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Ecuadorian Science Fiction in a Number 6
LALT No. 6 goes from the

Latin American Context
gripping true stories of
literary journalism to the
strange worlds of
fantastic short stories
and graphic literature. We
highlight chronicles by
Iván Fernando Rodrigo Mendizábal Colombian journalist
Alberto Salcedo Ramos,
speculative fiction in a
ESPAÑOL dossier curated by Mexican writer Alberto Chimal,
and Yucatec Maya poetry and prose in our ongoing
Indigenous Literature series.


Editor's Note
Editor's Note: May 2018

From The Imagined Land by Eduardo Berti

Featured Author: Alberto
Salcedo Ramos
CHRONICLE: "The Town that Survived a
Massacre to the Sound of Bagpipes" by
Alberto Salcedo Ramos

CHRONICLE: "Macondo in the Soul" by
Alberto Salcedo Ramos

INTERVIEW: Alberto Salcedo Ramos:
Popular Culture, the Colombian Chronicle,
Photo: Felipe Portella, Unsplash. and North American Journalism: A
Conversation with Luvia Estrella Morales
Ecuador is a producer of science fiction in Latin America. I begin with this enthusiastic Rodríguez
assertion, because despite the fact that Ecuador is a small country, its literary output
exceeds two hundred titles per year. Science fiction seeks to occupy a small piece of Autor destacado: Alberto
this action, thanks to the writers that cultivate the genre; oftentimes, they do so hand Salcedo Ramos
CHRONICLE: "Wikdi’s Journey" by Alberto
in hand with fantasy. Still, how does one understand its development without placing it
Salcedo Ramos
in perspective alongside the other nations of the continent?

Dossier: Speculative Fiction
ESSAY: "On Latin American Speculative
A Brief Map of Latin American Science Fiction Fiction" by Alberto Chimal

FICTION: "Acceptance Speech of
Ecuador entered the ring of science fiction in the nineteenth century. Nevertheless, Romualdo Sánchez Galarraga for the
before reviewing its entry into the genre, we must briefly point out that Mexico is the National Prize for Literature of the Integrated
country of origin for Latin American science fiction. The curious text of Friar Manuel Pan-Caribbean Republic (Year 2098)" by
de Rivas, Sizigia y cuadraturas lunares ajustadas al meridiano de Mérida de Yucatán
por un anctíona o habitador de la Luna y dirigidas al Bachiller Don Ambrosio de FICTION: "Bonsai" by Martín Felipe

