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Meanwhile, in the pulp and paper industry a number of different types of solid wastes and sludge

are produced from pulping, deinking processes and wastewater treatment at paper mills. In 2005,
about 11 million tons of solid wastes were generated in Europe alone (Mill Sludge Management,).
According to the statistics from CEPI (CEPI), a yearly production of paper mill sludge is more than 4.7
million tons in Europe, and a global production has been predicted to rise in the future (Mabee and
Roy, 2003).

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On the average, 35% of the material entering pulp and paper mills becomes residue in forms of
rejects (1). This waste includes such material as wastewater sludge, woodyard waste, causticizing
wastes (from Kraft mills), mill trash, such as shipping materials, demolition debris, and ash from
boilers (2). Currently, some of these residues provide 56% of the energy needs of the industry (1).
The disposal of the remainder of this material has put a great burden on the pulp and paper
industry, which must handle this material in a ecological and economical manner.

Currently, the residue from pulp and paper mills is handled by the waste handling components of
the mill and is discharged to the air in the form of stack gases, to the water in the form of treated
effluent, and to the land in the form of solid waste and sludge (Fig. 1). Part of this system may also
involve recovery of materials and energy from the waste. In the last two decades, air and water
quality have significantly improved. In many cases, the water being discharged is cleaner than the
water taken in by the mill. As these components are removed from the air and water discharge
streams, however, there is usually a greater amount of solid waste that must be disposed of.

Additionally, the increase in the amount of recycling in the last decade has also increased the
amount of material that needs to be disposed of. Currently, this residue is commonly sent to
landfills. In the United States, an estimated 4.1 million dry tons of sludge are produced each year by
pulp and paper mills (3,4).

Recently, concern has risen over the amount and quality of future landfill space. Landfills are
becoming difficult to site and costly to construct and operate because of more stringent regulations,
diminishing land availability, and public opposition

Recently, concern has risen over the amount and quality of future landfill space. Landfills are
becoming difficult to site and costly to construct and operate because of more stringent regulations,
diminishing land availability, and public opposition (5). In 1978, the United States had about 14,000
landfills, in 1988 there were 5,500, and by the year 2000, the number of landfills is expected to drop
to 2,200 (6). Although alternatives, such as land application, seem to be working, many mills worry
about future problems. With the detectable limits of toxins decreasing, some mills fear that current
sites will have to be cleaned up at high cost due to water contamination. Traditional burning shifts
some of the residue back to the air discharge stream with its resulting costs and problems. Some
alternative processes, such as fluidized bed systems, seem to be more environmentally friendly.
Microbiological treatment is still relatively new and is yet to be used on a large scale. Alternative
uses for sludge ash, such as bricks and cement, are an excellent option if a user can be found near
the mill and if long term contracts can be acquired. New products developed from pulp and paper
mill sludge, however, need to have a market to make them economically feasible. It does not make
sense to develop and create products for which there is no market

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