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Chap 07 SM Page 279 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

Differential
equations
7
VCE coverage
Area of study
Units 3 & 4 • Calculus

In this cha
chapter
pter
7A Differential equations:
related rates
7B Verifying solutions
7C Differential equations of
dy
the form ------ = f (x)
dx
7D Differential equations of
d2 y
the form --------2- = f (x)
dx
7E Differential equations of
dy
the form ------ = g(y)
dx
7F Setting up and solving
differential equations
7G Input/output of mixing
problems
7H Numerical solutions by
Euler’s method
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280 Specialist Mathematics

Differential equations
A differential equation, as the name implies, is an equation that contains at least one
derivative.
Differential equations can be used to model systems that are in the process of
changing. Examples are:
• the depth of water in a tank which is filling up or being drained
• the velocity of a parachutist as she falls towards the earth
• the concentration of a chemical in solution
• the cost of producing a piece of equipment.
They are most useful when quantities can be measured by rates of change.
The order of a differential equation is defined as the order of the highest derivative
that occurs in the equation:
1. First order differential equations involve first derivatives only, that is,
dy
------ , f ′(x), y′
dx
2. Second order differential equations involve second derivatives, but can also
have first derivatives, that is,
d d y d2 y
------  ------ , --------2- f ′′(x), y′′ with ------ , f ′(x), y′
dy
d x  d x d x dx

Related rates
Some problems requiring a rate of change between two variables cannot be found
directly. However, it is possible that a rate of change for each of the variables in terms
of a third variable may be found. When this is the case, the chain rule can then be
applied to find the rate of change between the original two variables.
The chain rule is
dy d y du du
------ = ------- × ------- (if y is a function of u and ------- is constant).
dx du d x dx

WORKED Example 1
Use the chain rule to find the derivative indicated in brackets for each of the following.
dV dr
a ------- = 5r, ------ = 2  -------
dV  dP dP
b ------- = 4n, ------- = 6  ------
dn
-
dr dt  dt  dn dt  dt 

THINK WRITE
dV dV dr dV dV dr
a 1 Use the chain rule ------- = ------- × ----- . a ------- = ------- × -----
dt dr dt dt dr dt
dV dr
2 Substitute ------- = 5r and ----- = 2 into = 5r × 2
dr dt
the rule.
3 Simplify. = 10r
Chap 07 SM Page 281 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

Chapter 7 Differential equations 281

THINK WRITE
dn dP dn dn dP dn
b 1 Use the chain rule ------ = ------- × ------- . b ------ = ------- × -------
dt dt dP dt dt dP
dn dP dn 1 1
2 Find ------- by inverting ------- and ------- = ------------ = ------
dP dn dP  dP 4n
-------
dP  dn 
substituting ------- = 4n.
dn
dn 1
3 Multiply 6 by 1--4- n. ------ = 6 × ------
dt 4n
4 Simplify by removing the common 3 3
= ------ or --- n –1
factor of 2. 2n 2

WORKED Example 2
dA
If A = h2 − 5h find ------- when h = 2.
dh
THINK WRITE
1 Write the equation. A = h2 − 5h
dA
2 Differentiate A with respect to h. ------- = 2h − 5
dh
dA dA
3 Evaluate ------- when h = 2. When h = 2, ------- = 2(2) − 5
dh dh
=4−5
= −1

Notes
1. Rates of change are given with respect to time unless otherwise stated.

2. An increasing
rate is positive.
The volume of the
balloon is increasing.
The rate of change of
volume with respect to
time is positive.
dV
------- > 0
dt
3. A decreasing
rate is negative.
The mass of sand in
the tip-truck is decreasing.
The rate of mass change
with respect to time is negative.
dm
------- < 0
dt
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282 Specialist Mathematics

WORKED Example 3
A balloon is being filled with air at the rate of 150 cm3/s. Assuming that the balloon
remains spherical, at what rate is the radius changing when the radius reaches 3 cm?
THINK WRITE
dV dV
1 The given rate is ------- = 150 cm3/s. Given rate ------- = 150
dt dt
dr dr
2 The required rate is ----- . Required rate -----
dt dt
dr
3 The rate which will be found is ------- as
dV
dr dr dV dr
----- = ------- × ------- . Need to find ------- .
dt dV dt dV
4 The volume of a sphere is V = 4--3- π r3. V = 4--3- π r3
5 Differentiate V with respect to r to
dV dV
obtain ------- . ------- = 4π r2
dr dr
dV dr dr 1
6 Invert ------- to find ------- . ------- = -----------2
dr dV dV 4πr
dr dr dr dV
7 Use the chain rule to find ----- . ----- = ------- × ------- (using the chain rule)
dt dt dV dt
dr 150
8 Simplify ----- . = -----------2
dt 4πr
dr dr 150
9 Substitute r = 3 into ----- and evaluate. When r = 3, ----- = ----------------2-
dt dt 4π(3)
150
= ---------
36 π
25
= ------

25
10 State the answer. The radius is increasing at ------ cm/s

(or 1.326 cm/s) when the radius is 3 cm.

WORKED Example 4 r
A conical tank full of water loses water at a rate of 1.2 m3/min when
a tap at the bottom is turned on. If the surface radius of water in the
tank is always equal to two-thirds of the depth of the water, then find
h
the rate at which the depth of water is changing when the depth is 2 m.

THINK WRITE
dV dV
1 The given rate is ------- = – 1.2 as the Given rate ------- = – 1.2 m3/min
dt dt
rate is decreasing.
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Chapter 7 Differential equations 283


THINK WRITE

dh dh
2 The required rate is ------ . Required rate is ------ .
dt dt

dh
3 The rate which has to be found is -------
dV
dh dV dh dV
as ------ = ------- × ------- . Need to find ------- .
dt dt dV dh

4 The volume of a cone is V = 1--3- π r2h. V = 1--3- π r2h

5 Substitute r = 2--3- h in the rule to obtain V But r = 2--3- h (given)


in terms of h only.
2
V = 1--3- π  ------ h
Simplify V. 2h
6
 3
π 4h 2
= ---  -------- h
3 9 
= ------ πh
4 3
27

7 Differentiate V with respect to h to dV


------ π h
------- = 12 2
dV dh 27
obtain ------- .
dh = 4--9- π h2

dh dh 9
8 Invert to obtain ------- . ------- = -----------2-
dV dV 4πh

dh dh dV dh
9 Find ------ using the chain rule. ------ = ------- × -------
dt dt dt dV
9
= –1.2 × -----------2-
4πh
2.7
= – --------2-
πh

dh dh – 2.7
10 Substitute h = 2 into ------ and evaluate. When h = 2, ------ = ---------2-
dt dt π2
– 0.675
= ----------------
π
11 State the answer. – 0.675
The height is changing at a rate of ---------------- m/
π
min (or −0.215 m/min) when the depth is 2 m.
or
The height is decreasing by 0.215 m/min when
the depth is 2 m.
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284 Specialist Mathematics

remember
remember
1. A rate of change is a derivative.
dy dy du
2. Chain rule: ------ = ------ × ------
dx du dx
dx 1
3. Reciprocal rule: ------ = -----------
dy  -----
dy
-
 dx
4. Increasing rates are positive.
5. Decreasing rates are negative.
6. Solid geometry formulas:
Total surface area of a cone = π r(s + r)
Total surface area of a sphere = 4π r2
1
Volume of a cone = --- π r 2 h
3
4
Volume of a sphere = --- π r 3
3

Differential equations: related


7A rates
1 Express each of the following phrases as derivatives.
a The rate of change of area (A) with respect to length (L)
b The rate of change of volume (V) with respect to radius (r)
c The rate of change of pressure (P) with respect to height (h)
d The rate of change of acceleration (a) with respect to time (t)
2 Find the derivative indicated in the brackets for each of the following rules.
4πr2
a V = -----------  ------- b M = 0.6 A 3  --------
dV dM
3  dr   dA

c P = 2e 0.01t
2  dP
------- d 5xy = 2  -----
dy
-
 dt   dx

e S = 2 π r ( r + 10 )  dS
------
 dr 

WORKED 3 Use the chain rule to find the derivative indicated in brackets for each of the following.
Example
a ------- = 2r , ----- = 3  ------- b ------- = 3L 2 , ------ = 1.5  -------
1 dA dr dA dV dL dV
dr dt  dt  dL dt  dt 

c
dV dh
------- = 8 π , ------ = 0.4  dV
-------
dS dr
d ------ = 3 + 2r , ----- = 4  dS
------
dh dt  dt  dr dt  dt 

e
dP dh
------- = 2 h , ------ = 0.5  dP
------- f
dV dV
------- = 6 , ------- = 1.2  dh
------
dh dt  dt  dh dt  dt 
dA dA
g ------- = 2 π r , ------- = 4  dr
----- h
dV dV
------- = 8L , ------- = 0.5  dL
------
dr dt  dt  dL dt  dt 
Chap 07 SM Page 285 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

Chapter 7 Differential equations 285


dM
WORKED 4 a If M = 2n3, find -------- when n = 2.
Example dn
2 dV
b If V = 6r 2, find ------- when r = 1.2.
dr
dP
c Find ------- when t = 4 given that P = 0.5e 1 + t.
dt
dy
d Find ------ when x = 1 given that 3xy = 8.
dx
5 multiple choice
The side lengths of a square (L) are increasing at a constant rate of 2 cm/min. If the
area of the square is A,
dA
a then ------- is equal to:
dL
A L2 B 2L C 4 D L E 2
dA
b the rate of change of the area, ------- , when L = 5 cm is:
dt
A 10 cm2/min B 0.1 cm2/min C 0.5 cm2/min
2 2
D 5 cm /min E 20 cm /min
6 multiple choice
A spherical balloon is deflating so that its radius is decreasing at a constant rate of
0.8 cm/s. The rate of change of volume when the radius is 10 cm is:
A 80π cm3/s B −400π cm3/s C −320π cm3/s
D 500π cm /s3
E –80π cm /s 3

WORKED 7 The radius of a circular oil slick is increasing at a rate of 10 m/h. If the slick remains
Example
3
circular, find the rate at which the area is increasing when the radius is 5 m.
8 The radius of an inflated spherical balloon is increasing uniformly by 2 cm/min. At
what rate is the surface area increasing when the radius is 5 cm?
9 A large block of ice in the shape of a cube is melting uniformly at the rate of
1.2 cm3/s. Find the rate of decrease of its side length when the side length is 2 cm.
5
---
WORKED 10 The volume of water in a glass is V = 2x 3 where x cm is the depth of water in the
Example
4
glass. If water is poured into the glass at a constant rate of 12 cm3/s, find the rate at
which the depth is changing when x = 8 cm.
11 The pulse rate (P beats
per minute) and the
speed travelled by an ath-
lete (v m/s) are related by
the rule P = 60 + 15v,
where 0 ≤ v ≤ 8. If the
runner increases speed
by a constant rate of 0.5
m/s per second, find the
rate of change of pulse
when the speed reaches
6 m/s.
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286 Specialist Mathematics

12 A solid cylindrical container of fixed length 90 cm is being pressure tested and the
radius is increasing at a constant rate of 0.01 cm/min. When the radius is 15 cm, find
the rate of change of:
a the total surface area (S)
b the volume (V).
13 On a particular day the temperature (T°C) at a height (h m) above sea level is:
T = 12e−0.001h.
If a balloon is rising at 0.1 m/s, what is the rate of change of temperature on the
balloon when it reaches a height of 1000 m above sea level?
14 In a particular circuit the current (I amps) in a resistor with resistance (R ohms)
satisfies the rule IR = 200.
The resistance is increased at a constant rate of 100 ohms/s. Find the rate at which the
current changes when the resistance is 400 ohms.
15 Water is poured at a constant rate of 20 cm3/s into a container in the shape of an
inverted cone whose semi-vertical angle is 45°. What is the rate at which the level of
water is rising when the depth is 50 cm?
16 A 5-metre ladder leaning against a
vertical wall starts to slip. The upper end
is sliding at a constant rate of 0.1 m/s.
Find the rate at which the lower end is 5m
sliding when the lower end of the
y
ladder is 3 metres from the wall.

x
17 A cyclist is travelling from the corner along a straight Home
road at a constant speed of 20 km/h.
Find:
a the distance (D) from home when the cyclist is x km D km
3 km
from the corner
b the rate of change of distance from home when the
cyclist is 4 km from the corner. x km
Corner Cyclist

18 Water is leaking from the tank shown below at a constant rate of 0.03 m3/min.

2m

h 3m
2m
a Find an expression for the volume, V, in terms of the depth, h.
b Find the rate of change of depth, to the nearest
mm/min, when:
i the depth is 1 metre
ii the tank is half full.
Chap 07 SM Page 287 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

Chapter 7 Differential equations 287


Verifying solutions
When verifying a solution to a differential equation it is easiest to take the appropriate
derivatives of the solution then substitute these results into the differential equation. In
this way a candidate for a solution to a differential equation can be tested to see if it is
valid or otherwise.

