide car bomb blast at Farooq-e-Azam Chowk.
and injuring 17 others. identified as Abdul Hakeem. The JamaatUlema-i-Islam (Fazlur Rehman faction JUI-F) provincial chief Maulana Muhammad Khan . • January 26: Hussain Ali Yousafi. despite tight security arrangements due to Muharram. were killed and 12 people were injured in a car bomb explosion at United Plaza. Peshawar. chairman of the Hazara Democratic Party. Three of the murdered policemen belonged to Hazara community and were Shia. Saddar. unidentified men murdered a man and his son. • February 2: Unidentified gunmen killed a Shia trader in Quetta in an attack apparently linked to the recent cycle of sectarian killings in the provincial capital. head of the UN High Commission for Refugees office in Quetta. unidentified men killed the Jamaat Ahle-Sunnat Wal Jamaat-Noorani provincial leader Maulana Iftikhar Ahmed Habibi in Quetta. mostly students. was shot dead by Lashkar-e-Jhangvi in the southwestern city of Quetta. Peshawar. were killed and 24 were injured in a suicide attack near State Life Building. Quetta. both from the Shia sect. were killed and 50 were injured in a suicide attack outside a court in Peshawar. Tehkal Market. • February 24: A Shia trader and three of his sons were shot dead in an apparent sectarian attack on Sariab Road. • January 5: Unidentified assailants killed two Shias on Kirani Road. was kidnapped and his driver was killed after his vehicle was ambushed in Quetta. • February 18: In a suspected sectarian incident. • January 10: Unidentified men killed a central leader of the Fiqah Jafferia along with his guard in Sibi District. Mall Road. The attack appeared to be a targeted killing. December 24: At least 5 people. • March 1: In an apparent act of sectarian violence in Quetta. including a policeman.• December 5: At least four people. • December 7: At least 12 people. including a DSP in a shootout on Siryab Road. in the Shallkot area of Quetta. • January 14: Unidentified assailants killed four policemen. University Road. killing 3 persons including a policeman. Quetta. Terrorist attack in Balochistan • January 4: Armed men killed a trooper of the Balochistan Constabulary. sustained injuries in a suicide attack on a madrassa (seminary) in Kili Karbala in the Pishin District. • March 2: Six people were killed and 12 others. including a women. including 2 policemen. • December 22: A suicide bomber blew himself at the gate of the Peshawar Press Club. • February 2: John Solecki. The motorcycle borne attackers opened fire on the victims at their shop on Quetta’s Double Road.
Quetta. all the JUI-F leadership escaped unhurt. including two SF personnel. when he was on his way home along with his driver and security guard. Police personnel were on duty in the Hazar Ganji area. were killed when unidentified attackers opened indiscriminate fire on a customer service centre on Kalat Street. • June 23: The principal of the Government Commerce College was shot dead by two motorcycle borne assailants in a suspected sectarian incident in Quetta. injuring four policemen and a passerby. • April 22: Unidentified militants threw a hand grenade at policemen deployed on the outskirts of Quetta. Quetta.Shirani. August 17: Cardiologist Dr Abid Iqbal Zaidi was shot dead by unidentified armed men on . • July 24:Unidentified assailants shot dead a Professor of the Government Degree College on the Sariab Road. killing him on the spot. The attack in Kalat District appeared to be aimed at disrupting supplies to NATO forces in Afghanistan. Jail Road. Unidentified armed men reportedly opened fire on Talib Agha. the Balochistan Assembly Deputy Speaker Syed Matiullah Agha and provincial ministers belonging to the party were attending a ceremony at the seminary when a 15year-old boy blew himself up in front of the stage. were injured in a grenade attack on a check-post of the Frontier Corps (FC) in the Sairab Road area. • May 28: At least five persons. However. • March 9: Unidentified men on a motorbike killed two Shias in an apparent sectarian attack in Quetta. • June 22: Three Shias. • March 3: Five Shias were killed in Quetta when unidentified assailants attacked members of a family in the city. • August 12: Two persons were killed and six others sustained injuries in a bomb blast and firing incident in the Irrigation Colony area on Sariab Road. was going to school when armed men riding a motorcycle opened fire on him. were killed in Quetta by unidentified men in a suspected sectarian incident. • May 3: Unidentified assailants shot dead two policemen on the Arbab Karam Khan Road. including a woman. on the outskirts of the Balochistan capital. • July 23: Haji Mohammad Mohsin. including a union council chief. Union Council 47 chief in Quetta. principal of the Government High School in Sariab Mills. • July 29: A woman was killed and six persons. The victims were shot in their car on Kirani road. • July 31: Two SF personnel were killed while three others sustained injuries when unidentified miscreants lobbed a hand grenade at a security vehicle on the Spiny Road area. • June 30: Four people were killed and 11 wounded when a bomber targeted a hotel in Kalat in the first-ever suicide attack in Balochistan.
