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MPA(PREVIOUS) “A” Course supervision:prof,Dr,Said Humayon Researched by “Mohammad Ali junaid”
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION THE UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI
MEANING DEFINATION DESCRIBED BY WEB BASED “HRM” SERVICES.
• JOB DESCRIPTION • JOB SPECIFICATION • JOB IDENTIFICATION • JOB EVALUATION
• JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION • METHODS OF COLLECTING JOB ANALYSIS DATA • JOB ANALYSIS METHODS OF QUESTIONNARIE • JOB ANALYSIS METHODS OF INTERVIEW • ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF JOB ANALYIS METHODS. • BIBLIOGRAPHY
Here we will try to explain what is job Analysis? And How does perform its function? As much as concern to the the word job analysis and term job analysis is concerned. .Preface The major concern of any preface is to clear out the back ground for the topic that you are going to explain. task. In many international organizations the jobs for the “job Analysts” are designed and published for their placement in their organization. The topic and the subject on which we are going to research and explaining is “JOB ANALYSIS” As much as we know about the job analysis so it’s considered a most important chapter among the other chapters of HRM. Analysis = A detailed examination or study /psychoanalysis (Oxford English mini dictionary “mobile java edition 2006”) (6th edition) So know we may drive the meaning that “job Analysis is a detailed examination of a paid position of an employment” But the Terminological meanings have difference to its lingual meanings Now below we will write down the few definitions and statement about the “job Analysis” what the meanings has been taken by the researchers of HRM in their books and publications. you will find out that the term is bend and mixture of two words • • • job + analysis = job analysis Job = A paid position of employment.
#According to David. Pearson prentice Hall. description. cherrington:“Job analysis refers to the study of jobs within an organization. and /or questionnaire data gathered the job analysis. That not only inform the the organization that what is the caliber of its Employees? How they feel to work in their organization? What is the minimum standard for applying in the organization for the particular post? What is the position of particular employee in the organization and? And what it the progress of workers? These “job analytic W/H questions “are the key features question that the HRM Department faces. specification relevant to job analysis. The tools.e. .” (P-183 “The management of HR”) # Bernard * Russell explains it with little difference that:“Job Analysis is a systematic process of Gathering information about job conducting a job analysis requires a several major steps” (p-75. matter. validty) of job analysis efforts is a function of the accuracy of the inferences one draws about the job from observations.McGraw Hill international edition-1998) #Stephen p Robbins & Marry coulter says that:“An Assessment that defines jobs and the behaviors necessary to perform them” (P-285 “Management” 8th edition. PHI Inc) # According to Gary Dessler:“Job Analysis is the procedure for determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it” (P-112. 2006 reprinted) So we may say and explain clearly without any ambiguity that job analysis is the sub –field of HRM that wholly and thoroughly discusses the every nature. j. equipments. and the working conditions under which activities are performed. interviews. It Consists of analyzing the activities that an employee performs. 10th edition. and work aids that the employee uses. Lets look over *“JAWHQ” based question Bernard & Russell asked and tried to solve them? They have erected the heading by the question of “what are the major Goals for job analysis”? As you have probably gathered by now much of the success (i.
in particular. (1991) job analysis.R. 2. 3.A job analysis describes how how a job is performed and focuses on the position. not the person doing the work.J. indicating the indicating that different sources agreed on judgment about the work.D.The organization must maintain record of the data. The actual performance appraisal instrument have been developed from job analysis.Dunnette and L.The objective of job analysis should be the description of observables . then it cannot be described in a job analysis. If a work behavior has no observable component. document all decision that is data based. (Harvey. in establishing job relatedness. job analysis data must be verifiable and reliable . #Bernard & Russell MCGRAW-Hill –international edition-1998-job Analysis By Muhammad Ali junaid . P-71-163. The data must be reliable. in M.A job analysis consist of a description of work behavior independent of the personnel characteristics of particular people who perform job the job . Performance appraisal is used to described how well individuals perform their jobs.often the behavior or trait necessary for performing the job or supporting success is not observable but the products or out comes kind of materials or work aids used.Hough (Eds) “Hand book of industrial and organizational psychology” 2nd edition Palo Alto. and is able to justify every job analysis judgment in terms of observable behaviors. The following are offered as goal one should strive for in job analysis:1. CA: consulting psychologists press. Recall the importance of job analysis in EEO litigation and. and the people included in the decision process can be reported and help substantiate its operation.One underlying objective of the job job analysis is to minimize the inferential leaps required to arrive at a conclusion.M.
htm .wikipedia. necessary skills.org/wiki/Job_analysis 3. Ref: http://humanresources. responsibilities.about.net/G000. You need as much data as possible to put together a job description. outcomes. which is the frequent outcome of the job analysis. Wikipedia Job Analysis refers to various methodologies for analyzing the requirements of a job. and performance development planning within your performance management system.* Job analysis w/h questions-jawhq Meanings definition Described by web based HRM Services. 1. A job analysis is the process used to collect information about the duties. and work environment of a particular job.htm 2. Job Analysis is a process where judgments are made about data collected on a job.job-analysis. Ref: http://www. According to HR guide to Inter Net: Job Analysis is a process to identify and determine in detail the particular job duties and requirements and the relative importance of these duties for a given job. Additional outcomes include recruiting plans. Heath field. Ref: http://en. Susan M.com/od/jobdescriptions/g/job_analysis. position postings and advertisements.
