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SPECIAL ISSUE Low emission and climate

November Issue 2015 change adaptation actions


Highlights Kenya is taking bold steps to
combat climate change
1. Kenya is taking bold steps to
combat climate change Pg 1
2. Word from the Principal Secretary Pg 2
3. Samburu community embraces Editorial The Government of Kenya understands
renewable energy technologies Pg 8 Climate change describes larger than its obligation both to its citizens and the
normal variability in weather and climate community of nations with respect to taking
4. Kenya’s Intended Nationally parameters, especially rainfall and tem- decisive and appropriate measures that
Determined Contribution (INDC) Pg 12 perature. The cause of climate change contributes to abating Greenhouse gas
5. Building a system for Land-based has been debated by critics. But the time emissions, as well as enhancing resilience
Emissions Estimation in Kenya Pg 10 for debate is long past. Unless we act to the climate change impacts. Through
more proactively, hundreds of millions its Intended Nationally Determined Contri-
6. Climate Smart Manyatta Pg 14 of people will face more drought, more bution (INDC) Kenya has embraced a low
floods, more hunger and more conflict. emission and climate resilient development
7. COP 21 Side Event Pg 15
That is why Kenya is not waiting. Kenya strategy.
8. Enhancing capacity for Low is taking bold adaptation and mitigation
Emission and Climate Resilience actions to combat the impacts of climate Kenya understands that the time to act is
in Kenya Pg 16 change. now. The country is in the process of final-
izing its Climate Change Bill 2014 and the
Climate change is reducing grain yields and Climate Change Policy Framework. These
causing food prices to rise steeply, espe- provide a legal and institutional framework
About Joto Afrika cially in Africa. Lower grain yields and food for mitigation and adaption to the effects of
Joto Afrika is a series of printed briefings and price spikes could lead to a 20 percent rise climate change; coordination mechanism
online resources about low emission and in malnutrition among children in Africa. Var- for formulation of programs and plans
climate change adaptation actions. The series iable rainfall patterns are likely to constrain to enhance the resilience of human and
helps people understand the issues, constrains fresh water supply, compromising hygiene ecological systems against the impacts of
and opportunities that people face in adapting and increasing the risk of water-borne climate change; measuring, verification and
to climate change and escaping poverty. Joto diseases, which kill over 2.2 million mostly reporting of climate interventions; guid-
Afrika is Swahili; it can be loosely translated to children under five years of age in Asia ance and measures to achieve low carbon
mean ‘Africa is feeling the heat’. and Africa. Climate change is creating the climate resilient development.
perfect storm, with pandemics invigorated
by warmer climate, water scarcity, hunger Moreover, initiatives such as investments
and malnutrition, and changes in disease in geothermal energy generation, estab-
vector ecology. lishment of a sub-national adaptation fund
(County Climate Change Fund), building a
According to World Health Organisation national greenhouse inventory to estimate
(WHO), the direct cost to health, excluding emissions and removals from land based
costs in agriculture, water and sanitation, activities and the wide use of solar lanterns
is projected to reach $2-4 billion annually and cook stoves, in Narok and Samburu,
by 2030. The World Bank estimates that demonstrates that the Country understands
$75 billion will be needed annually to deal the urgent need for decisive action.
with the impacts of climate change such
as tropical diseases, decline in agricultural This November, the world will converge in
productivity and damage to infrastructure Paris at COP21. COP21 may not produce
owing to sea-level rise. a global deal. But I think we all have a
moral obligation as citizens of the world to
Climate change is an existential threat to act responsibly and preserve the planet for
“Our Common Future”, which requires much posterity. COP21 must be about you and I,
greater responsibility at individual, commu- our communities and what our nations can
nity, national and global levels to return our do to curb global warming.
planet on a path of equitable and sustaina-
ble development. This special issue of Joto Alex O. Awiti, PhD
Afrika for the 21st Conference of Parties to Director, East African Institute of the Aga
the United Nations Framework Convention Khan University
on Climate Change (COP21) presents a alex.awiti@aku.edu
Communities benefiting from climate smart
agriculture initiatives in Kajiado County collection of articles, which demonstrate
©Noah Lusaka, ALIN 2015 Kenya’s commitment and leadership in
addressing the impacts of climate change

Page 1
Word from the Principal Secretary
Climate change presents a special global challenge to the social and economic development agenda. Kenya has taken important
steps towards effectively addressing the phenomenon, including putting in place relevant policies and strategies. The country, for
example, was among the first in Africa to come up with a National Climate Change Response Strategy (NCCRS) in 2010. Thereafter
in 2013, Kenya launched the National Climate Change Action Plan (NCCAP, 2013–2017), which is the blueprint for implementing
the NCCRS. Additionally, Kenya is in the process of formalizing both the National Climate Change Framework Policy and Climate
Change Bill.

In response to the decisions adopted by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the country has now
developed its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) on reducing Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions that was submitted
in July 2015. The INDC has an ambitious target of 30 per cent reduction in emissions by 2030. It is in line with the low carbon climate
resilient development pathway, which Kenya has adopted.

Kenya has also set in place a mechanism for raising public awareness about climate change as a way of ensuring all-round involvement
of citizens in combating its negative impacts and taking advantage of opportunities. In a bold step to bring this about, the government
has constructed a National Climate Change Resource Centre in Nairobi which is open for public use. It is the national repository for
climate change information relevant to Kenya.

The Resource Centre incorporates green building concepts such as use of solar power, biogas and water recycling. The Centre has a
library, amphitheater and training facilities for dissemination of climate related information.

A virtual online version of the Climate Change Resource Centre in the form of a one-stop climate change portal is currently under
development to ensure more widespread access of climate change information by the public.

This special edition of the Joto Afrika presents key initiatives the Ministry of Environment Natural Resources and Regional Development
Authorities (MENRRDA) and its partners have undertaken in realizing a low emission and climate resilient development pathway.
The production of this issue is supported by the USAID-UNDP funded Low Emission and Climate Resilient Development (LECRD)
Project, within the framework of the US Government led effort on Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategy
(EC-LEDS). I am grateful for the financial and technical support we continue to receive as a ministry from other partners.

As a Government, we appreciate efforts being made by non-state actors towards strengthening the national response to climate
change. We have featured some of these initiatives in this issue as a way of demonstrating that an effective climate response must
involve all stakeholders working in a coordinated manner, hence ensuring that different expertise, experiences and lessons are
harnessed for maximum effectiveness.

It is our hope that readers will find this special issue informative and add value to their work on addressing the challenges and
opportunities that come with climate change.