WORKED Example 5
Verify that the given function y is a solution to the differential equation in each of the
following.
dy
a ------ = ( 3 x 2 – 12 x + 12 ), y = ( x – 2 ) 3 b 4 y ( y″ ) = 3 x , y = x x
dx
THINK WRITE
a 1 Write down the solution. a y = (x – 2)3
dy dy
2 Differentiate y to find ------ . ------ = 3 ( x – 2 ) 2
dx dx
The differential equation is:
3 Write down the differential equation. dy
------ = 3x 2 – 12x + 12
dx
dy dy
4 Substitute ------ into the left-hand side LHS = ------ = 3 ( x – 2 ) 2
dx dx
(LHS) of the differential equation.
5 Expand the brackets. = 3 ( x 2 – 4x + 4 )
= 3x 2 – 12x + 12
6 It is equal to the RHS of the differential = RHS
equation.
7 Therefore y = (x − 2)3 is a solution. y = (x − 2)3 is a solution.
b 1 Write down the solution. b y= x x
1
---
= x × x2
3 3
--- ---
2 Express x x as x 2 . = x2
1
– --2-
3 Differentiate y to obtain y′. y′ = 3
---
2
x
1
– --2-
4 Differentiate y′ to obtain y′′. y′′ = 3
---
4
x
5 Write down the differential equation. The differential equation is: 4y(y′′) = 3x
6 Substitute y and y′′ into the differential LHS = 4y(y′′)
equation. 1
 3x – --2- 3
---
= 4x  ---------- 2

 4 
7 Simplify the LHS. = 3x
8 This is equal to the RHS. = RHS
9 y = x x is a solution. Therefore, y = x x is a solution.
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288 Specialist Mathematics

WORKED Example 6
d2 y dy
Find the values of k if y = ekx satisfies the differential equation --------2- – 4 ------ – 5 y = 0 .
dx dx
THINK WRITE
1 Write the equation. y = ekx
dy dy
2 Differentiate y to find ------ . ------ = kekx
dx dx
dy d2 y d2 y
3 Differentiate ------ to find -------2- . -------2- = k2ekx
dx dx dx
dy d2 y d2 y dy
4 Substitute y, ------ and -------2- into the Substituting into -------2- – 4 ------ – 5 = 0
dx dx dx dx
differential equation. k 2 e kx – 4ke kx – 5e kx = 0
kx
5 Take e out as a factor. e kx ( k 2 – 4k – 5 ) = 0
6 Factorise the quadratic expression of k. e kx ( k – 5 ) ( k + 1 ) = 0
7 As e ≠ 0, solve the quadratic equation
kx

for the solutions. (k – 5)(k + 1) = 0


8 State the solutions for k. Therefore k = 5 or −1, (ekx ≠ 0)

You can also verify solutions by using the Mathcad file ‘Verifying DEs’ found on the
Maths Quest CD-ROM.

remember
remember
dy
1. 1st derivatives are ------ , f ′(x) or y′.
dx
d2 y
2. 2nd derivatives are -------2- , f ′′(x) or y′′.
dx
3. When verifying a solution of a differential equation, show that the left-hand
side of the equation is equal to the right-hand side.
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Chapter 7 Differential equations 289

7B Verifying solutions

WORKED 1 Verify that the given function is a solution to the differential equation in each of the Math
Example
following.

cad
5
dy dh 1 Verifying
a ------ = 4x + 1, y = 2x 2 + x – 3 b ------ = 3t 2 – ---, h = t 3 – log e t DEs
dx dt t
dM 2
c -------- = 3M , M = e 3n d y′ ( x ) = – 1--2- y 2, y = ------------
dn x+3
dy 5 x d2 y
e ------ = ----------------------2, y = --------------- f -------2- = – 4y, y = sin 2x
dx ( 4x + 5 ) 4x + 5 dx
5
g y″ ( x ) = ----3-, y = x + 5 2
h y″ + y + 2 sin x = 0, y = x cos x
y
dy
i y″ – y = 2e x, y = xe x j ------ = 0, y = Sin –1 x + Cos –1 x
dx
y dy
k y′ = 1 + --, y = x log e x l ------ = 4y 2 + 1, y = 1--2- tan 2x
x dx
d2 y dy 3
n -------2- = x  ------ , y = Sin –1 ---
d2 y dy x
m -------2- – 2 ------ + 5y = 0, y = e x sin 2x  
dx dx dx dx 2
2 multiple choice
4d 2 y
Which one of the following functions is a solution to ----------- – y = 0?
x
dx 2
--- 2
A y = sin 2x B y = e 2 C y = x log e x D y = x2 + 1 E y = ------------
x+1
3 multiple choice
A solution to the differential equation y′′ − 4y′ + 4y = 0 is:
A y = tan 2x B y = x2 − 3x C y = (2 − x)e2x
−1
D y = 2 Cos x E y = x( x + 3)
WORKED 4 Find the possible values of k if y = ekx satisfies the differential equation
Example
d2 y dy
6 -------2- + 3 ------ + 2y = 0
dx dx
5 Find the value of a if y(x) = eax is a solution to 2y′′(x) − 5y′(x) − 12y(x) = 0.
6 Find the value of a if y = sin ax + cos ax satisfies the differential equation
d2 y
-------2- + 9y = 0
dx
7 Find the values of a and b if y = ax2 + bx satisfies the differential equation
y′′ + 6y′ + 36x = 0
8 Show that y = sin x2 satisfies the differential equation
d2 y dy
x -------2- + 4x 3 y = ------
dx dx
9 Verify that y = esin 2x satisfies the differential equation
y′′ + (4 sin 2x) y = (2 cos 2x) y′
log e x
10 Verify that y = ------------- is a solution to
x d2 y
x 3 -------2- + 3 = 2xy
dx
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290 Specialist Mathematics

Differential equations of the


dy
form ------ = f ( x )
dx
The process of antidifferentiation can solve some differential equations. General
solutions can be found by including the constant of antidifferentiation. If conditions are
given which enable the constants of antidifferentiation to be found then particular
solutions can be found. These conditions are known as initial conditions or boundary
conditions.
dy
The simplest type of first order differential equation is of the form: ------ = f ( x )
dx
This differential equation is solved by simply finding the antiderivative of f (x).


dy
If ------ = f ( x ) , then y = f ( x )d x
dx
= F (x) + c, where F (x) is the antiderivative of f (x).

WORKED Example 7
dy 1
Find the general solution to ------ = 2x + ------------------ .
dx 1 – x2
THINK WRITE
dy dy 1
1 Express y as an antiderivative of ------ . ------ = 2x + ------------------
dx dx 1 – x2


y =  2x + ------------------ dx
1
 1 – x 2
dy
2 Antidifferentiate ------ by rule to obtain y and
dx
add the constant of antidifferentiation since
no initial conditions are given. y = x2 + Sin−1x + c

WORKED Example 8
t
Find the particular solution to h′ ( t ) = ----------------- where h(4) = 1.
t2 + 9
THINK WRITE
t
1 Express h(t) in integral notation. h′ ( t ) = -----------------
t2 + 9


t
h ( t ) = -----------------dt
t +9
2

2 Antidifferentiate by substituting Let u = t + 9 2


u = t2 + 9, as the derivative is present.
du du
3 Find ------ . ------ = 2t
dt dt
4 Make dt the subject.
du
or dt = ------
2t
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Chapter 7 Differential equations 291


THINK WRITE


t du
5 Substitute u and dt into the integrand. h(t) = -----1 × ------
--- t
u2


1
1 – --2-
6 Simplify the integrand. = --- u du
2
1
7 Antidifferentiate. ---
= u2 + c
8 Replace u by t2 + 9. = t2 + 9 + c
9 Substitute the initial conditions of t = 4 Since h(4) = 1
and h = 1 into the equation. 1 = 25 + c
1=5+c
10 Solve for the constant, c. c = −4
11 State the particular solution. Therefore h(t) = t2 + 9 – 4 .

WORKED Example 9
The rate of change of shaded area covered by a shrub is modelled by the differential
dA πt
equation -------- = 0.02t + 0.5 sin ------ , where A m2 is the area covered by the shrub t months
dt 6
after it is planted.
If the shrub covers an area of 0.3 m2 when planted, what area does it cover after 9 months?
THINK WRITE
dA πt
1 Express A in integral notation. ------- = 0.02t + 0.5 sin ------
dt 6
πt
∫A =  0.02t + 0.5 sin ------ dt
 6
3 πt
2 Antidifferentiate the integrand by rule. = 0.01t 2 – --- cos ------ + c
π 6
πt
3 State the general solution A(t). A(t) = 0.01t 2 – 0.955 cos ----- + c
6
3
(approximating --- with 0.955)
π
4 Substitute 0.3 for A and 0 for t, these Since A(0) = 0.3
being the initial conditions. 0.3 = −0.955 + c
5 Solve the equation for the constant, c. c = 1.255
π
6 State the particular solution A(t). A = 0.01t 2 – 0.955 cos --- + 1.255
6

7 Evaluate A(9), the shaded area at time A(9) = 0.01 ( 9 ) 2 – 0.955 cos ------ + 1.255
2
t = 9 months.
= 0.81 + 1.255
= 2.065
8 State the solution. After 9 months the shrub covers an area of
approximately 2.065 m2.
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292 Specialist Mathematics

Solving a first order differential


Graphics Calculator tip! equation
We can use either of two methods to solve a first order differential equation: a table or
a graph.

Table
To provide a general example, consider the equation in worked example 9 with the
dy πx
variables x and y rather than t and A. That is, ------ = 0.02x + 0.5 sin ------ subject to the
dx 6
condition y = 0.3 at x = 0.
dy
1. Enter the equation for ------ in Y1 and for Y2 press
dx
MATH , select 9: fnInt( and enter Y1,X,0,X) + .3 (so
Y2 is y and at x = 0, Y2 = 0.3).
Remember: To enter Y1, press VARS and select
Y–VARS, 1:Function and 1:Y1.

2. Press 2nd [TBLSET] and set TblStart = 0,


Tbl = 1, Indpnt: Auto and Depend: Auto; then

press 2nd [TABLE]. The Y1 column gives values of


the derivative and the Y2 column gives values of y.
Since we need the y-value (Y2 value) when x = 9,
scroll down to the row required.

3. Alternatively, by setting Indpnt: Ask in TBLSET, you


can evaluate the solution at points of your choosing.

Graph
1. Repeat step 1 above to enter Y1 and Y2.