that is. A job is a collection of tasks and responsibilities that an employee is responsible to conduct. A job usually includes several roles. writing a memo. Written by Carter McNamara. Ref: http://www.4.htm . which includes examining the tasks and sequences of tasks necessary to perform the job. PhD. MBA. A task is a typically defined as a unit of work. Complex positions in the organization may include a large number of tasks.org/disciplines/hr/job_analysis/job_analysis. Copyright 1997-2008. vacuuming a carpet.htm 5.org/staffing/specify/job_nlyz/job_nlyz. salary range for the position. let's look at some terms. sorting the mail. or functions. First.. The analysis looks at the areas of knowledge and skills needed by the job.managementhelp. Authenticity Consulting. According to the statement of Web Page changing mind Job analysis is the process whereby jobs are investigated in sufficient detail to enable (a) recruitment of people into them or (b) assessment of the performance of people who are already working in them. e. etc. specifications such as the qualifications needed by the person in the job. Typically. Job descriptions are lists of the general tasks. Ref: http://changingminds. which are sometimes referred to as functions. Job descriptions are usually developed by conducting a job analysis. and responsibilities of a position. a set of activities needed to produce some result. etc.g. Adapted from the Field Guide to Leadership and Supervision. Note that a role is the set of responsibilities or expected results associated with a job. Jobs have titles. they also include to whom the position reports. LLC.
J. responsibilities. # Job description as David. working conditions. how they do it. That record provides the organization time to time updates of new and old employees. activities and their attitude and behavior. The most required and a common used product of job analysis includes job description and job specification. their performance. reporting. Such a description should consist of accurate. concise statements that indicate what the employees do. Here we should look over the job description.JOB DESCRIPTION Job description by the nature is a task and function that defines or clarify the description of a job. P-112 Human resource Management We for your information are going to explain that depending on the particular method of a job analysis. and the conditions under which they do it. It shows all the descriptive matter of job in records of organization. relationships. # Gary Dessler in his famous work on HRM explains job description as:Job Description Is a list of a job duties.” (P-183 “The management of Human Recourse”) . and supervisory responsibilities –one product of a job analysis. numerous products can be derived from job analysis. Cheerington defined:“Job descriptions identify the essential functions of the job and provide the information concerning the duties and responsibilities contained in a job.
and pay grade.identification of job mean identify the job title . plus the amount of education and experienced needed. (Pakistan BPS –grading scale approved by “GOP”have been Attached in appendix) 2. basic pay scale system and scale as defined by ministry of finance government of Pakistan and other pay scale. grade scale of state and outside world.relationship. 4.# Stephen P Robbins & marry coulter refines job description as a “written statement of what job holder does. Job summary that means a general summary of the major responsibilities and components that make the job different from others. holding the job exempt or non exempt state. how it’s done? And why it’s done?” (P-286 “Management”) Now lets kook over the major items included in a job description are:1.may also include date of analysis. Duties and responsibilities: clear and precise statements of the essential functions including the major task.number and department .reporting. duties and responsibilities performed. see there) .number of employees. (Job description sheet sample have been attached in appendix. Job specification: most job description also includes job specification information such as the knowledge and abilities required to perform the job. 3.
cut-off scores and tests are also job specification. P.d…. General qualification requirement such as experience and training. 2. md. 1. Educational overall requirements. PhD. or credentials are often listed in job specifications.g. Knowledge skills and ability There is a recent trend in HRM that writing broader job description and job specification to accommodate technological innovations and self directed work team. . The information contained in a job specification typically falls into one of the three categories.JOB SPECIFICATION The 2nd important tool of job analysis that identifies the minimum acceptable qualification required for an employee to perform the job adequately is job specification.msw) Certificates or licenses (e. 3. # Stephen.ed.mba. specific educational requirements (e. Robbins &marry coulter defines job specification as a statement of the minimum qualification that person must possess to perform a given job successfully. CPA. cfp). (P-286 “Management”) One should under stand that job specification consists of the KASOCS needed to carryout The job task and duties.g.
the job duties.job design deals with the allocation and arrangement of organizational work activities and task into sets where a singular set of activities constitutes a *job and is performed by the job incumbent . Job design/restructuring: . groups. Job classification: job classification is the arrangement of job into classes. because they may have an adverse impact against groups protected by laws and constitutions. or families according to some systematic schema .Job specifications are often contested in courts. that are mostly utilized by HRM managers and Job Analysts. and job specification or employment standards information.to prepare written job description listings the essential function of each jobs .job evaluation is used to determine compensation. technologies.job evaluation is a procedure for classifying jobs in terms of their relative worth both within an organization and within related labor market .. 4. By nature they are the products of job analysis information. Few tools of JAI (job analysis information) are coming below for you knowledge.job restructuring or design consists of reallocation or rearrangement of the work activities into different sets.a complete job description should contain job identification information. Job description: . job summary.Traditional classification schemes have been Based on organizational lines of authority. base task /jobs content. 1. 2. JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION As you know that job analysis is performed for so many reasons .The information provided in job description and job specification is used in numerous human resources functions. 3. accountabilities.job Evaluation . and human behavior base d job content. .