Adalzira Zayas Bittencourt. para el año del Señor 1775 (1773) opened the way for Mexico to González Cárdenas explore the genre up until the present day. and Iván Prado Sejas. In 1893. Alongside the profuse productivity of Latin American Context" by Iván Rodrigo Mendizábal Mexico. etc. One Hundred Years from Now]. science fiction has attracted a wide variety of authors. We mustn’t discount the Dossier: Narrativa gráfica valuable work of science fiction theoreticians such as Pablo Cappana. Homero Aridiis. Is a Marr(i)ed Woman" by Lola Marcus. among others. and important forums that American Graphic Narrative" by Radmila Stefkova continue to the present day in that southern country. Together with these two giants. Angélica Gorodischer and many others. Fernando Naranjo Espinosa. Carlos Fuentes. or the Vision of the with Radmila Stefkova Future in the Year 1975]. Manuel Rojas. Jorge Luis Borges. it was FICTION: "El Hard Rock Live" by Jorge . it has opened a space for magazines and the ESSAY: "Ecuadorian Science Fiction in a establishment of writing contests and prizes. there were a number of Paola's Graphic Novels" by Iván Pérez literary breakthroughs. the other nation in which science fiction has been well-cultivated and spurred great interest is Argentina. Argentine science fiction has continued to blossom with Soldán authors such as Leopoldo Lugones. Albino Coutinho. Rodolfo Teófilo. is José Félix "Dear Memo. with El espejo del futuro o la a sheet of paper and ink": A Conversation visión del futuro en el año 1975 (1876) [The Mirror of the Future. René Rebetez. Santiago Páez. in the twentieth century. with Soledad Acosta de Samper’s “Bogotá en el año 2000” "No Big Deal" by Raquel Castro [“Bogota in the Year 2000”). among others. we list the works of Clemente Palma. From FICTION: "Doctor AN" by Edmundo Paz the time of said reference. Elena Aldunate. Luis Noriega. and others. Eugenio Alarco. Enrique Prochazka. Álvaro Pinedo Antezana. Julio Assman. de Portillo leading ESSAY: "Tactics of Luchadoras: The 'Alma' [Soul] of Ciudad Juárez" by Esther Claudio the way. Jeronymo Monteiro. Nic Nac]. an enormous Conversation with Patrícia Lino amount of work has been done in congresses and forums. José B. novela fantástica (1893) [The Recipe. José Donayre. entonador que ha sido de kyries funerales en la parroquia del Jesús de Castagnet dicha ciudad y al presente profesor de logarítmica en el pueblo de Mama de la FICTION: "Jagged Rage" by Javier península de Yucatán. along with magazines and ESSAY: "Verboiconic Literature in Argentina forums focused on animation and science fiction. with Joaquim Felício dos Santos’ Páginas do história do Brasil. His work was followed by that of Francisco Miralles. This work is followed by the works of José Antonio Osorio Lizarazo. Adolph. by Julián M. escritas no ano 2000 (1868) [Pages Dossier: Graphic Narrative ESSAY: "Life Through Graphics: Power from Brazilian History. INTERVIEW: Two Brazilian Graphic Novelists: Gabriel Bá and Fábio Moon: A Daniel Salvo. Leonardo Wild. Manuel Francisco Sliger Vergara. Carlos Béjar Portilla. Written in the Year 2000]. La Word" by Nelson Rivera receta. Later authors include Armando Montenegro. published as a pamphlet. Abdón Ubidia. with Lima de aquí a cien años (1843) [Lima. and others. Dear Tommy": Extracts from A Fuenmayor’s Una triste aventura de catorce sabios (1928) [The Sad Journey of Possible Place by Milena Solot Fourteen Wisemen]. another nation that similarly began to cultivate science fiction is Brazil. with the short stories of Adela Barahona Michel Zamudio. Diego Cañedo. by David Tillman. and Alberto Chimal. ESSAY: "The Desert of the Real Havana: Translating Jorge Enrique Lage’s Cyberpunk Prose" by Lourdes Molina The Ecuadorian Dialogue with Science Fiction INTERVIEW: Jorge Enrique Lage: "I've Never Been Interested in Realism": A I mentioned that Ecuador began its exploration into early science fiction with a work Conversation with Lourdes Molina called La receta. counter to other conventional literary FICTION: "The Eye" by Lilana Colanzi aesthetics. Furthermore. Eduardo Urzaisz. the beginning of its science "Things Everyone Knows" by Rosario fiction tradition is more recent.L. Hugo Correa. This disorganized ESSAY: "A Brief Commentary on Latin list should also include the production of magazines. and Dossier: Jorge Enrique Lage Héctor Abad Faciolince. the precursor is undoubtedly Peru.. Félix Palavicini.Echeverría. whose story begins with Eduardo Holmberg and Viaje Dossier: Ficción especulativa maravilloso del Señor Nic Nac (1875) [The Marvelous Journey of Mr. Colombia also threw its hat into the Copacabana science fiction ring late. Fiction "Palermo Freud" by Antonio Moreno Juan Viteri Durand. novela fantástica by Francisco Campos Coello. Roberto Bolaño. In the same country during the last two years. alongside that of studious individuals who seek to establish a place for science fiction in Latin American and INTERVIEW: Bernardo Fernández (Bef): "You can build a complete universe with just Peruvian literature. Among them are Amado Nervo. a Fantasy Novel]. Bernardo Fernández. Another contributing nation is Chile. Essays Jorge Baradit. etc. including those of Emilia Freitas. Adolfo Bioy Casares. After this. After this book. however. Antonio Mora Vélez. Other authors that have played important roles since that early time include Manuel Gallegos Naranjo. The third nation that has set milestones in the development "Nicolás Gómez Dávila: There Is No Last of science fiction is Ecuador. In this manner. Harry "L. The first science fiction novel. with the founding work of Francisco Campos Coello. Juan FICTION: "They Will Dream in the Garden" by Gabriela Damián Miravete José Arreola. Héctor Gérman Oesterheld. Nearing the Third Decade of the 21st Century" by Jorge Claudio Morhain In Andean science fiction. As for Bolivia. Héctor Velarde.

