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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Research

English as the International language have to known by people in this

world. Because almost of the people from many different countries of the

world use English in communicating. English is used not only for

communicating with other people in the world but also important for

education. Most of the educational constitution use English as daily language

in their activities.
Teaching English is a serious matter which needs to be improved in

order to prepare students to master English. The success of English teaching

will depend on how the teachers apply their role in the classroom. The roles of

teacher are as a controller, assessor, organizer, prompter, participant, manager,

entertainer, resource, coordinator, instructor, and discipliner. 1 It means that, the

teacher has the important role in the classroom that gives the big contribution

for the students in educational areas. One of the important teachers’ roles is as

an assessor. So that, they have to evaluate their students to know how far they

have achieved the materials that have been taught for a certain period.
Besides that, in teaching and learning process, to know students

ability and to increase achievement is needed an assessment. Assessment as

evaluation or appraisal; it is about making a judgment, identifying the

strengths and weaknesses, the good and the bad, and the right and the wrong

1
Usman Uzer, Menjadi Guru Profesional, (Bandung: Rosdakarya, 1998). P. 11.
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in some cases.2 It is more than simply giving marks or grades, although that

may will be a part of it. Because it involves making a judgment, it will

inevitably include an element of subjectivity by the assessor. However, we

should strive to make assessment as objective, fair and transparent as possible.


Assessment plays a crucial role in the education process. It determines

much of the work students undertake (possibly all in the case of the most

strategic student), affects their approach to learning and it can be argued, is an

indication of which aspects of the course are valued most highly.

Lecturer is educator in STAIN Curup who does teaching activity. The

lecturers have much contribution in stimulating the students’ success in

teaching and learning process, though the students can motivate to speak

English communicatively and improve their speaking ability.

Speaking as one of the important English skills is considered

important to be taught and have to be assessed. The ability in English, also

make the learners easier to master all of knowledge, because some of science

book has written in English as an international language. In fact, speaking is

not an easy skill to be mastered, and it is will be easier if the students speak

English more. Speaking as a foreign language usually seems harder than

learning to write and read it. Speaking is the process of building and sharing

meaning through the use verbal and non-verbal symbols, in a variety of

context.3 This means that students need to have skill in building correct

2
Cannon R. and Newble D, Assessing the Students, in A Handbook for teacher in
Universities and Colleges, (London: Kogan Page, 1995), P. 69.
3
Hayriye Kayi, Teaching Speaking : Activities to Promote Speaking in a Second
Language, University of Nevada. http://unr.edu/homepage/hayriyek.
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sentences and sharing the information through activities in order that they can

speak in the language correctly.

One of main criteria to decisive success or not, someone in learning

English can saw from how far ability of student in speaking English. 4 But,

some of student that finished in following this class still have difficulties in

speaking English, it seems from their participate in speaking English in the

class.

In classrooms where assessment for learning is practiced, students

know at the outset of a unit of study what they are expected to learn. At the

beginning of the unit, the teacher will work with the student to understand

what she or he already knows about the topic as well as to identify any gaps or

misconceptions. As the unit progresses, the teacher and student work together

to assess the student’s knowledge, what she or he needs to learn to improve

and extend this knowledge, and how the student can best get to that point.

Assessment for learning occurs at all stages of the learning process.

The assessment of the spoken language has traditionally been a

headache for English teacher. Many well-established tests do not even have an

oral component, since grammatical accuracy and vocabulary can be assessed

quite adequately, it seems, in the written mode. When an oral component is

found in proficiency tests, it is often based on a discrimination between words

which have very similar pronunciations. At quite the opposite extreme, the

4
Tursan Hakim. Mengatasi Kegagalan Berbicara dalam Bahasa Ingggris. (Jakarta:
Puspa Swara, 2002), P. 3.
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oral component of English language assessment may be based on a very

general impression of how well the student speaks.

Naturally, there will continue to be a requirement that students be

assessed on their command of the grammar and vocabulary which they have

been taught. Teachers may also wish to make informed judgments on the

pronunciation and fluency of their students’ speech. The teacher should

continue to assess these features, not in isolation, but as part of his assessment

of the student’s ability to communicate effectively in the spoken mode.

Communicating effectively is clearly features of primarily transactional rather

than primarily interactional speech. One of the main aims of most English

teachers is to make their students able to communicate information effectively

in spoken English. In pursuing this aim, the teacher may wish to be able to

assess, at regular intervals, how his students are progressing and also to find

out if there are areas of performance which are consistently weak and require

additional attention.

Based on the result of interview and questionnaire at the some weeks

ago to the a number of students at the eighth semester who have taken

Speaking class I until Speaking class IV in STAIN Curup and have been

getting high score such as A, A-, B+ and B still have many problems and low

ability in speaking skill. Some of them said that speaking is the most difficult

skill in English course because it consists of many skills, such as vocabulary,

fluency, and the ability of its speaking.


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So, it is will be a problem when they follow seminar proposal or

thesis examine, also when they teach the students (as a student teacher) in

Junior or Senior High School. As we know that English Study Program is one

of Education Department in STAIN Curup, which has function to produce an

English teacher who have good ability in Speaking, Writing, Reading and

Listening and we just know their ability from the score first and their ability

in practice. People who have good speaking skills can be said that he has had

good language skills, because language is the direct practice of requiring a lot

of vocabulary, good ability in structure and also the mindset that could well be

developed in accordance with the topic to be discussed.

We always see the ability of someone in speaking or another subject

based on their score, because score is the tools or indicator to measure the

ability of someone. In the other hand because of speaking skill consist of

many skills it will be the problem by the teacher or lecturer in assessing based

on their ability.

