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Designation: D 2983 – 87 (Reapproved 1993) An American National Standard

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING AND MATERIALS


100 Barr Harbor Dr., West Conshohocken, PA 19428
Reprinted from the Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Copyright ASTM

Standard Test Method for


Low-Temperature Viscosity of Automotive Fluid Lubricants
Measured by Brookfield Viscometer1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation D 2983; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.

1. Scope a nearby Brookfield viscometer where its Brookfield viscosity


1.1 This test method describes the use of the Brookfield is measured at any test temperature in the range from − 5
viscometer for the determination of the low-shear-rate viscos- to − 40°C.3
ity of automotive fluid lubricants in the temperature range
5. Significance and Use
from − 5 to − 40°C. The viscosity range is 1000 to 1 000 000
cP (mPa·s). 5.1 The low-temperature, low-shear-rate viscosity of gear
1.2 The test method uses the centipoise (cP) as the unit of oils, automatic transmission fluids, torque and tractor fluids,
viscosity. For information the equivalent SI unit, the millipas- and industrial and automotive hydraulic oils are frequently
cal, is shown in parentheses. specified by Brookfield viscosities.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the 5.2 If Brookfield viscosity versus temperature plots are
safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the required in specifications, they can be made by the procedure
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- outlined in Annex A1.
priate safety and health practices and determine the applica-
6. Apparatus
bility of regulatory limitations prior to use.
6.1 Brookfield Viscometer and Stand—Model LVT or
2. Referenced Documents LVTD (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2).4
2.1 ASTM Standards: 6.2 No. 4 LV Spindle for LVT Model—The insulated shaft
D 341 Viscosity-Temperature Charts for Liquid Petroleum spindle 4B2 is preferred. Several are needed for multiple
Products2 determinations. See Fig. 2 for diagram.
6.3 Spindle Clip is a device that supports the spindle at
3. Descriptions of Terms Specific to This Standard proper immersion depth during cool-down. A suitable clip can
3.1 Brookfield viscosity—the viscosity determined by this be made from a bobby pin, paper clip, or similar device.
test method. It is expressed in centipoises (1 cP 5 1 mPa·s). Its 6.4 Test Cell—A glass test tube 22 to 22.5-mm in inside
value may vary with the spindle speed (shear rate) of the diameter and 115 6 5 mm in overall length.5
Brookfield viscometer because many automotive fluid lubri- 6.5 Cell Stopper (Fig. 3).5
cants are non-Newtonian at low temperatures. See Appendix 6.6 Insulated Cell Carrier (Fig. 3).5
X1 for a brief explanation. 6.7 Cold Cabinet5—A top-opening cold cabinet with an
3.2 reference viscosity—the viscosity of Newtonian stan- air-circulation device is required. The cold cabinet must cool
dard reference fluids specified at each of several temperatures the sample to a constant test temperature and hold that
by the supplier.3 Reference viscosities of typical standard temperature within 60.3°C in a range from − 5°C to − 40°C. A
reference fluids are listed in Appendix X2. switch is needed to shut off the air-circulation device before the
top is opened. In some models this is done automatically as the
4. Summary of Test Method top opens.
4.1 A lubricant fluid sample is cooled in an air bath at test NOTE 1—Mechanically refrigerated liquid baths have been used for
temperature for 16 h. It is carried in an insulated container to Brookfield viscosity determinations. A European procedure, CEC L18-A-
80, describes the use of some. However, a liquid bath should not be used
for sample conditioning in Test Method D 2983 unless it can duplicate the
1
This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D-2 on sample cooling rates outlined in Appendix X3. The main advantage of a
Petroleum Products and Lubricants and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee
D02.07 on Flow Properties.
Current edition approved Oct. 1, 1987. Published December 1987. Originally
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published as D 2983 – 71 T. Last previous edition D 2983 – 80. The Brookfield viscometer and accessories are available from the Brookfield
2
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 05.01. Engineering Laboratories, Inc., Stoughton, MA 02072.
3 5
Standard Newtonian Brookfield viscosity reference fluids are available from These items are available from Lawler Manufacturing, Inc., 7 Kilmer Ct.,
Cannon Instrument Co., Post Office Box 16, State College, PA 16801. Eddison, NJ 08817.