Worker Training: . Safety: .at the right times.Efficiency :. OFCCP.A. jobs. aptitudes. maintenance. skills. It includes the activities by which an organization enhances the self actualization and growth needs of its people and allows for the maximum utilization of their skills and talents. vol-1 . and decline. Legal /quasi –legal requirements: .performance appraisal is a systematic evaluation of employee Job performance by their supervisors or others who are familiar with their performance.similar to efficiency. focus is on identifying and eliminating unsafe work behaviors.g. physical conditions. exploration establishment .Human resource planning consists of anticipatory and reactive activities by which an organization ensures that it has and will continue to have the right number and kind of people at the right place . Job specification may be identified as minimum qualifications.Human Resource Planning :.Ash. and traits that are required for successful performance. 7. Performance Appraisal: . Cut-off scores on tests are job specification. 12.Gael (Ed) The job analysis hand book for business.worker mobility (career development and pathing) is the movement of individuals into out and out of positions. performing jobs that maximize both the service objectives and /or profit of organization. regulations. 10.and work standards. Source: adapted from R. In s . 9.including work procedure. 11. 8.Laws. improving safety in jobs involves the development of optimal work processes and safe design of equipment and physical facilities.personal requirements and specifications for a particular job are personal knowledge.”Job Analysis in the world of work. and guidelines established by Government agencies (e.training is a systematic.inc .EEOC. intentional process of developing specific skills and influencing behavior of organizational members such that their resultant behavior contributes to organizational effectiveness.5.copyright © 1988 john willey and sons . Job specification: .inc reprinted by permission of john willey and sons.improving efficiency in jobs involves the development of optimal work process and design of equipment and other physical facilities with particular reference to work activities of people . and occupation From the perspective of individuals. making the process of job/occupational choice continuous due to growth. work layout . as essential characteristics. both self concepts and social situations change. or as desirable specifications. OSHA) have set forth requirements related to one or more of the job analysis products or purposes listed above. However the. and environment conditions. Workers mobility /succession planning: . Job analysis is used to develop the criteria or standards for the appraisal. industry and government. attributes. 6.
An Executive secretary in one organization may be little more than a highly paid clerk. whereas A person with the same title in other firms particularly run the company . job department. the department. A good title will closely approximate the nature of of the work content and will distinguish that job from others.Wayne mondy & Robert . # R. jobs titles are often misleading. The job title in big volume organization is different to its small medium enterprise counterpart. Place of jobs vise versa . 6th edition) The variation in the status of a job and its title is due to the volume of the organization. reporting relationship and job number or code.for instance.Noe defines the job identification as:“The job identification section includes the job title. and stack the tires in boxcars. prentice hall inc. and the corporation by nature of public and private has a variations. the reporting relation ship. Every organization has its own system of identify the positions of job. Unfortunately.The public sector keeps its job identification coding of recognizing in such a typical way that normal HRM manager can’t identify them due to the state regulation policy and laws and regulations. Because the primary duties of the job were to unload tires from trucks. In provincial Assembly of sindh the work of stenographer of grade -14 and senior clerk clerk of grade-12 .” (P-100.JOB IDENTIFICATION Job identification by the nature of its subject and matter is a task to identify the job title. one former student’s first job after graduation was with the major tire and rubber company as a assistant direct service manager.M.1996. and a job number or code. check the tread wear. nature of jobs. a more appropriate title would probably have been tire checker and stacker.
fishing. For Example . people. occupational code 183. the use of common terms by all organizations for job identification has certain advantages. Structural work 9. The next two digits represent breakdowns of the general occupation category. UK) One information source that assists in standardizing job titles is the dictionary of occupational titles (DOT) just like Pakistan government employees.Are nearly same. a code 3 for people would be supervising.laborer . the major classification would be managerial occupation. For each branch manager a code 1 for data would be coordinating.if an organizations needs pipe fitter .and training. management of human recourse 4rth edition. Bench work 8. position and post. technical and managerial 2. every job should be clearly labeled with unique title . #David Cheering ton explains job identification:“When writing a job description. Services 4. and things.” (P-186.H.137-010-is provided in figure (the figure has been attached in appendix) the first digit of the code identifies one of the following major occupations: 0/1 professional. forestry. So The Dot includes standardize and comprehensive descriptions of job duties and related information for more than 200.compensation. This example has code 1. Such standardization permits employers in different industries and parts of the country to match more accurately job requirement with workers skills. Machine trade 7. on the other hand DPO-16 grade is doing same in different way but he has a standard.using the label pipe fitter in recruiting ads is more sensible then using a unique job title such as class .000 occupations. An example of DOT definition –for a branch manager. Farming. Clerical and sales 3. rules of business. Miscellanous For the branch manager. Processing 6. especially for recruiting. Digit through six describes the job relationship to data.selection. . and a code 7 for things would be handling.Although organizations are free to label jobs however they choose. and related 5.
JOB SUMMARY:The job summary provides a concise overview of the job. Some firms have found it useful to place an expiration date on the document. performs. It is generally a short paragraph that states job content. Usually.The final three digits indicate the alphabetical order titles within the six-digit code group. These codes assist in distinguishing a specific occupation from other similar ones. one sentence beginning with an action verb such as receives. Dictionary of Occupational Titles Official Web Pages (DoT pertaining matter has been added in appendix) . This practice ensures periodic review of the job content and minimizes the number of obsolete job description. establishes. DUTIES PERFORMED:The body of the job description delineates the major duties performed. adequately explains each duty. The alphabetical order for branch manager is indicated in digit 010. Sources: U. DATE OF THE JOB ANALYSIS:The job analysis date is placed on the job description to aid in identifying job changes that would make the description obsolete.S Department of Labor. or assembles.