the Fatima Jinnah Road. mainly policemen. a member of the Pakistan People’s Party. • October 8: Three police officials were injured in a bomb blast at the Spiny Road. were injured in the blast. • November 17: DIG Police (Operations) Shahid Nizam Durrani and his driver were injured in a bomb blast on Spiny Road. The blast took place near a police van which was on a routine patrol on the road. while his brother’s father-in-law. • September 5: Unidentified militants hurled two hand grenades on the City Police Station building. the Jamhoori Watan Party VicePresident. and his driver were shot dead by unidentified armed men in the Shalkot area. • August 17: A man and his two sons were shot dead by unidentified armed men on Sirki Road. was injured in the same attack. Terrorist Attack in Punjab . including a Frontier Corps trooper. • October 15: Two persons. police said. • September 8: Suspected Taliban militants set ablaze eight oil tankers near the Western Bypass. • November 23: Two policemen were shot dead in Quetta in what appeared to be a case of target killing. outside his residence on Thogai Road. Ashraf Ali was a member of the Shia Hazara community. were killed and five others injured in terrorist attacks in Quetta • October 23: Unidentified gunmen killed an official of the intelligence Bureau (IB). Sardar Muhammad Samalani and Syed Amir Muhammad Khilji. were on routine patrol on Qambrani Road when unidentified assailants opened fire at them. injuring 21 persons including six policemen. • November 7: 13 people. • October 25: Unidentified gunmen killed the Balochistan Education Minister Shafiq Ahmed Khan. Quetta. while he was walking on Zargoon Road near the office of the Railways divisional superintendent. • December 8: The Saryab station house officer and two other policemen were injured in a hand-grenade attack on a police convoy on the Sabzal Road in Quetta of Balochistan. • October 13: In another incident of target-killing. The policemen. Eight persons. when the tankers were carrying fuel for NATO forces in Afghanistan. • December 7: A car bomb blast injured nine persons and damaged several vehicles and shops at the main gate of the Junior Assistant Colony in the Chaman Housing Society. Muhammad Aslam Mirza. were injured when a hand grenade exploded at a Frontier Corps checkpost near Meezan Chowk. Hydayat Jaffar. • October 12: Unidentified armed men killed the Balochistan Chief Mines Inspector on Sariab Road in Quetta. including two children and a trooper. Tanveer Raza.
including six soldiers. • March 30: Nine people. • August 20: Eight people. • March 16: At least 15 people were killed and 25 injured when a suicide bomber blew himself up near a busy bus stand at Pirwadhai in Rawalpindi. • October 15: At least 19 people. • May 27: At least 27 people were killed and 326 were injured in a suicide car bomb blast near offices of the capital city police officer (CCPO) and the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) in Lahore. • April 05: A suicide bomber blew himself up at the entrance of an Imambargah at Chakwal in Punjab province. • March 3: A convoy carrying Sri Lankan cricketers and officials in two buses was fired upon by 12 gunmen. The cricketers were on their way to play the third day of the second Test against the Pakistani cricket team. including a prominent anti-Taliban cleric Sarfaraz Naeemi. including 4 policemen. including three children. Six members of the Sri Lankan cricket team were injured. killing 24 people. Six Pakistani policemen and two civilians were killed. were killed and 41 others sustained injuries in three separate terror attacks in Lahore. including 8 police recruits and a civilian.• February 5: At least 32 persons were killed and 48 others wounded when a suspected suicide bomber blew himself amidst a crowd of Shia worshippers outside a mosque in Dera Ghazi Khan. the Manawan Police Training School and the Elite Police Academy on the Bedian Road. were killed and 93 cadets and civilians were injured when about 10 terrorists attacked the Manawan Police Training School in Lahore with guns and grenades. five SSG commandos. • July 2: At least 7 people were killed and 36 persons were injured when a young suicide bomber rammed his motorcycle into a bus carrying employees of the Army-run Heavy Mechanical Complex at the Peshawar Road near Chur Chowk in Rawalpindi. • June 12: Seven persons. The attacks were carried out at the Federal Investigation Agency (FIA) building on the Temple Road. were killed and seven injured when a suicide attacker detonated himself at the Jamia Naeemia madrassa (seminary) in the Garhi Shahu area shortly after Friday prayers. An ISI colonel and 15 police officials were among those killed. • February 7: At least 7 officers were killed in an ambush attack on a checkpoint in Mianwali in Punjab. • October 10: At least 14 people. • September 6: Three policemen were shot dead in Hasan Abdal in apparent act of targeted killing. near the Gaddafi Stadium in Lahore. were injured when a bomb exploded close to a police patrol car on the Misryal road in Rawalpindi. and injuring 140 others. • October 23: Eight persons were killed and 17 others sustained injuries when a suicide . were killed in an attack on Pakistan Army General Headquarters (GHQ) in Rawalpindi. including 14 security officials. three hostages.