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D 2983

NOTE 1—Adapted from drawings of Brookfield Engineering Laboratories.


FIG. 1 Schematic Drawing of Brookfield Synchro-Lectric Viscometer

NOTE 1—Adapted from drawings of Brookfield Engineering Laboratories.


FIG. 2 Diagram of #4 LV Cylindrical Spindle

liquid bath over an air bath is more precise temperature control. Liquid surements. The procedure to calculate expected reference fluid
baths are available that maintain the selected test temperature within 0.1°C dial readings and interpret observed reference fluid dial read-
of the set point for the 16-h-soak period. ings is given in Appendix X4. Although the dial reading limits
6.8 Cell Rack and Turntable—The turntable should rotate at listed in Appendix X4 are typical of the data received from
a speed of 3 to 5 rpm. This item is often supplied with the cold several extensive round robins, more precise control is both
cabinet.5 desirable and possible with present equipment.
6.9 Complete Immersion Thermometers, carefully cali- 7.2 Reference fluid data can indicate the sample temperature
brated, or other calibrated thermometric devices that cover the change that results from frequent opening of the air bath when
range from − 5 to − 40°C. IP Brookfield Viscometer Thermom- many samples are run in sequence. The temperature change
eters IP 94C (−45 to − 35C), IP 95C (−35 to − 25C), IP 96C during a run sequence is determined from data on the reference
(−25 to − 15C), IP 97C (−15 to − 5C) cover this range. ASTM sample run at the beginning and at the end of each sequence.
numbers for these thermometers are being obtained. Appendix X5 details the calculation of the apparent run
NOTE 2—Caution: Store thermometers in an upright position to help
temperature from reference fluid dial reading and rpm data.
maintain calibration. Mercury-thallium amalgam used in IP 97C is toxic. The change in apparent run temperature from beginning to end
should not exceed 0.4°C. The apparent run temperature itself
7. Use of Reference Fluids should be within 6 0.3°C of the set test temperature.
7.1 The use of standard reference fluids, detailed in Appen- NOTE 3—Caution: Great care should be taken to assure proper spindle
dix X4 and Appendix X5, was developed to assure the precise immersion with all reference oil runs. Improper immersion may be
control that is essential to reliable Brookfield viscosity mea- reflected as an apparent temperature variation when the methods in