Richard L. Lesiyampe (PhD) MBS


Principal Secretary
Ministry of Environment, Natural Resources and Regional Development Authorities

Page 2
Kenya opts to green its
economy

Demonstration of a solar cooker at Jamuhuri Energy Centre


©Noah Lusaka, ALIN 2015

Transition to a green economy means The T21 Model is a uniquely customised social inclusion, building resilience, and
contributing to eradicating poverty planning tool for the long-term integrated sustainable infrastructure development.
as well as sustained economic development planning as well as carrying
growth, enhancing social inclusion, out scenario analyses of adaptation Enabling conditions for Green Growth/
improving human welfare and creating options under uncertainty in Kenya. The Economy in Kenya include Vision 2030
opportunities for employment and Model allows the cost of adaptation to (implemented through five-year Medium
decent work for all, while maintaining be quantified, which is a pre-requirement Term Plans). Vison 2030 is Kenya’s
the healthy functioning of the Earth’s for attracting much needed financing for long-term development blueprint which
ecosystems. adaptation. aims to transform the country into “a
newly industrialized, middle-income
A green economy, in the Kenyan context The Kenya Green Economy Assessment country, providing a high quality of life
refers to a shift towards a development Report (2014) underscores that green to all its citizens in a clean and secure
path that promotes resource efficiency growth has the potential to build a environment” by 2030. The Constitution
and sustainable management of natural transformative development pathway that of Kenya 2010; Article 42, recognizes a
resources, social inclusion, resilience, and will create green jobs, accelerate poverty healthy environment as a right and calls
sustainable infrastructure development. reduction, support sustainable growth, and for “sustainable exploitation, utilization,
Kenya’s key policies and programmes that restore environmental health and quality management and conservation of the
are supportive of a green economy include: as a foundation for future prosperity and environment and natural resources”.
investments in renewable energy; promotion well-being.
of resource-efficient and cleaner production; Conclusion
environmental planning and governance; In this context, the development of a Green investments and innovation in Kenya
and restoration of forest ecosystems. national Green Economy Strategy and are driven mainly by renewable energy,
Implementation Plan (GESIP) is almost resource efficient and clean technologies,
Highlights being finalized. The GESIP process is sustainable consumption and production.
The Kenya Green Economy Assessment undertaken in collaboration with strategic Fiscal policies and leveraging international
Report (2014) indicated that Kenya is partners; United Nations Environment support are crucial in the implementation of
implementing various Green Economy Program (UNEP), African Development the Green Economy Strategy.
initiatives and policies such as investment in Bank (AfDB), World Wide Fund for
renewable energy, promotion of sustainable Nature (WWF), Danish International Charles Mutai (PhD)
production and consumption, pollution Development Agency (DANIDA) and Deputy Director
control and waste management, and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Climate Change Secretariat
environmental planning and governance. Zusammenarbeit (GIZ). Multi-stakeholder drcmutai@gmail.com
and multi-sectoral consultations have
Greening scenarios - which is based on being held at the national and county Herman Kwoba
Kenya-Threshold 21 (T21) model - show levels. GESIP focuses on the promotion National Coordinator
that a transition to green economy has of resource efficiency, sustainable Green Economy Transition Africa
positive impacts in the medium and long management of natural resources, kwoba.herman@gmail.com
term across all the sectors of the economy.

Contribute to Joto Afrika

Do you want to tell people how your community is adapting to climate change? Are you involved in a programme,
project or research that is helping people to find practical solutions to cope with the effects of climate change? We want
your contributions for Joto Afrika!

We are looking for research work, community case studies, videos, audio clips and photo essays about climate change
adaptation in Kenya. The case studies need to be short (no more than 600 words), easy to understand and provide
practical information for other people facing these problems. If you would like to contribute, please contact the editor at
jotoafrika@alin.net. We welcome contributions in English.

Page 3
Kenya moves to complete the
National Adaptation Plan

Women in Kajiado County practising Climate


Smart Agriculture ©Noah Lusaka ALIN, 2015

Climate change adaptation has become Adaptation and Measuring Development What is the role of private sector in
a global policy priority. The ongoing (TAMD) framework which are being used to adaptation?
process to develop the National train partners on adaptation and resilience. The private sector is producing tea varieties
Adaptation Plan (NAP) marks another that can survive under frost conditions. They
landmark by the Government of Kenya What are your achievements so far? have also come up with adaptation packages
towards addressing climate change We have designed and we are in the for farmers. Amiran, a company specializing
vulnerability. process of recommending how to in irrigation, has developed irrigation systems
institutionalise climate change adaptation for small scale farmers while Syngenta has
An interview with a Kenya-based director of monitoring systems that are customised developed varieties of seeds that suit different
LTS international, a consulting and project to needs at all levels down to the wards. ecological zones. Furthermore, the private
management firm that supports sustainable We are creating linkages of the county sector also supports research, capacity
development worldwide, Ms. Irene Karani, adaptation monitoring and evaluation (M&E) building and piloting of some of the adaptation
highlights milestones Kenya has achieved systems with the National Performance and technologies.
as it completes its NAP. Benefit Measurement Framework (NPBMF)
developed as part of the NCCAP. The What are the lessons you have learnt
What aspects of climate change work are county level M&E systems will contribute during your envolvement in various
you involved in Kenya? to aggregation of data and information on aspects in Kenya?
Our focus in Kenya is on assisting in climate change adaptation at the national • In the arid and semi-arid areas (ASALs)
development of the adaptation chapter of level. For example data collected on it is not useful to differentiate between
Kenya’s National Climate Change Action adaptation indicators at the county level adaptation and drought management
Plan (NCCAP.) LTS also coordinated the will feed into national level data sets on because both entail the same activities.
development of the National Performance adaptation. We are also involved in the
Benefits Measurements Framework for finalisation the NAP. • In the past, infrastructure planning
climate change in Kenya. In operationalizing should take into account climate
the NCCAP, we are working with the The local planning TAMD manual developed scenarios to ensure that facilities survive
adaptation thematic working group to with IIED drew a lot of experience from another 30-40 years.
develop the NAP. The NAP will address Isiolo and currently being used in Sudan,
how to integrate climate change adaptation Tanzania, Uganda, and Mozambique. • The fact that national and county
into the medium term plan of Vision 2030 governments have set aside funds
and mainstreaming adaptation into the What are the achievements of the shows that the country’s capacity to
County Integrated Plans of all of Kenya’s 47 Government of Kenya in responding prepare and respond to climate change
counties. climate change? risks has been enhanced.
In terms of policy achievements so far,
What aspect are you addressing to Kenya is the only country in East Africa with • Communities no longer want food aid
enhance resilience? a climate change policy, a climate change but solutions so that they can feed
We are working closely with the Adaptation law, a National Climate Change Response themselves.
Consortium coordinated by the National Strategy and a National Climate Change
Drought Management Authority (NDMA) to Action Plan. Moreover, only Kenya has Do you have any recommendation?
come up with climate change adaptation a climate change performance benefits Yes. Adaptation is a journey – and not
monitoring and evaluation frameworks measurements framework for assessing a destination. National plans should be
for Isiolo, Kitui and Makueni counties. We progress on adaptation and mitigation. developed and updated continuously,
work with both county and ward adaptation progressively and iteratively. Implementation
planning committees and assist them In terms of climate finance Kenya has sub- should be based on nationally identified
in developing theories of change and national climate adaptation financing known priorities.
adaptation indicators through training as the County Adaptation Fund (CAF) that is
assisting the most vulnerable communities Irene Karani
processes.
in enhancing resilience. Climate funds from Director, LTS
We have developed a number of training the International Climate Fund are used Irene-Karani@ltsi.co.uk
materials with partners such as the to implement county and ward adaptation Interview was conducted by Esther Lungahi
International Institute for Environment actions directly. who works with ALIN
and Development (IIED) on the Tracking

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Page 4
Contingency finance
revolutionises response
to droughts in Kenya
Provision of water to schools in Baringo ©NDMA