The Physical and Mechanical Activities section contains 53 items about physical activities and equipment.S. 1991). The CMQ is a relatively new instrument. . and licensure requirements. and managerial and business decision making. (3) Decision Making. economy to produce an occupational database. (2) Contacts with People.552 positions representing over 900 occupations in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT). physical. and tools. it has not been applied to a large number of jobs in the U. and sensory abilities that have strong research support. 1993) Fleishman Job Analysis Survey Another job analysis methodology—the Fleishman Job Analysis Survey (F-JAS). (Harvey. Common Metric Questionnaire (CMQ) the Common Metric Questionnaire (CMQ) is targeted toward both exempt and nonexempt jobs. and yielded reasonably high reliabilities. and the FJAS uses level of ability rating scales that specify level of functioning requirements for jobs. The taxonomy includes 52 cognitive. and meeting requirements.Job Analysis: Methods Of: Questionnaire Classification Systems used as basis for or resulting from job analyses . (4) Physical and Mechanical Activities. machinery. seasonality. The Contacts with People section asks 62 questions targeting level of supervision. The 80 Decision Making items in the CMQ focus on relevant occupational knowledge and skill. It has been field tested on 4. Work Setting contains 47 items that focus on environmental conditions and other job characteristics. FJAS is a job analysis method. The Background section asks 41 general questions about work requirements such as travel. formerly the Manual for Ability Requirements Scales—contains a taxonomy of abilities that is buttressed by decades of research (Fleishman & Mumford. language and sensory requirements. degree of internal and external contacts. psychomotor. It has five sections: (1) Background. and (5) Work Setting.
Toward that end. or a special scale designed for the element. extent." It was designed to yield more specific job information than other multi-job questionnaires such as the PAQ while still capturing work requirements for virtually all occupations. Like other job analysis instruments.S. MOSAIC The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is in the process of developing a database of information on federal jobs using Multipurpose Occupational Systems Analysis Inventory-Closed Ended (MOSAIC). Employment Service job analysts to classify jobs for the DOT (Fine & Wiley. Reliabilities obtained with the OAI have been moderate.. The two primary types of descriptors in each questionnaire are tasks and competencies.g. (6) Math. (5) Reasoning. Tasks are rated on importance and competencies are rated on several scales including importance and requirement for entry. The major categories of items are five-fold: (1) Information Received. each project handling a different set of occupations (e. FJA is a methodology for collecting job information.400 jobs selected to represent five major occupational categories.Functional Job Analysis Scales Beginning in the 1940s. and Job context (the physical and social contexts of work). The items that fall into five categories: Information input (where and how the worker gets information). 1971). Occupational Analysis Inventory (OAI) The Occupational Analysis Inventory (OAI) contains 617 "work elements. managerial. Each job analysis inventory used to collect data for OPM's system includes a variety of descriptors. etc. . (2) Mental Activities. There is no current database of jobs (other than the DOT) containing FJA data for jobs in the national economy. It consists of 195 job elements that represent in a comprehensive manner the domain of human behavior involved in work activities. and (7) Language. The most recent version of FJA uses seven scales to describe what workers do in jobs: (1) Things. (3) Work Behavior. Position Analysis Questionaire (PAQ) The Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) developed by McCormick. clerical. technical. applicability. While it was used for many years as a part of the DOT. and (5) Work Context.). Work output (physical activities and tools used on the job). OPM has been conducting a series of occupational analysis projects. Functional Job Analysis (FJA) was used by U. OAI respondents rate each job element on one of four rating scales: part-ofjob. somewhat lower than those achieved with the PAQ. Each scale has several levels that are anchored with specific behavioral statements and illustrative tasks. the Department of Labor is replacing the DOT with O*NET and will not be using FJA in O*NET. (4) Worker Instructions. The MOSAIC database is intended to include all government occupations. Clerical. (2) Data. Relationships with other persons. The OAI has been used to gather information on 1. Information on the reliability of MOSAIC questionnaires has not been reported. (4) Work Goals. and managerial job sections are complete. (3) People. and Mecham (1972) is a structured job analysis instrument to measure job characteristics and relate them to human characteristics. Mental processes (reasoning and other processes that workers use). Jeanneret.
The WPS is computer-administered on-site at a company. it has yielded reasonably good reliability estimates and has been linked to several assessment tools. Taste. and job description. Sight. Touch.job-analysis. Verbal Skills. Send questions or comments to webmaster @hr-guide.ut. that database is maintained by Purdue University. Copyright © 1998.com Source: : http://www. service.state. employee selection. Saville & Holdsworth does not require WPS users to submit their data. Saville & Holds worth aggregates information provided by users into a database when users make those data available. 2000.us/Companies/data/REC00795. 1999. There are three versions of the WPS tied to types of occupations: managerial. Complex Management Skills. and Team Role. PAQ researchers have aggregated PAQ data for hundreds of jobs. and technical occupations. It contains a structured questionaire which measures ability and personality attributes in areas such as Hearing Skills. 2001 hr-guide.Over the course of many studies. Number Skills.net . Smell. Body Coordination.HTML Work Profiling System (WPS)Saville & Holdsworth's Work Profiling System (WPS) is designed to help employers accomplish human resource functions. Personality. The job analysis is designed to yield reports targeted toward various human resource functions such as individual development planning. A wealth of research exists on the PAQ.com All Rights Reserved. http://international.
