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without waste
Recycle more
– incinerate less

November 2013

without waste
Recycle more
– incinerate less

November 2013

................. More recycling of materials from waste electronic equipment and shredder waste .................................... ................ 7 Denmark without waste ................. 9 Denmark without waste Resources Strategy for waste management – an overview........... 11 Waste in Denmark today ................ ........................... From waste incineration to biogasification and recycling ................................. ....................................................................................................................... 34 6...... Improved quality in recycling construction and demolition waste ........................ ............................. ........................................... ......... More recycling of materials from households and the service sector........... 27 3............................................................ Green conversion – new commercial opportunities ....................................................................................................... 19 1...... Better exploitation of important nutrients such as phosphorus ..................... .................... 31 4........................Denmark without waste 5 Content Foreword ............................................................................................................................................... 37 ................................ 33 5.............................. 23 2........................

6 Denmark without waste .

waste and of course they will be able to get rid of it. and the out of by more recycling and better recycling. we are going to change this. waste which we could get much more realising the Government’s new waste policy. Government has every confidence that. they will succeed. The Government has   set a goal that in 2022 we will be recycling 50 % of our household waste. proposes that over the next ten years we will become Paper and cardboard can become new products. This will be a giant sludge can become fertiliser on farmland. leap for the green transition in Denmark. in partnership with the Danish public. Waste from businesses and households contains materials However. alumin. because in future we will not just be separating the waste we are already used to separating. Our goal is yet another example of how the Government is putting action behind its words about the green transition. Danish Minister for the Environment Now. including food waste. This means that we will have to more than double the recycling rate for household waste in Denmark in less than 10 years. . such as paper. Over recent decades. in Denmark without Waste the Government and valuable assets which it makes good sense to recycle. and sewage returning them to the economic cycle. Denmark without Waste is the Government’s presenta- tion of a new approach to waste. This is an ambitious goal. we will also have to focus on other household waste. We must move towards perceiving waste as a resource which can be reused and recycled. cardboard and glass. in Denmark we have been incinerating almost 80 % of our household waste. much better at recycling materials and resources and ium trays can be melted down and recycled.Denmark without waste 7 Foreword We incinerate an enormous amount of waste in The municipalities will be playing a pivotal role in Denmark. and away from Of course citizens and businesses will continue to produce considering waste and just something to throw away. Waste incineration will continue to contribute to energy supply. Even though this has made an important contribution to green energy production. materials and resources have been lost which could Ida Auken otherwise have been recycled.

8 Denmark without waste .

we will recycle much more and incinerate appropriately in a societal context. However. For many years now we have been aware of our diminishing natural resources and In Denmark without Waste the Government is we have been trying to exploit and protect them sensibly. Denmark is playing an active part responsible waste management and in waste incinera. a resource-efficient EU. We have drastically 1. than 8 kg of waste every week. in it is important to organise efforts cost-effectively and the long term. Therefore there may be new market will protect its resources and materials. Globally the world’s heads of state and government are debating the green economy and Denmark has come a long way in environmentally resource-efficiency. The same applies for landfilling.Denmark without waste 9 Denmark without waste We are well aware of waste as a consequence of economic Outside Denmark too. Many Danish enterprises are working to produce and develop just such products Therefore the Government has a vision that Denmark and solutions. while incinerating less. We will incinerate less waste and be better at cut our discharges of nitrogen into watercourses and the exploiting the value and resources it contains. We will reduce environmental impacts from waste so that economic growth does not cause parallel impacts on nature and the environment. the agenda. more materials being sent back into the economic cycle with benefits for the environment. Denmark is also one of the countries in Europe producing the most waste per inhabitant. All the EU Member States have agreed the more waste we produce. In 2011 Increasing prices for materials and resources will make Danish households produced 447 kg of waste per person. resource-efficiency is high on activity in society. or which replace them. waste can contain on the 7th Environmental Action Programme ”Living materials and resources which it can make sense to well. At the same time Denmark without Waste is a Denmark in which. and on a roadmap for recycle. proposing the following overall focus areas: We are taking care of our groundwater so that we can still drink clean water direct from the tap. However. This will entail technological solutions and know-how. it ever more attractive to develop and apply solutions This corresponds to every Dane throwing away more which make our use of raw materials more efficient. . The more vigorous the economy. and recycle more opportunities for Danish businesses which can deliver household waste. much less waste. which in the long term we will only use for materials which The new approach for the waste area is building on a are uneconomical to recycle or incinerate. within the limits of our planet”. sea and we have ambitious goals for reducing pesticide loads from agriculture. tion. strong Danish tradition. 2. in these negotiations.