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D 2983

FIG. 3 Cell Carrier and Stopper

Appendix X4 and Appendix X5 are followed. sample cell need be prepared. If the highest rpm for a
measurement is not known or cannot be estimated from Table
8. Rpm Selection
1, prepare two sample cells as in 10.2. Use one to determine the
8.1 Because many automotive lubricant fluids are non- highest rpm that gives an acceptable viscometer reading and
Newtonian at low temperatures, the rpm selected for a mea- the other to obtain a measurement at that rpm.
surement can strongly influence the resultant Brookfield vis- 8.5 The highest rpm for an oil is found by increasing speed
cosity (see Appendix X1). For this reason, Table 1 lists the in steps from 0.6 to 60 rpm. The highest speed is the rpm
viscosity range for each rpm. setting just below the one where the reading goes off scale. Use
8.2 Rpm Selection Chart—See Table 1. the observation times in 9.2 to determine the maximum rpm.
8.3 If an expected viscosity is known, Table 1 will give the
highest rpm for a dial reading in the acceptable range. 9. Observation Times for a Dial Reading
8.4 If the highest rpm that will give an acceptable viscom-
9.1 Because the low-temperature gel structure of many fluid
eter reading is known or can be selected from Table 1, only one
lubricants is easily broken down by shear, the Brookfield dial
TABLE 1 RPM Selection Chart reading is often a function of observation time. Therefore,
Spindle Viscosity standardized observation times and recording procedures are
Acceptable Dial Viscosity Range, cP
Speed, Calculation
Reading Range (mPa·s)A
listed in Table 2.
rpm Factor 9.2 Standardized Observation Times—See Table 2.
0.6 10 000 40–100 400 000 to 1 000 000
1.5 4 000 50–100 200 000 to 400 000
3.0 2 000 50–100 100 000 to 200 000
10. Procedure
6.0 1 000 50–100 50 000 to 100 000 10.1 Set the test temperature of the air bath and allow it to
12.0 500 40–100 20 000 to 50 000
30.0 200 49–100 9 800 to 20 000 cool before putting samples in the rotating rack. After equili-
60.0 100 10–98B 1 000 to 9 800 bration, check the bath temperature by the thermometer or
A
If determined viscosity is below range indicated for rpm, use next higher rpm. thermometric device immersed in a dummy sample of oil held
B
Some low-viscosity automotive fluid lubricants such as brake fluids require the by the rotating rack.
extended 60-rpm acceptable dial reading range. For precise viscosity determina-
tions, dial readings below ten units are not recommended by the viscometer 10.1.1 Allow 1 h after temperature adjustment for tempera-
manufacturer. ture equilibration in the dummy sample. Depending on specific
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D 2983
TABLE 2 Standardized Observation Times viscometer and sample for testing within 30 s after the sample
Maximum Maximum is removed from the air bath, because the test cell and test cell
rpm Observation Spindle Record carrier begin to warm up immediately on removal from the
Time, min Rotations
cold cabinet.
0.6 5 3 Highest dial reading seen as the
1.5 3 4.5 scale pointer passes instrument
10.5 Take dial readings as follows:
3.0 3 9 window during observation time. 10.5.1 Depress the clutch on the Brookfield viscometer.
6.0 2 12 Highest dial reading seen during 10.5.2 Turn on the viscometer motor and release clutch.
12.0 1 12 observation time.
30.0 30 s 15 Observe dial reading at end of 30 s.
10.5.3 Take the dial readings within the observation times
60.0 30 s 30 Do this twice and record the indicated in Table 2.
higher reading. 10.5.4 Record dial reading, rpm, and test temperature.
10.5.5 To take dial readings at higher speeds it may be
necessary to depress the clutch and turn off the motor at the
bath characteristics, longer times may be required after major same time to keep the pointer visible through the viscometer
temperature changes. window.
NOTE 4—Caution: Do not adjust bath temperature late in the sample 10.6 Frequent opening of the cold box during a long series
conditioning period because the viscosity of the sample may be signifi- of runs may cause a temperature rise in the oil. To minimize
cantly changed. this effect, turn the air-circulation device off when the top is
10.2 Use a fresh sample of each test fluid for each measure- open and do not leave the top open unnecessarily. Allow some
ment. Fill the test cell so that the immersion mark in the center time for the temperature in the cabinet to come to equilibrium
of the spindle immersion groove (Fig. 2) is just at the liquid after closure and before withdrawing another sample.
surface when the test cell in its carrier is set up with the NOTE 7—If the laboratory is equipped with a low-temperature liquid
viscometer and spindle in measurement position. About 30 mL bath capable of maintaining test temperature within 60.06°C and on
of oil is needed. Stopper the test cell and use the spindle clip to which the Brookfield viscometer can be conveniently mounted, a cell may
support the spindle with the immersion mark at the liquid be removed from the cold cabinet after 151⁄2 h and placed in the liquid bath
surface. at test temperature for 30 min. The Brookfield viscosity can then be
measured directly on the sample in the cell in the liquid bath without haste
NOTE 5—Maintenance of proper immersion depth is essential to good and without fear that the sample will warm up as it does in the cell carrier.
reproducibility and repeatability. Data show that an immersion variation An insulated spindle is needed if this procedure is used.
of as little as 1.2 mm from the dimple can produce a 2 % viscosity error.
11. Calculation
10.2.1 Handle and store the spindles and instrument with
care at all times. Check the calibration of each spindle 11.1 Calculate the Brookfield viscosity at the test tempera-
periodically with a reference oil. Discard any damaged, bent, ture of the test oil or reference oil as shown in Table 3.
or divergent spindle. Refer to Brookfield Engineering Co. 11.2 The shear stress and shear rate at the surface of the
literature for more detailed instructions on viscometer care and Brookfield spindle may be estimated by the procedure in
calibration. Appendix X6.
10.3 Place the filled test cells in a 50°C oven for 1⁄2 h. 12. Report
Remove and allow to cool at room temperature for 1⁄2 h.
12.1 A routine report includes the Brookfield viscosity
Transfer to a preset, cooled air bath. Put the insulated test cell
calculated in Section 11, the test temperature, and the test rpm.
carriers into the air bath with the samples. After a 16-h soak
Rpm data are needed to assure that different laboratories use
time, begin to run the test series. The test series should be
the same shear rates.
completed within 2 h so that a maximum soak time does not
12.2 In cases where this test method is used for reference
exceed 18 h for any sample (see Note 6 for an optional soak
testing, a full report of the Newtonian reference fluid, its
time that applies only to automatic transmission fluids
reference viscosity, its Brookfield viscosity, and its test rpm
at − 17.8°C).
must accompany the test fluid data of 10.1. Reference fluid data
NOTE 6—Experience has shown that 6 h is a sufficient soak time for are needed to assure that different laboratories run at the same
automatic transmission fluids at − 17.8°C. Since this shorter soak time temperature and viscometric conditions.
speeds data production and is used in some automatic transmission fluids
specifications, it is the only exception to the 16-h soak time allowed by TABLE 3 Calculation of Brookfield Viscosity at Test
this test method. Temperature of Test Oil
Brookfield Viscosity (Centipoises) 5 Dial
10.4 Level and prepare the Brookfield viscometer for a test. Reading (0 to 100 Scale) 3 Factor
Open the air bath and put one temperature-conditioned test cell
Spindle Speed, Factor
in a temperature-conditioned test cell carrier. Immediately rpm
transfer the unit to the Brookfield viscometer, quickly attach 0.6 10 000
the spindle to the viscometer, remove the spindle clip, and 1.5 4 000
adjust the assembly until the oil level is even with the 3 2 000
6 1 000
immersion mark on the immersion cut of the spindle shaft. A 12 500
flashlight held behind one window of the test cell carrier is a 30 200
cool light source that can help with this adjustment. Center the 60A 100
spindle in the hole at the top of the cell stopper. Prepare the A
Subtract 0.4 from the dial reading at 60 rpm to correct for air resistance.

