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A list of Annotated Bibliographies for the study entitled

“Production of Bionanocomposite Films from Starch, Sugarcane Bagasse-derived Nanocrystalline

Cellulose (NCC) and Calcium carbonate”

As a requirement in the subject

MatE1R: Methods of Research

Submitted to:

Prof. Rico T. Pelor, MChE, PhD

Submitted by:

Joshua Rei Jaralba

Anna Katrina Riga

Zhou, C., & Wu, Q. Recent Development in Applications of Cellulose Nanocrystals for Advanced
Polymer-Based Nanocomposites by Novel Fabrication Strategies. Nanocrystals - Synthesis,
Characterization and Applications, Dr. Sudheer Neralla (Ed.) 2012. ISBN: 978-953-51-0714-9,
InTech, DOI: 10.5772/48727.

The article provides a brief description of the structure and properties of cellulose nanocrystals
and offers an overview of its potential applications & processing techniques in various forms
(e.g. in hydrogels, polymer reinforcements, etc). It is a useful source of information about
nanocellulose, highlighting its positive effects as a reinforcement particularly in polymer-matrix
composites (high modulus, tensile strength, etc) and is one of the basis in coming up with this
Lieger, M. F., Antronova, M. K., Rell, A. P., Ezanka, T.Ř., & Otruba, J.V. Biodegradable Plastics from
Renewable Sources. Folia Microbiologica 2003 48(1), 27–44. Prague, CZE. Retrieved from:

The article provides an overview of the different renewable raw materials for bio-plastics,
including potential raw materials sources. It provides an extensive background of common
biopolymers including those obtained from chemical synthesis, fermentation, natural polymers,
cellulosic materials, etc. It looks closely into the different types of starch-based biocomposites,
grouping them by the amount of starch present, providing readers of a simple overview of how
they differ and how starch content affects mechanical, thermal, workability and other relevant
properties. It played a key role in choosing starch as a polymer matrix in this study.
Peng, B.L., Dhar N., Liu H.L., & Tam K. C. (2011). Chemistry and Applications of Nanocrystalline
Cellulose and its Derivatives: a Nanotechnology Perspective. The Canadian Journal of Chemical
Engineering 9999:1-16. DOI: 10.1002/cjce.20554.

The article highlights some of the most important information about nanocellulose. Aside from
emphasizing its potential in a variety of applications, the article provides information on
characterization techniques, a summary of the production process and its macroscopic
properties in various forms (e.g. in solution, suspension, dry, etc) providing readers an outlook
of how it behaves macroscopically, how it can be handled and how its processing can affect its
properties. It most importantly provides the mechanism by which nanocrystalline cellulose
(which is different from cellulose nanofibrils, another form of nanocellulose), using acid
hydrolysis – a process that eliminates the amorphous region of the cellulose fibers, leaving the
nano-sized crystalline regions behind.
Tate J.T., Akinola, A.T., & Kabakov, D. Bio-based Nanocomposites: An Alternative to Traditional
Composites. The Journal of Technology Studies 010, 1, 25-32. Retrieved from:

This article emphasizes the viability of bio-based nanocomposites as an alternative to traditional

composites, highlighting the negative effects of petroleum-derived resins in most fiber-
reinforced composites and suggesting bio-based resins as an alternative. It further suggests the
use of nanotechnology to improve the properties of these bio-based materials such as soy-
derived polyurethane which are considered inferior to petroleum-derived resins. It also details
why more research should be done on the synthesis, processing and utilization of these bio-
based nanocomposites. Most studies mentioned, however, are geared towards the utilization of
various nanomaterials such as nanoclays, carbon nanofibers, nano SiC, etc.
S. Adeosun, G. Lawal, S. Balogun and E. Akpan, “Review of Green Polymer Nanocomposites,” Journal
of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Vol. 11 No. 4, 2012, pp. 385-416.
Retrieved from:

This article reiterates the need for research efforts to utilize the unique properties of
nanomaterials as reinforcements in biocomposites particularly to address the environmental
concerns generated by plastic wastes. It also provides a brief review of the different classes of
bio-based composites. It differs in presentation with the article by M.F. Lieger et al from Folia
Microbiologica as it cites various studies, providing the raw materials (nano), methods used and
results for each class of bio-based composite materials.
Avella M., Buzarovska, A., Errico, M., Gentile G., & Grozdanov, A. Eco-Challenges of Bio-Based
Polymer Composites. Materials 2009, 2, 911-925. DOI: 10.3390/ma2030911