2. Position the cursor over the = of Y1 and press ENTER .


Notice that the sign is no longer black – this means
that the Y1 function will not plot.
3. Adjust WINDOW settings for X (here, [6,12] has been
used). To graph the solution curve, press ZOOM and
select 0:ZoomFit. The solution curve can be traced or
evaluated in the X-interval used.

remember
remember
dy
If ------ = f (x),
dx

then y = f ( x )dx
= F(x) + c
When initial conditions are given then c can be evaluated giving a particular
solution from the general solution.
Chap 07 SM Page 293 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

Chapter 7 Differential equations 293


Differential equations of the
7C dy
form ------ = f ( x )
dx
WORKED 1 Find the general solution to the following differential equations. Math
Example

cad
dy dy
7 a ------ = 2x + 1 b ------ = x 3 – 4x Antidifferentiation
dx dx
c y′ ( x ) = ( x + 3 ) ( x – 2 ) d y′ ( x ) = 2e 3 x
dy 3
e ------ = x 2 + --- f y′ ( x ) = x x 2 – 2
dx x
1
g y′ ( x ) = 4sec 2 2x h f ′( x ) = ----3- + x
x
(2x + 1) ( x – 1 ) –1
j y′ ( x ) = ------------------
i f ′( x ) = -------------------------------------
x+3 9 – x2
1 dy
k y′ ( x ) = -------------2- l ------ = sin 4x – 2cos x
4+x dx
dx
m h′ ( t ) = 2 ( 5 – 2t ) 4 n ------ = sin 3 σ cos σ

2 multiple choice
dy
If ------ = ( 2 – x ) 5 and y = 0 when x = 1, then the solution is:
dx
A y = 5 – 5( 2 – x )4 B y = ( 2 – x )6 –( 2 – x )6
C y = ----------------------
6
1 – ( 2 – x )6 E y = ( x – 2 )6
D y = ----------------------------
6
3 multiple choice
dV 2
Given that ------- = ----------------- and V = 2π when t = 1, then V(t) is equal to:
dt 1 – t2

A 2 Cos−1t B ------ + Sin−1t C π + 2 Sin−1t
2

D 2π + 1 − t2 E ------ + Tan–1t
4
4 multiple choice
If P′(u) = u cos (u2 − 3) and P = 1 when u = 3 , then the solution is:
A P=1+ 1
---
2
sin (u − 3)
2
B P= 1
---
2
+ 1
---
2
cos (u2 − 3) C P = sin (u3 − 3u)
D P = u sin (u2 − 3) E P = cos (u2 − 3)
WORKED 5 Find the particular solution for each of the following differential equations.
Example
8 a y′(x) = 3x2 + 1, where y = 3 when x = 0
dy
b ------ = e –2 x , where y = 0 when x = 0
dx
π
c f ′(x) = 6 cos 3x and f  --- = 1
 3
Chap 07 SM Page 294 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

294 Specialist Mathematics

d g′(x) = 2x – 1 and g(5) = 4


dh 1
e ------ = -------------------- , where h = 3 when t = 0
dt 16 – t 2
t–1
f h′(t) = ------------------------ , where h(0) = log e 9
t 2 + 4t + 3
dP n
g ------- = ------------------ , where P = 5 when n = 4
dn n –72

dL
h ------ = 4 sin 2 σ , where L = π when σ = π

dM
i -------- = 2 + tan 2 σ , where M = −3 when σ = 0

du x2
j - , where u = 1 when x = 2
------ = -------------
dx x +4
2

dV
k ------- = 4te t 2 + 2 , where V = 3e2 when t = 0
dt
dy
l ( x 2 + 1 ) ------ = 4x + 1 , where y = 7 when x = 0
dx
dL
m ------ = 3 cos σ 1 + sin σ , where L = 0 when σ = 0

dy
n ( 2 – e x ) ------ = e x , where y = 3 when x = 0
dx
6 Find the equation of the curve whose gradient at any point (x, y) is 4x and the curve
passes through (−1, 3).

7 A curve passes through the point (− 1--2- , π ) and its gradient at any point (x, y) is equal
–3
to ------------------ . What is the equation of the curve?
1 – x2
WORKED 8 The rate of change of height, h metres, of water at a port entrance is
Example
9 dh
------ = 7.5 – 1.5 cos 0.5t , where t is the time in hours after low tide.
dt
Express the height, h, has a function of time, t, if the height at low tide (that is, t = 0)
is 6 metres.
dV
9 The rate ------- at which V kilolitres of sewage is treated at a sewage plant t hours after
dt
dV
daily operation begins is ------- = 1000e 0.1t 0 ≤ t ≤ 15.
Find: dt
a the total volume treated V(t) after time t
b the total volume treated after 5 hours
c the average volume treated per hour if the plant operates for 15 hours per day.
10 The acceleration a of a particular car from rest is given by the expression
a = 3t t 2 + 4 , 0 ≤ t ≤ 5, where a is in km/h2 and t is in seconds.
a Find the velocity at any time t in units of km/h.
b Find the time, to the nearest hundredth of a second, when the car reaches 56 km/h.
Chap 07 SM Page 295 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

Chapter 7 Differential equations 295


Differential equations of the form
d2 y
--------2- = f ( x )
dx
When finding the general solution of second order differential equations of the type
d2 y
-------2- = f ( x ) , two antiderivatives are required.
dx

d2 y
If --------2- = f ( x )
dx


dy
then ------ = f ( x )d x
dx
= F(x) + c, where F(x) is the antiderivative of f (x)
and y=
∫ [ F( x ) + c ]d x
= G(x) + cx + d, where G(x) is the antiderivative of F(x) and c and d are
the constants of antidifferentiation.

To find the particular solution of a second order differential equation of this type, that
dy
is, to find the constants c and d, then initial conditions for both ------ and y are required.
dx
dy
The initial condition for ------ allows c to be found while the initial condition for y allows
dx
d to be found.

WORKED Example 10
x
---
Find the general solution to f″ ( x ) = e 2 – 2 .

THINK WRITE
x
---
1 Antidifferentiate f ′′(x) to find f ′(x). f ″( x ) = e 2 – 2


x
---
f ′(x) = ( e 2 – 2 )dx
x
---
= 2e 2 – 2x + c


x
---
2 Antidifferentiate f ′(x) to find f (x). f (x) = ( 2e 2 – 2x + c )dx
x
---
= 4e 2 – x 2 + cx + d
x
---
3 State the solution. f (x) = 4e 2 – x 2 + cx + d is the general solution.
Chap 07 SM Page 296 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

296 Specialist Mathematics

WORKED Example 11
Find the particular solution to y′′(x) = 4 sin (2x + π ) given that y′(0) = 1 and y(0) = 4.
THINK WRITE
1 Antidifferentiate y′′(x) to find y′(x). y′′(x) = 4 sin (2x + π)
y′(x) =
∫ [ 4 sin(2x + π ) ]dx
= −2 cos(2x + π) + c
2 Substitute x = 0 and y′ = 1. Substitute y′(0) = 1
3 Solve the equation for c. 1 = −2 cos π + c
1=2+c
c = −1
4 State the equation for y′. y′(x) = −2 cos(2x + π) − 1
5 Antidifferentiate y′ to find y. y(x) =
∫ [ –2cos( 2x + π ) – 1 ]dx
= −sin(2x + π) − x + d
6 Substitute x = 0 and y = 4. Substitute y(0) = 4
7 Solve the equation for d. 4 = −sin π − 0 + d
d=4
8 State the equation for y, the particular Therefore y = −sin(2x + π) − x + 4 is the
solution. particular solution.

WORKED Example 12
d2 y
A particular curve is described by the differential equation --------2- = 6 x. The tangent to the
dx
curve at the point (3, 6) makes an angle of 45° with the positive direction of the x-axis.
Find the equation of the curve.
THINK WRITE

d2 y d2 y
1 Antidifferentiate -------2- to obtain the -------2- = 6x
dx dx


dy dy
gradient ------ . ------ = 6x dx
dx dx
= 3x2 + c
dy
2 At (3, 6) the gradient = tan 45° = 1. But when x = 3, ------ = 45° = 1.
dx
dy 1 = 3(3)2 + c
3 Substitute x = 3 and ------ = 1 into the
dx
dy 1 = 27 + c
equation for ------ .
dx
4 Solve the equation for c. c = −26
dy dy
5 State the particular equation for ------ . ------ = 3x2 − 26
dx dx
Chap 07 SM Page 297 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

Chapter 7 Differential equations 297

THINK WRITE

∫ ( 3x
dy
6 Antidifferentiate ------ to obtain y. y= 2 – 26 ) dx
dx
= x3 − 26x + d
7 Substitute x = 3 and y = 6 into the equation Substitute x = 3 and y = 6 into the equation.
for y.
8 Solve the equation for d. 6 = 33 − 26(3) + d
6 = –51 + d
d = 57
9 State the particular equation of the curve. Therefore y = x3 − 26x + 57 is the particular
equation required.

History of mathematics
M A R I A AG N E S I ( 1 6 M a y 1 7 1 8 – 9 Ja n u a r y 1 7 9 9 )
During her lifetime ... complete works on calculus and was widely used as a
Easter Island is textbook. In it she organised and analysed the work of
discovered with its many mathematicians, together with her own original
giant statues. interpretations. When the book was published in 1748
Vivaldi writes The it caused a sensation and was praised for its clarity.
Four Seasons. After the success of her book, Agnesi accepted a
Benjamin Franklin position at the University of Bologna and was
establishes the first eventually elected to the Bologna Academy of
police force. Sciences. One of her solutions for a differential
Celsius develops a equation has become known as ‘the witch of Agnesi’.
scale for measuring The solution to the equation follows a curve. Agnesi
temperature. referred to this curve as a ‘versiera’ which in Italian
means ‘turn’ or ‘bend’. When translated into English
Maria Agnesi was an Italian mathematician. She was versiera became confused with the Italian word
born in Milan and her father was a professor of avversiera which means ‘witch’.
mathematics at the University of Bologna. Her large
When her father died, Maria devoted the rest of her
family was wealthy and well-educated and their home
life to helping the poor and the sick, especially
was a meeting place for intellectuals. Agnesi, a child
women. She never married, and died at the age of 81.
prodigy, was the eldest of 21 children. By the age of 9
she could read and speak Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Questions
Italian, French, German and Spanish. During her 1. Which field of mathematics was the subject
teens she studied mathematics, tutored the younger of Agnesi’s most famous book?
children in the family and served as hostess at the 2. Why did very few women work or carry out
discussions held at her father’s house. research in academic disciplines until the
Until the 20th century very few women in Europe 20th century?
or elsewhere received more than a very basic 3. Which university offered a position to
education. As a result, women were unable to work or Agnesi?
carry out research in academic disciplines. Agnesi
4. Which curve is named after her?
was an exception. When she was 20 years old she
published a book of essays called Propositiones Research
Philosophicae. For the next ten years she worked on Find the equation for ‘the witch of Agnesi’. Use
her most famous book, Analytic Institutions for the a graphics calculator to investigate the curve for
Use of Italian Youth. It was one of the first and most various values of a.
Chap 07 SM Page 298 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

298 Specialist Mathematics

remember
remember
d2 y
If -------2- = f ( x ) ,
dx


dy
then ------ = f ( x ) dx
dx
= F(x) + c, where F(x) is the antiderivative of f (x)
and y=
∫ [ F ( x ) + c ] dx
= G(x) + cx + d, where G(x) is the antiderivative of F(x).

Differential equations of the


7D d2 y
form --------- = f ( x )
d x2
hca
d WORKED 1 Find the general solutions to the following differential equations.
Example
Mat

10 a y′′(x) = 1 − 6x b y′′(x) = 6x x
Anti-
differentiation d2 y d2 y 1
c -------2- = ( x – 2 ) ( x + 3 ) d -------2- = ----3-
dx dx x
4x
e f ′′(x) = e x − e−x f f ′′(x) = --------------------2-
(x 2 + 1)
g y′′(x) = 2x − cos x h y′′(x) = 2 sin2 x
2 multiple choice
d2 y
If -------2- = x –2 + 6x 2 , then,
dx
dy
a ------ is equal to:
dx
1 2
A ----3- + 12x + c B x 3 – --- + c C x –3 + 2x 3 + c
x x
1
D 6x + c E 2x 3 – --- + c
x
b the general solution is:
1 1
A y = 1--2- x4 − log e x + cx + d B y = ----4- + 6x2 + cx C y = ----3- + 6x2 + cx + d
x x
D y = x4 − log e x + d E y = 3x2 + cx + d
3 multiple choice
π
- and f ′  --- = 2 and f (0) = −3, then f (x) is equal to:
1
Given that f ′′(x) = ------------
cos 2 x  4
A −3 + tan x B log e (sin x) − 2 C x − 3 − log e (cosx)
D 2x − 1 + log e (cos x) E 1 + log e (tan x)
Chap 07 SM Page 299 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

Chapter 7 Differential equations 299


WORKED 4 Find the particular solution to each of the following second order differential equations.
Example
11 d2 y dy
a -------2- = 2 where ------ = −3 and y = 1 when x = 0.
dx dx
d2 y dy
b -------2- = 12x where ------ = 10 and y = 3 when x = 1.
dx dx
c y′′(x) = 12(x − 3)2 where y′(x) = 0 and y(x) = 2 when x = 3.
– 3--2-
d y′′(x) = 3x ( 4 – x 2 ) where y′(x) = 2 and y(x) = 3 when x = 3.
3 π
e y′′(x) = −4 sin 2x where y′(x) = 2 and y(x) = ------- when x = --- .
2 6
f f ′′(x) = 8e4x where f ′(0) = 2 and f (0) = 1--2- .

g f ′′(x) = 9 cos (3x − 1) where f ′  1--3- = 0 and f  1--3- = 1.