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D 2983
13. Precision and Bias ing in different laboratories on identical test material would, in
13.1 The precision of this test method, as determined by the long run, and in the normal and correct operation of the test
round-robin data on the pumpability reference oil (PRO) series method, exceed the values indicated in Table 4 only in one case
of engine oils and the gear reference oil (GRO) series of gear in twenty.
oils (Note 5), is shown in Table 4. 13.2 No justifiable statement can be made on the bias of the
13.1.1 Repeatability—The difference between successive procedure in this test method because all measurements are
test results, obtained by the same operator with the same relative to a calibration oil or oils.
apparatus under constant operating conditions on identical test NOTE 8—The raw data from these programs are available from ASTM
material would, in the long run, and in the normal and correct Headquarters as RR:D02-1055. An analysis of these data and a critical
operation of the test method, exceed the values indicated in review of error sources in the procedure are in SAE Paper 780940.
Table 4 only in one case in twenty. Because of the large number of variables involved, the precision could not
be obtained by the procedure outlined in ASTM RR:D02-1007.6
13.1.2 Reproducibility—The difference between two single
and independent results, obtained by different operators work- 6
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 05.03.

TABLE 4 Precision
Viscometer rpm 1.5 3.0 6.0 12.0 30.0 60.0
Maximum viscosity, cP (mPa·s) 400 000 200 000 100 000 50 000 20 000 10 000
Repeatability (95 % Confidence)
Dial reading units 13.7 8.3 6.7 5.6 4.2 3.2
Viscosity, cP (mPa·s) 54 800 16 600 6 700 2 800 840 320
Reproducibility (95 % Confidence)
Dial reading units 16.4 11.6 11.8 11.8 9.4 8.0
Viscosity, cP (mPa·s) 65 600 23 200 11 800 5 900 1 880 800

ANNEX

(Mandatory Information)