and there is true happiness in progress. it is a place where one can rediscover dreamlike-notions of the country. It calls for the exploration of space. the man Interviews Lucas García París: “Outside of narrative. In effect. It is about a utopia. We can affirm. absolute welfare takes precedence. by Juan Viteri Durand. and others) emulates Jules Verne. builds up a more critical sort of science fiction. This is the case in the novel Zarkistán. imaginarily set at the end of the last century.though unfinished . The consequence. Ana Patricia Martínez Huchim therefore. is a sense of Two Poems by Cristina Gutiérrez Leal existential oppression. No bastan los átomos (1954) [There Aren’t Enough Atoms]. Can Context had shifted to the devastation of World War Two and the detonation of the atomic bomb. In the shadow of such an image. the much-anticipated evaluation of the results of the Eduardo Halfon: Identity Under achievements and wise decisions of “his” policies as a member of the Partido Construction: A Conversation with Aurelio Progresista [Progressive Party]. something else will appear to It is the center of the market and capital investment and it doubles as an example of destabilize it": A Conversation with Martin good governance. José Antonio Campos. normalized. Campos Coello Ward carries out.published in installments on the pages of a magazine from Guayaquil. with simple language and POETRY: Two Poems by Feliciano Sánchez entertaining arguments through which shines his erudition and scientific knowledge. Literatura Indígena ESSAY: "An Introduction to Yucatec Maya Literature" by Silvia Cristina Leirana Alcocer Aside from being a politician. or. there is an imaginary island of experimentation (in "My Father's Black Motorcycle" by Jesús its case. when all roads lead to Guayaquil. a "Readings from the Diaspora: A Selection of sort of alarm that underscores his skepticism. I Recent Venezuelan Poetry" by Néstor have named science fiction from the Ecuadorian fifties “ciencia ficción escéptico. thanks to educational. FICTION: From U k’a’ajsajil u ts’u’ noj k’áax Alberto Arias. the idea is to rid the species of that Two Poems by Valenthina Fuentes Meleán authoritarian father-figure and attempt to reestablish humanity. Earlier dialogue considered technologies that aided in good government. scientific and artistic policies. Campos Coello was also a prolific writer and chronicler in his time. for the very reason that human Two Poems by Robert Rincón beings can be rendered impotent when detestability meets policy. this is what one reads in Zarkistán. with principles that allow the constitution of a complete nation. even more so when the Three Poems by Graciela Yáñez Vicentini rationality of such gains crashes up against the rationality of their users. This is owing to the fact that this Two Poems by Víctor Manuel Pinto literature holds scientific and technological gains suspect. in effect. Two Poems by Luis Eduardo Barraza In Demetrio Aguilera Malta’s work. He continued writing short stories where both science fiction and fantasy were present. Taking his perspective into account. as well as in Demetrio FICTION: From U yóok’otilo’ob áak’ab / Danzas de la noche by Isaac Esau Carrillo Aguilera Malta’s play. This is how Campos Coello writes. Wells. who planned and carried out the immense work of bringing potable water to you don’t exist": A Conversation with Guayaquil.was published as a series in another magazine. Guayaquil artístico. a “prospective fictional utopia. with H. held captive by a tyrant that converts human beings into war Montoya machines. (as is the case with the works of Campos Coello and others). POETRY: Four Poems by Briceida Cuevas Cob Campos Coello (along with others who followed him.” Its author was a notable politician. El Globo Enrique Lage Literario. FICTION: From Lajump’eel maaya tzikbalo’ob / Diez relatos mayas by Miguel We must jump as many as fifty years in order to recognize the second dialogue Ángel May May entertained by the representatives of Ecuadorian science fiction. contrary to the positivism of the nineteenth century and Dossier: Venezuelan Poetry sometimes to Verne’s enthusiasm. viaje a Saturno (1900) [Artistic Indigenous Literature POETRY: "Memories" by Gerardo Can Pat Guayaquil and the Journey to Saturn] .G. What’s more. such as Manuel Gallegos Naranjo. bringing about divers works and social and political Claudia Cavallín institutions when he was its mayor. or of science and Eight Poems by Luis Chaves . shortly thereafter. From this sense emerges the notion that humans can turn every utopian project into something Two Poems by Ania Varez undesirable and therefore detestable. He redesigned the city. His other novel. Science fiction in the last third of the twentieth century is distinct in its dialogues and Poetry From Contra natura by Rodolfo Hinostroza references. a novel declaration against wanting to be more than human. Wells. he does so by showing a utopian design Auseré Abarca and Luis Miguel Estrada Orozco of an island-city where there is justice. preferring instead to immediately Two Poems by Adalber Salas Hernández embrace the utopian outlook that certain extraterrestrial communities probably offer. that early Ecuadorian science fiction’s first dialogue is with Verne and his FICTION: From T’ambilák men tunk’ulilo’ob extraordinary journeyings and taste for mixing scientific explanations along plot lines / El llamado de los tunk’ules by Marisol Ceh (owing to his desire to divulge the innovation and new scientific and technological Moo hypotheses of his age). The novel centers on the “future” effects of his Mhoris eMm: "When queerness is labors. an island nation). His admiration / Recuerdos del corazón de la montaña by for this author likely resulted from his journey to France around 1860. Chan demonstrating that he was well-versed in the topics he chose to write about. as I call it. it was published as a book in 1899. Mendoza metafísica” [skeptic-metaphysical science fiction].