Drought is the single most damaging Drought contingency finance should be Lessons learnt
natural hazard in Kenya, destroying developmental. Livelihoods analysis helps • The NDMA’s role is to help the counties
lives and livelihoods and undermining identify the impact of drought on producers respond more quickly and effectively
national development. These impacts and the actions that will best reinforce their to drought. The information generated
are likely to worsen with climate change. capacity to cope. An example might be by the early warning system is already
However, many of these costs could targeting services along migratory corridors guiding county decision-making,
be avoided or significantly mitigated or in areas where livestock converge so while the drought contingency funds
by reducing people’s exposure and that pastoralists can access dry-season complement the resources available
vulnerability to risk. This requires grazing. Drought contingency finance can to the sectors. However, it is important
that adequate, cost-effective and also strengthen the ability of communities that contingency funds are not used
appropriate measures are taken in and those who work with them to manage to displace the regular allocations for
advance of drought so that people’s drought episodes better, thus improving basic service delivery that should be
capacity to anticipate and withstand is preparedness. included in county and sector budgets.
strengthened.
The allocation of drought contingency • County drought contingency and
The Government of Kenya is establishing finance is guided by two linked systems: response plans will have greatest
a National Drought Contingency Fund impact if they are seen as a shared
(NDCF). This initiative reflects a wider • Contingency planning: county framework that guides the work of all
policy shift from crisis management to risk drought contingency plans are agencies, including NGOs and non-
management, informed by evidence which approved in advance of a drought state actors.
suggests that early action can protect lives and describe, sector by sector, what
and livelihoods and avoid the high cost of should be done during each phase: • Media coverage does not always
emergency response. The NDCF will be an ‘normal’, ‘alert’, ‘alarm’, ‘emergency’ reflect the complexity of a situation on
innovative way of ensuring that finance for or ‘recovery’. Once the alert or alarm the ground. Sometimes people suffer
early drought response is always available phase is reached, the plan is quickly not because a drought is particularly
when needed. reviewed and an operational response severe, but because the failure to
plan is developed to address the address the structural causes of
As an interim measure, until the NDCF particular features of that drought. It poverty has left them vulnerable to
is operational, the National Drought is these response plans which are comparatively modest shocks. It is for
Management Authority (NDMA) has been financed with contingency funds. this reason that early drought response
disbursing drought contingency finance is now part of a broader, long-term
provided by the European Union. In Wajir, • Early warning: the drought phase strategy in Kenya called Ending
for example, rapid response teams ensured is determined by the early warning Drought Emergencies, which aims to
that strategic boreholes were repaired within system. This monitors bio-physical reduce vulnerability and help drought-
six hours. In Embu, the County Government indicators (to assess the severity prone communities become more
was able to repair 12 boreholes and protect of drought) and socio-economic resilient to its effects.
the health of nearly 3,000 cattle and 22,000 indicators (to assess its impact), using
sheep and goats; as a result, distances to a combination of remote-sensed Conclusions
water and livestock diseases both reduced. data, household interviews and direct The NDCF has the potential to be an
observation. effective and accountable mechanism
for timely drought response. It may also
NDCF allocations, 2014-15 reinforce other interventions, such as cash
transfers and climate change adaptation
funds. Future priorities will include helping
Agriculture neighbouring counties develop joint
contingency plans, since droughts are not
Coordination contained within administrative boundaries,
Education as well as ensuring sound evaluation of the
impact of the funding on people’s lives.
Health and Nutrition
Luigi Luminari
Livestock Technical Advisor
Security
National Drought Management Authority
(NDMA)
Water luigi.luminari@dmikenya.or.ke

Article was written by By Izzy Birch of


NDMA

Page 5
Kenya plans to tap
into more geothermal
energy
Well heads used for geothermal electricity generation in
Olkaria in Kenya Rift Valley ©Isaiah Esipisu
The Government of Kenya has prioritized patterns and rainfall. In Kenya, climate Conclusion
the development of clean electricity change is increasing incidences of drought, Geothermal energy power has the potential
generation from to help achieve the flooding and water scarcity, and causing to provide reliable, cost-competitive
goal of Kenya’s National Climate Change sea level rise. renewable electricity to Kenyans.
Action Plan to reduce greenhouse gas Geothermal energy has a small carbon
emissions and mitigate against climate Kenya’s National Climate Change Action footprint and reduces the electricity
change. Plan 2013-2017 (NCCAP) identifies generation sector’s vulnerability to
geothermal electricity generation as a climate change by decreasing reliance on
Geothermal energy is a clean, renewable priority low-carbon technology because hydropower. Expansion of geothermal is a
resource that is abundant in Kenya’s Rift it is much cleaner and has lower GHG critical action to achieve Kenya’s national
Valley. Geothermal energy is heat from emissions than electricity produced development and climate change goals.
the Earth. Volcanic activity heats trapped from fossil fuels, such as through diesel
underground water and produces steam, generators or coal-fired plants. The NCCAP Deborah Murphy
which is captured through wells and moved by notes that adding an additional 2,275 MW Technical Assistance Advisor
pipelines to turbines that convert the steam’s of geothermal capacity by 2030 (to replace Strengthening Adaptation and Resilience to
heat energy to electricity. Geothermal energy is fossil fuels) would reduce GHG emissions Climate Change in Kenya plus (StARCK+)
sustainable energy because the water used is by 14 megatonnes (Mt). 14 MT is a deborah.murphy@ficcf.com
brine (a concentrated salty solution) that does significant reduction, being equivalent to the
not compete with other uses such as irrigation total amount of GHG emissions generated Doreen Chirchir
and human and livestock consumption, and the by the energy and transport sectors in Technical Assistance Intern,StARCK+
water goes back underground after being used Kenya in 2010. Doreen.Chirchir@ficcf.com
to generate electricity.
The commissioning of two geothermal
Geothermal energy has a prominent role in the plants in 2015 meant that geothermal’s
Government of Kenya’s plans for expanding contribution to the national energy mix
Kenya pioneers production
electricity-generating capacity and reaching increased to approximately 50 per cent. of geothermal electricity
the goals of Vision 2030. Installed capacity of This increase in geothermal reduces from wellheads
geothermal electricity is targeted to increase the exposure of electricity consumers to
from 573 megawatts (MW) in July 2015 to climate change. Drought and low rainfall Kenya has pioneered a technology that
1,887 MW by 2017 and 5,000 MW by 2030. result in low water levels in reservoirs and enables the direct generation of electricity
rivers, reducing power supply from hydro using steam from stand-alone geothermal
Geothermal energy production is taking electricity generating stations. Geothermal wells, known as wellheads.
place at five sites in the Olkaria area near energy will help to reduce the reliance on
Naivasha, which is about 120 kilometers Conventionally, it takes at least two
diesel generation during dry spells, which
northwest of Nairobi. The Kenya Electricity years to construct a geothermal power
increases greenhouse gas emissions
Generating Company (KenGen) operates plant. In the period between drilling and
because diesel is a fossil fuel. Geothermal
all but one of the production sites, which construction, steam from the individual
energy production is not affected by the
is operated by a private sector company. wells remains untapped.
variability in weather created by climate
The Geothermal Development Corporation, change; and therefore increases in At the Olkaria area in Kenya’s Rift
a parastatal established by the national geothermal help to “climate proof” electricity Valley, KenGen has drilled 264 wells.
government, has played a significant role supply and decrease 11 wellheads have been mounted that
in geothermal development by helping are already injecting 55 megawatts of
to underwrite the cost of start-up, which Economic benefits electricity into the national grid. Four more
is very high. The Government of Kenya Expansion of geothermal production wellheads are under construction, and
has contributed significant financing for increases the number of households and experts say they will produce a total of 20
geothermal development. Other financiers businesses connected to the national more megawatts in the next few months.
include the World Bank, European Investment electricity grid. The cost of electricity for
Bank, and the governments of France, Japan those consumers is lower by reducing With the last two geothermal plants
and Germany. the reliance on costly diesel generation. (Olkaria IV and Olkaria V) commissioned
In addition, geothermal development by Kenya’s President Uhuru Kenyatta
Potential of geothermal to reduce GHG creates jobs. Local job opportunities are in October 2014, Kenya has become
emissions and build climate resilience created during exploration, drilling and the world eighth largest supplier of
Geothermal energy is considered a low- construction. Building a geothermal energy geothermal energy with an installed
carbon technology because modern plant typically takes four years. Permanent capacity of 585 megawatts. This
geothermal power plants emit no greenhouse and full-time jobs are created when the represents five percent of the total global
gases (GHG). An increase in GHG power plant starts to operate. Local private geothermal production according to the
emissions, especially carbon dioxide, is companies also benefit. For example, World Geothermal Council.
responsible for climate change or a warming KenGen has entered into an agreement
Isaiah Esipisu
of the Earth’s average temperature. This with Oserian Development Company to
warming causes variations in weather, supply geothermal energy (steam) to heat
including changes in temperature, wind their greenhouses and generate electricity
for their flower farm operations.
Page 6
Planning for resilience
and sustainability in
East Africa