in Sitara Market. . Brigadier Waqar Ahmad. including two female students. and his driver were gunned down in Islamabad. • April 04: Eight Frontier Constabulary (FC) personnel were killed. • October 27: A military officer. Punjab. including a UN diplomat and two women employees. • October 22: A serving Army brigadier. • October 5: A suicide bomber targeted the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) office in Islamabad. • October 20: Two suicide bombers targeted the new campus of the International Islamic University Islamabad in the H-10 sector of Islamabad. • December 4: At least 42 people were killed and 77 people were injured in firing and two suicide blasts at Parade Lane Mosque. killing at least six students and staff members. escaped death as two gunmen riding a motorbike attacked his car. were killed and 63 others sustained injuries when a suicide bomber blew himself up outside a branch of the National Bank of Pakistan in Rawalpindi. • December 7: Two bomb blasts killed at least 45 people. rocket and suicide attack on the office of ISI. killing at least 12 people and injuring 18people in Multan. • November 2: At least 35 persons. and seven others injured. and injured more than 100 at the crowded Moon Market in Allama Iqbal area of Lahore in Punjab. Six other staff members were injured. • December 8: A group of three Taliban militants launched a gun. The two bombs exploded 30 seconds apart at 8:45 PM (PST). near the Pakistani army's headquarters in Rawalpindi. • June 6: Two policemen were killed and four others injured in a suicide attack on a Rescue 15 office at Sector G-8 in capital Islamabad. • September 2: Religious Affairs Minister Hamid Saeed Kazmi was injured in a brazen attack in Islamabad while his driver and a police guard were killed. including two women and children. Moinuddin Ahmad. killing five persons. and injuring more than 29 others. Terrorist Attacks in Islamabad • March 23: A policemen was killed and 2 policemen were injured in a suicide bomb blast at the entrance of the headquarters of the Special Branch (SB). • October 24: A Motorway police official was killed when a suicide bomber detonated his explosives-laden car near Lillah Interchange close to Kalar Kahar.bomber exploded himself at a police check-post on the GT Road near the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) in Kamra in the Attock District. an intelligence agency of the Federal Capital Police. when a suicide bomber blew himself up at an FC check post on the Margala Road in Islamabad.
two Navy personnel were killed in the attack. • February 1: An explosion in the Saddar Town of Karachi killed one person and injured two others.who fidgeted with the bomb planted in a garbage dump.A. in Model Colony in Karachi. 40-year old Allauddin was the Lines Area Unit in-charge of the banned Sunni outfit. which erupted at Iftar time in the precincts of Soldier Bazaar Police Station at Karachi in Sindh. was a former member of the banned Sunni outfit SSP. were killed in Karachi. . • July 15: Unidentified men killed the central legal adviser of the outlawed Sunni group. • April 15: A 28-year-old sectarian worker-turned-lawyer was shot dead near Hamdard Dawakhana off the arterial M. and had earlier worked for the LeJ. Mazharul Islam. • June 5: Mir Yaqub Bizenjo. while 13 persons were injured. • May 27: Another activist of the banned Sunni outfit SSP was shot dead while his son Sufian was injured by two gunmen near a Tandur in Gulshan-e-Iqbal in the Aziz Bhatti Police limits of Karachi. including a guard of the group’s central leader Maulana Abdul Ghafoor Nadeem. • August 17: Armed men shot dead Allama Ali Sher Hyderi. unidentified gunmen shot dead a shop owner from the Ahmadiyya community outside his house in the Kotri District of Sindh province.• November 6: Gunmen opened fire on an army brigadier vehicle in Islamabad. One unidentified man . chief of the banned SSP. Jinnah Road in Karachi. Hafiz Ahmed Buksh. along with his associate Imtiaz Phulpoto at Khairpur in the Sindh province. Karachi. • September 18: At least three persons sustained bullet injuries during a sectarian clash. Brigadier Sohail and his driver were injured in the incident. However. three of his relatives and a servant were injured after a parcel bomb exploded in his Defence Society house in Karachi. • May 22: Four persons were injured in a cross-fire between two groups after pro-Taliban slogans were found painted on the walls of a church in Surjani Town. The clash took place between the Shia community and the people belonging to the Deobandi school of thought over the use of loudspeaker during Iftar. which caused the explosion . the SSP. • May 24: A senior activist of the banned SSP was shot dead in a target killing. Terrorist Attacks in Sindh [/B] • January 20: In a suspected sectarian incident. • July 16: Two more activists of the outlawed SSP.died and two others sustained injuries. One of them died at a hospital after being injured in the clash a day earlier while another’s body was recovered from Model Colony. • December 2: An official of the Pakistan Navy foiled a suicide attack on the Naval Headquarters at Zafar Chowk on the Margalla Road in the national capital Islamabad. legislator from Balochistan.