A1. DETERMINATION OF THE BROOKFIELD VISCOSITY VERSUS TEMPERATURE FUNCTION


OF AUTOMOTIVE FLUID LUBRICANTS

A1.1 In some cases a Brookfield viscosity at a single avoid misinterpretation of Brookfield viscosity versus tempera-
temperature may not adequately define the low temperature, ture plots.
low-shear-rate behavior of an automotive lubricant fluid. In A1.5.1 Extrapolation beyond the range of measured data
those cases, Brookfield viscosity versus temperature plots may should be avoided because many automotive fluid lubricants
be useful. are non-Newtonian at low temperature. The gel structure
A1.2 Brookfield viscosity versus temperature plots are associated with such non-Newtonian behavior may undergo
made by measuring Brookfield viscosity at at least three rapid changes with temperature that are not predicted by simple
temperatures and plotting a smooth curve of the logarithm of extrapolation.
Brookfield viscosity against temperature. Commonly available A1.5.2 The ASTM viscosity-temperature graphs (Method
semilog paper is suitable for these plots. D 341) should not be used for extrapolation of Brookfield data
or for linear interpolation over a wide temperature range.
A1.3 When Brookfield viscosity versus temperature plots Again, the non-Newtonian character of many automotive fluid
are used for interpolation, the interpolation temperature or lubricants at low temperature is the reason this test method is
viscosity must be within the range of measured data. not applicable.
A1.4 Special temperature scales may be useful for some A1.5.3 Brookfield viscosities involved in plots that are
applications. Such scales would include the Kelvin instead of compared between laboratories must be taken at the same rpm
the Celsius measurement temperature and the reciprocal of the in each laboratory. Because of non-Newtonian behavior,
measurement temperature. Brookfield viscosity is dependent on rpm. If different rpm
measurements are taken in different laboratories, widely dif-
A1.5 The following precautions should be recognized to ferent viscosities may be reported.

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D 2983
APPENDIXES

(Nonmandatory Information)

X1. LOW-TEMPERATURE, LOW-SHEAR-RATE BEHAVIOR OF NON-NEWTONIAN AND


NEWTONIAN FLUIDS IN BROOKFIELD VISCOMETRY

X1.1 This appendix illustrates why Brookfield viscosity is extrapolated to 0 rpm. This 0 rpm extrapolated dial reading is
often a function of viscometer rpm. At low temperature many the apparent yield stress. Because of the apparent yield stress,
mineral oil-based lubricants develop shear-rate-sensitive wax the viscosity of the non-Newtonian fluid is a function of rpm as
or wax-polymer gels. Ideally, this gel appears to have a finite follows:
rigidity or strength which is reflected in Brookfield measure- Case
Spindle, Dial
Slope
Brookfield Apparent
rpm Reading Viscosity (cP)
ments as the apparent stress (dial reading) needed before the A 12 36 3 18 000
spindle begins to rotate. B 30 60 2 12 000
X1.4 For a non-Newtonian fluid, the strong dependence of
X1.2 The Newtonian fluid in Fig. X1.1 has no yield stress viscosity on rpm is a result of the definition of the Brookfield
and the dial reading is directly proportional to the spindle rpm. slope. This slope is always calculated from a line drawn from
Its Brookfield viscosity is proportional to the slope (dial the origin (the 0 dial reading/0 rpm point) to the observed dial
reading/rpm). This slope does not vary with rpm. reading/set ppm point. When an apparent yield stress exists,
this slope is much greater at low rpm than at high.
X1.3 The illustrative dial reading-rpm function of the
X1.5 Because of the large effect of apparent yield stress on
non-Newtonian oil Fig. X1.1 has a finite dial reading when Brookfield viscosity, it is imperative that fluid lubricants of the
same viscosity classification be compared at the same rpm.
X1.6 Ideally, apparent yield stress can be subtracted from
dial readings to give a constant dial reading/rpm slope. This
slope can be used with an appropriate calibration constant to
give a “flow” viscosity, which may be useful for correlation
with some low-temperature performance data.
X1.7 In practice, the dial reading/rpm functions may not be
completely linear. Shear degradation of gel structure or align-
ment of flow units, or both, may make the dial reading/rpm
function slightly concave toward the rpm axis. Because long
measurement times are often needed for a complete dial
reading/rpm determination, sample heating may also cause
some curvature.