. We want flexible initiatives and we will closely monitor developments in the waste area. especially for household waste. with focus on recycling. particularly for recy- cling household waste. overall and specific initiatives. Therefore the Government will conduct an evaluation of the strategy in 2016 and assess whether there is need for further efforts. the Government will The municipalities have primary responsibility for present a strategy on waste prevention. Recycling will be high quality. with an associated environ- ment is through stronger public-private collaboration. 5. The Government places priority on local room to manoeuvre to find the right solutions. especially for household waste. Private enterprises have competencies and knowledge to develop the technological solutions. Denmark without Waste will be implemented in a resources 4. The Govern- ment will closely monitor developments in the waste area.10 Denmark without waste 3. Furthermore. Therefore it is important that municipalities and enterprises work together to develop new waste solutions. and hazardous Box 1 substances will be separated from waste before Future work it is recycled. plan for waste management. mental assessment. Some municipalities have already come a long way in their work. which will focus on resource efficiency and waste prevention and on ensuring waste schemes. We will ensure that reorganisation of waste manage. while others have yet to start.

the recycled material must be improved. which is both valuable for the energy system and can help reduce environmental problems from livestock production. and this also means for Danish waste policy that the nutrients from the organic waste are used as fertiliser on fields. and due to the fact that it more waste separation in future. something which would be impossible The goal is that over the next 10 years Denmark is if the waste were incinerated. However. management. recycling because. can be used to produce biogas. the recy- cling rate is only 1 %. The Government places priority on local room to manoeuvre to find the right solutions to reach the goal Some waste is more suitable for recycling than for of more recycling of household waste. At total of 61 % of this was recycled. and the quality of Organic waste. typically food waste from households. Therefore the incineration. This could be source can be too costly to recover the metals. to recycle more than twice as much household waste as today. for example metal and glass. while others will benefit more with a longer waste is much less than 50 % and for rare earth elements. This means cessing new wood and the prices of recycled paper mean that far too many of the valuable materials today end it is profitable to recycle. the recycling rate for the important metals in frame. Denmark has already A change in course taken the lead in this technology. techno. Therefore. It will still be up to the individual munici- of aluminium instead of extracting new aluminium can pality to set the level of service and organisation of waste globally save up to 10 tonnes of CO2. recycling 1 tonne municipalities. This is a marked change in waste policy. Some municipalities will find it attractive to reorganise waste management within a short time- Today. which cannot Strategy contains no new requirements for individual be burnt and give energy. for example. in waste incineration plants or at landfills. facilities. energy is saved on pro- 29 % was incinerated and 6 % was landfilled.Denmark without waste 11 Denmark without waste Resources Strategy for waste management – an overview In 2011 about 9 million tonnes of material ended up as Paper and cardboard burn well but they are also worth waste in Denmark. phase-in period. more waste must be recycled. These decisions will be made locally. This is due to the way in which we The goal to double recycling of household waste requires collect and process the waste. separation at households and at central separation logical advances can change this in the future. At the same time it is important to organise efforts cost-­ effectively and appropriately in a societal context. . For example. which are used in mobile phones for example.