1
h g′′(x) = ----2- where g′(1) = 0 and g(1) = 1.
x

d2 y
WORKED 5 A particular curve is described by the differential equation -------2- = 2x(x − 1). The
Example
dx
12
tangent to the curve at the point (3, −16) makes an angle of 45° with the positive x-axis.
Find the equation of the curve.

6 The height of a projectile fired vertically up from the ground with an initial speed of
d2h
50 m/s satisfies the differential equation --------2 = – 10 . Find:
dt
a the height at any time t
b the maximum height reached.

7 The deflection of a 5-metre-long board from the horizontal satisfies the differential
d2 y
equation -------2- = −0.0004(5 − x)2, where x is the horizontal distance from its fixed end.
dx
If the deflection is zero and the board is horizontal at its fixed end, then find:
y

a the equation which measures the deflection at any point


b the deflection 4 metres from the fixed end.

8 Powerlines sag under their own weight. The downward deflection of a powerline, L
d2 y x
metres long fixed at both ends, satisfies the differential equation 10 000 -------2- = x2 − L --- ,
dx 3
where y (metres) is the downward deflection and x is the horizontal distance from one
end. If the power line is considered to be horizontal at its end, find the maximum
deflection of the line in terms of its length, L. Hence find the maximum deflection of a
powerline which is 40 metres long.
Chap 07 SM Page 300 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

300 Specialist Mathematics

Differential equations of the form


dy
------ = g ( y )
dx dy
Differential equations of the type ------ = g ( y ) can be solved by inverting the equation and
dx dx 1 dy dx
then antidifferentiating. This can be done since ------ = --------- , where both ------ and ------ ≠ 0.
dy dy dx dy
------
dx
dy dx 1
------ = g ( y ) becomes ------ = -----------
dx dy g( y)


1
and therefore x = -----------d y + c
g( y)

This gives x as a function of y. If it is possible, the solution is rearranged to express y as


a function of x. However, not all equations can readily be transformed to make y the
subject.

WORKED Example 13
Find general solutions for each of the following differential equations.
dy
a ------ = y b y′(x) = tan y.
dx

THINK WRITE
dy
a 1 Invert both sides of the differential a ------ = y
dx
equation.
dx 1
------ = ---
dy y


1
2 Antidifferentiate the RHS with x = --- dy
y
respect to y to obtain x(y).
x = log e y + c, y > 0
3 Subtract c from both sides. x − c = log e y
4 Take the exponent e to the power of ex − c = y
both sides to convert to exponential y = ex − c
x−c
form and make y the subject. Now e = e xe−c = Ae x, where A = e−c.
5 State the solution and express it Therefore, the general solution is y = Ae x,
more simply. where A = e−c.

dy
b 1 Express the derivative as ------ . b y′(x) = tan y
dx
dy
------ = tan y
dx
dx 1
2 Invert both sides of the differential ------ = ----------- , y ≠ 0
dy tan y
equation.
1 cos y
3 Simplify ------------ . = ------------
tan y sin y
Chap 07 SM Page 301 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

Chapter 7 Differential equations 301

THINK WRITE

∫ -----------
cos y
4 Let u = sin y to antidifferentiate using x= - dy
sin y
the ‘derivative present’ method.
Let u = sin y
du du
5 Find ------ . ------ = cos y
dy dy
du
6 Make dy the subject. dy = ------------
cos y


cos y du
7 Substitute u and dy into the integral. x = ------------ ------------
u cos y


du
8 Simplify the integrand. = ------
u
9 Antidifferentiate by rule. = log e u + c
10 Replace u by sin y. x = log e (sin y) + c, sin y > 0
11 Subtract c from both sides. x − c = log e (sin y)
12 Express the equation in exponential form. ex − c = sin y
13 Take Sin−1 of both sides to make y the y = Sin−1(e x − c), x < c
subject.
14 State the solution. Therefore the general solution is
y = Sin−1 (Ae x), where A = e−c.

WORKED Example 14
a Find the particular solution of f ′(x) = 1 – y 2 if f (0) = 1--2- .
b State the largest domain for which the solution applies.
THINK WRITE
dy
a 1 Express the differential equation in the a ------ = 1 – y2
dx
dy
form ------ .
dx
dx 1
2 Invert both sides of the differential ------ = ------------------ , −1 < y < 1
equation. dy 1 – y2


1
3 Antidifferentiate by rule. x = ------------------ dy
1 – y2
x = Sin−1 y + c, −1 < y < 1
4 Substitute y = 1
---
2
and x = 0. Substituting (0, 1--2- ) into the equation,
0 = Sin−1 1--2- + c
π
5 Solve the equation for c. 0 = --- + c
6
π
c = – ---
6 Continued over page
Chap 07 SM Page 302 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

302 Specialist Mathematics

THINK WRITE
π
6 Rewrite the equation. x = Sin−1 y − ---
6
π π −1
7 Add --- to both sides. x + --- = Sin y
6 6
π
sin x + ---  = y
8 Take the sine of both sides to make y
the subject.  6
π
9 State the solution. Therefore y = sin x + ---  is the particular
 6
solution.
dx 1
b 1 From part a, ------ = ------------------ exists for b From part a, −1 < y < 1
dy 1 – y2
−1 < y < 1.
π π
2 For x + --- = Sin−1 y, −1 < y < 1 is the Since x + ---  = Sin –1 y
6  6
domain of this function (see part a).
π π π π π π
3 So – --- < x + --- < --- must be the range of the – --- < x + --- < ---
2 6 2 2 6 2
−1
Sin function whose domain is (−1, 1).
2π π
4 Solve this inequation for x. – ------ < x < ---
3 3
5 State the largest possible set of values Therefore, the largest possible domain for
for x, that is, the domain of the solution of the differential equation in
π 2π π
y = sin x + ---  . part a is (− ------ , --- ).
 6 3 3

π
Note: The graph of y = Sin−1 x − --- , which y
6 –π y = Sin–1 x
2
has x and y interchanged in worked example –π y = Sin–1 x – –π
6
3
14, is shown in the figure at right,
2π π
This clearly shows that – ------ < y < --- , which –1
– –π
1 x
3 3 6
corresponds to the domain, x, in the previous
– –π
example. 2

–—
3

WORKED Example 15
dh
A kite is rising at a rate which is proportional to its height at any time; that is, ------- = kh,
dt
0 < h < 300, where h is in metres and t is in minutes. (k is a constant.)
If the initial height is 2 metres and the height is 20 metres after 1 minute, find:
a the height at any time, t b the height to the nearest metre after 3 minutes.
THINK WRITE
dh
a 1 Invert both sides of the differential equation. a ------ = kh
dt
dt 1
------ = ------
dh kh
Chap 07 SM Page 303 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

Chapter 7 Differential equations 303


THINK WRITE

∫ -----kh- dh
Express t in integral notation. t= 1
2

dt 1
3 Antidifferentiate ------ with respect to h. t = --- log e h + c
dh k
1 1 1
4 Let c = --- log e A (which is still a constant). = --- log e h + --- log e A
k k k
1
5 Simplify the RHS using log laws. t = --- log e (Ah)
k
6 Substitute the initial condition, h = 2 when t = 0. When t = 0, h = 2,
1
0 = --- log e (2A)
k
7 Solve the equation for A. A = 1--2- , since log e 1 = 0
1 h
8 Substitute A into the equation. t = --- log e ---
k 2
9 Substitute h = 20 and t = 1 into the equation. When t = 1, h = 20
1
10 Solve the equation for k. 1 = --- log e 10
k
k = log e 10 or approx. 2.303
h
log e ---
2
11 State the rule for t. t = -------------
2.303
h
12 Rearrange the rule to make h the subject. 2.303t = log e ---
2
h
e 2.303t = ---
2
13 State the solution. Therefore, h(t) = 2e2.303t is the
height at any time t.
b 1 Substitute t = 3 into the rule h(t). b When t = 3,
h(3) = 2e2.303 × 3
2 Evaluate h(3). = 2e6.909
3 Round the height to the nearest metre. ≈ 2002
4 State the approximate height. Therefore, after 3 minutes the kite
reaches a height of approximately
2002 metres.

remember
remember
dy
If ------ = g(y),
dx
dx 1
then ------ = -----------
dy g ( y )


1
and x = ----------- dy + c .
g( y)
Chap 07 SM Page 304 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

304 Specialist Mathematics

Differential equations of the


7E dy
form ------ = g ( y )
dx
hca
d WORKED 1 Find the general solutions to the following differential equations.
Example
Mat

dy 1 dy y
Anti-
13 a ------ = ------ b ------ = ---
dx 2y dx 3
differentiation
dy dy
with respect c ------ = y + 3 d ------ = 3y – 5
to y dx dx
1 2
e y′ ( x ) = --------------- f y′ ( x ) = ---------------
2y + 7 7 – 4y
y
g y′ ( x ) = 8 – --- h 2y′ – y 2 = 0
5
dy dy 1
i ------ = cos 2 y j ------ = -----------
dx dx tan y
2 multiple choice
dh
If ------ = 0.2h , where h = 1
--- when t = 0, then the solution is:
dt 2

A h = e0.2t B h = 1--2- e0.2t C h = e5t


D h = e5t + 1
---
2
E h = 1--2- e5t

3 multiple choice
dy π
Given that ------ = 4 – y 2 and y = 3 when x = --- then,
dx 6
a the solution is:
π π
A y = 2 sin x – ---  B y = 2 cos x – ---  C y = 4 – x2
 6  6
π π
D y = 2 sin x + ---  E y = cos x + --- 
 6  6

b the domain of the function is:


2π π
A R\ { – 2, 2 } B R\ { 2 } C  – ------, --- 
 3 3
π 2π
D [−2, 2] E  – ---, ------ 
 3 3 

WORKED 4 For each of the following differential equations:


Example
14 i find the particular solution
ii state the largest domain for which the solution applies.
dy dy π
a ( y + 3 ) 3 ------ = 4 and y = −3 when x = 0. b ------ = 1--4- + y 2 and y = 1--2- when x = --- .
dx dx 4
dy 1 dy
c ------ = ----------- , y > 3 and y = 5 when x = 2. d ( y + 1 ) 2 ------ = 1 and y = 2 when x = 4.
dx y–3 dx
dh
e y′ ( x ) = – 2 – y 2 and y = 1 when x = 0. f ----- - = 2h ( 3 – h ) where h = 1 when t = 0.
dt
Chap 07 SM Page 305 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

Chapter 7 Differential equations 305


dv dy ey + 1
g ------ = e –2v where v = 0 when x = 1. h ------ = -------------
- where y = 0 when x = 0.
dx dx ey
dy du
i ------ = y 2 – y and y = 2 when x = 0. j ------ = 4 – u 2 and u = 1 when x = 0.
dx dx
5 The gradient of a curve at any point (x, y) is equal to (y + 1)2. If the curve passes
through the point (4, 2), what is the equation of the curve?
dP
WORKED 6 The rate of growth of a particular group of mice is ------- = 0.1P , where P is the number
Example dt
15
of mice t weeks after observation is started.
a Find an expression for P(t) if the initial population is 10.
b How many weeks after observation begins will the population reach 1000?

