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- Sums of Independent Random Variables
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to each measurable subset of the possible outcomes of a random experiment, survey

or procedure of statistical inference. Random variable is a variable whose value is

subject to variations due to chance. A random variable can take on a set of possible

different values each with an associated probability in contrast to other mathematical

variables. The concept of probability distribution and random variables which they

describe underlies the mathematical discipline of probability theory and the science of

statistic. There is a spread or variability in almost any value that can be measured in a

population, examples the height of people, durability of metal, sales growth and

traffic flow.

distribution of the number of successes in a sequence of n independent yes or no

experiments, each yields success with probability, p. A success or failure experiment

is called Bernoulli trial. When n=1, the binomial distribution is a Bernoulli

distribution. One of the uses of binomial distribution can be found in real life is either

cures the disease (success) or it doesn’t cure the disease (failure). Basically, anything

that can only be success or failure can be represented by a binomial distribution.

probability of a given number of events occurring in a fixed interval of time and/or

space if these events occur with a known average rate and independently of the time

since the last events. The Poisson distribution can also be used for the number of

events in other specified intervals such as distance, area and volume. Example that

may follow a Poisson distribution is the number of phone calls received per hour by a

call center. The binomial distribution converges towards the Poisson distribution as

the number of trials goes to infinity while the product np remains fixed. Therefore, the

Poisson distribution with parameter λ=np can be used as approximation to B(n,p) of

the binomial distribution if n is sufficiently large and p is sufficiently small.

According to two rules, this approximation is good if n ≥ 20 and p ≤ 0.05, or

if n ≥ 100 and np ≤ 10.

represent real-values random variables whose distributions are not known. The

normal distribution is sometimes informally called the bell curve. If n is large enough,

then the skew of the distribution is not too great. In this case a reasonable

approximation to B(n,p) is given by the normal distribution N[np , np (1-p)] and this

basic approximation can be improved by using a suitable continuity correction. The

basic approximation generally improves as n increases ( at least 20) and is better when

p is not near to 0 or 1.

In this coursework, p=0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 and n=5,10 and 20 is used to find

the probabilities by using binomial distribution, Poisson distribution and normal

distribution. The probabilities are then tabulated and the probabilities distributions are

illustrated graphically. The probability distributions obtained are compared and

discussed. The probability distributions are also discussed when n increases with

constant probability.

METHODOLOGY

Poisson distribution or normal distribution. In this coursework, the probabilities are

calculated manually and by using Microsoft Excel 2010. First, a random variable

having binomial distribution, B(n,p) is considered. The probabilities of p=0.05 and

n=5 is calculated by using binomial distribution with the formula P(X=r) = ncrprqn-r.

Then, the probabilities is calculated by using Poisson distribution with the formula

e−λ (λr )

P(X=r) = . The probabilities is also calculated by using normal distribution

r!

x−µ

with the formula . Continuity correction is used in the normal distribution

σ

P(X=r) = P(r-0.5 <X< r+0.5). All the steps above are repeated by using p=0.1 and

p=0.5.

The calculations for n=10 and 20 for p=0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 is calculated by

using Microsoft Excel 2010. All results obtained is tabulated and the probability

distributions is illustrated graphically. The graphs of binomial distribution, Poisson

distribution and normal distribution are combined with constant probability and

sample size, n. The distributions obtained are then compared and commented. The

graphs of n=5, 10 and 20 is combined in the same distributions. The shapes of the

distribution are compared and commented when n increases.

CONCLUSION

approximated under certain circumstances by Poisson distribution or normal

distribution. The probabilities of p=0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 and n=5, 10 and 20 are obtained

by using binomial distribution, Poisson distribution and normal distribution. The

probabilities obtained are tabulated and the probability distributions are illustrated

graphically. Then, the graphs of binomial distribution, Poisson distribution and normal

distribution are combined with constant probability and sample size, n. From the

graph, when p=0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 and n=5, 10 and 20, the shapes of the Binomial

distribution and the Poisson distribution are similar. However, for p=0.1 the normal

distribution tends to be similar to the other two distribution when n increases. The

graphs of n=5, 10 and 20 is combined in the same distributions. From the binomial

distributions combined graphs, the shape of binomial distribution of p=0.05 tends to

be symmetrical when n increases from 5 to 20. When n increases from 5 to 20 for

binomial distribution of p=0.1, the shape of binomial distribution is more symmetrical.

When n increases from 5 to 20 for binomial distribution of p=0.5, the shape of

binomial distribution is always symmetrical. The above results obtained are the same

for the Poisson distributions combined graphs and normal distribution combined

graphs. In conclusion, when n increases, the shape of the probability distribution

graph tends to be symmetrical.

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