uzma khan youzaf zai (Friday. Samuel Sherman in New Yorker. Engineer Ilyas Zubair. 2010). within the jurisdiction of Tori Bungash Police Station. Email: shakeel_pak@ymail. other media sources. This report well describes about the safety of our nukes. • December 7: The leader of Pasban-e-Aza. agencies report and South Asian Terrorism Portal) Source: Samaa TV Pakistan The Following 5 Users Say Thank You to rose_pak For This Useful Post: crazy bird (Friday. sumaira85 (Friday. the general secretary of the banned Sunni outfit SSP Karachi chapter. everyone was saying that pak nukes are safe but nobody was giving evidences or solid assertions. • December 28: At least 43 people were killed and more than 90 were injured in a suicide attack on Ashura procession at M A Jinnah Road. • November 20: In a suspected sectarian incident. 2010) rose_pak View Public Profile Find all posts by rose_pak #7 Sunday. Violence erupted across the city. (Data for this report was compiled with the help of news reports on SAMAA website. • December 26: A remote controlled bomb blast injured nearly 26 Shia mourners at Khalifat Chowk in North Nazimabad Town of Karachi. January 22. Enraged people set major commercial centers around the blast scene on fire and burnt dozens of vehicles. Angry mob had resorted to arsons and anti-government protests in reaction to the blast. 2010 rose_pak Senior Member Join Date: Nov 2009 Location: Islamabad.• November 19: Ghulam Muhammad Waezi. wounded at Teen Hatti under the Jamshed Quarters Police Station jurisdiction in Karachi. January 01.com Posts: 138 Thanks: 199 Thanked 140 Times in 54 Posts Pakistan Nukes Safety (Western independent report on the issue) IN November December 2009. . After the publication of report there were huge discussions in national media about the safety. January 01. 2010). there has been great speculation in international media about the safety of nuclear arsenal and weapons after having published a report of Mr. January 23. January 19. 2010). a Shia organization was shot dead by unidentified militants in a suspected sectarian attack in the remit of the Brigade Police Station of Karachi. • December 26: Another bomb blast in Orangi Town in Karachi left 24 people injured. a Shia clericm was shot dead in the Orangi Town area of Karachi. The slain leader was identified as Syed Shahid Hussain. Qari Shafiqur Rehman Alvi. January 03. Sajid Sadeem (Saturday. was shot dead and provincial information secretary. However I found this report published in germany" I think" and republished in Contemporary Affairs by Imtiaz Shahid Book 64. 2010). Umme (Tuesday.
Consists of 50 highly professionals 2. Every authorized decision maker is given numeric codes . He also said it was a religious duty of every Muslim to make nuclear weapon for their protection • Abdul Qadeer Khan network supplied North Korea. It is more strengthened after Kargal. NCA chaired by president (Now PM) comprises of ten members. Regional Conflicts and the Dominant Role of the Military (By Oliver Thranert & Christian Wagner) • Probably Pakistan is the most unstable country of all the atomic powers • On nuclear test in 1998 Osama was the only who congratulate Pakistan. Hoe Safe Pak Nukes are? 2. Iran. 2001-02 Indian parliament attack and then Mumbai attacks in November 2008. What are the likely prospects of Pak India conflict? First question is discussed in this post while other two would be posted afterwards. Libya with know how and necessary equipment • Pakistan’s tension with India is also a main factor in Pakistan nuclear program. How stable Pak Government is to take care of their nukes? 3. Pakistan as Nuclear Power: Nuclear Risks. Numeral observers says it is a well-functioning and professional organization 3.This report mainly discussess three questions: 1. CONCLUSION OF STUDY (Summary) HOW SAFE PAKISTAN’S NUCLEAR WEAPONS ARE? Command and Control 1.
which provides facility to link nuclear arm’s ability to operate with secret codes without which the arms would be useless. Depots are located in multiple security zones. Extensive tests which takes up to one year 2. Every order would be checked by two person or three-person rule Protection against Theft and Unauthorized Use 1. In Sep-2004 Pakistan Adopted new export control law. Pakistan has produced indigenous safeguarding system like permissive Action Link (PAL by US). trained staff. Pakistan has 4 heavy water reactors working for energy purposes which are being visited by IAEA experts on regular intervals 2. And an emergency team established as well (Like US) 4. Retired and at post scientist go through special screening process before visiting abroad Safeguarding of Civilian Facilities and the Issue of Export Control 1. Since Jan-2001 civilian nuclear activities are under Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA). 4. Since 2000 all civilian nuclear facilities activities are centrally monitored by Strategic Plans Division 3. The Insider Problem 1. High security checks before employing a person. Screening continues on regular intervals 3. Pakistan have probably six storage sites.4. Security department established with 1000 professional. detectors 3. some are dummy. a report on which has been forwarded to UN Security Council (Summary Ends) HISTORICAL OUTLINE • The acquisition of atomic reactor under US program of “Atom for Peace” in 1960s was . warhead are kept separate from fissile parts and from delivery system 2.