7 A balloon is expanding at a rate that is inversely proportional to its volume (V cm3) at


dV k
any time t seconds. That is, ------- = ---- , where k is a constant.
dt V
If the initial volume is 10 cm3 and after 5 seconds it is 40 cm3, find:
a V at any time t
b the volume after 8 seconds.
8 The rate of radioactive decay of a particular substance is proportional to the amount
present, Q, at any time t. The differential equation which describes this rate is
dQ
------- = – kQ , where k is a constant.
dt SHE
ET 7.1
Work

Initially Q = 100 and when t = 20, Q = 50. Find the time taken for 80% of the initial
amount to have decayed.
Chap 07 SM Page 306 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

306 Specialist Mathematics

Setting up and solving differential


equations
Many situations arise in economics, botany, biology, physics, chemistry and so on
which require a differential equation to model data involving rates of change. We shall
now consider problems that involve setting up and solving differential equations from
given information.
It is useful to recall that:

1. y is proportional to (or varies directly with) x,


abbreviates to y ∝ x
which means that y = kx, where k is a constant.

2. y varies inversely x
1
abbreviates to y ∝ ---
x
k
which means that y = -- , where k is a constant.
x

3. Rates are with respect to time unless stated otherwise.

WORKED Example 16
Set up differential equations for the following situations.
a The volume (V) of water in a tank is decreasing at a rate which is proportional to its
current volume.
b The gradient of a curve varies inversely with the square of its x-coordinate.
THINK WRITE
dV
a 1 The rate of change of volume, ------- , is negative as the a
dt
rate is decreasing.
2 The current volume is V.
dV
3 Write the proportionality statement. ------- ∝ V
dt

dV
4 Write the differential equation with constant −k ------- = −kV
dt
(decreasing rate).
dy
b 1 The gradient is ------ . b
dx
2 The square of the x-coordinate is x2.
dy 1
3 Write the variation statement. ------ ∝ ----2-
dx x
dy k
4 Write the differential equation with constant k. ------ = ----2-
dx x
Chap 07 SM Page 307 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

Chapter 7 Differential equations 307


Exponential growth and decay
We have seen that differential equations of the general form
dy
------ = ky
dx
have a general solution of the form
y = Aekx
where y = A when x = 0.
Since the solution to this differential equation is a function that is exponential, it
represents exponential growth if k > 0 and exponential decay if k < 0.
Note: When antidifferentiating differential equations of the type above, it is sometimes
more convenient to express the antiderivative in the form:
1
x = --- log e Ay
k
where A is the constant of antidifferentiation.
Hence, if we are given an initial condition y(0) when x = 0, the constant A is very
easy to find because log e Ay(0) = 0 implies that Ay(0) = 1. Thus the constant A is the
reciprocal of the initial condition y(0).
This will be clearly demonstrated in the following examples.

WORKED Example 17
The rate of growth of a town’s population (N) is 5% of its population at any time t years.
If its population is currently 100 000 people (at t = 0) find:
a the population at any time t b the population in 3 years time.

THINK WRITE
dN
a 1 The differential equation is a ------- = 0.05 N
dt
dN
------- = 0.05 N. This is because the rate
dt
dN
of the population, ------- , is 5% of the
dt
current population, that is, 0.05 × N.
dt 1
2 Invert both sides of the differential ------- = -----------------
dN 0.05 N
equation.
20
3 Simplify the RHS. = ------
N

∫ -----N- dN + c
20
4 Express t in integral notation. t=

5 Antidifferentiate the integrand by rule. = 20 log e AN [Note: c = log e A]


6 Substitute t = 0 and N = 100 000 into When t = 0, N = 100 000
the equation. 0 = 20 log e 100 000A
100 000A = 1
1
7 Solve for A. A = -------------------
100 000

Continued over page


Chap 07 SM Page 308 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

308 Specialist Mathematics

THINK WRITE

t = 20 log e  -------------------
N
8 Replace the value of A in the equation.
 100 000

------ = log e  -------------------


t N
9 Make N the subject of the equation.  100 000
20

0.05 t = log e  -------------------


N
 100 000
N
e0.05 t = -------------------
100 000
N = 100 000e0.05c
10 State the solution. Therefore, the population at any time is
N = 100 000e0.05 t
b 1 Substitute t = 3 into the population b When t = 3,
equation. N = 100 000e0.05 × 3
2 Evaluate N. N = 100 000e 0.15
= 116183.4
3 Round down to the nearest whole number Therefore in 3 years the population will
(population reached) and state the answer. be 116 183 people.

WORKED Example 18
A sample of a radioactive isotope of radium loses half of its radioactive nuclei each 1200
years (that is, its half-life is 1200 years). If the rate of decay is proportional to the number
of atoms present, find, to the nearest year, the time taken for the isotope to decay to 30%
of its original amount.
THINK WRITE
1 Let N be the number of atoms present Let N = the number of nuclei present at any
at any time, t years. time, t years.
2 Let No be the original number of nuclei Let No = the original number of nuclei.
present.
dN dN
3 The differential equation is ------- = kN ------- = kN
dt dt
dN
because the rate of decay, ------- , is
dt
proportional to the amount N present.
(k < 0, as will show in calculations.)
dt 1
4 Invert the differential equation. ------- = -------
dN kN


1 dN
5 Express t in integral form. t = --- ------- + c
k N
Chap 07 SM Page 309 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

Chapter 7 Differential equations 309

THINK WRITE
1
6 Antidifferentiate the integrand by rule. t = --- log e AN [Note: c = log e A]
k
7 Substitute t = 0 and N = No. When t = 0, N = No
8 Solve for A in terms of No. ANo = 1
1
A = ------
No
1 1 N
9 Substitute A = ------ into the equation. t = --- log e -------
No k No
10 Substitute t = 1200 and N = 0.5N into the When t = 1200, N = 0.5No
equation (since N is 50% of its original 0.5N o
1200 = --- log e  --------------
1
value). k  No 
1 1
11 Solve for --- . 1200 = --- log e 0.5
k k
1
--- = −1731.234
k
1 N
12 Substitute the value of --- into the equation. t = −1731.234 log e -------
k No
13 Leave t the subject of the equation.
14 Substitute N = 0.3 No into the equation When N = 0.3No,
(30% of its original value). 0.3N o
t = −1731.234 log e  --------------
 No 
15 Evaluate t, the time interval for which the = −1731.234 log e 0.3
number of radioactive nuclei falls to 30% = 2084.359
of its initial value.
16 Round the value to the nearest year and Therefore it takes approximately 2084 years
state the solution. for the number of radioactive nuclei to be
reduced to 30% of its original number.

Newton’s Law of Cooling


Newton’s Law of Cooling states that the rate at which a body cools is proportional to
the excess of its temperature above that of its surroundings:

If T is the temperature of the body and Ts is the temperature of the surroundings,


dT
then ------- ∝ (T − Ts )
dt

dT
and ------- = k(T − Ts ).
dt
That is, the rate that the temperature changes for an object is proportional to the
temperature difference between the object and its local environment.
Chap 07 SM Page 310 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

310 Specialist Mathematics

WORKED Example 19
A loaf of bread at a temperature of 20°C is placed in a freezer whose temperature is a
constant −15°C. If it takes 18 minutes for the temperature of the bread to drop to 8°C,
how much longer, to the nearest minute, will it take for the bread to reach 0°C? You may
assume that Newton’s Law of Cooling applies.
THINK WRITE
dT
1 Ts = −15 as this is the environment ------- = k ( T – T s )
dt
temperature.
Ts = −15
dT
2 Use Newton’s Law of Cooling equation ------- = k ( T + 15 )
dt
with Ts = −15.
dt 1
3 Invert the differential equation. ------- = ------------------------
dT k ( T + 15 )


dT
4 Express t in integral notation. t = ------------------------ + c
k ( T + 15 )
1 1
5 Antidifferentiate by rule to obtain the = --- log e A(T + 15) [Note: c = --- log e A]
k k
general equation for t.
6 Substitute t = 0 and T = 20 into the When t = 0, T = 20
equation. 1
0 = --- log e 35A
k
7 Solve the equation for A. 35A = 1
A= 1
------
35

T + 15
t = --- log e  ----------------
1
8 Replace A = 1
------ back into the equation 
35 k 35 
in step 5.
9 Substitute t = 18 and T = 8 into the When t = 18, T = 8
equation.
1 1
10 Solve the equation for --- . 18 = --- log e  23
------
35
k k
1
--- = −42.872
k
1 T + 15
11 Replace --- = −42.872 back into the t = −42.872 log e  ----------------
k  35 
equation.
12 Leave t as the subject of the equation When T = 0, t = −42.872 log e  15
------
35
and substitute T = 0 into it.
13 Evaluate t. = 36.325
14 To calculate the further time after The extra time after 18 minutes is
18 minutes for the bread to reach 0°C, 36.325 − 18 = 18.325.
subtract 18 from 36.325.
15 Round the time down to the nearest Therefore it takes approximately a further
minute and state the answer. 18 minutes for the temperature of the bread to
drop from 8°C to 0°C.
Chap 07 SM Page 311 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

Chapter 7 Differential equations 311


remember
remember
1. If y ∝ x, then y = kx.
1 k
2. If y ∝ --- , then y = -- .
x x
dy
3. Differential equations of the form ------ = ky have solutions of the form
dx
y(x) = Aekx where y(0) = A and consequently the value of A gives the initial value.
dT
4. Newton’s Law of Cooling states that the rate of temperature change ------- of an
dt
object is proportional to the difference in temperature of the object T and its
dT
surroundings Ts. This can be expressed as ------- = k ( T – T s ) .
dt

Setting up and solving


7F differential equations
WORKED 1 Set up differential equations that describe the following situations. (Do not solve.)
Example
16
a A curve y = f (x) whose gradient at any point is the square of the x-coordinate.
b The gradient of a curve y = f (x) is proportional to the cube root of the y-coordinate.
c The population (P) of a town is decreasing at a rate that is proportional to its
population at any time.
d The rate of a chemical reaction (v) is inversely proportional to the total amount of
reactants present (x).
dh
e The rate at which a balloon rises ------ varies directly with the height h of the balloon.
dt
f The rate of change of the speed of a car after the brakes are applied is proportional
to the square root of time t cubed (where t is the interval of time that the brakes
have been applied).
WORKED 2 A city’s population is growing at a rate proportional to its current size. If the popu-
Example
17
lation was 50 000 at the beginning of 1988 and 60 000 at the beginning of 1998, pre-
dict the population at the beginning of 2003. [Hint: Take t = 0 years to be the
beginning of 1988.]
Chap 07 SM Page 312 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

312 Specialist Mathematics

WORKED 3 A substance is decaying radioactively at a rate proportional to its mass, m kg, such
Example
dm
18 that at any time t years ------- = – m . If the initial mass is mo, find the time taken for the
dt mo
mass of the substance to halve to ------ .
2
4 The number of bacteria in a food sample, t hours after being placed in the refrigerator,
decreases at a rate proportional to its present number. If the number of bacteria halves
after one hour, find the time taken for the number of bacteria to reach 10% of its
initial value.