A woman milking a goat in Nguruman, Kajiado County ©Noah Lusaka, ©ALIN

In order to develop effective plans What capacity building activities do you

FEWS NET and ICPAC, 2014


and policies in the face of climatic support?
uncertainty, decision-makers in the We support training and capacity building
East Africa Community (EAC) region activities to support various entities. For
must have ready access to information instances training communities and partner
that is timely, useful, usable and states on use of geospatial information
tailored to their specific decision- for climate vulnerability work; training on
making needs. However, climatic after management and how to deal with
prediction models and their application non-revenue after losses in urban areas
in various sectors in the region are still such as Kisumu, Training partners on data
underdeveloped. rescue, training on needs assessment
for adaptation that will include various
Planning for Resilience in East Africa stakeholders and practitioners.
through Policy, Adaptation, Research, and
Economic Development (PREPARED) We are supporting the development of a
that works in East African region; Burundi, Climate Information Network (CIN), which
Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda GeoCLIM map showing percent change will serve as an interactive forum for Climate
focusing on the Lake Victoria Basin aims in precipitation for long rains season Information Users and Service Providers to
to build resilience in the EAC region . The (1981–2013) share, adopt and adapt tools and products
project is funded by United States Agency tailored to the needs of decision-makers
for International Development (USAID). Several methodologies are being used and end-users of climate information in East
including community based adaptation Africa.
Emily Ojoo-Massawa who is a Climate assessments, making use of vulnerability
Change Adaptation Technical Advisor indices covering exposure, sensitivity and Collaboratively with the EAC’s Directorate
working with the PREPARED Project lack of adaptive capacity as per the of Productive Sectors (DPS), we are
speaks to Joto Afrika highlighting the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate establishing an institutional development
experiences in Kenya. Change definitions to determine process to assess and monitor the capacity
vulnerability. Data is an issue and we growth of the Climate Change Coordination
What aspects of climate change work in are using a tool known as Geoclim that Unit (CCCU) to build relevant Information
Kenya are you supporting? combines climate station data and satellite and Knowledge Management Systems
Our role in Kenya is to strengthen the data from which we generate information (IKMS).
resilience and sustainability of freshwater on exposure. The socioeconomic data has
ecosystems and communities by targeting been made available by the partner states Do you have any recommendation?
three key development challenges: working in collaboration with the Regional Yes. There should be preparedness to deal
Climate change adaptation technical Centre for Mapping of Resources for with the adverse effects of climate change
capacity, policy leadership and action Development. We are supporting climate including the conscious building of adaptive
readiness of regional institutions. We data rescue that will help the EAC and the capacity. Scholarly efforts should also be
work closely with the EAC Secretariat Lake Victoria basin develop a Climate encouraged so as to better understand
one of its organs the Lake Victoria Basin Action Plan Strategy that is robust as it the EAC climate system and come up with
Commission (LVBC), EAC Partner States, will use historical data going back several adaptation plans that benefit from historical
particularly Institutions and agencies decades. information and data.
responsible for climate change adaptation.
The partner institutions in the program We are working with grantees in all the Emily Ojoo-Massawa
that we work with include: Famine five partner states, in areas that have been Climate Change Adaptation Technical
Early Warning System Network (FEWS identified as climate hotspots. An example Advisor
NET), Intergovernmental Authority on is Eco-Finder Kenya—we are supporting Emily.Massawa@ea-prepared.org
Development (IGAD) Climate Prediction in promoting climate and ecosystem smart
and Applications Centre (ICPAC) and the livelihoods for adaptation among Yala Interview was conducted by
Regional Center for Mapping of Resources wetlands communities through participative Esther Lung’ahi - ALIN
for Development (RCMRD). research and sustainable community
actions. The Yala wetland is a designated
How is the work you are supporting Biodiversity Significant Area (BSA) and an
aligning with NCCAP? important bird area.
We (including the PREPARED program
partners) are working with the EAC climate In addition we are supporting EAC Partner
change Unit and the LVBC Secretariat in States on their preparations for COP21,
conducting a Vulnerability and Impacts capacity building events such as training
Assessment (VIA) of the Lake Victoria in adaptation to be done in concert with
Basin and to prepare an Adaptation Action the Global Climate Adaptation Partnership
Plan for the Lake Victoria Basin. (GCAP) and climate finance readiness
work.

Page 7
Samburu community

School children displaying solar lanterns for lighting at night ©LECB

The availability of adequate, affordable which is in the semi-arid areas of Kenya. the Bill of Rights, Constitution of Kenya
and reliable energy resources is The Samburu community is a pastoral (2010).
essential for alleviating poverty and community that relies on firewood as their
achieving sustainable development. primary lighting and cooking fuel. The approach
Securing sustainable energy for all Kenya’s National Environmental
involves the development of systems Since Nationally Appropriate Adaptation Management Authority (NEMA) officers
that support the optimal use of energy Actions (NAMAs) are concrete projects, based in Maralal identified the schools
resources in an equitable and socially policies, and/or programmes that shift a to benefit from the solar lanterns and
supportive manner while minimizing technology or sector in a country onto a improved stoves. Identified schools
negative environmental impacts. low-carbon development pathway, the were Lolkunono, Loibor Nkare, Siampu,
Project aimed at distributing solar charged Nkorika, Ngamata, Lkiloriti primary
The Low Emission Capacity Building LED lanterns and improved cook stoves schools. These schools are off grid, and
(LECB) Project, which is the forerunner among households in off grid areas. located several kilometers from Maralal
of the present Low Emission Climate The target consumers as a pathway town, the headquarters of Samburu
Resilient Development (LECRD) Project, towards promoting low carbon initiatives County. On average each of the schools
piloted the solar lantern and cook stoves at community level were primary school- had a population of 300 students. The
energy aspect of Kenya’s Nationally going children of class seven and eight. project distributed 1,000 solar lanterns
Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) and an equal number of Jiko Upesi cook
of Rural Household Energy (RHE). It Promotion of the use of solar charged stoves to the student population in the six
sought to address problems associated LED lanterns and improved cook stoves, schools.
with kerosene and wood fuels use guaranteed the right to a clean and
among households in Samburu County, healthy environment as provided for under Several types of solar lanterns were
presented to the community. Their
functionality efficiency, portability and
cost were explained and the community
chose the Sun King Pro solar lantern as
the most suitable. This lantern is solar
powered and can provide up to 12 hours
of light and has mobile phone charging
capabilities provided for by a dual USB
phone charging point. It is unbreakable
and water proof.