• In response to Indian nuclear test on 11 and 13 May 1998. AQ Khan for the first time declared that Pakistan is capable for having nuclear weapons. • Pakistan got financial help from Iran. then PM Mr. moreover Canada provided an atomic reactor in 1972. Shaheen I (750 km).the beginning of Pakistan nuclear program. Moreover. • In 1974. suffice for 5-6 nuclear weapons. Pakistan did six atomic explosions on 28 and 30th May 1998. Nuclear weapons can be mounted on ballistic missile like Nodong rocket (N Korea. Pakistan has 1300 to 1500 kgs of enriched uranium and 90 kg of plutonium at its disposal which could suffice 70 to 90 more warheads. • In 1965 Pakistani then foreign minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhuto said that Pakistan would work on nuclear weapons if India does. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto called a meeting of atomic scientists at his Multan house in Jan-1972 and directed him to have a nuclear program up in five years. • In 1987. Babur Crouse (500 km) is also under development. Mirage III and V (France) and A-5 (China). • Pakistan had its first heavy water production facility in 1980 while in 1981-82 a small level reprocessing facility started work. Pakistan has capacity of producing 100 kg of highly enriched uranium annually. . THE CURRENT NUCLEAR ARSENAL AND POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS • Amount of enriched uranium per warhead varies from 5 to 20 kgs • Pakistan is also interested in plutonium bombs. he offered his services to Pakistan. • Nuclear weapons can be delivered by F-16 (USA). who had experience in Uranium-enrichment centrifuges in Netherlands. Dr. Reports of development of Ghauri III (3000 km). • After the war of 1971. Libya and Saudi Arabia to build up Nuclear weapon program while China provided nuclear technology. Shaheen II (2000 km). It is estimated that Pakistan has 40 -50 nuclear weapons (More then 100 is new estimate). • He came to Pakistan in 1975 bringing several designs and components of G1 and G2 centrifuges. He also had good contacts with multinational companies providing components for the program. Abdul Qadeer Khan. 1500 KM). • Pakistan wants to enlarge its program.
Pakistan sees that its nuclear weapons are to preserve Pakistan’s territorial integrity as well as its independence and sovereignty • The Chairman of Pakistan Strategic Plans Division. • There are strict checks with numerical codes. Pakistan uses land and space based . Pakistan did not have well established command and control system • National command and control authority was established in march 1999. to order for use of nuclear weapons. comprises of ten members. • In December 2007 Gen. however. presumably established by ISI. When India impose and economic blockade. chaired by the President (Now Prime Minister) • NCA formulates national nuclear strategy. NUCLEAR DOCTRINE OF PAKISTAN • Pakistan has never published its doctrine. NATIONAL COMMAND & CONTROL AUTHORITY • From 1975 till 1998. HOW SECURE ARE PAKISTAN’S NUCLEAR WEAPONS AND NUCLEAR FACILITIES? Security of Pakistan’s nuclear weapons can be studied in following four sections 1. According to USA reports “Pakistan has the fastest-growing nuclear weapon program in the world”. the authority to use nuclear weapons would be delegated to field commanders during crises. When India Politically destabilize Pakistan. • Western observers assess Strategic Plans Division as well-functioning and professional organization • Given this highly centralized command structure. When India destroy a large part of Pakistan Armed Forces. Mr. • Day to day management of NCA is responsibility of Strategic Plans Division which functions as a permanent secretariat of NCA. • Report says that no doubt Pakistan has made undeniable progress for security of its nuclear power. In case of use of nuclear weapons two-person or in some cases three-person rule check is established.• Khushab I. when India attacks Pakistan and occupy its territory. nuclear disarmament and arms control. however some ambiguities are there. responsible for nuclear target planning. Khalid Ahmad Kidwai has occasionally mentioned the scenario in which Pakistan can use its nuclear weapons like. Khushab II and Khushab III heavy water reactor are operational. Gen. Musharraf placed NCA on firmer legal basis. It establishes policy guidelines for physical security of nuclear facilities as well as development and maintenance of strategic command and communication system. implementation of export control and to insure security of nuclear installations.
It is also feared that someone from military can provide this information to outsiders. Perhaps US were reluctant because it would give a detail of US nuclear weapons to Pakistan and secondly the information could be transferred to China via Pakistan. . accepted the US offer to improve the safeguarding of Nuclear weapons and facilities. It has very good screening system prior to offering job too anybody. 3. US department of energy and defense has been working on it. Strategic Plans Division continues its screening on regular intervals. Security clearance is must for retired and existing scientists prior going abroad. • Three areas remain particularly critical in terms of nuclear safety. US invested more than $100 million in nuclear safety. It has been a threat that someone from them can provide know-how to extremists. • Pakistan was reluctant to get this technology as it might be thinking that using US technology would facilitate US to get secret information when US wants • The Chairman of Strategic Plan Division announced that Pakistan has formed a locked based system for nuclear weapons which is equivalent with US PAL. • USA uses a technology namely Permissive Action Link (PAL) for its nuclear security. PROTECTION AGAINST THEFT AND UNAUTHORIZED USE • After 9/11. THE INSIDER PROBLEM • There are 70. This technology needs a specific code for the weapon to be used. US have not direct access to any nuclear facility in Pakistan • There probably six nuclear storage sites while some are dummy for security purposes.communication system which is easy to disrupt using electronic counter measures and it needs to be updated. • To dismiss this argument Pakistan has worked with the help of US. Pakistani engineers has been trained in US • A security department has been established with 1000 professionals and an emergency team has been established as well that can react immediately if any theft reported. 2. Candidate and his family security checks are established. Pakistan has after much hesitation. its transportation and its use during crises.000 employees including 7-8000 scientists working in nuclear installations. accounting of nuclear material. However till date. Nuclear weapons are stored separate then delivery system and fissil cores are sepearte from rest of warhead • Depots are located in very large areas surrounded by multiple security zones protected by personals and detectors. Bush Administration wanted to transfer this technology to Pakistan but state department said that this would be against non-proliferation treaty.