5 Fifty fish are added to a fishery each month and the natural increase is 2% per month.
dP
a Find an expression for ------- , the growth rate of the fish population.
dt
b If the initial number of fish is 1000, predict the number after one year.
6 An environmentally friendly type of container decomposes at a rate proportional to
the amount of material present, Q. If it takes 2 weeks to be reduced by 10%, how long
will it take to be reduced by 60%?
WORKED 7 A rod that has been heated to 110°C is placed into a large tank of water whose tem-
Example
19
perature is a constant 10°C. After 2 minutes the temperature of the rod is 70°C.
Assuming Newton’s Law of Cooling applies, find the temperature of the rod after a
further 2 minutes.
8 The temperature of a cup of coffee drops from 95°C to 75°C in 5 minutes in a room
where the temperature remains at 15°C. If Newton’s Law of Cooling applies, find:
a the time taken for the temperature of the coffee to reach 50°C
b the temperature of the coffee at any time t and hence after 2 minutes.
9 The temperature of a freezer is a constant −6°C. A tray of water that is 12°C is placed
in the freezer, and its temperature drops by 4°C in one minute. Find:
a the time taken for the tray of water to reach freezing point, 0°C (to the nearest second)
b the temperature of the tray at any time t and hence after 6 minutes (to the nearest
degree).
10 A mother boils a cup of milk to 100°C for her young child. The temperature of the
milk drops to 90°C in 2 minutes in a room where the temperature is a constant 20°C.
The child will drink the milk only if its temperature is between 55°C and 70°C. If
Newton’s Law of Cooling applies, how long does the child have to drink all of the milk?
Chap 07 SM Page 313 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

Chapter 7 Differential equations 313


Input/output of mixing problems
The term mixing problem is used to describe a problem that involves changes in the
concentration of the components of a mixture.
Mixing problems arise in situations such as monitoring the chlorine level while
flushing out a chlorinated swimming pool with fresh water or running a dishwasher
through its cycles to dilute the concentration of dishwashing liquid. If the incoming
material is kept well mixed with the existing material, then the process can be modelled
by a differential equation.
The rate of increase of the amount of a substance in a solution is equal to the
difference between the rate of inflow (or input) and the rate of outflow (or output) of
the substance.
So if x is the amount of substance in a solution at any time t then:
dx
------ = rate of inflow of substance − rate of outflow of substance
dt
dx
or ------ = IR − OR
dt
where IR = (inflow concentration ) × (inflow volume rate)
and OR = (outflow concentration) × (outflow volume rate)
The concentration of a substance, C, is the mass of substance (m) divided by the
volume of mixture (V); that is
m
C = ----
V

WORKED Example 20
A tank is holding 80 litres of water when a salt solution of concentration 5 g/L is added at
a rate of 5 L/min. The mixture is kept uniform by stirring and is run off at a rate of
3 L/min. If x is the amount of salt present at any time t, find:
a the volume (V) of the solution at any time
b the input rate of salt
c the output rate of salt
d the differential equation describing the rate of change of salt in the tank.
THINK WRITE
a 1 The initial volume in the tank is a Volume =
80 L. + 5t litres
2 Every minute, 5 L is added to the
volume; that is, the volume added
after time t is 5t L.
3 Every minute, 3 L is subtracted from 80 litres
the volume; that is, the volume V = 80 + 2t
subtracted after time t is 3t L; in –3t litres
other words, a volume, −3t of L
is added.
4 Add the three volumes. V(t) = 80 + 5t − 3t
5 Simplify. V(t) = 80 + 2t

Continued over page


Chap 07 SM Page 314 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

314 Specialist Mathematics

THINK WRITE

b 1 Input concentration is 5 g/L. b Input IR = 5 g/L × 5 L/min


= 25 g/min
rate
2 Input volume rate is 5 L/min. of salt

3 L/min

3 Input rate (IR) is (input concentration) × IR = 5 g/L × 5 L/min


(input volume rate). = 25 g/min

x
c 1 Output concentration is ----------------- g/L. c
80 + 2t

Output volume rate is 3 L/min. x g (salt)


2
V = 80 + 2t

x
Output 80 + 2t g/L × 3 L/min
OR = ———
rate 3x
of salt ———
80 + Lt g/min

3 Output rate (OR) is (output concentration) × x


OR = ----------------- g/L × 3 L/min
(output volume rate). 80 + 2t
3x
= ----------------- g/min
80 + 2t

dx
d Find the rate of change of salt, by d ------ = IR – OR
dt
dx
substituting into ------ = IR – OR . 3x
dt = 25 – -----------------
80 + 2t

Notes

1. The situation can be summarised in one diagram, IR = 5 g/L × 5 L/min


= 25 g/min
which can simplify the problem.

2. If the input volume rate ≠ the output volume rate then


V = (80 + 5t – 3t)
solving the differential equation is beyond the scope of V = (80 + 2t)
the course as it involves three variables. x g of salt
x
3. However, if the input volume rate = the output volume 80 + 2t g/L × 3 L
OR = ———
3x
80 + 2t g/min
———
rate then the differential equation can be solved, as the
volume remains constant. (See worked example following.)
Chap 07 SM Page 315 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

Chapter 7 Differential equations 315


WORKED Example 21

A vat is used to mix a cleaning solution for commercial use. Initially it is full and contains
a mixture of 20 kg of a ‘strong’ cleaning powder and 200 litres of water. This
concentration is too strong to sell, so fresh water is run in at a rate of 4 L/min while the
solution is run off at the same rate. The mixture is kept uniform by stirring.
a Set up the differential equation describing the amount of cleaning powder, Q kg, in the
vat any time, t minutes.
b By solving the differential equation find the amount of cleaning powder in the vat after
10 minutes.
c How long does it take, to the nearest second, for the concentration to become ideal?
(The ideal concentration of cleaning powder is 0.075 kg/L.)
THINK WRITE
a 1 Find the volume. a V(t) = 200 + 4t − 4t
V(t) = 200
2 Calculate the input rate. No cleaning IR = 0 × 4 = 0
powder is added to the vat, so the
input rate = 0 × 4.
3 Find the output rate. Q
OR = --------- × 4
200
4 Set up the differential equation by
finding the rate of change of cleaning
powder (input rate minus the output dQ Q
------- = 0 – ------
rate.) dt 50
5 State the solution. Therefore the rate of change of cleaning
dQ Q
powder is described by ------- = – ------ .
dt 50
dt 50
b 1 Invert the differential equation. b ------- = – ------
dQ Q

∫  – -----Q- dQ + c
50
2 Express t in integral notation. t =

Continued over page


Chap 07 SM Page 316 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

316 Specialist Mathematics

THINK WRITE
3 Antidifferentiate the integrand by rule. t = −50 log e AQ [Note: c = log e A]
4 Substitute t = 0 and Q = 20 into the When t = 0, Q = 20
equation (the initial condition). 0 = −50 log e 20A
5 Solve the equation for the constant, A. 20A = 1
A= 1
------
20
Q
6 Substitute A = 1
------ into the equation. t = −50 log e ------
20 20
t Q
7 Make Q the subject of the equation. – ------ = log e ------
50 20
Q
−0.02t = log e ------
20
Q
e−0.02t = ------
20
Q(t) = 20e−0.02t
8 Substitute t = 10 into the equation. When t = 10, Q(10) = 20e−0.02 × 10
9 Evaluate Q. = 20e−0.2
= 16.375
10 State the answer. Therefore there is approximately
16.375 kg of cleaning powder in the vat
after 10 minutes.
c 1 Find Q when the concentration is 0.075 c When the concentration is 0.075,
by multiplying the concentration by the Q = 0.075 × 200
volume. = 15
2 Substitute Q = 15 into the equation When Q = 15, t = −50 log e 15 ------
20
where t is the subject.
3 Evaluate t. t = −50 log e 0.75
= 14.384
4 Convert the answer to minutes and seconds. 14.384 min = 14 min and 23 s
5 State the answer. Therefore it takes approximately 14
minutes and 23 seconds for the ideal mix
of cleaning powder to be reached.

remember
remember
1. For problems where x is the amount of substance in a container at time t and
dx
------ is the rate at which that amount is changing then:
dt
dx
------ = IR − OR
dt
where IR = (inflow concentration) × (inflow volume rate)
and OR = (outflow concentration) × (outflow volume rate).
2. Use a diagram to help simplify the problem.
Chap 07 SM Page 317 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

Chapter 7 Differential equations 317

7G Input/output of mixing problems

WORKED 1 For each of the following give the volume, V(t) litres, in a container initially holding
Example
20a
100 litres, at any time t minutes.
a 5 L/min is added and 5 L/min is removed.
b 5 L/min is added and 4 L/min is removed.
c 3 L/min is added and 5 L/min is removed.
d 10 L/min is added and 5 L/min is removed.
e 8 L/min is added and 7 L/min is removed.
f 6 L/min is added and 9 L/min is removed.
WORKED 2 A tank is initially holding 60 litres of water when a salt solution of concentration
Example
20
2 g/L is added at a rate of 6 L/min. The mixture is kept uniform by stirring and is
run off at a rate of 5 L/min. If x is the mass of salt present at any time t, find:
a the volume V of the solution at any time t
b the input rate of salt
c the output rate of salt
d the differential equation describing the rate of change of salt in the tank.
3 a Copy and complete the table below, which describes various mixing situations
when a sugar solution is added to a tank initially holding 100 litres of water. Let
Q(t) be the amount of sugar present in the tank at any time t.

Input Volume at Output


concentration Input rate Output rate any time concentration
(kg/L) (L/min) (L/min) (Litres) (kg/L)
i 0.5 10 10

ii 0.4 8 8

iii 0.2 5 4
iv 0.3 4 2

v 0.4 5 6

vi 0.5 12 10

b In each case state the differential equation which describes the rate of change of
the amount of sugar, Q kg, in the tank at any time t minutes.
WORKED 4 A tank containing 800 litres of water has 40 kg of salt dissolved in it. Fresh water is
Example
21
pumped in at a rate of 5 litres per minute and the salt solution is pumped out at the
same rate as water is pumped in.
a Set up a differential equation for the quantity of salt present, x kg, at any time
t minutes.
b By solving the differential equation, find the amount of salt present after 30 minutes.
c How long does it take for the amount of salt to be halved?
Chap 07 SM Page 318 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

318 Specialist Mathematics

5 A tank containing 400 litres of water has 10 kg of salt dissolved in it. A salt solution
of concentration 0.2 kg/L is pumped in at a rate of 6 L/min while the solution is
allowed to run off at 6 L/min.
a Set up a differential equation for the amount of salt present, Q kg, at any time t.
b By solving the differential equation, find the amount of salt in the tank after
20 minutes.
c If the solution is saturated when the concentration reaches 0.15 kg/L, how long
does it take to reach saturation point?
6 A sugar solution of concentration 0.3 kg/L is added to a tank containing 100 litres of
fresh water at a rate of 4 L/min. The solution is run off at the same rate.
a Set up a differential equation for the amount of sugar present in the tank, x kg, at
any time t.
b Hence find how long it takes for the concentration of sugar in the tank to
reach 0.2 kg/L.
7 A large container of coffee holds 10 litres of boiling water in which coffee is dissolved
so that the concentration of the coffee is 40 g/L. If hot water is added at a rate of 0.5 L/
min while the coffee solution is run off at the same rate, find the concentration of coffee
in the container after 5 minutes. Assume the mixture remains uniform throughout.
8 On a particular day a small reservoir holds 10 000 litres of water with a chlorine con-
centration of 0.05 g/L. It rains during the day, feeding the reservoir at a constant rate
of 500 L/h while water is run off at the same rate. The water is considered unfit for
consumption if the concentration of chlorine drops below 0.045 g/L.
Assuming the concentration of chlorine remains uniform throughout the reservoir, how long
will it be before more chlorine has to be added? (Give your answer to the nearest hour.)

9 A tank containing 600 litres of water has a sugar solution of concentration 0.1 kg/L
pumped in at a rate of 10 L/min. If the mixture is kept uniform and is pumped out at
a rate of 8 L/min, set up a differential equation for the amount of sugar, x kg, at any
time t. (Do not attempt to solve.)
10 A 500-litre tank contains a salt solution of concentration 0.05 kg/L. A salt solution of
concentration 0.2 kg/L is added at a rate of 4 L/min while it is run off at a rate of 6 L/min.
Assuming that the mixture remains uniform, set up a differentiation equation giving
the amount of salt, Q kg, at any time t. (Do not attempt to solve.)
Chap 07 SM Page 319 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

Chapter 7 Differential equations 319


Solutions to differential equations
dy
Consider the differential equation x ------ – y = 0 .
dx
1 Find the general solution to the differential equation and express it with y as
the subject.
2 A particular solution has y = 2 when x = 1. Find the particular solution.
dy
3 For this particular solution, find ------ when x = 1, 2 and 3.
dx
4 A particular class of solutions has y = n, where n is a positive real number
when x = 1. Express y as a function of x. What is the significance of the
parameter n?
dy
Now consider the differential equation x ------ – ky = 0 ; k ∈ R+.
dx
5 Find the general solution to the differential equation and express it with y as
the subject.
6 What is the significance of the paramater k?
7 A particular solution has y = 2 when x = 1. Express y in terms of x.
dy
8 For this particular solution, find ------ when x = 1, 2 and 3 — first with k = 2 and
dx
then with k = 3.
9 Repeat 8 for k in general.

