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When the Spaniards arrived in the Philippines in 1521, the colonizers used art as a tool to propagate the Catholic faith through beautiful images.With communication as problem, the friars used images to explain the concepts behind Catholicism, and to tell the stories of Christ¶s life and passion. Images of the Holy Family and the saints were introduced to the Filipino psyche through carved santos, the via crucis (Stations of the Cross), engravings on estampas and estampitas, and through paintings on church walls. Though the ethnic art forms such as pottery, weaving and metalwork were retained, the Spanish friars and the Chinese, the colony¶s primary trading partner, were slowly introducing newer art forms. Icons brought by the friars were used as models for sculpture. Filipino artisans were taught the Chinese brushwork technique in painting. Engraving was also introduced. The concept of patronage emerged. Artisans were commissioned and paid to carve, engrave, and paint. They replaced the arts that were once done in a communal spirit and community setting for rituals. The church, particularly the friars, became the new patron of the arts. Since most art produced during the first two centuries of Spanish occupation were for the church, the friars enforced strict supervision over their production. Until the 19th century, art was only for the church and religious use. Early in the 19th century, with the opening of the Suez canal in 1869 and the development of the agricultural export economy, native indios acquired economic wealth and became what was to be called the "ilustrados," meaning enlightened and educated. These developments paved the way for Filipinos ilustrados to send their children to universities in Europe. The rise of the "ilustrado" (Filipinos with money and education) class was inevitable. The ilustrados became the new patron of the arts. These events paved the way for the secularization of art in the 19th century. A. Painting The Spanish friars introduced Western painting in the Philippines to artisans who learned to copy on two-dimensional form from the religious icons that the friars brought from Spain,. For the first centuries of Spanish colonization, painting was limited to religious icons. Portraits of saints and of the Holy Family became a familiar sight in churches. Other subject matters include the passion of Christ, the Via Crucis, the crucifixion, portrayal of heaven, purgatory and hell. Painters from the Visayas island of Bohol were noted for their skillful manipulation of the technique. Their paintings of saints and religious scenes show figures in frontal and static positions. For the Boholano painters, the more important persons would be depicted bigger than the rest of the figures.Christ normally dwarfs the Roman soldiers in these paintings.Unfortunately, they did not sign their names on their works and no record of their names exists. In the church in Paete, Laguna are two works by Josef Luciano Dans (1805- ca. 1870), probably one of the earliest recorded painters in Philippine art history. Langit, Lupa at Impierno ca. 1850
the minuet details of the embroidered clothes. The painstaking attention to minuet details characterized miniaturismo. In 1823. During the early part of the Spanish occupation. the society offered Domingo to be the professor in . Occasionally. In 1826. the Real SociedadEconomica Filipina de Amigos del Pais (Royal Economic Society of the Friends of the Colony) opened their own art school.(Heaven. Unfortunately. The fourteen panels show the series of events that led to the crushing of the Ilocano basi workers revolt by Spanish forces. Governor General NarcisoClaveria in 1849 issued a decree that all Philippine natives should assume Spanish names. Mary the Mother of Christ. the Academia de Dibujo. Letras Y Figuras. (letters and figures). did the first still life paintings in the country. They were commissioned in 1786 by a Spanish botanist to paint the flora and fauna found in the country. It also showed the appearance of Halley¶s comet in the Philippines during that time. it was destroyed during the 1863 earthquake. Secular subject matter in painting only increased during the 19th century.tiposdelpais developed in painting.Esteban Villanueva of Vigan. Damian Domingo opened the first formal fine arts school in the country in his house. Ilocos Sur depicted the Ilocos revolt against the basi monopoly in a 1821. 1790-1832) was the most popular artist who worked in this style. the rise of the ilustrados saw a rise in the art of portraiture. The earliest known historical paintings in the Philippines was a mural at the Palacio Real (Royal Palace) in Intramuros entitled The Conquest of the Batanes done in 1783. combines both tipos del pais and genre paintings by forming the letters of the patron¶s name from figures of people in local costumes doing everyday activities. Antonio Malantic and JustinianoAscunsion captured the intricately designed jewellery and fashion accessories. The Spanish government commissioned the work. It also became an album of different native costumes. With more tourists. ilustrados and foreigners demanding souvenirs and decorations from the country. a style developed by Jose Honorato Lozano. Tomas Nazario and Miguel de los Reyes. The second painting is entitled Purgatorio (Purgatory) which shows the eight forms of punishment the soul passes through for cleansing before reaching Heaven. Earth and Hell). In the early 19th century. Perhaps realizing his importance to Philippine art history. it was also used for propaganda. Damian Domingo y Gabor (ca. the ilustrados commissioned painters to make portraits of themselves. saints. The need to adorn their newly constructed bahay-na-bato and the want to document their new found wealth and social status. In 1821. Tagalog painters Jose Loden. painting was exclusively for the churches and for religious purposes. It also utilized landscape scenes as background. a three-level painting which shows the Holy Trinity. the Seven Blessed Sacraments and a macabre depiction of Hell. and ornately designed domestic furniture of the patrons. The works of painters like Simon Flores. These watercolor paintingsshow the different types of inhabitants in the Philippines in their different native costumes that show their social status and occupation. Damian Domingo is known for having made the first self-portrait in the country.