January 04. Umme (Tuesday. Shootingstar (Monday. 2010). January 08. • The fact is America sees Pakistan as a dangerous enemy • Principle interest of America is Pakistan is of avoid the happening of misuse of our nuclear technology by radical fanatics • Aid comes with conditions. January 19. 2010 at 01:03 PM. 2010). sumaira85 (Friday. 2010).4 % of its electricity from nuclear plants. Currently Pakistan has Canadian Origin (KANUPP). all civilian nuclear installations are monitored by Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA) and centrally monitored by Strategic Plans Division • In September 2004 Pakistan has adopted new export control law which puts more barriers on nuclear exports (TO BE CONTINUED) Last edited by Andrew Dufresne. sohaani (Wednesday. 2010). January 25. 2010) rose_pak View Public Profile Find all posts by rose_pak #8 Friday. 2010 God Fearer Senior Member Join Date: Dec 2009 Posts: 139 Thanks: 6 Thanked 62 Times in 28 Posts Whose war is being waged? By Iqbal Akhund Synopsis • Rarely smooth Pak-US relations are going through a bad patch again. THE SAFEGUARDING OF FISSILE MATERIAL AND EXPORT CONTROL • Pakistan generates only 2. However it wants to get eleven more nuclear reactors from China by 2030. January 04. 2010). Humayun Khan (Monday. but why we still need it? . January 23. • Since January 2001. January 22. Sajid Sadeem (Saturday. uzma khan youzaf zai (Monday. Wednesday.4. mubeen saeed (Monday. 2010). 2010). Reason: Date corrected 1998 The Following 9 Users Say Thank You to rose_pak For This Useful Post: cngfitted77777 (Wednesday. January 13. January 04. yes. Chashma I (China) and two reactors near Rawalpindi. January 20. 2010). • Why is America offering money? To make us a secular state and taking away our nukes. January 20. Pakistan has given access to 18 of IAEA inspectors out of 220 to inspect the installations and is cooperating more than enough.
Our successive governments have taken the money and accepted the conditions because we needed the assistance and the conditions . with an educated and healthy population. One of the reasons. • Now President Obama is prepared to settle for a ‘successful outcome’. It carries a load of past resentments. at this juncture. where a variety of armed and radical tehriks and lashkars and jamaats etc. wish Pakistan well — not because it sees Pakistan as a friend but. people at prayer etc. blows up families out shopping. So one might say that our nuclear weapons are proving to be an asset in an unexpected way! Of course the aid the United States is offering comes with conditions as aid always and from anywhere does. no longer Pakistan’s protégés. The best alternative America’s eight-year adventure has produced has not worked. politically unstable. have had a free run for years and could get their hands on the nuclear weapons. breaking it up altogether. we were dragged into it by America. • Our war is not the same war as the Americans’ but a parallel war against a group for whom the Pakistani constitution is un-Islamic. would give material or moral boost to Pakistani Taliban. sending more troops. This means either Karzai government would measure up or an agreement will be negotiated with Taliban or a bit of both. the more it seems to feed suspicions of its intentions at the popular level. to turn around the situation to seem more successful with eventual withdrawal of troops. beheads opponents. facing every sort of economic and social problem. repercussions would be grave for Afghanistan. ‘Why is America offering money and making a fuss over Pakistan now? It must have a purpose of its own!’ — taking away our nukes. • The return of Afghan Talibans. however. because it sees it as a potentially dangerous enemy — a country with nuclear weapons and technology (that it sold abroad). the more America tries to make amends. is that the US does. In the worst-case scenario the presence of the Taliban on both sides of the Durand Line could provide an ethno-ideological basis for a revived Pakhtunistan movement. talk of a long-term relationship. a group that demolishes schools. flogs women. Paradoxically. we can be sure that the US will not hesitate to use whatever it takes. THE US-Pakistan relationship. One is asked. They have their own purposes and they will pursue it even if Pakistan refuses to co-operate with America. There is no one around who might bring even the symbolic unity that the monarchy had provided before it was overthrown. If it comes to that. rarely very smooth. it has not come to that yet and it sees a better bet in a Pakistan that evolves into a stable democracy. Afghanistan would very probably fall into the hands of the Taliban or revert to the anarchy that prevailed after the Soviet pullout.• Afghan war was not our war. explicit or implicit. turning Pakistan into a ‘secular’ country. for America’s interest in Pakistan at present is to prevent this from happening. with sympathisers in the establishment.However. on the contrary. It was not a war of necessity • It should not have been waged the way it was. is going through a particularly bad patch at present. moving ahead economically and socially. the principal reason. The fact. grievances and disappointments. • None of this bodes well for Pakistan. including force. • Whether America leaves after negotiations or just packs up. Their insurgency cannot be dismissed on the assumption that it is based on Pakistan’s alliance with US against war on terror. to this end. • Now would Afghans accept Taliban order again? They have no choice.