Numerical solutions by Euler’s method


Most of the differential equations that we have considered so far can be solved exactly.
In this section we shall investigate a numerical method which finds approximate
solutions to ordinary first order differential equations with initial conditions.
The method which will be used is Euler’s method y
which is the simplest numerical method of solving
ordinary differential equations of the form: (x, y)
y′ = f(x, y), given y(x0) = y0 y
Gradient = f(x, y)
where f(x, y) gives the slope of the solution curve
passing through the point (x, y) and is an expression 0 x x
in x, or y, or both x and y.
Euler’s method is based on locally y Gradient of tangent
approximating a solution to the ordinary = f(x0, y0)
differential equation by its tangent as
shown at right. Actual point when x = x1
The gradient of the tangent at the point (x0, y0) (x1, y1)
(x0, y0) is: y1 – y0 h
f(x0, y0) = ----------------
h 0 x0 x1 x
and solving for y1 gives:
y1 = y0 + hf(x0, y0)
The value of y1 is an approximation for the solution to the differential equation
where x = x1.
Chap 07 SM Page 320 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

320 Specialist Mathematics

Ideally, the point (x1, y1) will be very close to the y Gradient of tangent
actual point on the curve when x = x1. = f(x1, y1)
Similarly, the gradient of the tangent at the point (x1, y1) is
y2 = y1 + hf(x1, y1) (x2, y2)
This procedure can be repeated n times and the general (x0, y0) (x1, y1)
rule for Euler’s method is:
h
yn + 1 = yn + hf(xn, yn) n = 0, 1, 2, . . . 0 x0 x1 x2 x
xn + 1 = xn + h
where x0 , y0 are the initial values,
h is the step length,
n is the number of steps and
y′ = f(x, y)
In general the smaller the value of h (h → 0) , the greater the number of steps to the
solution and the more accurate the solution becomes.

WORKED Example 22
a Solve the differential equation y′ = 3x2, where y(1) = 1, and evaluate y(2).
b Use Euler’s method to approximate y(2) with:
i h = 0.5 and
ii h = 0.2.
Which value of h gives an approximation which is closest to the exact solution?
THINK WRITE
a 1 Express y in integral notation. a y = ∫ 3x2 dx
2 Antidifferentiate. = x3 + c
3 Substitute the initial condition x = 1 y(1) = 1
and y = 1 into the equation. 13 + c = 1
4 Solve for the constant, c. 1+c=1
c=0
5 State the solution. y = x3
6 Evaluate y(2). y(2) = 23
=8
b ii 1 Write down the rule for Euler’s b i yn + 1 = yn + h(3xn2)
method.
2 State the initial values, x0 , y0, and x0 = 1, y0 = 1 and h = 0.5
the step length, h.
3 Apply the rule for n = 0, 1, 2, . . . y1 = y0 + hf(3x02) x1 = x0 + h
until an approximate solution at = 1 + 0.5(3 × 12) = 1 + 0.5
x = 2 is obtained. = 1 + 1.5 = 1.5
= 2.5
y2 = y1 + h(3x12) x2 = x1+ h
= 2.5 + 0.5(3 × 1.52) = 1.5 + 0.5
= 2.5 + 3.375 =2
= 5.875
4 State the approximate value of Therefore the approximate value for
y(2) with h = 0.5. y(2) with h = 0.5 is 5.875.
Chap 07 SM Page 321 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

Chapter 7 Differential equations 321


THINK WRITE
b ii 1 Write down the rule for Euler’s b ii yn + 1 = yn + h(3xn2)
method.
2 State the initial values, x0 , y0, and x0 = 1, y0 = 1 and h = 0.2.
the step length, h.
3 Apply the rule for n = 0, 1, 2, . . . y1 = y0 + h(3x02) x1 = x0 + h
until an approximate solution at = 1 + 0.2(3 × 1 )2
= 1 + 0.2
x = 2 is obtained. = 1 + 0.6 = 1.2
= 1.6
y2 = y1 + h(3x12) x2 = x1 + h
= 1.6 + 0.2(3 × 1.2 )2
= 1.2 + 0.2
= 1.6 + 0.864 = 1.4
= 2.464
y3 = y2 + h(3x22) x3 = x2 + h
= 2.464 + 0.2(3 × 1.4 ) 2
= 1.4 + 0.2
= 2.464 + 1.176 = 1.6
= 3.64
y4 = y3 + h(3x32) x4 = x3 + h
= 3.64 + 0.2(3 × 1.62) = 1.6 + 0.2
= 3.64 + 1.536 = 1.8
= 5.176
y5 = y4 + h(3x42) x5 = x4 + h
= 5.176 + 0.2(3 × 1.8 ) 2
= 1.8 + 0.2
= 5.176 + 1.944 =2
= 7.12
4 State the approximate value of Therefore the approximate value of y(2) with h
y(2) with h = 0.2. = 0.2 is 7.12.
5 Compare the answers b i and ii The approximate value of y(2) = 7.12 with
to the exact solution in part a. h = 0.2 is nearer to the exact value of y(2) = 8
than y(2) = 5.875 with h = 0.5.

WORKED Example 23
Using Euler’s method with h = 0.5, calculate the approximate value of the solution of:
y′ = x + y, y(1) = 0
at x = 3.
THINK WRITE
1 Write down the rule for Euler’s method. yn + 1 = yn + h(xn + yn)
2 State the initial values, x0 , y0, and the x0 = 1, y0 = 0 and h = 0.5
step length, h.
Continued over page
Chap 07 SM Page 322 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

322 Specialist Mathematics

THINK WRITE
3 Apply the rule for n = 0, 1, 2, . . . until y1 = y0 + h(x0 + y0) x1 = x0 + h
an approximate solution at x = 3 is = 0 + 0.5(1 + 0) = 1 + 0.5
obtained. = 0 + 0.5 = 1.5
= 0.5
y2 = y1 + h(x1 + y1) x2 = x1 + h
= 0.5 + 0.5(1.5 + 0.5) = 1.5 + 0.5
= 0.5 + 1 =2
= 1.5
y3 = y2 + h(x2 + y2) x3 = x2 + h
= 1.5 + 0.5(2 + 1.5) = 2 + 0.5
= 1.5 + 1.75 = 2.5
= 3.25
y4 = y3 + h(x3 + y3) x4 = x3 + h
= 3.25 + 0.5(2.5 + 3.25) = 2.5 + 0.5
= 3.25 + 2.875 =3
= 6.125
4 State the approximate value of y(3). Therefore the approximate value of y(3) is
6.125.

Notes
1. For calculations involving inexact values (several decimal places) retain the decimal
places throughout the working, otherwise the accuracy will be affected.
2. Round off to a reasonable number of decimal places when the required solution is
found.
The screen below shows the Mathcad file ‘Euler’s method’ which is found on the
Maths Quest CD-ROM.
Chap 07 SM Page 323 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

Chapter 7 Differential equations 323


remember
remember
The general rule for Euler’s method for finding an approximate solution to
y′ = f(x, y), y(x0) = y0
is:
yn + 1 = yn + hf(xn, yn) n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
xn + 1 = xn + h
where x0, y0 are the initial values,
h is the step length and
n is the number of steps.

Numerical solutions by
7H Euler’s method
WORKED 1 Solve each of the following differential equations and evaluate y(2) in each case.
Example
22a 1
a y′ = 2x, y(1) = 1 b y′ = --- , y(1) = 0
x
x
c y′ = ------------------
2
, y(1) = 3 d y′ = y + 1, y(1) = e − 1
x +8

WORKED 2 For the differential equations in question 1a and 1b use Euler’s method to approxi- Math
Example
mate y(2) with i h = 0.5 and ii h = 0.2. Which value of h gives an approximation

cad
22b
closest to the exact solution? Euler’s
method
WORKED 3 Use Euler’s method with h = 0.5 to find the approximate value of the solution of each
Example
23 of the following differential equations at the given value.
a y′ = 2x + 1, y(0) = 0 at x = 2 b y′ = e2x, y(1) = 1 2
--- e
2
at x = 3
x
c y′ = y, y(0) = 1 at x = 2 d y′ = -- , y(1) = 1 at x = 4
y
x+y y
e y′ = ------------ , y(2) = 1 at x = 4.5 f y′ = ----------- , y(1) = 2 at x = 3.5
x y–x

4 Use Euler’s method with h = 0.1 to calculate the approximate solution to the
following at the given value.
a y′ = x2 + y2, y(2) = −1 at x = 2.3 b y′ = y2 − x, y(3) = 0 at x = 3.6
y–x y
c y′ = ------------ , y(0) = 1 at x = 0.5 d y′ = ----------- , y(1) = 2 at x = 1.4
x+y y–x

5 multiple choice
If 10 steps are required using Euler’s method to obtain an approximate solution to:
y′ = f(x, y), y(1) = 5
at x = 1.5, then h is equal to:
A 0.5 B 0.1 C 0.05 D 0.01 E 0.2
Chap 07 SM Page 324 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

324 Specialist Mathematics

6 multiple choice
The best approximation for the solution of:
y′ = x2 − y2, y(0) = 2
at x = 0.8 is obtained with a step length of:
A 0.8 B 0.2 C 0.4 D 0.01 E 0.1
7 multiple choice
Using a step length of 0.1, the approximate value of y(1.3), where y(x) is the solution to:
2 2
y′ = x + y , y(1) = 0
is:
A 0.2105 B 1.4768 C 0.5045 D 0.1 E −0.3792
8 Using a step length of 0.1 find an approximate value for y(1.5) if y(x) is the solution
to y′ = x sin y, y(1) = 0.5.
9 a Use Euler’s method and a computer package to obtain the graph of y(x) over the
domain [0, 4} if y(x) is the solution to the differential equation:
y
y′ = ----------- , y(0) = 3
y–x
2
b Verify that y = x + x + 9 is the solution to the differential equation.
2
c Compare the graph of y = x + x + 9 , where x ∈ [0, 4], to the graph obtained in
part a.
10 Use Euler’s method and a computer package to sketch the graph of y(x) over the
domain [0,3] if y(x) is the solution to the differential equation:
y + xy
y′ = --------------- , y(0) = 1
x+1

d
hca
Improved Euler’s method
Mat

Improved
Euler’s There is also an
method
improved Euler’s
method which
can be used to
obtain numerical
solutions.
Use the
Mathcad file
‘Improved
Euler’s method’
on the Maths
Quest CD-ROM
to compare the
solutions
obtained for
questions 1 and 2
of Exercise 7H.
Chap 07 SM Page 325 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

Chapter 7 Differential equations 325

summary
Related rates
• Differential equations may be first or second order. First order differential equations
contain (at most) first derivatives. Second order differential equations contain (at
most) second derivatives and may also have first derivatives.
dy
• 1st derivatives are ------ , f ′(x) or y′.
dx
d2 y
• 2nd derivatives are -------2- , f ′′(x) or y′′.
dx
• A rate of change is a derivative.
dy dy du dy du
• Chain rule: ------ = ------ × ------ . This rule is often used when ------ is known and ------ is
dx du dx dx dx
dy
also known. This allows for ------ to be determined.
du
dx 1
• Reciprocal rule: ------ = --------------
dy  ------ 
dy
 dx 
• Increasing rates are positive.
• Decreasing rates are negative.
• Solid geometry formulas:
Total surface area of a cone = π r(s + r)
dA
Total surface area of a sphere A = 4π r 2, thus ------- = 8π r.
dr
1 dV dV
Volume of a cone = --- π r 2 h , ------- or ------- can be found.
3 dr dh
4 dV
Volume of a sphere = --- π r 3 , thus ------- = 4 π r 2
3 dr

Verifying solutions
• When verifying a solution of a differential equation, show that the left-hand side of
the equation is equal to the right-hand side.

dy
Solving differential equations of the type ------ = f ( x )
dx
dy
• If ------ = f ( x ) ,
dx

then y =
∫ f ( x ) dx + c
= F (x) + c where F(x) is the antiderivative of f (x) and c is a constant of
integration.
When initial conditions are given then c can be evaluated giving a particular
solution from the general solution.
Chap 07 SM Page 326 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