FIG. X1.1 Diagram of Brookfield Dial Reading Versus rpm

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D 2983

X2. TYPICAL REFERENCE FLUID VISCOSITIES

X2.1 The viscosity-temperature function of each standard Maximum Viscosity


reference fluid is listed on its bottle by the supplier. The Reference Fluid Temperature, °C Typical Viscosity, cP Change Due to
0.3°C, cP
following table lists typical viscosity values: N115B −6.7 5 970 254
Maximum Viscosity −12.2 13 360 591
Reference Fluid Temperature, °C Typical Viscosity, cP Change Due to −17.8 32 310 1 589
0.3°C, cP −23.3 81 460 4 823
N27B −28.9 5 300 245 −28.9 253 700 16 972
−34.4 12 750 701
−40.0 36 940 2 324

X3. TYPICAL SAMPLE COOLING RATES IN BROOKFIELD AIR BATHS

X3.1 This appendix is intended to serve as a guide to ~S – B! 5 CeKt (X3.2)


Brookfield bath manufacturers. Sample cooling rates in
Brookfield baths are considered important because the gel where:
structure of some automotive fluid lubricants is dependent on C 5 integration constant, and
the rate of cooling. This gel structure influences apparent e 5 base Napierian logarithms (2.71828+).
Brookfield viscosity. Eq X3.2 may be conveniently plotted as:
~S 2 B!
ln A 5 ln C 1 kt (X3.3)
X3.2 The temperature of a sample immersed in a precooled
bath should follow the equation:
X3.3 When temperature is in degrees Fahrenheit, a sample
dS/dt 5 k~S 2 B! (X3.1)
in an average air bath cools with k values that may range
where: between − 0.12 and − 0.040, averaging − 0.08. “C” represents
S 5 sample temperature at observation time the sample-bath temperature difference at zero soak time. For
t 5 elapsed time from start of cooling the tests run, ln C ranged between 4.45 and 4.80. Baths that
B 5 bath temperature, and cool samples at rates defined by these limits and meet other
k 5 cooling constant with units of time−1. method requirements are satisfactory for Brookfield
Eq X3.1 solves to viscometry of automotive fluid lubricants.

X4. USE OF A NEWTONIAN REFERENCE FLUID TO MONITOR BROOKFIELD VISCOMETER


PRECISION

X4.1 Abstract—This appendix outlines the calculation X4.3.1 Determine the reference fluid viscosity at the set test
steps needed to determine control limits that show if the temperature. If the set test temperature is not listed on the
Brookfield system (temperature bath, viscometer spindle reference fluid label, the viscosity at that temperature can be
immersion depth, and viscometer) is operating within the limits interpolated through the equations in the appendix of Charts
determined as typical by extensive round robins of the method. D 341 because the reference fluid is waxfree and Newtonian.
If dial readings outside the determined control limits are found, X4.3.2 From the reference viscosity, known rpm, and
or if a significant, continuing bias is found, check these Brookfield constant, calculate the expected dial reading.
common sources of error: Expected dial reading
X4.1.1 Spindle immersion depth, 5 (reference viscosity at set test temperature)/
X4.1.2 Temperature calibration, and (Brookfield factor for the rpm used)
X4.1.3 Mechanical condition of the viscometer and spindle. X4.3.3 Determine the deviation of the observed dial reading
from the expected dial reading.
X4.2 Known Calculation Constants:
deviation 5 observed dial reading − expected dial reading
X4.2.1 The viscosity-temperature function of the X4.3.4 Interpretation:
Newtonian reference fluid is stated on its label. X4.3.4.1 If the rpm
X4.2.2 Brookfield calibration factors are known from the is 1.5 3.0 6.0 12.0 30.0 60.0
Brookfield instrumentation book and Section 11. and the de-
X4.2.3 Observed dial reading and rpm for the reference viation
fluid. is greater
X4.2.4 Set temperature. than 6 5.0 4.5 4.0 4.0 3.5 3.5
X4.3 Calculations: Then there is probable error in one or more of the following:
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D 2983
spindle immersion depth, temperature control or calibration, X4.3.5 Example:
and viscometer malfunction. Carefully check the equipment Set test temperature –40°C
and make any necessary adjustments. Rerun the samples. Reference fluid viscosity 99 510 cP
X4.3.4.2 If the rpm
is 1.5 3.0 6.0 12.0 30.0 60.0 3 rpm Brookfield factor 2 000
and the de- Observed dial reading at 3 rpm 51.2
viation Expected dial reading 5
99 510
5 49.8 (X4.1)
is greater 2 000

than 6 9.0 7.0 6.5 6.5 6.0 5.0 Deviation 5 51.2 − 49.8 5 1.4 at 3 rpm
Then there is high probability that temperature control is Interpretation − Satisfactory run.
faulty or that there is serious operational error.