Demonstration of the improved cook


stoves among women in Samburu was
carried out in primary schools in all the
six target project areas. The use of local
community members to demonstrate the
installation process of the improved cook
stove liners helped the community to
better understand the technologies.

An evaluation of the Project indicated


concrete benefits as a result of
introduction of the improved cook stoves
and solar lanterns as follows:

• There is less smoke,thus reduced


rates of respiratory infections and eye
diseases
• They significantly reduced time spent
fetching firewood by men and women
Solar • They use less firewood
laterns and • Improved academic performance due
improved to use of solar lanterns
cook stoves • Ease of charging mobile phones
in use enabling household savings as it
©LECB

Page 8
embraces renewable energy technologies

Distribution of solar lamps ©LECB Distribution of solar lamps ©LECB

would cost about Kshs 20 (5 US as many were sent off to herd livestock. for all, to satisfy rapid growth in energy
cents) to charge a phone at the However, the use of solar lighting has demand, particularly in marginalized
market place influenced more parents to take their communities. Integrated national and
Impact children to school. Women appreciated county infrastructures for energy supply,
The solar lanterns distributed produced that the new stoves significantly reduced efficient transmission and distribution
sufficient light for the children to study in the amount of firewood they required to systems as well as programmes that
the night. Previously students would not cook. Trips to fetch firewood reduced from emphasize energy efficiency are
get homework done. With the LED solar 3-4 times a week to once a week. necessary for sustainable energy systems.
light, teachers started giving the children
work to carry home thus they could Recommendation Harun Warui (PhD)
homework to be completed at home. A transformation of energy systems is National Project Manager
needed to provide sustainable energy Low Emission Capacity Building Project
It has been observed that only a few harunwarui@gmail.com
children used to go to school in the past
Yvonne Nyokabi
yvonnenyokabii@gmail.com

Elizabeth Murua
e.m.murua@gmail.com

Distribution of improved cook stoves liners ©LECRD

Page 9
Building a System for
Land-based Emissions
Estimation in Kenya
Data can play a key role in helping communities manage
their land and improve livelihoods ©SLEEK 2010

Achieving long-term sustainable To achieve this, SLEEK will bring together Conclusion
economic growth in Kenya in the face five key data sets: SLEEK is a program that has potential
of climate change is a primary concern. • Soil data providing information about to an enormous difference it Kenya. The
There is need to use knowledge- soil nutrient and carbon levels; program will harness data to help the
driven insights to help communities • data showing forest distribution in country tackle climate change and support
effectively mitigate, prepare and adapt Kenya and how much carbon is sustainable development. This will help
to climate change. In the current stored; Kenya understand both its emissions
information age, with institutions and • Comprehensive weather maps, and its land – which is so important to it’s
individuals producing new data each showing key climate indicators across future prosperity and sustainability.
day, “big data,” or large, complex the country;
datasets are being generated at high • Information about Kenya’s key crops Winfred Musila (PhD)
speeds. Understanding and sharing including how much carbon is stored Program Coordinator
of these massive amounts of data by different crops; and SLEEK, Government of Kenya
provides an opportunity of addressing • Land cover maps of Kenya showing Ministry of Environment, Natural
climate change. Shared information how land-use has changed. Resources and Regional Development
has the potential to inform, educate and Authorities
usher a new wave of communication, Potential impact wmusila@yahoo.com
innovation and opportunities. While these data-sets are primarily
captured for emissions estimation, they
Decision makers, land-managers and can also be used to address issues
farmers need to have access to accurate ranging from food security, agricultural Subscribe to
data to effectively manage land, mitigate productivity to land-management. Kenya
and adapt to climate change. However, has already identified a wide range of Joto Afrika
data in Kenya is fragmented, incomplete applications that could be developed
or inaccessible providing little benefit to using SLEEK data. For example, the
Kenya’s development. For the last three SLEEK data on Kenya’s climate data,
years, Kenyan Government officials, crop growth information and maps of
academia and scientists have been Kenya’s soils can be used to estimate
working with the Clinton Foundation to the best crop to grow in a particular area.
address this problem by building a System This information can be disseminated to
for Land-based Emissions Estimation farmers and land-managers through SMS,
in Kenya (SLEEK). This program is programs or mobile applications. As the
supported by the Government of Australia climate changes, SLEEK will help farmers
and will help provide essential information and land-managers adapt by giving them
about Kenya’s land-sector. access to up-to-date information. By
continuously providing cutting-edge advice
The program’s primary goal is to build a on climate data, soils information and
national emissions estimation system for crops, SLEEK will help farmers, land- Join the Joto Afrika debate
Kenya. Emissions estimation systems play managers and communities to access online
a key role in tackling climate change for cutting edge data that is key to adapting to Joto Afrika Eldis Community
a number of reasons. Firstly, they allow climate change. Group:
a country to understand their emissions http://bit.ly/bM3ESo
with great precision. Without this precision SLEEK can also help connect local
it is impossible to know the impact databases with national infrastructure.
of policies on a country’s emissions. For example, a forest tracker could
Secondly, emissions estimation like help Kenya’s forest managers track
SLEEK allow countries to model and plan deforestation. Communities will also be
different scenarios. It allows countries to able to use this data to help plan their own
compare different approaches to make reforestation projects, allowing them to
climate smart decisions. Finally, it builds estimate the income they could generate
confidence among donors and investors by selling carbon credits to people
to invest in carbon reductions as they wanting to offset their environmental
know that carbon reductions are being impact. These applications show the
properly tracked and measured. This possibilities of harnessing big data by the
has the potential to unlock access to the SLEEK program. Continuing to identify
$100 billion of climate finance funds that and capitalize on these datasets will be a
has been promised to help tackle climate key opportunity for all ministries within the Joto Afrika Facebook Group:
change. Government of Kenya. http://bit.ly/aMNLth

Page 10
Linking Counties
through devolved
climate finance
Samburu women fetching water from rehabilitated water tank in
Mokori Oldonyiro Ward ©Peter Cacah