What should worry us is why after more than 60 years of independence. they have aims of their own and are not going to stop even if Pakistan stops cooperating with the Americans. None of this bodes well for Pakistan. The return of the Taliban. Now that the Afghans know what kind of order the Taliban order is. Now President Obama is prepared to settle for a ‘successful outcome’ — a subjective concept — and is sending more troops to Afghanistan to turn the situation around. nor by co-opting the Northern Alliance and thus jumping into Afghanistan’s tribal. On the broader front. It should not have been fought the way it was — from the air. people at prayer etc. This means that either the Karzai government measures up or an agreement is negotiated with the Taliban or a bit of both. at the very least. It was not really a war of necessity but was launched by the Bush administration in the post-9|11 surge of nationalist emotion and hubris of power without giving enough chance to negotiations with the Taliban (negotiations that the Americans are now anxiously seeking). Whether America leaves after some kind of settlement with the Taliban or just packs up. The best alternative America’s eight-year adventure has produced has not worked. This seems a doubtful prospect even to some among the American military. jobs. sectarian fray and alienating the Pakhtun majority. ethnic. beheads opponents. Our war is not the same war as the Americans’ but a parallel war against a group for whom the Pakistani constitution is un-Islamic. blows up families out shopping. we still need such aid in order to remain afloat. As for whose war it is. It has done the same in the present case. no longer Pakistan’s protégés. could. would they welcome them again? They may have no choice. There is no one around who might bring even the symbolic unity that the monarchy had provided before it was overthrown. is where the new aid from the US and others is meant to go. In the worst-case scenario the presence of the Taliban on both sides of the Durand Line could provide an ethno-ideological basis for a revived Pakhtunistan movement. That. The army will eventually win its battle against these fanatics if it keeps it up. health and so forth. Afghanistan would very probably fall into the hands of the Taliban or revert to the anarchy that prevailed after the Soviet pullout. it now looms as a negative factor . The latter’s insurgency cannot be dismissed as a reaction to Pakistan joining the American war. a group that demolishes schools. the Afghan war was indeed not our war. viz the India-Pakistan relationship. The Taliban stood above the scramble and imposed order on the post-Soviet anarchy and could do so again.were acceptable. We have a better chance of winning it because we know whom we are fighting (not many now see them as ‘our own people’) and what the fight is about — ‘hearts and minds’ or concretely. flogs women. provide moral or material boost for the Pakistani Taliban. and for no sinister purpose. Pakistan was dragooned into it by threats and blandishments. with daisy-cutters and bunker-busters causing innocent deaths. education. Perhaps the intention is only to bring about an outcome that could be seen as ‘successful’ and that allows US troops to begin withdrawing as proposed.
Relation with economic development CAUSES OF CORRUPTION / RELATION • Levels of economic development to effect petty bribes 2. 2010) God Fearer View Public Profile Find all posts by God Fearer #9 Tuesday. PIA 1. Email: shakeel_pak@ymail. 2010). January 19. However.for results. corruption. January 19. Umme (Tuesday. social injustice. January 08. inefficient administration — the remedy for which lies entirely in our hands. politicians buy off opponents. WAPDA. 2010). it is not to be supposed that the US is doing nothing in the matter. February 27. January 23.in the Afghanistan situation. It is a pity that President Obama was scared away from taking up this nettle as he had proposed to do in his pre-election speeches. Sajid Sadeem (Saturday. Noor_2009 (Saturday. 2010). World Economic Forum Bank and World Bank. there is reason to be optimistic. the ills that afflict the country are largely internal — political instability. Pakistan Steel. 2010 rose_pak Causes of corruption Senior Member Join Date: Nov 2009 Location: Islamabad. rose_pak (Tuesday.com Posts: 138 Thanks: 199 Thanked 140 Times in 54 Posts Pakistan is at 42nd number of corrupt countries according to Transparency International. • It may also facilitate corruption in the longer run if government fails to combat corruption 3. It uses more then 7 surveys-Asian Development Bank. Recent reports show that 5 billion was used in corruption in the current year. 2010). January 19. SECP. On top of corrupt departments are National Highways Authority. PEPCO.Still. Relation with Democracy • Democracy is least corruptive but depends upon how firmly rooted democracy is • Opposition groups and press as a watch dog • However. Ministry of Water and Power. The Following 5 Users Say Thank You to God Fearer For This Useful Post: abbasi_faheem (Friday. The national consensus on the Balochistan package and the NFC agreement shows that we are capable of dealing with them and despite the prevailing despondency. Relation with economic liberalization • Economic liberalization is good in a sense but leads the government to sell assets to politicians lower then market price. bribe voters and do corruption in tenders and huge projects . Pakistan Housing Authority. Adm Mullen and Gen Petraeus have publicly mentioned Pakistan’s concerns over Indian activities in Afghanistan and Hillary Clinton has urged India to stop playing hard-to-get over resuming the composite dialogue with Pakistan.