job evaluation develops a plan for comparing jobs in terms of those things the organization considers important determinants of job worth. then useful job evaluation must always utilize one or more compensable factors. If this reasoning is correct.JOB EVALUATION While job analysis describes the job. If this means that one broad-based factor rather than several narrower factors is employed. This practice seems to assign to job analysts not only the analysis but the evaluation of jobs. A legitimate question is whether this combination of information gathering and evaluation may introduce bias to job evaluation. implying that compensable factors are not used because "whole jobs" are being compared. Compensable Factors . In the previous chapter we suggested that the job information needed for job evaluation consists of work activities and worker requirements. Whole-Job Methods Some job evaluation methods (to be described later) are classified as whole-job methods. no problem occurs. But what aspect or aspects of work activities and/or which worker requirements are to be used? The choice of yardstick will strongly influence where a job is placed in the hierarchy. These yardsticks are called compensable factors. Determinants of Job Status The next step in job evaluation is to determine what the organization is "paying for" -what aspects of jobs place one job higher in the job hierarchy than another job. We also noted in the first part of this chapter that some methods of job analysis require analysts to describe jobs in terms of pre-selected factors. the result may be a different basis of comparison for each evaluator. But if whole-job means that jobs can be compared without specifying the basis of comparison.
but single-factor plans also exist. Fourth. and union leaders who raise questions about differences among jobs. requirements.To be useful in comparing jobs. compensable factors need to fit the organization. Jaques' Time Span of Discretion (the time before sub marginal performance becomes evident) may be considered a single-factor plan. and working conditions. Skill is likewise often divided into mental and manual skills. Second. They are also the factors written into the Equal Pay Act of 1963 and used to define equal work. compensable factors should possess certain characteristics. Job evaluation plans vary in the number of factors they employ. Organizations design jobs to meet their goals and to fit their technology. was designed by a group of 25 experienced people who knew much about the jobs to be evaluated.21 Patterson's decision-band method is another single-factor plan. The factors in most existing plans tend to fall into four broad categories: skills required required effort. as is experience required.20 Charles's single-factor plan is based on problem solving. First. a job evaluation plan may be tailored to the needs of the organization. the National Electrical Manufacturers (NEMA) plan. consideration of all viewpoints is critical for acceptance.22 Methods of Determining Compensable Factors Many organizations adopt standard job evaluation plans and thus the factors on which they are based are predetermined. Compensable factors can be thought of as the job-related contributions of employees. Definitions and divisions of these factors vary greatly. and values. double weight may be given to one factor. If they do overlap. although Jacques insists that it represents measurement. and union viewpoints should be reflected in the factors chosen. These factors are used in numerous job evaluation plans. It also provides answers to employees. they must be present in all jobs. employer. One of the best-known job evaluation plans. The factors must be observable in the jobs. managers. if two or more factors are chosen. A factor found in equal amounts in all jobs would be worthless as a basis of comparison. Perhaps more organizations adjust existing plans to their own requirements. responsibilities. Nine to eleven factors are not unusual. and conditions that in their opinion . Broad representation on the committee helps to insure acceptance of the factors chosen. Such documentation provides evidence against allegations of illegal pay discrimination. For this reason responsibility is a hard factor to use. Years of education required by the job is a common definition of skill. Fifth. Finally. they should not overlap in meaning. These people were asked to review the job descriptions of 50 key jobs and to list all the job characteristics. culture. In most job evaluation plans the factors are chosen by a committee. Documentation of the work-relatedness of factors comes from job descriptions. employee. In this way. the factor must vary in degree. Third. compensable factors must be demonstrably derived from the work performed. as described in chapter 13.
T. Equitable Payment (New York: John Wiley. which were finally reduced to 11 within the four broad categories just mentioned. however. Patterson. The group came up with 90 job attributes. Jeannert. ." Compensation Review. 9-21. Jacques.23 Statistical techniques may help ensure that the factors chosen are related to the work and are legally defensible. But factors derived statistically are not always accepted by employees as applicable to their jobs. "Equitable Job Evaluation and Classification with the PAQ. Some job evaluation plans determine compensable factors statistically from quantitative job analysis. 1972). The managers. the funds and the expertise needed to conduct statistical analysis are not always available.should be considered in evaluating the jobs. did not believe that the factors reflected their jobs. pp. "Installing Single-Factor Job Evaluation. * T. Sources: *E. Only after those factors were merged with factors developed by committee judgment were they accepted. *P. the factors in the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) used for job evaluation were obtained by finding those elements most closely related to pay. 32-42. however. *A. Such joint determination of compensable factors is presently being used in the communication and utilities industries. first quarter 1982. For example. R. The committee or the questionnaire approach may yield equally useful compensable factors if based on adequate job descriptions. even though both sets resulted in the same job structure. Use of the Managerial Position Description Questionnaire at Control Data Corporation resulted in eight factors derived by statistical analysis." Compensation Review first quarter 1971. Job Evaluation: A New Method (London: Camelot Press. Perhaps the best-known union-management job evaluation plan (the Steel Plan) was developed by a committee of union and management representatives. W.24 The major advantage of the statistical approach is that it can determine how reliably the factors measure the jobs. Charles. 1961). Employee acceptance of factors tends to be enhanced by their involvement in determining them. pp.