Significant financial resources are public good investments whose costs strategy that looks at livestock production,
needed to help developing countries fall within their allocation of CCCF. marketing and disease control instead of
to adequately deal with climate change Investments had to meet criteria that developing these separately.
impacts by supporting low carbon promote climate resilient growth and
growth pathways and enhancing the adaptive livelihoods that had been agreed A County Climate Information Services
adaptive capacities of vulnerable upon beforehand. (CIS) plan is currently being subjected
communities. In Kenya, The Adaptation to public hearing and validation. Once
Consortium has successfully piloted Investment proposals were submitted finalized, it will guide how Kenya
an approach involving establishment for review and approval by the County Meteorological Department (KMD)
of County Climate Funds (CCCFs) Adaptation Planning Committee (CAPC) provides information to users at the lower
starting with Isiolo County to that brought together representatives levels in a demand driven way.
ensure prioritization of adaptation from WCCPCs, governments (both county
interventions is undertaken at the and national) and other stakeholders. Emerging success and lessons learnt
county level. Once approved, WCCPCs negotiated and • There is evidence that WCCPCs are
signed contracts with service providers able to cost-effectively deliver projects
The Adaptation Consortium (ADA) that were paid from the CCCF in phases with high adaptation impacts
in Kenya brings together a number depending on the nature of investments. • There is good progress with
of organisations working together in mainstreaming the devolved
building adaptive capacity at county The process of decision making climate fund approach within county
level. It is managed by National Drought enabled local people, through their ward governments. Already, Isiolo County
Management Authority (NDMA). committees, to remain in control of their has a draft CCCF bill undergoing
The Consortium is helping county development and adaptation priorities approval process to allow full
governments’ access climate finance and in keeping with principles and spirit of integration within the county planning
mainstream climate change into planning devolution. The relationship between and budgeting process.
for climate resilient development. higher levels of government and WCCPCs • The development of County Climate
was more facilitative working towards Information Services (CIS) plan
The consortium seeks to address strengthening proposals from the wards enables KMD to provide more
challenges that include: disconnect rather than vetoing. WCCPCs also relevant information to the different
between community and government oversaw tendering and implementation county stakeholders in a coordinated
planning; poor coordination across sectors enabling ward-level committees to account and sustainable manner.
and levels of government; poor access for the good use of their allocation of the • Mainstreaming these approaches
and use of climate information; and low CCCF. The CAPCs used a monitoring into county government requires
capacity to track impacts of projects on framework known as Tracking Adaptation development and implementing
adaptation. and Measuring Development (TAMD) to partners to continually reassess and
monitor progress with resilience building. reposition their role to build local
How the County Climate Fund works The National Climate Change Action Plan ownership and seek opportunity
At the commencement of the pilot stage in (NCCAP) for Kenya recommended that to integrate leadership and
Isiolo County, the work involved four key TAMD be piloted in a number of counties accountability with local institutions.
elements as follows: before being adopted nationally.
• Setting up the County Climate Long-term climate finance is required to
Change Fund (CCCF) Public good investments for resilience allow counties to consolidate the gains
• Establishing a County and Ward- building made in support of adaptation.
level Climate Change Planning In Isiolo County, two rounds of investment
Committees (WCCPCs) consisting of 44 projects have been Lessons from Isiolo have informed upscaling
• Carrying out participatory resilience implemented over 2013-15. The of the work into four additional counties
assessment, resource mapping and interventions range from investments in of Garissa, Wajir, Kitui and Makueni since
integration of climate information governance institutions, county-level policy 2013. Garissa and Wajir are arid while Kitui
• Strengthening monitoring and formulation to infrastructure for increased and Makueni semi-arid. All the five counties
evaluation system to capture resilience. Examples include strengthening experience frequent droughts that need to
progress with resilience building. and legalization of local Natural Resource be managed pro-actively as part of Kenya’s
Management (NRM) institutions, adaptation strategy.
Investments in public goods were community resource mapping and
prioritized by representatives from supporting development of sectoral plans; Victor Orindi
WCCPCs against a pre-allocated but infrastructure for improved resilience such vorindi@adaconsortium.org
undefined budget. WCCPCs conducted as construction or rehabilitation of water Article contributors include: Victor Orindi,
participatory Resilience Assessments infrastructure and a livestock disease Jane Kiiru, Yazan Elhadi and Mumina
(RA) and Participatory Vulnerability and laboratory. Because of its inclusive Bonaya
Capacity Assessment (PVCA) to establish nature, the County Adaptation Planning
factors that either strengthen or weaken Committee managed to bring together See criteria for county climate fund
the local economy and livelihood systems. all stakeholders in the livestock sector to on page 12
Results from participatory assessment develop a comprehensive county livestock
were then used by WCCPCs to prioritise Page 11
Kenya’s Intended
Nationally Determined
Contribution (INDC)
Tree planting in Marigat, Baringo County©Noah Lusaka,
ALIN 2015

Development of the Intended Nationally rainfall has, however, not indicated levels.
Determined Contribution (INDC) is statistically significant trends over
based on the request for the countries most parts of the country, but the The mitigation component is in tandem
that are party to the United Nations increase in the frequency and with the low carbon, climate resilient
Framework Convention on Climate intensity of extreme rainfall events development pathway articulated in
Change (UNFCCC) to submit their implies that a large proportion of Kenya’s NCCAP (2013-2017) and the
agreements in the context of their own what may today be considered as country’s sustainable development
national circumstances, capabilities ‘normal rainfall’ may in future fall agenda. The component seeks to abate
and priorities, within the ambition as short-lived anomalously above GHG emissions by 30 percent by 2030
to reduce global greenhouse gas normal storms. This coupled with the relative to the business as usual (BAU)
emissions to below 2 degrees celcious increased evapotranspiration rates scenario projection of 143 MtCO2eq.
of pre industrial levels. The Kenya’s resulting from higher temperatures This is a clear demonstration of Kenya’s
INDC was submitted to the UNFCCC in will put a lot of strain on agricultural determination to voluntarily contribute to
July 2015. and energy production, among the below 2-degree global mitigation goal,
others, and lead to increased damage notwithstanding that Kenya’s contribution
Kenya’s INDC responds to Kenya’s unique to infrastructure. to the total global emissions is a mere
national circumstances, among them that: 0.1%; with per-capita emissions of less
• More than 80 percent of the country’s The INDC is in line with Kenya’s blueprint than 1.26 MtCO2eq compared to the
landmass is ASAL, making the for development (Vision2030) and its global average of 7.58 MtCO2eq.
country highly vulnerable to climate medium term plans (MTP); is anchored
change impacts as ASALs are some on the Constitution, the (draft) National Under the adaptation component, Kenya
of the most fragile ecosystems. Climate Change Framework Policy and will ensure enhanced resilience to climate
• There are delineable signals of Climate Change Bill (2014); and builds change towards the attainment of Vision
climate change from observational on the foundation laid in the development 2030 by mainstreaming climate change
records, chief among them, of the National Climate Change Action adaptation into the Medium Term Plans
increasing temperature trends, with Plan (NCCAP 2013-2017) and the (MTP) and implementing adaptation
the country generally showing a National Adaptation Plan (NAP 2013- actions, in line with the vision of the
warming trend in recent years. 2017). Further, the INDC recognises NAP. The component recognises that
• Climate change impacts are already that individual and corporate action at all the country’s socio-economic sectors
being experienced in the different all levels (international, national, sub- are vulnerable to climate change, and
sectors of Kenya’s economy, albeit national) is required for the country to consequently proposes sector-level
with differing manifestations. comprehensively and efficiently address strategic adaptation actions for each MTP
• The commonest manifestation of climate change. It is in this respect that sector, with the assumption that lower-
climate change has been through an the INDC recognises that all stakeholders, level actions will be determined at the
apparent increase in the frequency including Government ministries, implementation stage.
and intensity of extreme climate departments and agencies; and non-state
events, chief among them, droughts actors will need to play their rightful role The INDC mitigation and adaptation
and floods, which are estimated to in its implementation. The INDC also planning process hinges on the
cause economic losses of 3% of recognises the roles of the two levels of institutional and implementation structures
the country’s GDP. The average Government, namely, national and county proposed in the NCCAP (2013-2017) and
the NAP that shall be reviewed every five
years to inform the MTP. The process also
takes cognisance of the National Climate
See also Change Framework Policy and the
Climate Change Bill (2014) that proposes
County Climate Fund Criteria several institutional reforms to enhance
• Must benefit many people coordination of climate change adaptation
• Must support the dominant economy, livelihoods or important services on and mitigation. It is estimated that USD 40
which many people depend billion will required for the implementation
• Must be relevant to building resilience to climate change of the mitigation and adaptation actions
• Must encourage harmony, build relations, understanding and trust across the different sectors by 2030. It
• Must have been developed after consultation with all potential is expected that this support will come
stakeholders and aligned with County Integrated Development Plan. from both public and private domestic and
• Must be viable, achievable and sustainable international sources.
• Must be cost-effective and give value for money
Stephen Kinguyu
Acting Deputy Director, National Climate
Change Secretariat
stephen.kinguyu@gmail.com