Luna was not awarded the Medal of Excellence. Fourteen other women artists participated. but a publication by the academy entitled Elementos de Perspectiva (Elements of Perspective) suggests that he must have also taught the classical ideals of the European academies. he gave a speech praising Luna and Hidalgo for their mastery and nationalism In the 1892. the school eventually closed in 1834. Luna¶s academic painting Spoliarium won gold medal. Among them were Juan Novicio Luna and Felix Resureccion Hidalgo who became the first international Filipino artists when they won the gold and silver medals in the 1884 Madrid Exposition. Pintura y Grabado in 1889. Though winning the gold medal. The academic style was still favored by the church and government and was used for religious icons. the Philippine¶s National Hero. The feat of Luna and Hidalgo caught the attention of Dr. Paintings by Spanish master were brought in to serve as models for the students. was appointed as acting director of the academy. In 1828. PrimerasLetras and Feeding the Chicken show the close bond between mother and child. commissioned him to paint The Battle at Lepanto. Enrique Nieto y Zamora. in effect merging the two art schools.their school. Due to lack of funds and probably due to Domingo¶s death in 1832. landscapes (paisajes). was opened with 70 enrollees. The academy was later elevated to the Escuela Superior de Pintura. a Filipino weekly publication. to assuage Luna¶s feelings. . It showed the dead and dying Roman Gladiators being dragged into the basement of the Coliseum. under the Junta de Commercio. Five of them won Cooper medals and four won honorable mentions. Flores¶ two extant works. The academy was renamed Escuela de Dibujo. and bodegones (still life) with artists like Simon Flores. because he was a Filipino. a 16-year-old girl named Carmen Zaragosa won first prize for her painting "Dos Intelligencias. Felix Martinez. Several Filipino painters had the chance to study and work abroad. a new art school. Escultura y Grabado.using grand subject matter from classical Greek and Roman mythologies. the top award for the competition.Hidalgo won the silver medal for Virgeneschristianasexpuestas al populacho or Christian Virgins Exposed to the Public. Other subject matter became increasingly popular such as genre. Domingo must have taught miniaturismo to his students. the Academia de Dibujo y Pintura. It was later incorporated with the Escuela de Artes y Oficios in 1891. Zaragosa won a Cooper medal for her painting. It is often interpreted as an allusion to Imperial Spain¶s oppression of the natives. In 1850. a new employee at the Post Office and a graduate of the Academia de San Fernando in Madrid. Columbus Quadricentennial Art Contest competition sponsored by La Illustracion Filipina. Domingo was promoted to school director. was favored by ilustrado patrons and continued to prosper. Paz Paterno and her half sisterAdelaidaPaterno." In the 1895 Esposicion Regional de Filipinas in Manila. and the use of chiaroscuro. In 1893. depicting historical scenes. that in a gathering of Filipinos in Madrid.The King of Spain. Jose Rizal. The miniaturist style. the school of arts and trades was separated from the academy. though. Lorenzo Guerrero. propagating the European academic style of painting .