many problems of compensation administration become easier to solve. millions of kinds and levels of jobs have been classified successfully. Although classification is usually said to be most useful for organizations with relatively few jobs. The primary task is to describe each of the classes so that no difficulty is experienced in fitting each job into its proper niche. . it is the primary job evaluation method of most levels of government in the United States. It may therefore be relatively easy to secure agreement about the classification of most jobs. as well as of many large private organizations.Job Classification The classification method involves defining a number of classes or grades of jobs and fitting jobs into them. When jobs are placed into grades or classes subsequent to job evaluation by any method (or even by informal decision) those grades often become the major focus of compensation administration. they may be placed in the job structure by decision or negotiation. Advantages The major advantage of this method is that most organizations and employees tend to classify jobs. In fact most organizations classify jobs into grades to ease the task of building and operating pay structures. Jobs are then classified by comparing each job with the class description provided. the United States government. The classification method also promotes thinking about job classes among both managers and employees. it has long been used successfully by the largest organization in the world. if agreement cannot be reached without it. In these organizations. It would be like sorting books among a series of carefully labeled shelves in a bookcase. In fact. If jobs are thought of as belonging in a certain grade. When jobs change or new jobs emerge. It may be necessary to use formal job evaluation only infrequently. Perhaps the greatest advantage of the method is its flexibility.
Although the federal government adopted the Factor Evaluation System (a point-factor method. Select Compensable Factors. Those favoring fewer classes argue that fewer grades permit more management flexibility and a simpler pay structure. classification. and seeking the factors that distinguish them. compensable factors. although used in class descriptions. These features cause little trouble because of the federal career system. Organizations tend to follow similar organizations in this decision. This is often done by selecting key jobs at various levels of the organization. Obviously. Steps: 1. It is even possible under the federal classification system for a job to fit into one grade on one factor but a different grade on another. Disadvantages Disadvantages of classification include (1) the difficulty of writing grade level descriptions and (2) the judgment required in applying them. 4. diversity in the work and organization size increases the need for more classes. Obviously. many local governments continue to use the classification method. job diversity. It is quite possible that a given grade could include some jobs requiring high skill and other jobs requiring little skill but carrying heavy responsibility. discussed later) in 1975 as an easier way of assigning jobs to GS grades 1-15. as well as organization purposes. must start with job analysis. Terms that express the degree of compensable factors in jobs are depended on to distinguish one grade from another. Those favoring more classes argue that more grades mean more promotions and employees approve of this. and the promotion policies of the organization. 2. The number of classes selected depends upon tradition. 3. This means that the factors have equal weight. Sometimes key jobs are analyzed first and their descriptions used in developing grade descriptions. This is a matter of defining classes in sufficient detail to permit raters to readily slot jobs. A description is developed for each job. Usually this is done by describing . But private organizations would probably have trouble justifying and gaining acceptance of such results. Develop Class Descriptions. and a little of one may be balanced by much of another. ranking them. If it is to function properly. like all other job evaluation methods. They also believe that classification can be applied flexibly to all kinds and levels of jobs. then the other jobs are analyzed and graded. are unweighted and unscored. the factors must be acceptable to management and employees. Because the classification method considers the job as a whole. Determine the Number of Classes. Obtain Job Information. the system employs both the use of higher levels of a factor and additional factors in descriptions of higher grades. In fact.Advocates of classification hold that job evaluation by any method involves much judgment. Job descriptions are reviewed to distill factors that distinguish jobs at different levels. while being sufficiently precise to achieve management and employee acceptance.
1950). "Four Methods of Establishing Factor Scales in Factor Comparison Job Evaluation. Hay. Classification systems have been used more in government organizations than in private ones. but its results are non-quantitative. titles of benchmark jobs are used as examples of jobs that fall into a grade. 5. The result is a series of classes. Although classification tends to produce more defensible and acceptable job structures than ranking. then those of the others. Writing grade descriptions is more difficult if one set of classes is developed for the entire organization. each containing a number of jobs that are similar to one another. than if separate class hierarchies are developed for different occupational groups. . Sources: E. The jobs in each class are considered to be sufficiently similar to have the same pay. A committee is usually assigned the writing of class descriptions. This involves comparing job descriptions with class descriptions. More specific class description eases the task of slotting jobs. It is often useful to write the descriptions of the two extreme grades first. Often. it may substitute flexibility for precision.levels of compensable factors that apply to the jobs in a class. pp. but also limits the number of jobs that fit into a class. 56-65. N." in the AMA Handbook of Wage and Salary Administration (New York: American Management Association. Most are designed to cover a wide range of jobs and are based on the assumption that jobs will be relatively stable in content. Jobs in other classes are considered dissimilar enough to have different pay. It is easy to understand and communicate. The committee charged with writing grade descriptions is often also assigned the task of classifying jobs. Classify Jobs.