• The choice for government is difficult as A) low salaries seems to encourage corruption but enable more people some kind of regular income • B) A smaller. Relation with international corporations • Present bribes to get favorable responses • To get tenders and tax exemptions 10. Corruption discourages FDI 11. better paid bureaucracy may be less corrupt but huge unemployment 8. Relation with Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) • A factor of economic growth. January 23. Relation with Money Laundering • Money laundering means cleaning the money and reinventing it in business as legal • Three phases: Placement Phase. Relation with International Crime • Corruption exists wherever international crime The Following 5 Users Say Thank You to rose_pak For This Useful Post: nageen (Tuesday. B) are less corrupt then men. Layering Phase and Integration stage 13. • For corrupt they offer three advantages. 2010) rose_pak . B) Restricting the flow of information. Relation with low salaries • Low irregular salaries are cause of corruption • Most developing countries have huge number of public employees so low salaries. Umme (Tuesday. Relation with Poverty • Poverty is directly related with corruption • Poor people have to bribe to get their legitimate rights 6. 2010). Noor_2009 (Saturday. Relation with Free press • Free press as a watch dog • Freedom of press can be threatened by A) Persecution of journalist. Relation with Offshore banking and tax havens • Offshore banks keep the illegal money sage. January 19. Relation with Gender • Studies shows that A) women more likely to suffer fro corruption. Relation with international trade • Encourage smuggling tariff barriers are high 9. January 22. January 19. 2010). Outside the jurisdiction of mainland economies and the constitution status is ambiguous 12. sumaira85 (Friday. D) Imposition of strict laws • However some journalist works like paid men of corrupts 5. Customer Confidentiality. 2010). February 27. C) reduce level of corruption if given authority 7. C) Newspaper may be intimated.4. 2010). Sajid Sadeem (Saturday.
Impact on Poverty eradication • Excessive government borrowing.com Posts: 138 Thanks: 199 Thanked 140 Times in 54 Posts CORRUPTION CONSEQUENCES OFϖ CORRUPTION 1. disrupt and diverts growth and development • Spending diverted from productive programs to big projects which increases probability of corruption 2. 2010 rose_pak Senior Member CORRUPTION: Causes and Consequences Join Date: Nov 2009 Location: Islamabad. administrative and regulatory institutions 3. Impact on growth and development • Delays. Email: shakeel_pak@ymail. Impact on environment • Undermines environmental protection • Promote frauds. Economic cost of corruption 8. January 21. Impact on development assistance and aid flows • International donors divert donations • However they think that despite of corruption. Political Cost of corruption . Bypass inspection 5. some money reaches the needy and they can’t do anything to stop corruption 7. high inflation • Reducing poverty requires strong financial. violate international agreements. Impact on private sector development • Distort the market • Illegitimacy of tendering process 6.View Public Profile Find all posts by rose_pak #10 Thursday. Impact on Human Rights • Corruption in all forms is itself violation of Human Rights 4.
Noor_2009 (Saturday. However some weaknesses are. 2010). C) independent and honest judiciary HOW TO TACKLEϖ CORRUPTIONS • China. January 22. 2010). Social/Cultural cost of corruption What is CPI? Corruption Perception Index is a league table of international corruption shows the least corrupt country at top and most at bottom (10-0) established by Transparency International in 1995. sumaira85 (Friday. China have this agreement with 25 countries but not with USA. • Professional and autonomous NAB or Commission is needed. 2010). UK and Canada. perception that responders are accurate and representative. Wasim Usmani (Monday. 2010). • An international treaty like China did. January 23. 2 officers of Food and Drug administration sentenced to death accused of taking bribe of $300. different type of surveys for different countries. Sajid Sadeem (Saturday. January 30. The Following 5 Users Say Thank You to rose_pak For This Useful Post: ALI786 (Saturday. February 27. August 02. Russian court is to decide on death penalty after 10 years of moratorium. National Assembly Standing Committee rejected removing death penalty for corruption. is needed to extradite corrupt from other countries. perception may not reflect actual. • We should have a mechanism to clear mess of 63 years. B) well trained police force.000 in 2007.9. Vietnam. 2010) rose_pak View Public Profile Find all posts by rose_pak Page 1 of 3 1 2 3 > Tags current affairs « Previous Thread | Next Thread » .000 and $850. Why anti-corruption laws are not always enforced? • No political will • Poorly drafter laws • Non availability of information and resources • Enforcement requires: A) effective auditing and monitoring institutes. Bribe Payers Index was established in 1998.
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