Based on this phenomenon, the researcher wants to know what is the

technique used by the lecturer in assessing students’ Speaking, especially in

Speaking class II and IV that they will focus for seminar proposal or thesis. It

means that, we must pay attention to them, focus on the process and the

assessment. Therefore, the researcher interests to discuss this proposal by the

title “The Lecturers’ Techniques in Assessing Students’ Speaking in

English Study Program (A Descriptive Study at Student in Academic Year

2010/2011 and 2011/2012)”.


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B. Identification of The Problem

From the background above, the researcher will focus on the

description and analysis about the lecturer’s techniques in assessing Speaking.

And then, the researcher will investigate the difficulties from the lecturer

when they apply the techniques.

C. Delimitation of the research

This research focus on Speaking subject. It’s limited to Speaking II and

Speaking IV of English Study Program at STAIN Curup, in Academic Years

2010/2011 and 2011/2012.

D. Research Question
Based on the background research above has been explained

previously the researcher formulates the problem should be solved in this

research are as follow:


1. What techniques do lecturers use for assessing students’ Speaking in

Academic Years 2010/2011 and 2011/2012?


2. What are the lecturer’s problems in applying the technique in assessing

students’ Speaking in Academic Years 2010/2011 and 2011/2012?

E. Objective of The Research

The objective of this research is to investigate the lecturer’s techniques

in assessing students’ Speaking in Academic Years 2010/2011 and 2011/2012

at STAIN Curup. It is formulated as follows:

1. To know the techniques used by the lecturer in assessing Speaking.


2. To find out the problems found by the lecturer in applying the techniques.

F. Significance Of The Research


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Hopeful the result of the research will be able to contribute for:

1. The lecturers

It hopefully can improve the lecturers’ technique and qualities of test and

evaluation of teaching English have language learners to achieve the

material in learning process generally and English Speaking specifically.

2. The students

The result of this research is also expected to the students in order to make

them know about the lecturers technique in assessing students’ speaking at

STAIN Curup. So they can try to do the best activity in learning Speaking

that can improve their ability and achievement in Speaking subject.

3. The researcher

The result of this research is expected to the researcher can give the new

knowledge and technique that can be used in assessing students’ Speaking

because the researcher is going to be as an educator in order to make the

teaching learning process in English subject can be more easy and

increased. Besides that, it also helps the next researcher who wants to

conduct research in the same area.

4. English Study Program

To give contribution of thinking and increase as qualitative toward

institute of Islamic Education (STAIN) Curup in the next time, especially

in English Study Program.

5. STAIN Curup
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The result of this research will use as reference material to know lecturers’

technique in assessing students’ Speaking at STAIN Curup.

G. Operational Definition

In order to avoid misunderstanding of concept used in this study, the

following part provides a brief description on some key terms or operational

definition of the research.

1. Lecturer Technique
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Lecturer is person who gives (college). Lecturer is person who gives

lecture or person teaches at a college or university. 6 In this research, the

lecturer is the person who teaches in STAIN Curup especially in Speaking

Subject. Technique is some ways or activity used by teacher in class. 7

Techniques are a step or activity that the teacher used in teaching English. 8

In this research, lecturer technique is ways or activities used by English

lecturers in assessing Speaking at STAIN Curup in teaching learning

process.
2. Assessment
Assessment is defined as data gathering strategies, analysis, and reporting

processes that provide information that can be used to determine whether

or not intended outcomes are being achieved. Besides that, the term

assessment refers to all those activities undertaken by teachers and by their

students in assessing themselves, which provide information to be used as

5
Martin H. Manser, Oxford Learners’ Pocket Dictionary, (Oxford University Press,
1995), P. 859.
6
As Hornby, Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary, (Oxford: International New
Students Edition), P. 244.
7
M. Subana dan Sunarti, Strategi Belajar Mengajar Bahasa Indonesia, (Bandung:
Pustaka Setia)
8
Titin Anggraini, Teachers Technique in Improving Children English Ability, 2007, P. 6.
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feedback to modify the teaching and learning activities in which they are

engaged.9 In this research, the assessment is done by the lecturers in

Speaking class II and IV at STAIN Curup.


3. Speaking
Oxford Advanced Dictionary said that Speaking is to express or

communicate opinions, feelings, ideas, etc, by or as talking and it involves

the activities in the part of the speaker as Psychological, Physiological

(articulator) and Physical (acoustic) stage.10 According to Jack C. R and

Willy A. R, Speaking is one of the central elements of communication.

Speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves

producing and receiving and processing information. 11In this research,

Speaking is one of the English subjects in English Study Program STAIN

Curup.

H. Thesis Organization

The explanation of this research will be organized into:

Chapter I : Introduction consists of Background of The Research,

Identification of The Problem, Research Question, Objective

of The Research, Significance of The Research, and

Operational Definition.
Chapter II : Representation of Literature Review
Chapter III : Methodology of The Research consists of research design,

subject of The Research, Technique of Collecting Data,

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Black, P.J. & Wiliam, D. Inside the Black Box: Raising standards through classroom
assessment, (London: King’s College, 1998).
10
As Hornby, Op. Cit., P. 13.
11
Jack C. R and Willy A. R. Methodology in language Teaching. (USA: Cambridge
University Press, 2001), P. 210.
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Research Instrument and Equipment, Enhancing Validity and

Reducing Bias and Data Analysis Technique.


Chapter IV : Result of The Research and Discussion
Chapter V : Conclusion and Suggestion