Page 12
Kenya’s Water Towers
Protection and climate change
Mitigation and Adaptation
(WaTER) Programme
Webuye falls in Bungoma County ©Esther Lungahi, ALIN 2014

The Water Towers Protection and mitigation and adaptation to climate are operationalized, their capacity to
Climate Change Mitigation and change. manage water towers that are shared
Adaptation (WaTER) Programme was among several counties presents several
formulated by the Government of • County Governments are supported challenges. Given these challenges, the
Kenya and The European Union. The to identify, appraise and implement Government has sought resources and
partnership agreement was signed rehabilitation, reclamation, technical support to achieve the following
on the 14th of October 2014. The restoration, incentive mechanisms outputs:
Programme will focus on two water and other relevant activities for
towers; Cherengany Hills and Mt ecologically and economically • A harmonized institutional
Elgon and will run for a period of 6 sustainable land use systems for the architecture linking national and
years. Kenya Forest Service (KFS), protection of the Mount Elgon and county governments for natural
the Directorate of Environment (DoE), Cherangany Hills ecosystems. resource management
Kenya Water Tower Agency (KWTA)
Kenya Forest Research Institute • Kenya Forest Research Institute • Enhanced capacities and systems
(KEFRI) and Kenya Wildlife Service (KEFRI) will undertake analysis and to establish an integrated approach
(KWS), are the main institutions characterization of the two to water tower conservation and
implementing this Programme under management
• ecosystems to inform the targeting of
the Ministry of Environment Natural
interventions and policy decisions (i.e. • Incentivizing communities adjacent to
Resources and Regional Development
the grant Programme, result area 3). water towers to optimize conservation
Authorities. This Programme is
designed to cover 10 counties hosting and sustainably reap benefits
Recognition of Kenya’s water towers accruing from the same
the two water towers and related river economic importance and threats
systems. posed by their degradation has led to Improved linkages between providers of
several Government and community-led ecosystem services with the private sector
The overall objective is to support Kenya initiatives. Vision 2030, Kenya’s long- The Programme therefore involves
eradicate poverty through enhancing term development blueprint, pursued supporting implementing institutions of
the productivity of ecosystem services in conservation of water towers as a flagship Government and ten counties hosting
the project area and enhance resilience project under the 2008-2012 Medium-Term the watershed regimes that include the
of her water sources to climate change. Plans (MTP1as well as MTP2). respective river systems that feed into
The expected results of the Programme
lakes Victoria, Turkana and Baringo.
include the following: The Government of Kenya formulated The counties involved are: Trans Nzoia,
a National Climate Change Response Bungoma, West Pokot, Elgeyo Marakwet,
• The Ministry of Environment Strategy (NCCRS) in 2010 and a Nandi, Uasin Gishu, Kakamega, Busia,
Natural Resources and Regional National Climate Change Action Plan Siaya and Kisumu.
Development Authorities and county (NCCAP) in 2013. The two documents
governments are strengthened with advance proposals that include actions Engr. Moses Omedi Jura
knowledge, skills and approaches to for promoting low carbon and climate Focal Point
coordinate restoration, conservation resilient growth. To enhance provision of Water Towers Protection and Climate
and management of water towers. ecosystem services, the Constitution of Mitigation and Adaptation (WaTER)
Kenya also provides for a 10 per cent tree Programme
• Kenya Forest Service in partnership
cover of the land area in Kenya. omedijura@gmail.com
with the Kenya Water Tower Agency,
Kenya Wildlife Services and the
Kenya’s two-tier governance structure Ivy Murgor
Climate Change Secretariat will
of national and county governments, murgorivy@gmail.com
formulate integrated management
foresees a role for counties in natural
and implement plans that address
resource management. As counties

Kenya Climate Change Knowledge Portal


A virtual online platform in the form of a Watch out for a documentary on Low
one-stop climate change portal is currently Emission and Climate Resilience
under development to ensure more Development – Kenya’s INDC perspective
widespread access to climate change showcasing how Kenya is committing to
information by the public. You can visit the abating GHGs emissions by 30% by 2030.
portal on http://lecrd-km.org. The documentary is being developed and
will soon be out!
We encourage feedback and suggestions
to make the portal relevant.

Page 13
Climate Smart Manyatta

Eco Manyatta fitted with a tank to harvest rain water


©Isaiah Esipisu 2015

In a tiny village called Eluai, in the “If at all millions of households in that we can find a way where locals can
heart of Maasai land in Kenya’s Narok Africa, which currently use kerosene finance the construction by installments
County, Nkika Ole Mututua and his for lighting and firewood for cooking after selling livestock,” said Ms. Boit.
family of ten children are living a city would turn to solar for lighting and
life in a Manyatta (Maasai or Samburu biogas for cooking, then we will Community members from many parts of
traditional house). Ole Mututua’s save the world of millions of litres of Narok stream to Ole Mututua’s compound
Manyatta the traditional version, but it kerosene burned each year for lighting, to learn about the Eco Manyatta.
has been crafted to be climate friendly. and save several tons of tree biomass “I think it is a very good idea. Even
used for cooking,” she said. though construction of Manyattas in our
The typical manyattas are made of a community is the duty of a woman, I have
particular type of sticks that bend when been challenged and am willing to sell
fresh and harden as they dry without some goats to have my Manyatta turned
snapping. The roof and walls are made Kerosene produces black carbon, which into an Eco Manyatta,” said Daudi Koekae,
of a mixture of cow dung, ash, and earth is known to be a very powerful absorber a friend to Ole Mututua’s.
found at the base of termite hills. of sunlight, thus a contributor to global
warming. Isaiah Esipisu is a science writer based
A traditional Manyatta has very poor in Nairobi; he can be reached through
ventilation with two or three small holes “It is a blessing for a Maasai woman like esipisus@yahoo.com
serving as windows. The windows are me,” said Joyce Mututua’s wife. Under
made small to keep out wild animals. normal circumstances, it is the sole
This makes the inside dark even during responsibility of a Maasai wife to construct
daytime forcing occupants to use and maintain the Manyatta. “Before this
new Manyatta was constructed, I used
See also
kerosene tin lamps throughout the day and
night. The smoke from the lamps mixes to wake up at night whenever it rained to
with that which is produced during cooking ensure that my husband did not get rained
using firewood worsening the air inside the on as he slept,” said Joyce. It has also
Manyatta. saved her from trekking several kilometers
in search of water and firewood.
Benefits of the climate-smart Manyatta
From a distance, Ole Mututua’s Manyatta, “I find it more comfortable to do my
looks exactly like a typical Manyatta, the evening studies using solar lamps,”
climate smart Manyatta also known as said John Keko, Ole Mututua’s nephew,
Eco-Manyatta is a permanent structure a secondary school student at Olasiti Eco-Manyatta Feature on Property
constructed using interlocking brick blocks. Secondary School in Narok. Show
It is fitted with a solar panel to produce http://bit.ly/1WB1ihf
electricity that illuminates the Manyatta Origin of the innovation
at night while serving other power needs The Eco-Manyatta was a dream of Sarah
such as charging of mobile phones. Tunai, the First Lady for Narok County,
Children can therefore study using solar and her friends. The initiative is supported
energy instead of carbon emitting tin by the United Kingdom Department for
lamps. The structure is well ventilated International Development (DFID) in
and connected to a biogas digester that collaboration of the County Government
produces cooking gas from cow dung. It of Narok together with the International
is also is fitted with a 2000-litre water tank Labour organisation. The project is
that harvests rainwater. implemented by a company known as Eco
Eco Manyatta feature Documentary
Manyatta Housing Limited.
http://bit.ly/1QOLXG6
The Eco Manyatta is climate-friendly
because no trees were used to construct According to Boit, Ole Mututua’s Manyatta
it. And if millions of people in Africa who is a learning platform, now helping the
basically use trees to construct their company to better understand how
houses would turn to using the interlocking such structures can be improved at an
blocks, then billions of trees will be saved. affordable cost.