He looks to transcendent and even metaphysical González questions that have tension with new technologies. his worries are are oriented to show how many of humanity’s decisions impact life itself on Earth. he also considers the environmental deterioration of Earth and the sociopolitical problems that the process brings with it. Osa Mayor (1970) [She-Bear]. In 2013. Béjar Portilla goes beyond his time by focusing upon the questions about hyperreality that Die. for example. genetic modifications. His anthology is seminal. his critical speech about social and political failure reaches its maximum in Ecuatox® (2013). Ortiz Ray Bradbury and Jorge Luis Borges. That is to say. with a gaze From El canto y la piedra by Mijail Lamas turned toward a new millennium. etc. including some who have crossed the border into the twenty-first century. his reflection becomes political in Crónicas del breve reino (2006. alerta roja (2006) Venezuela Colombia Chile Mapuche [Cotopaxi. the readers will note disbelief in imposed projects that do not consider reality by people with their own dreams and projections. coauthored with Rafael Carrasco) [Enemy Angel] about a futuristic city stalked from within by malign beings. which focuses upon the possible eruption of the Cotopaxi Argentina Short Fiction Maya Feminist Lit volcano and the resulting problems that involve political decisions weighed down by Cuba Translation Chronicle Graphic Lit special interests. Mexico Indigenous Lit Science Fiction ambitious for power. operate as bio-political mechanisms. Corollary to said work is Shamanes y Reyes (1999) [Shamen and Kings]. My Love by Ariana Harwicz would become more common at the end of the twentieth century. These are not Undocumented Youth in Maximum-Security books that openly criticize technology or how it is viewed in the social environment. feelings. it may be said. reprinted in 2017 in a definitive edition) [Chronicles of the Brief Kingdom].technology that. the human soul and the capacity to make machines “come to life”. It is for this reason that. a matter that his work clearly defines and that is of great importance to . Unemotion (1996).perhaps . an author that establishes a dialogue of principles with the work of Úrsula K. Orquídea negra o el factor vida (1999) [Black Orchid or the Life Factor] POPULAR TAGS is a work that considers a planetary catastrophe caused by its own inhabitants who. the worries that confront new authors concern robots. the exploration of space. This long-term vision and imaginary historical tension that determines the course of societies is. particularly his anthologies of short stories: Simón el mago (1970) [Simon Dreaming America: Voices of the Magician]. a mix that has served as a pretext to present novels of a reflexive character. he is an author that has . even though they further distinct arguments. computers. In it. they advance questions about the overlap between the Caja de fractales by Luis Othoniel Rosa physical body and technology. Rather. sociocultural interrelations and knowledge that can be established between two distinct worlds. Le Guin. In this manner. Nevertheless. have deteriorated it. and Samballah (1971). This quality is what distinguishes Libro de conjuros by Emiliano Orlante his work. drinking from the open veins of Estrategias de combate by E. and the camouflaged omnipresence of machines in social and family life. it is important to cite La invención de la novela contemporánea: the example of Leonardo Wild. how Isaac Asimov influenced Páez. Extrañeza by Rodrigo Arriagada-Zubieta opened the way for a new Ecuadorian science fiction. This novel about the failure of society as a result of intertwined political and capitalist interests stands in contrast to his graphic novel Angelus Hostis (2012. Wild brought about the Spanish edition of a book that was Borders Peru Tzotzil Bogotá39 Brazil originally published in German. aimed at adolescent audiences. contrarily.S. It can be said that Wild places his books upon the axes of anxiety over human decisions. Now. In both. I shall Nota Bene Nota Bene: May 2018 focus upon three contemporary authors of science fiction. human character regarding environmental determinations and nature. a dystopia. Red Alert]. He focuses his literary work upon the mixing of tributo a Mario Vargas Llosa by Gladys Flores Heredia adventure and scientific explanation. Ferro Considering Bradbury and the impression left by Aldous Huxley. as Detention by Seth Michelson Wells would have done. an atopia. In one sense. cloning. Mala suerte de mi vida by Z. Profundo en la galaxia (1994) [Deep in the Galaxy] relates life in space and space exploration with the indigenous world. with the title Yo artificial o el futuro de las emociones (2013) [Artificial Me and The Future of Emotions]. and Antiguas ceremonias (2015) [Ancient Ceremonies]. a work in four parts about the history of an imaginary Ecuador whose end is seen in a post-apocalyptic future. per the author. De viaje por Europa del Este by Gabriel García Márquez a matter that has become “natural” in the daily experience. BOOK REVIEWS An unusual case is that of Carlos Béjar Portilla. There is also Cotopaxi. His dialogue with science fiction is about the political determinism of science and technology in people’s lives. Another example is found in Santiago Páez.