X5. ESTIMATION OF APPARENT RUN TEMPERATURE FROM OBSERVED BROOKFIELD VISCOSITY


OF A NEWTONIAN REFERENCE FLUID

X5.1 This appendix provides a way to estimate the apparent T 5 ~antilog ~A – log log Z!/B! – 460 (X5.1)
temperature at which the reference sample was run. Although
X5.3.5 Calculate T 5 T − set test temperature.
the most probable cause of significant deviation between the
set test temperature and calculated apparent run temperature is
X5.4 Example:
error in the temperature control and monitoring system, errors
in spindle immersion depth and viscometer malfunction can Set temperature, − 30°F (−34.4°C)
also cause noticeable deviations. If viscometer function and Observed dial reading at 12 rpm, 49.5
spindle immersion depth are satisfactory, then the calculated
Reference fluid viscosity at − 20°F (−28.9°C), 11 360
deviation between set and apparent run temperature is a
measure of the size of the temperature control and monitoring Reference fluid viscosity at − 30°F (−34.4°C), 28 580
error. Brookfield factor at 12 rpm, 500
Brookfield viscosity 5 49.5 3 500 5 24 750
X5.2 Known Calculation Constants:
from the appendix Charts D341,
X5.2.1 The viscosity-temperature function of the standard
reference fluid is listed on the label.
X5.2.2 Brookfield calibration factors are in Section 8. Eq X3.3 Z (−30°F) 5 28 580.7
X5.2.3 The dial reading and rpm for the standard reference Eq X3.3 Z (−20°F) 5 11 360.7
fluid are observed. Eq X3.2 A 5 11.44162
X5.2.4 The set test temperature is a defined test condition. Eq X3.2 B 5 4.09827
Eq X3.3 Z observed 5 24 750.7
X5.3 Calculations:
X5.3.1 Determine the Brookfield viscosity. T 5 (antilog (11.44162– log log 24 750.7)/4.09827)– 460
Brookfield viscosity 5 observed dial reading T 5 28.52°F or –33.62°C
3 Brookfield calibration factor T 5 1.48°F or 0.78°C
X5.3.2 Determine constants A and B from Eq X3.2, Eq
X3.3, and Eq X4.1 in the appendix Charts D 341. Use two X5.5 Interpretation—The 0.78°C temperature deviation
reference fluid viscosities at two temperatures near the set test
from set point is more than twice the allowed 0.3°C bath
temperature.
temperature variation. Probable temperature control or
X5.3.3 Calculate Z from Brookfield viscosity and Eq X3.3
measurement error is indicated. However, possible severe
in the appendix of Charts D 341.
X5.3.4 Use the following form of Eq X3.2, in the appendix spindle immersion depth error or viscometer malfunction
of Charts D 341 to calculate T, the apparent run temperature in should also be checked. Data from samples run in this test
°F. series should not be reported.

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D 2983

X6. SHEAR STRESS AND SHEAR RATE FORMULAS FOR BROOKFIELD LV VISCOMETERS WITH
LV-4 SPINDLES

X6.1 Shear Stress (or Yield Stress): S 5 0.2156 3 rpm (X6.2)


T 5 1.253 3 M (X6.1) where:
S 5 shear rate, s−1,
where:
rpm 5 rotational speed, rpm, and
T 5 shear stress, Pa,
0.2156 5 constant dependent on spindle radius and test cell
M 5 dial reading, and,
1.253 5 constant determined from spindle dimensions and internal diameter.
the viscometer’s spring constant. NOTE X6.1—Equations are derived from Brookfield Engineering
Laboratories, Inc., literature. Brookfield Engineering Laboratories should
X6.2 Shear Rate (at the wall of LV-4 spindle in a 22.25-mm be consulted for more detailed derivations.
inside diameter test cell):

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