“We are also looking at a bigger picture in “We are working closely with different
terms of climate change mitigation,” said architects with a view of making
Sheila Boit, the Project Manager for Eco construction cost effective. We are also
Manyatta Housing Limited, which built Ole working with financial institutions so
Mututua’s house.

Page 14
COP 21 Kenya’s Side Event
Join the discussions!
Strategic climate change partnerships:
opportunities and actions in developing countries
An interactive event to highlight the role Speakers: Prof. Judi Wakhungu,
of strategic partnerships and policies in Cabinet Secretary, MENR Mr. Sam
implementing climate change actions in Bickersteth, CEO, CDKN Dr. Richard
Kenya. Participants will discuss Climate Lesiyampe, Principal Secretary,
Change legislation; low emissions MENR Eng. Joseph Njoroge, Principal
development; Climate Smart Agriculture; Secretary, Ministry of Energy Dr. James
renewable energy resources; and SLEEK- Kinyangi, ILRI CCAFS Dr. Harun Warui,
land sector Measurement Reporting and UNDP LECRD Dr. Winnie Musila,
Verification system SLEEK Program Coordinator

Thematic categories When Mon, 07 Dec 2015


• Supporting global, regional and Time 13:15-14:45
national action Venue Room: 6
• Adaptation; Agriculture; Mitigation
(general); Sectoral approaches

UNFCCC COP 21
The 21st session of the Conference of the Parties to the Contact:
UNFCCC is expected to take place in December 2015, in UNFCCC Secretariat
Paris, France. phone: +49-228 815-1000
fax: +49-228-815-1999
Dates: 30 Nov. - 11 Dec. 2015 e-mail: secretariat@unfccc.int
Location: Paris, Ile-De-France, France Internet: www.unfccc.int
Read more: http://climate-l.iisd.org/events/unfccc-cop-21/

National Climate Change Resource Centre

The Government of Kenya has constructed


a National Climate Change Resource Centre
in Nairobi which is open for public use. It is
the national repository for climate change
information relevant to Kenya. The Resource
Centre incorporates green building concepts
such as use of solar power, biogas and
water recycling. The Centre has a library,
amphitheater and training facilities for
dissemination of climate related information
and an exhibition hall to host expos and
showcase technologies and innovation
that address challenges related to climate
change. The centre is located at the Kenya
Meteorological Department headquarters in
Dagoretti, Nairobi. It is expected to encourage
adaptation of innovative technologies. It will
also display samples of innovative equipment,
complete with the instruction for use manuals.
The centre will organize exhibitions or
workshops to ensure that the information is
disseminated widely among the public.
The new National Climate Change Resource Centre in Nairobi, Kenya

Page 15
Enhancing capacity for
Low Emission and Climate
Resilience in Kenya
Well heads used for geothermal electricity generation
in Olkaria in Kenya Rift Valley ©Isaiah Esipisu

The impacts of climate change cut Contribution (INDC) with an ambitious • Capacity building of journalists and
across socio-economic sectors; thus target of 30 percent reduction in sensitization of editors on responsible and
development processes must be more emissions by 2030. responsive reporting on climate change
climate-resilient and lower in carbon • Building capacity in mainstreaming phenomena including El Nino and other
emissions to meet the challenges and climate resilience in development related disasters.
uncertainties of climate change. New and plans, at the national and county levels, • Establishing a Crop Insurance framework
innovative approaches are necessary through integration of climate finance in Kenya through the State Department
to leverage existing experiences and and budget codes via policy review. of Agriculture in collaboration with
integrate climate and development • Enhancing access to clean and efficient the County Governments, Insurance
planning, policies, and actions across energy systems through supporting Companies and Financial Institutions.
multiple sectors at local, national and training on solar technologies and
regional levels. establishment of solar powered business Some of the notable successful initiatives
and information centres for marginalized include:
The Low Emission and Climate Resilient communities in arid and semi-arid lands
Development (LECRD) Project aims to to gain access to information relating to • The development agenda both at the
support Kenya’s efforts in pursuing a long- climate change and market access National and County levels by way of
term, transformative development approach. • Development of a national sustainable embracing climate change in the planning
Its other aim is to accelerate sustainable Greenhouse Gas (GHG) inventory to agenda for efficient allocation of financial
climate resilient economic growth, while monitor emissions. There has been resources towards a low emission and
slowing the growth of green-house gas capacity building on the development of resilient pathway is being realised.
emissions. the GHG inventories, and review of the
• The review of Kenya’s institutional
institutional structure
The project is funded by the United States structure on the GHG inventory integrates
• The operationalization of the National
Agency for International Development the institutions anchored in the new
Climate Change Resource Centre
(USAID) through UNDP and implemented Climate Change Policy Framework by
(NCCRC). The facility was constructed
by the Ministry of Environment, Natural way of defining mandate for different key
with funding from the Government of
Resources and Regional Development institutions in coordination and sharing of
Kenya to be a one stop repository of
Authorities (MENRRDA). It contributes data by sectors.
climate change related information
towards the implementation of the National which incorporates green building
Climate Change Action Plan (2013- 2017), • A crop insurance framework based
concepts like biogas use, water on crop area yield index has been
which has the overarching goal of enhancing recycling and use of solar power.
low carbon climate resilient development established and rolled out in the initial
Importantly, the project through counties in preparation for the national
outlined in Kenya’s economic blueprint – the Climate Change Knowledge
Vision 2030. launch in early 2016.
Management System (CCKMS), will
support dissemination through various Harun Warui(PhD)
The project milestones include:
pathways including; documentaries, National Project Manager, the Low Emission
• Improving the National Climate Change
magazines, awards, expos and investor and Climate Resilient Development (LECRD)
Coordination processes which have
fora. Project
been achieved by the submission of
Kenya’s Intended National Determined harunwarui@gmail.com

This Special Edition is produced This edition is supported by the Guest Editor Low Emission and Climate
as a joint effort between ALIN LECRD Project. Articles from this Alex Awiti (PhD) Resilient Development
and the Ministry of Environment edition of Joto Afrika may be re- Email alex.awiti@aku.edu (LECRD) Project
Natural Resources and Regional used, provided the materials are P.O. Box 30126 - 00100
Development Authorities distributed free of charge and the Editorial Team Nairobi, Kenya.
(MENRRDA) through the Low author(s) are credited. Esther Lungahi-Chief Editor-ALIN Email: info@lecrd-km.org
Emission and Climate Resilient Anthony Mugo-ALIN
Development (LECRD) Project. Please send copies to ALIN and Harun Warui (PhD)-LECRD Arid Lands Information Network
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