the Bolivian De cuando en cuando Saturnina [Every Once in a While Saturnine]. this idea of embracing the future quickly crashes up against the idea of the evils such an embrace could cause (think of the existential image produced by human crisis) that transcends the very core of humanity and leaves a feeling of instability and anxiety for the future. now contained in the book La suave patria y otros textos (1998) [The .the tension that rules in the hearts of Latin American nations between their still-vibrant past and the much-sought-after future - supplies another difference to science fiction: it concerns the embrace of the modern and the ultra-modern with the ever-desired horizon of hope. an emplaced “other” where the future is out of time. As was seen in the earliest Ecuadorian science fiction. the mythical voices of ancestral peoples and of the fantastical airs that they carry. in consonance with Latin American literature. by its own judgement – anxieties that reflect a new society in the moment that it goes beyond the known path of the last. however. etc. In 1957. that situation has come to mark in literature the idea of a demarkation.especially science fiction . the arrival of an “otherness” distinct from power. This results in a mixing of myths. in his Transculturación narrativa en América Latina (1982) [Narrative Trans-culturalization in Latin America] states that every society develops its thought and its self-awareness through stories or interpretive systems. rising society. it is with them that a society seeks to explain the unknown and the uncontrollable. the erasure of identity (even physical identity ) upon the digital place. This is just how certain pieces of Andean science fiction would seem to demonstrate (I think of the Colombian. Ecuadorian Science Fiction in Dialogue with the Thesis of Latin American Literature It must be affirmed that Ecuadorian literature. in the same sense that many works dialogue about unresolved conflict. Later. What marks this literature as unique from the Anglo-Saxon or Russian varieties is that within its plots. knowing full well that they cannot rid themselves of the voices of the past.are the myths that speak of their metamorphoses.. the end of the idea of nationhood. by José B. Such narratives explain a given society in the moment that it considered its relationship with reality. by Santiago Páez). founded in the reality in which they live. From this we can indicate that the future. by Allison Spedding. In the explanation given by Rama there is a tension in the actual nature of contemporary Latin American science fiction: this is a product of the dialogue with the marks of post- modernity or of advanced technologies. It can be said that. las ratas [Tomorrow. etc.” This is the foundation of modern science fiction. the Rats]. is probably different from what is produced in the Anglo-Saxon world. voices of “others” bubble up. foundational and post- foundational. from whence modern science fiction originally emerged. and these myths do not do not only refer to the past. the Peruvian. Mañana. the Ecuadorian Benjamin Carrión tried to move the conversation forward by thinking of science fiction in times of change in an article by the same name published in Caracas. Societies are constituted in myths. just as Carlos Fuentes suggests in a chapter of his book En esto creo (2002) [This I believe]. with many signs of a new. Ángel Rama. along with the Ecuadorian Crónicas del breve Reino [Chronicles of the Brief Kingdom]. Adolph. Angosta [Narrow] by Héctor Abad Faciolince. the voice of the past also remains. We must reaffirm that societies are ever-changing and their respective literatures . This is what is present in much Ecuadorian science fiction. Nevertheless. it appeared that this tension is what would identify science fiction with fantasy. The perspective of the origin myth .Ecuadorian literature. or of the new anxieties that are born of scientific experimentation. without a political project. opens up a possibility for science fiction. but also to social and cultural anxieties as they relate to the “ultra-terrestrial space. in the beginning.