higher artistic standards were demanded from the carvers/sculptors. Southern Luzon. Other parts of the church that may have carvings are church doors. Marcelo Nepomuceno. Tipos del pais (human types of the country) sculptures. A number of Filipinos found fame in sculpture such as CrispuloHocson. Paete. It may have carved images of saints. one would see a hierarchy of saints depending on their importance to the townspeople. saw a marked increase in the demand for non-religious souvenirs. and carrozas (floats that carry the saints for processions). It may also show holy images in religious scenes. showing ordinary people doing everyday activities and wearing their local costumes. The second half of the 19th century. and volcanic rock. Laguna. Romualdo de Jesus. floral decorations or leaf decors. The patron saint would be in the middle. But in the mid-19th century. The most prominent name is Mariano Madriñan who won a gold medal in the 1883 Amsterdam Exposition for his Mater Dolorosa (Sorrowful Mother). Relics (carved images in relief) usually depict the Via Crucis. with the rise of the ilustrados and the opening of the country to international trade. the façade is decorated with a carved image of St. The earliest known sculptor in the Philippines is the 17th century sacristan. Known sculptors during this time were BonifacioArevalo. The retablo houses the tabernacle and the image of the town¶s patron saint. coral stone. Escultura y Grabado de Manila¶s curriculum in 1879 formalized training in sculpture. Usually referred to as a "cabinet of saints". A few of his extant works may be found at the San Agustin Convent museum. Rizal was a sculptor. Carvings for churches includealtarpieces called retablos (usually with niches for the icons). They also depicted the heads of the various ethnic groups. a small woodcarving town in Laguna. produced the finest santo carvers during this period. and Anselmo Espiritu. GracianoNepomuceno. Philippine National Hero Jose P. among others. The most elaborate retablos can be seen in the San Agustin Church in Intramuros. pulpits. These santos were used primarily for the church altars and retablos. In the case of the Miag-ao Church in Iloilo. The carving of anito was transformed into sculpture of the saints. Sculpture Of all the new art forms introduced. 1590 ± ca. the central point of any Catholic church. Christopher carrying the Christ Child on his shoulders under a coconut tree.B. sculptor and silversmith Juan de los Santos (ca. It also replaced the anitos in the altars of the natives¶ homes. less important saints would be in the periphery. The façade of churches may be carved from adobe. Leoncio Asuncion and IsabeloTampinco. as travel in and around the country considerably improved. Except for de los Santos. He took up woodcarving lessons from Romualdo de Jesus and Paete master carver Jose Caancan. carvers were anonymous artisans before the 19th century. 1660) of San Pablo. . The inclusion of sculpture in the Academia de Pintura. became the favorite. the natives took to sculpture instantly.
The estampas (prints of miraculous images) usually featured portraits of saints and religious scenes. and Felipe Sevilla were the first Filipino artists to sign their works. Lithography was introduced and this facilitated the printing of newspapers and periodicals in the country. GRAPHIC ARTS Engraving was introduced in the 1590¶s by the Spanish colonizers. It had more than 100 issues from November 1891 to February 1895. Laureano Atlas. Francisco Suarez (ca. The two also illustrated the pasyon written by Gaspar Aquino de Belen entitled Mahalna Passion niJesuChristongPanginoonNatin Na Tola (The Holy Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ in Verse). 1690 ± ca.Filipino engravers like Francisco Suarez. the Dominicans published the La Doctrina Christiana en la Lengua Española y Tagala (The Christian Doctrine in the Spanish and Tagalog Language). Pelagia Mendoza won in the 1892 Columbus Quadricentennial Art Contest with a bust of Christopher Columbus. These were probably the first secular images done in the country. The natives worship this icon like an anito Copperplate engraving remained popular until the introduction of a new printing medium. On it was a woodcut engraving of St. possibly the first pasyon written in the country. Estampas and estampitas (smaller version of estampas) were distributed during town fiestas to the natives. copper etching became more popular. It usually featured lithograph prints of people. Pelagia Mendoza y Gotianquin. In 1892. first book printed in the country. PhelipeSevilla depicted scenes from the life of Christ. 1762) and Nicolas de la Cruz Bagay (1702 ± ca. The Nuestra Senora de Guia was made in 1711. . a Chinese convert. was accepted in the Academia de Dibujo Y Pintura by then Director Lorenzo Rocha. landscapes and genre scenes.In 1889. the first woman student. It also enabled the printing of the local edition of Fr. the oldest Marian image. 1765) collaborated to depict landscapes. He did one of the earliest known portrait engraved on copper. One of the popular newspapers during the 19th century was La Illustracion Filipina published by Don Jose Zaragosa. genre scenes and flora and fauna on the borders of maps commissioned by Fr. Since most of the family members know how to draw (including Carmen Zaragosa mentioned earlier). Murillo Velarde in 1733. C. Laureano Atlas made religious scenes and images. Filipino engravers were the first to depict and reproduce brown madonnas. Nicolas de la Cruz Bagay. Dominic by Juan de Veyra. Manuel Blanco¶s Flora de Filipinas in 1878.And with words like "IndiosTagalo" or "Indio Filipino". In the 18th century. affixed their social status on their works. some of their works must have been published here. The religious orders owned printing presses and printed mostly prayer books and estampas. a portrait of Archbishop Juan Angel Rodriguez in 1743. In 1593.
Art Philippines.ncca. She worked for the Coordinating Center for Visual Arts. Hernandez teaches Humanities at the Department of Art Studies of the University of the Philippines.ph/ .Bibliography: Gatbonton.al. et.Edades and the 13 Moderns. de:http://www. Crucible Workshop Rod Paras-Perez. and MuseongKalinangang Pilipino at the Cultural Center of the Philippines.gov. Nicanor G. Cultural Center of the Philippines Tiongson. about the author Eloisa May P. Cultural Center of the Philippines. CCP Encyclopedia of Philippine Visual Arts. Outreach and Exchange Division. Juan. Diliman.
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