The analyst must make note of the specific job needs and not the behaviors specific to particular workers. the pace at which activities are done. The analyst must make sure that he obtains a proper sample for generalization. During observation. is perfect.g. The analyst.. emotional pressures and mental requirements. The analyst should observe without getting directly involved in the job. pharmacists).g. are observed during a complete work cycle. thus. In actual practice.Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Data A variety of methods are used to collect information about jobs. however. . a combination of several methods is used for obtaining job analysis data. This method is useful for jobs that can be easily learned.. doctors. receives first hand experience of contextual factors on the job including physical hazards. Job performance In this method the job analyst actually performs the job in question. therefore. the working conditions. certain precautions should be taken The analyst must observe average workers during average conditions. None of them.. social demands. etc. The tasks performed. fire fighters) or for jobs that require extensive training (e. It is not suitable for jobs that are hazardous (e. These are discussed below. Personal observation The analyst observes the worker(s) doing the job.
if a shoe salesman comments on the size of a customer’s feet and the customer leaves the store in a huff. On the negative side. Here the job holders are asked to describe several incidents based on their past experience. The reason behind the use of this method is that job holders are most familiar with the job and can supplement the information obtained through observation. incidents of behavior can be quite dissimilar. The process of collecting a fairly good number of incidents is a lengthy one. The incidents so collected are analyzed and classified according to the job areas they describe. the methods fail to take note of the mental aspects of jobs. Interview The interview method consists of asking questions to both incumbents and supervisors in either an individual or a group setting. Since.This method allows for a deep understanding of job duties. Workers know the specific duties of the job and supervisors are aware of the job’s relationship to the rest of the organization. The critical incidents are recorded after the events have already taken place – both routine and nonroutine. The job requirements will become clear once the analyst draws the line between effective and ineffective behaviors of workers on the job. It is appropriate for manual. short period job activities. . the behavior of the salesman may be judged as ineffective in terms of the result it produced. the process of classifying data into usable job descriptions can be difficult. Critical incidents: The critical incident technique (CIT) is a qualitative approach to job analysis used to obtain specific. For example. The analysts overseeing the work must have analytical skills and ability to translate the content of descriptions into meaningful statements. behaviorally focused descriptions of work or other activities.
frequency. The supervisors can seek further clarifications on various items by talking to the job holders directly. Wayne. Mondy& Robert. and relationship to overall performance. After everything is finalized. First. Questionnaire method is highly economical as it covers a large number of job holders at a time. If seen as an opportunity to improve their positions such as to increase their wages. Designing questionnaires. the value of data is primarily dependent on the interviewer’s skills and may be faulty if they put ambiguous questions to workers. Note: questionnaire methods have been thoroughly already aloofly Source: P. Further. 95-99. it is difficult to motivate the participants to complete the questionnaires truthfully and to return them. India. Noe “Human Recourse Management” Prentice Hall Inc. however.Due diligence must be exercised while using the interview method. The structured questionnaire must cover all job related tasks and behaviors. The interviewer must be trained in proper interviewing techniques. Second. Questionnaire method The questionnaire is a widely used method of analyzing jobs and work. The participants can complete the items leisurely. &7th edition (few points like employee recording and combination . workers may exaggerate their job duties to add greater weight age to their positions. is not an easy task. difficulty. It is advisable to use a standard format so as to focus the interview to the purpose of analyst. After completion. The success of the method depends on various factors. M. the questionnaires are handed over to supervisors. the data is given to the job analyst. R. The collected data can be quantified and processed through a computer. Although the interview method provides opportunities to elicit information sometimes not available through other methods. it is time consuming and hence costly. Last. interviewees may be suspicious about the motives and may distort the information they provide. The job holders should be asked to properly rate the various job factors and communicate the same on paper. Here the job holders are given a properly designed questionnaire aimed at eliciting relevant job-related information. Each task or behavior should be described in terms of features such as importance. Proper care must be taken to see that the respondents do not misinterpret the questions. The ratings thus collected are then put to close examination with a view to find out the actual job requirements. it has limitations.
Interview Methods Unstructured Interviews Here the interview is a conversation with no prepared questions or predetermined line of investigation.Of recording not has been mention. the interviewer should explain: . Disadvantages • The incumbent may exaggerate or omit tasks and duties. because the common acceptable points have already discuss) Job Analysis: Methods Of: Interview The Job Analysis Interview: method to collect a variety of information from an incumbent by asking the incumbent to describe the tasks and duties performed. Advantages • Allows the incumbent to describe tasks and duties that are not observable. However.
The questions and responses with summaries enable the interview to be controlled. Structured questionnaires cannot easily do this. Rigid questionnaires tend to be less effective where the more affective aspects of work are concerned. Interviews generate descriptive data and enable job-holders to interpret their activities. A good interviewer can probe sensitive areas in more depth.listening. clarifying and reflective summarizing Effective listening requires concentration and this can be disturbed by interruptions. Structured Interviews A structured interview may assume a definite format involving: • charting a job-holder's sequence of activities in performance • an inventory or questionnaire may be used Care is needed to set up such interactions. Jobholders can give overviews of their work and offer their perceptions and feelings about their job and the environment. An unstructured interview involves question and response and may be free flowing but it becomes structured in the sense that the interviewer has a purpose and needs skill to Establish a relationship Ask well-structured questions to generate a conversational flow in which the interviewee offers information . Notes and records may be needed for subsequent analysis. A structured interview may be akin to a staff appraisal or job evaluation interview carried out by a manager with a subordinate. Listening and taking notes are very important.factual. The conversation takes on a structure with areas being considered.The purpose of the study is and The particular focus of this interview The roles and the purposes give structure. These enable follow up questions to be posed. They may be intrained as interviewers and not structure the interview as recommended. related to each other and revisited to secure the depth of information required in job analysis. explored. However information from different interviews can be • hard to bring together . the interviewer's own thought processes and difficulty in remaining neutral about what is being said. Cues need to be picked up so that further questions can be asked to probe issues and areas of interest. subjective and objective about aspects of the job To ensure information received is heard and understood . A specialist analyst is not involved and participants need to know what they are doing. opinion. The interviewer generally uses a questioning strategy to explore the work the job holder performs. An interview may focus on what a hypothetical job might involve. why and what is expected as a result. Interview Outcomes Interviewing is a flexible method for all levels and types of job. The manager is the analyst. Notes need to be taken without loss of good eye contact.