plastic and metal waste* 50 22 75 0 Collection of waste electronic equipment 75 68** The service Recycling of paper. is at the most efficient plants and that the waste but it may also be by transferring surplus materials sector supports recycling. metal and plastic packaging 70 53 47 0 Recycling of organic waste 60 17 83 Alle Energy recovery from garden waste* 25 87 4 4 Collection of waste electronic equipment 65 Collection of batteries 55 47 Recovery of shredder waste 70 0 Recycling of phosphorus in sewage sludge 80 – * A smaller volume for temporary storage and special treatment is not shown in this table. There are benefits for the environment in many the goal to double household-waste recycling. ** Average of amount placed on the market in the past 3 years. from one enterprise for use in another enterprise. wood. and the pressure on our global natural increase in total materials recycling in Denmark. A cost-effective conversion to more recycling requires that both the waste sector and households have time Conversion of the Danish waste sector to reorganise themselves. sector glass. Therefore the sum of the three treatment options shown is not 100%. so more environmentally and economically efficiently. paper. The following is a table of the most important effects of implementing the initiatives If we are to recycle more and incinerate less. glass. Table 1 The expected effects of the Resources Strategy EXPECTED EFFECTS THE CURRENT SITUATION (2011 FIGURES) 2018 2022 GOAL Recycled Incinerated Landfilled SOURCE Material type (fraction) Min % Min % % % % Households* Recycling of organic waste. This may be by separating and recycling. resources can also be eased. This means that enterprises can save money by What will be the effects of the Strategy? recycling waste rather than procuring new resources. Together with the other frameworks and initiatives. with the parts of the world from optimal exploitation of material associated initiatives. although The Government will modernise organisation of the the goal itself for household waste is in 2022. this will require a conversion of the Danish waste sector. The Strategy covers initiatives for 2013 to 2018. cardboard.12 Denmark without waste There may also be potential to recycle more waste from incineration sector to ensure that waste incineration enterprises. cardboard. is expected to lead to a significant resources. and do in the Strategy (Table 1). .

Denmark without waste 13 .

larger amounts of garden waste and shredder waste the amounts of waste in the table differ from the calcula. but also slightly on specific types of material (waste fractions). giving included in the table. but they focus from households and the service sector. cars and old bicycles).g. Therefore.000 tonnes less plastic from households and Initiatives aiming at quality in waste treatment are not service enterprises will be incinerated in 2022. end-of-life tions of total waste amounts (table 2).000 tonnes. as their effects result in changed a total CO2 saving of just over 25. as well as those for more recycling of household waste. For example it will mean that around 22. .000 tonnes less waste Danish econom. For example. The figure shows changes in the amount of recycled waste.14 Denmark without waste ”  Waste can contain resources which can be profitably recycled at enterprises to benefit both the environment and the with and without the initiatives in the Strategy up to 2018. With the goals and initiatives in the Strategy. With these initiatives.” will be incinerated in 2022 than would otherwise have been the case. and then on towards the goal for recycling of household waste in 2022. Denmark is expected to meet a number of EU targets. The effects of the Resources Strategy are illustrated in figure 1. e. This figure includes incinerating less waste The effects shown do not include all waste. (waste from treating iron and metal waste. for example those set for packaging and waste electronic equipment. these include construction and demolition waste and some of the initiatives for waste electronic equipment. incinerated waste and landfilled waste. waste volumes. a total of 820.

000. construction and demolition waste .000. The projection is based on ISAG data (2009).000 1.000 0 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 Year Recycled Recycled with initiatives 3.000. initatives Incinerated – base Incinerated incl.000 1.000 500.000 2.Denmark without waste 15 Figure 1 Expected changes in incineration. Excl.500.000 0 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 Year Landfilled – base Landfilled incl.000.000 Tonnes 3.500. initiatives Figure 1 shows the expected effect of the initiatives in the Strategy up to 2022.000 2.500. construction and demolition waste) 3.000 Tonnes 2. landfilling and recycling (initiatives in the Resources Strategy excl.500.500.000.000 500.000 1.000 2.000 1.000.