imaginatively. Análisis del discurso social y político (co-authored with Teun van Dijk). even if it is imaginarily. Translated by Michael Redzich Iván Fernando Rodrigo Mendizábal earned his doctorate in Latin American Literature from the Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar in Ecuador. and intends to pursue a legal education upon graduation. Wyoming. Recommended Reading: Translator's Note: Claudia Ulloa Donoso "Eugenio Montejo: An Introduction" by Arturo Gutiérrez Plaza "Eugenio Montejo: A Living Presence Ten Years After His Passing" by Arturo Gutiérrez Plaza "The Joyous Excess of Eugenio Montejo’s Heteronymy" by Nicholas Roberts "The White Workshop" by Eugenio Montejo Ecuador Science Fiction Latin American Literature Today Accessibility Policies University of Oklahoma Sustainability Legal Notices 780 Van Vleet Oval HIPAA Copyright Kaufman Hall. cuantitiva o cualitiva. He said that it was a type of literature based on “hipótesis audaces. As I see it. OK 73019-4037 Updated 08/22/2018 19:57:1108/20/2018 10:24:50 . From this perspective. Michael Redzich is a graduate of the University of Oklahoma. He spent the past two years living in Buenos Aires. Cartografías de la comunicación (2002). con libre vuelo de la fantasía. Argentina. however. the people. a latent question in modern Latin American and Ecuadorian science fiction is how much can be recovered or. He has curated the website Ciencia ficción en Ecuador since 2013.a community that respects its founding principles and. The great problem. He earned degrees in Spanish and Letters. with free flight from fantasy. with ethical advance]. el desproporcionado avance de la técnica. their possibility at a future. the disproportionate advance of technique without the possibility of correspondence. a rider upon a wild horse with the bridles of imagination. sin correspondencia posible. is ethics (as Carrión states). His published books include. and looks forward to seeing more of Latin America: the places. and more. representaciones y simulaciones del poder (2004). the literature. and a collaborator in the American journal Amazing Stories. among others. Michael came to OU in 2013 from Jackson. He is currently director of the Master's Program in Digital Communication at the Universidad de Los Hemisferios as well as a visiting professor at the graduate program in Communication at the Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar. It is the obliged answer to the continuous greed of the current world. [Es] la obligada respuesta a la avidez del mundo actual por seguir. if an ethical community can be reestablished . caballero en el potro con bridas de la imaginación. a realist image of society is stuck in debate with the effects of technique and science in a hypothetical form that can even scratch at fantasy. where he grew up with his parents and one brother. con el avance ético” [audacious hypotheses. be it quantitative or qualitative.Smooth Country and Other Texts]. if the reader should so wish. He is a specialist in science fiction. invents from them. and Máquinas de pensar: videojuegos. Room 105 OU Job Search Resources & Offices Norman. at the same time.