This review from 2009 examines the state of the art regarding PLA-based materials and in
particular, eco-composites realized with natural fibers, agricultural wastes, micro and
nanocomposites in order to define the real final possibilities for these materials to be accepted
on the market. Although the article is focused mainly on the use of PLA in bio-based composite
materials, it provides a variety of nanomaterials as reinforcement in PLA and their effects on its
mechanical and thermomechanical properties in relation to nano-filler concentration,
highlighting concepts such as saturation, agglomeration and self-assembly which decreases the
effectiveness of the nano-reinforcements.
Kumar, A., Negi, Y.S., Choudhary, V., & Bhardwaj, N.K. Characterization of Cellulose Nanocrystals
Produced by Acid-Hydrolysis from Sugarcane Bagasse as Agro-Waste. Journal of Materials
Physics and Chemistry, 2014, Vol. 2, No.1, pp 1-8. DOI: 10.12691/jmpc-2-1-1

This study (2014) involves the characterization of Nanocrystalline Cellulose (NCC) produced by
acid hydrolysis from sugarcane bagasse. It provides a detailed procedure of the isolation of NCC
from sugarcane bagasse involving the isolation of chemically purified cellulose (CPC), acid
hydrolysis by H2SO4, centrifugation, dialysis and sonication. The results include characterization
results by FE-SEM, AFM, TEM, FTIR Spectroscopy, XRD, thermal analysis and image analysis of
the nanocrystalline cellulose fibers. The article also states that while the production of NCCs
“has been investigated extensively in the papers from a variety of natural fibers in detail, the use
of sugarcane bagasse (as agro-waste available in large quantities world-wide) as a natural fibres
source for the production of CNCs has not been widely exploited yet for reinforcing agent in
Li, Q. (2012). Nanocellulose: Preparation, Characterization, Supramolecular Modeling, and its Life
Cycle Assessment. Blacksburg, VA. Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University. Retrieved

This doctoral dissertation by Q. Li (2012) although mainly concerned with the synthesis and
characterization of a new type of nanocellulose called “molecularly thin (MT) nanocellulose”,
provides a detailed and extensive examination of cellulose as a biomaterial, including the
different types of nanocellulose, their preparation and the various processing approaches
available, properties, applications, characteristics and life cycle assessment. It is a credible
source of background information regarding cellulose and nanocrystalline cellulose.
Lani, N.S., Johari, A., & Jusoh, M. Isolation, Characterization, and Application of Nanocellulose from
Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber as Nanocomposites. Journal of Nanomaterials, Vol 2014.
702538(9). Johor, MAL. Hindawi Publishing Coporation.

This study has successfully prepared nanocellulose-reinforced PVA/starch blend films by open
casting technique. The films were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, XRD, SEM, TEM, and
evaluated for mechanical properties, water absorption properties and soil degradation
properties. The nanocellulose reinforcement successfully improved the mechanical properties of
the PVA/starch blend films by more than 100% at 10% v/v concentration. It further highlights
the effect of agglomeration to the nanocomposites stating that “reinforcement effect at low
nanocellulose content in the PVA/starch matrix is much stronger because the excess
nanocellulose tended to agglomerate.” Tensile strength was shown to continually increase with
the addition of nanocellulose up to 10% v/v and starts to decrease beyond which. The study also
demonstrates the barrier properties of nanocellulose against water, which however is limited to
up to 5% v/v, beyond which water absorption is seen to increase due to “the formation of some
large accumulated particles, whereby the large accumulation of nanocellulose particles can
generate voids which can absorb water molecules and therefore increase the percentage of
water absorption.” An optimum nanocellulose concentration is suggested at 5% v/v with around
50% increase in tensile strength and good water barrier properties. This study calls for a deeper
look into the behavior of nanocellulose as reinforcements and the properties of
bionanocomposites produced from NCC.
Saxena, A (2013). Nanocomposites Based On Nanocellulose Whiskers. Georgia Institute of
Technology. Retrieved from:

This dissertation presents an extensive compilation of background information on cellulose,

nanocellulose and nanocomposites utilizing NCC or NFC as fillers/reinforcements. It also
provides key information on nanowhiskers (NCC) preparation including a comparison of sulfuric
acid and hydrochloric acid in the acid hydrolysis of cellulose. The preparation, characterization
and evaluation of xylan-nanocellulose films produced in the study provide further information
on the role of nanocellulose in improving the properties of various polymers. The data detailing
the relationship between NCC concentrations and preparation (by HCl or H2SO4) to their
mechanical and water-absorptive properties can be a good basis for future studies on
nanocellulose composites.
Karimi, S.; Tahir, P.Md.; Dufresne, A.; Karimi, A.; Abdulkhani, A. A comparative study on
characteristics of nanocellulose reinforced thermoplastic starch biofilms prepared with
dfferent techniques. Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal vol 29(1), 2014 special issue:
NANOCELLULOSE pp 41-454. Retrieved from:

This study provides several film forming techniques and details their procedure in the
preparation of starch-nanocellulose biocomposite films. It highlights the importance of
homogeneity in mixing the components to achieve optimum properties in terms of mechanical
strength and water barrier properties, supporting the concept presented by Avella et al and Lani
et al that agglomeration should be avoided for improved properties which can be done by
ensuring dispersion within the matrix and adding fillers at optimum concentration.