Co-counseling may remove the analyst and enable jobholders to discuss work between them.job-analysis. there are problems in interpretation and analysis with the possibility of distorted impressions the subjectivity of the data captured needs to be considered Interviewing as the sole method of job analysis in any particular project has disadvantages. Copyright © 1998.com All Rights Reserved. Interviews are time consuming and training is needed. 2000 hr-guide.net/G011.com Source: http://www.• • • • • there is potential for interviewer bias certain areas of the work may fail to be picked up An interview may stress one area and neglect others. Through inexperience however they may miss items and there is the natural problem of people not establishing and maintaining rapport with each other during an interview. Send questions or comments to hrmaster @hr-guide.htm . 1999.
• May not include all important parts of work.Advantages and Disadvantages of Job Analysis Methods Method Observation • Advantages • Firsthand information. disparate interviews. • Consistent and continuous entries may be difficult to obtain. Inexpensive. psychomotor processes difficult to • Difficult to combine data from observe. cycles. • Requires skilled observer. • May bias worker performance. Useful for manual and psychomotor tasks. • Not useful for jobs consisting of mostly mental tasks. • Simple to use. • Data gathered is subjective and Works well for jobs with long job should be verified. • Small sample size. Interview • • • • Critical Incident Diary • • Checklist Questionnaire • • • Disadvantages • Time consuming. • May elicit extraneous data Analysis is based on concrete • Scales require some expertise behavior. to develop. Validity & reliability may be problematic. . interviewer. Easy to administer. Collects data as events happen. Qualitative data can be examined. Does not require trained • May be difficult to construct. Incumbent describes work. • Requires experienced interviewer and well-designed Can yield data about cognitive and questions. • Data not in standardized format. • Verifies data from other sources. • May have low response rate.
1961 E.JOHN WILEY.MCGRAW-HILL . office of Human Recourse. “HUMAN RESOURSE MANAGEMENT” 2ND IMPRESSION.CHARLES. Data from experience is superior to observation. PEARSON. Data is comprehensive.JAQUES. • DESSLER.HUMAN RESOURSE MANAGEMENT .html BIBLIOGRAPHY • A. • CHEERINGTON.edu/ohr/compensation/classification/jobanalysis/advantages. NEWYORK. Source: the University of Minnesota.NEWYORK. 1950. • • • • • Responses may be incomplete.W. Differences in opinion need to be resolved to consensus. Responses may be difficult to interpret (open-ended) SME's may have trouble breaking work into tasks and describing work. • • E.GARY.N. INTERNATIONAL EDITION. SINGAPORE. http://www. 1998. “FOUR METHODS OF ESTABLISHING FACTOR SCALES IN FACTOR COMPARISION JOB EVALUATION”. PRENTICE HALL INC.2006 10TH EDITION. “INSTALLING SINGLE-FACTOR JOB EVALUATION. AMERICAN MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION. Data is standardized (structured).Technical Conference • • • • • • Relatively less expensive.J. Can reach more workers. INDIA.umn. IN THE AMA HAND BOOK OF WAGE AND SALARY ADMINISTRATION.DAVID “THE MANAGEMENT OF HUMAN RESOURSE”4RTH EDITION. “EQUITABLE PAYMENTS” . “COPMPENSATION REVIEW FIRST QUARTER 1971.INDIA. • BERNARD &RUSSEL . .HAY . SME's chosen for expertise and competence. Time consuming.
NOE “HUMAN RESOURSE MANAGEMENT” PEARSON PRENTICE HALL INC.6TH EDITION. • • MARY COULTER& STEPHEN P.1972.DUNNETTE AND L.managementhelp.WAYNE. • R.J “JOB ANALYSIS”IN M.R.”MANAGEMENT”.T.wikipedia. CA: CONSULTING PSYCHOLOGISTS PRESS.CAMELOT PRESS.M. “JOB EVALUATION”.PHI.htm http://en.com/od/jobdescriptions/g/job_analysis.about. • T.org/wiki/Job_analysis http://www.job-analysis. “EQUITABLE JOB EVELUATION AND CLASSIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION WITH THE PAQ”COMPENSATION REVIEW.MONDY& ROBERT .• HARVEY.LONDON. P.net/G000.M HOUGH (EDS) “HAND BOOK OF INDUSTRIAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY” 2ND EDITION PALO ALTO.FIRST QUARTER 1982. WEB HRM SERVICES /JOURNALS Meanings definition Described by web based HRM Services.D.org/staffing/specify/job_nlyz/job_nlyz.htm .org/disciplines/hr/job_analysis/job_analysis. • • • • • http://humanresources.R.PATTERSON.JEANNERT. 8TH EDITION.ROBBINS.htm http://changingminds.htm : http://www.A NEW METHOD .1996 .
umn.state.Job Analysis: Methods Of: Questionnaire • • http://international.net Job Analysis: Methods Of: Interview http://www.edu/ohr/compensation/classification/jobanalysis/advantages. office of Human Recourse • http://www.htm The University of Minnesota.us/Companies/data/REC00795.ut.job-analysis.job-analysis.HTML http://www. html .net/G011.
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