326 Specialist Mathematics

d2 y
Solving differential equations of the type ---------2 = f ( x )
2 dx
d y
• If -------2- = f ( x ) ,
dx


dy
then ------ = f ( x ) dx
dx
= F(x) + c, where F(x) is the antiderivative of f (x)
and y =
∫ [ F ( x ) + c ] dx
= G(x) + cx + d, where G(x) is the antiderivative of F(x). The values for both
c and d can be found provided initial conditions are given for
f ′(x) and f (x) respectively.
dy
Solving differential equations of the type ------ = g ( y )
dy
dx
• If ------ = g ( y ) ,
dx
dx 1
then ------ = -----------
dy g( y)


1
and x = ----------- dy + c .
g( y)
The equation can often be rearranged to make y the subject. The value for c can be
found from the initial conditions.
Setting up and solving differential equations
• If y ∝ x, then y = kx.
1 k
• If y ∝ --- , then y = -- .
x x dy
• Differential equations of the form ------ = ky have solutions of the form
dx
y(x) = Aekx where y(0) = A and consequently the value of A gives the the initial value.
dT
• Newton’s Law of Cooling states that the rate of temperature change ------- of an
dt
object is proportional to the difference in temperature of the object T and its
dT
surroundings Ts. This can be expressed as ------- = k(T − Ts).
dt
Input/output of mixing problems dx
• For problems where x is the amount of substance in a container at time t and ------ is
dt
the rate at which that amount is changing then
dx
------ = IR − OR
dt
where IR = (inflow concentration) × (inflow volume rate)
and OR = (outflow concentration) × (outflow volume rate).
• Use a diagram to help simplify the problem.
Numerical solutions by Euler’s method
The general rule for Euler’s method for finding an approximate solution to
y′ = f(x, y), y(x0) = y0
is: y = y + hf(x , y ) n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
n+1 n n n
xn + 1 = xn + h
where x0, y0 are the initial values,
h is the step length and
n is the number of steps.
Chap 07 SM Page 327 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

Chapter 7 Differential equations 327

CHAPTER
review
Multiple choice
dV dr dV
1 If ------- = 2r and ----- = 5 , then when r = 4, ------- is equal to:
dr dt dt 7A
A 10r B 8 C 20 D 1.6 E 40
2 The sides of a square are increasing at a constant rate of 0.4 cm/min. At what rate is the area
increasing when the side length is 8 cm? 7A
A 0.1 cm2/min B 6.4 cm2/min C 10 cm2/min D 1.6 cm2/min E 25.6 cm2/min
3 A spherical balloon of radius r metres is leaking at a constant rate of 2 m3/h. If the balloon
retains its shape, the rate at which the radius is decreasing when the radius is 3 metres is 7A
equal to:
1 1 1
A --------- m/h B 36π m/h C --------- m/h D 72π m/h E – ------ m/h
18 π 36 π 6π

4 The function y = e−2x is a solution to the differential equation:


dy dy dy dy dy 7B
A 2 ------ = 3y B ------ = 2y C ------ + 2y = 0 D ------ = y E ------ + y = 0
dx dx dx dx dx
5 If y = sin 2x − cos 2x then which one of the following is true?
A y′(x) = 2y B y′′(x) = −4y C y′′(x) = 4y D y′(x) = −2y E y′′(x) = 2y′(x) 7B
6 The values of a and b such that y = a log e x + bx satisfies the differential equation
xy′′ + y′ + 1 = 0 are: 7B
A a = 1, b = 3 B a = −1, b = −3 C a = 2, b = 2 D a = 3, b = −1 E a = 3, b = 1

dy x
7 The general solution to ------ = ------------------ is:
dx 1 – x2 7C
−1 −1
A y = – 1 – x2 + c B y = Sin x + c C y = x Sin x + c
D y = 1 – x2 + c E y = –(1 – x 2 ) + c

2
8 If f ′(x) = -------------
- then f (x) is equal to:
2
x –1 7C
x+1
A log e  ------------ + c B log e (x2 − 1) + c C 2 log e (x2 − 1) + c
 x – 1

E log e  ------------ + c
x–1
D 2 Tan−1 x + c  x + 1
4
9 If g′(x) = -------------
- and g(0) = 3 then g(x) is equal to:
x +1
2
7C
A 4 log e (x2 + 1) + 3 B 4 Tan−1 x + 3 C 3 + 4 log e 2x
D 3+ 1
---
4
Tan−1 x E −1 + 4 Tan−1 x
Chap 07 SM Page 328 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

328 Specialist Mathematics

d2 y
10 A solution to -------2- = ( x – 2 ) 2 could be:
7D dx

A y = 12(x − 2)4 + c B y = 1--6- (x − 2)4 + cx + d


C y= ------ (x − 2) + cx + d
12
1 4
D y= 1
------ (x
12
− 2)4 + c
E y= --- (x − 2) + cx + d
1
3
3

11 If y′′(x) = 1 + tan2 x and y′(x) = 5 and y = 0 when x = 0, then y is equal to:


7D A y = 5 + tanx B y = 4 + sec2 x
C y = 5x + log e (cos x) D y = 5x − log e (cos x)
E y = 5 log e (sin x)
dy
12 The general solution to ------ = 2y + 3 is of the form:
7E dx
A y = e2x − 3 B y = e2x + c − 3 C y = 1--2- e2x + c − 3

D y = 1--2- e2x + c + 3 E y = 1--2- (e2x + c − 3)

dP
13 Given that ------- = e –2P and P = 0 when n = 1, then the solution is:
7E dn
A P = 1--2- log e (2n − 1) B P = log e (2n − 1) C P = −log e (2n + 1)
D P= 1
---
2
log e (1 − 2n) E P = − 1--2- log e (2n − 1)

14 The rate of increase of the volume of a container is inversely proportional to the square of
7E the volume, V, of the container at any time, t. The differential equation which describes this
situation (where k is a constant) is:
dV dV k dV dV k dV k
A ------- = kV 2 B ------- = -----2- C ------- = k V D ------- = -------- E ------- = ----
dt dt V dt dt V dt V

15 The rate of increase in a town’s population varies directly with the population, P, at any
7E time, t. The differential equation for this situation (where k is a constant) is:
dP k dP P dP dP dt
A ------- = --- B ------- = --- C ------- = kP 2 D ------- = kP E ------- = kP
dt P dt k dt dt dP
The following information applies to questions 16 to 18.
An object whose temperature is 50°C is placed in a room of constant temperature 12°C.
Newton’s Law of Cooling applies and the object cools to 30°C in 20 minutes.
16 The differential equation which describes this situation is:
7F dT dT dT
A ------- = T – 12 B ------- = k ( T – 30 ) C ------- = k ( T – 12 )
dt dt dt
dT dT
D ------- = 50k ( T – 12 ) E ------- = 12 ( T – 50 )
dt dt
17 The time, t, expressed as a function of the temperature, T, is approximately:
7F T + 30 T + 12
A t = 26.77 log e  --------------- B t = 0.0374 log e  ---------------- C t = −0.0374 log e  ----------------
T – 12
 38   20   38 

D t = 7.89 log e  --------------- E t = −26.77 log e  ---------------


T – 12 T – 12
 62   38 
Chap 07 SM Page 329 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

Chapter 7 Differential equations 329


18 The time taken for the object to reach 15°C is, to the nearest minute:
A 68 min B 9 min C 50 min D 22 min E 105 min 7F
Questions 19 and 20 are related to the following information.
A chemical solution of concentration 0.8 g/L is added to a container holding 20 litres of water
at a constant rate of 2 L/min. The mixture is kept uniform and is run off at a constant rate of
1 L/min. Let x (g) be the amount (that is, mass) of chemical in the container at any time,
t (minutes).
19 The volume of solution, in litres, in the container at any time is:
A 20 B 20 + t C 20t D 20 − t E 20 + 2t 7G
20 The differential equation which describes the rate of change of chemical in the container, in
g/L, is: 7G
dx x dx x dx x
A ------ = 0.8 – -------------- B ------ = 1.6 – ------------- C ------ = 0.4 – -----------------
dt 20 + t dt 20 – t dt 20 + 2t
dx x dx x
D ------ = 0.8 + -------------- E ------ = 1.6 – --------------
dt 20 + t dt 20 + t
21 If y′ = x2y, y(4) = 10 , then the approximate value of y(6) using Euler’s method with h = 1 is:
A 163 540 B 330 C 8275 D 160 E 4420 7H
Short answer
1 An ice cube is melting so that its side length is decreasing at a constant rate of 0.2 cm/s.
Find the rate at which the volume is decreasing when the side length is 3 cm, assuming the 7A
ice cube retains its shape.
d2 y
2 Verify that y = e2x − e−2x is a solution to the differential equation -------2- = 4y .
dx 7B
3 The gradient of a curve at any point (x, y) is equal to 4x and the curve passes through the
point (−1, 1). What is the equation of the curve? 7C
4 If f ′′(x) = 2x + 1 where f ′(2) = 0 and f (1) = −5, then find f (x).
d2 y dy 4
7C
5 Find y where -------2- = 2x –2 – 4 sin 4 π x and ------ = 2 when x = 1 and y = --- when x = 1.
dx dx
dy
π
π
7D
6 a Find the solution to the differential equation ------ = tan y , given that y = --- when x = 2.
b State the domain for which the solution exists.
dx 2 7E
7 A mountain climber
stops for a rest when the 7F
temperature is a constant
−2°C and pours a hot cup
of soup which is initially
90°C. After 2 minutes
the temperature of the
soup is 60°C. What will
be the temperature of the
soup 5 minutes after it
was poured, assuming
Newton’s Law of
Cooling?
Chap 07 SM Page 330 Thursday, October 12, 2000 12:08 PM

330 Specialist Mathematics

8 The number of ants in a colony is increasing at a rate proportional to the number present on
7F any day. If the number of ants increases by 50% in 100 days, how much longer will it be
until the population is double the initial number? (Answer to the nearest day.)
9 A sugar mixture of concentration 1.4 kg/L is added to a 120-litre tank of water at a constant
7G rate of 3 L/min. At the same time the solution is pumped out at 3 L/min while the mixture is
kept uniform. How long does it take for the concentration of sugar in the tank to reach 1 kg/L?
10 Find the approximate value of y(2.8) if y(x) is the solution to
7H y
y′ = -- , y(2) = 3
x
using Euler’s method with h = 0.2

Analysis
1 The number of ice-creams sold per day (N) at a beachside kiosk varies with the number of
degrees Celsius (T) that the daily maximum temperature is above 15°C:
dN – 3---
------- = 64 420.4N 2 , T ≥ 0
dT
If no ice-creams are sold when the daily maximum is 15°C:
a express N as a function of T
b find the number of ice-creams sold when the maximum teperature is 30°C
c find the maximum temperature if 280 ice-creams are sold one day
d on a particular day the kiosk can make only 440 ice-creams. What is the maximum
temperature at which the kiosk will not sell out of ice-creams?

2 A sailor, whose core body temperature is 37°C, falls from a ship into icy waters of
temperature 1°C. The temperature of the sailor drops to 36°C in 5 minutes and he will not
survive if his temperature drops below 35°C.
a Assuming Newton’s Law of Cooling is applicable, for how long can the sailor survive in
the water after he first falls in?
Two minutes after the sailor falls in, the ship is 200 metres away and a rescue boat is
despatched. Due to the seas and visibility the boat travels to the sailor according to the
dx 5
differential equation ------ = --------------- , where x is the distance travelled by the boat towards the
dt t+1
sailor in metres and t is the time in seconds.
b Express x as a function of t.
c How long has the sailor been in the water when the rescue boat arrives?
d Hence decide whether the sailor is still alive or not.

3 The rate at which a particular drug is absorbed by the body is proportional to the amount of
the drug present (D) at any time t.
If 50 mL is initially administered to a patient and 50% remains after 4 hours, find:
a D as a function of t
b the amount present after 6 hours.
It is dangerous for the patient if the level of the drug in the body is below 10 mL.
c How long is it, after the initial dose was given, until another dose is required?
test
yyourself
ourself d If the patient is given a second dose of 50 mL at this time, how long will it take for the
CHAPTER

danger level to be reached again? (Assume that the second dose is absorbed separately but
7 at the same rate as the first dose, and the amount present is the sum of the two doses).