The assessment is applied in a decision on the type of regulation which will underpin the most appropriate solutions in a socio-economic context. The latter includes an assessment of socio-economic effects. the economy. effects on government finances and corporate finances. . effects on imports and exports of waste or the maturity of technologies which will be relevant if a treatment requirement is stipulated for a given waste type. This entails screening possible collection and waste-treatment technologies. there are different methods of recycling and incineration at different types of installation. as well as consequences for the public. These are to illustrate different ways of collecting and treating the waste. 5.g. taking into account the environment. The scenarios are analysed for their environmental.16 Denmark without waste Figure 2 Waste hierarchy Process Regulation/other control instruments Optimal exploitation of resources Decision on best treatment Prevention Preparation for recycling Investigation of environmental Recycling and economic factors Other recovery Identification of waste with Disposal possibilities for recycling Note: This does not include the effects of the upcoming Resources Strategy for waste prevention. Scenarios are established. 2. 4. There are also possible supplementary assessments. as well as socio-economic methods following guidelines from the Ministry of Finance 3. The overall assessment provides a scientifically rooted decision-base for assessing whether treatment requirements or other instruments are relevant. Possible methods of collection and treatment are selected for analysis for the type of waste in focus in the assessment. or there is separation and collection at source compared with central separation. For example. Box 2 What are treatment requirements and how are they set? 1. The scenarios are compared by applying the environment. and competitiveness. The analyses are partly based on lifecycle analyses to assess the environmental and climate effects. including distribution effects. climate and economic effects. climate and the economy as the most important parameters. A ny notification for the European Commission according to the EU Directive on procedure for the provision of information (if the treatment requirement is not already based on EU regulations). e.

If there are environmental. which ensures that almost all of these are returned and can be reused or recycled. Figure 2 describes the process towards best exploitation of resources. for example for plasterboard waste. As part of the Strategy. see figure 2 as well as the description of the process for treatment requirements in box 2. treatment requirements can subsequently be considered. corporate financial and socio-economic benefits from increased recycling. (Erhvervspanelet for Grøn Omstilling). .Denmark without waste 17 Today Denmark already has a number of instruments Box 3 to promote recycling. Furthermore. the recommendations from the Panel for Green Transition There are more treatment requirements on the way. and thereby also from waste. in the years to come there also will be ongoing analyses of a number of different material flows. Bio and Environmental Solutions types of waste of very high concern such as requirements and it is linked to the chemicals initiatives to remove that waste containing PVC must be landfilled and undesirable substances from products. the Strategy also supports that paper which can be recycled is actually recycled. see box 2. There are taxes on landfilling and The link between the Strategy incineration. The Resources Strategy is a follow-up to the Government’s Finally there is a treatment requirement for different Plan for Growth for Water. but not on recycling. Moreover there is a and other initiatives deposit on cans and bottles.

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29 % was incinerated and waste is recycled.857.093. tonnes.4 mill.832 87 88.414 59 626. Over the past 20 years. The Danish EPA replaced the data collection system in 2010. . must now report to the Waste Data System.632 61 2. Household to 6 % during the same period. In 2009. Waste Statistics show a decrease in waste volumes from 12 million tonnes in 2009 to 9 million tonnes in 2011. including public institutions 1. Therefore the sum treatment of the three treatment options shown is not 100 %2. In 2010. The amount went from 21 % in 1994 to 29 % in 2011.076. A smaller volume for temporary storage and special Historical developments in waste treatment is not shown in this table. Therefore.635 11 TOTAL 9. amount of waste.000 856. TOTAL RECYCLING INCINERATION LANDFILLING SOURCE Tonnes Tonnes % Tonnes % Tonnes % Households 2.Denmark without waste 19 Waste in Denmark today Denmark produced a total of 9 mill tonnes waste in 20111. and the volumes for 2011 are likely to be underestimated.448 2. This corresponds to each member of a from 55 % in 1994 to 61 % in 2011.538 35 126.317. The fact that waste operators must report to the system makes it possible to collect more accurate data about what industry from which the waste originates.592.450 6 1. jord.791 34 58.358 51 381. the Danish EPA switched to the new Waste Data System to collect waste statistics. However. all waste operators.652 15 55. Sludge for spreading on agricultural soil will also be part of the system in the future.514 1. and the decrease in total waste volumes is primarily due to a lack of reporting to the new system.105. and waste delivered to recycling sites. Data for slag from coal-fired power plants will be collected for 2012 and onwards.442 4 Building and construction sector 2.230 3 208. which is normally recycled. not all waste operators reported their waste in 2011. 2. The design of the Waste Data System is conside- rably different from the ISAG Waste Information System it succeeds. and even though the Danish EPA has conducted quality assurance of the figures.227 3 Utilities and other commercial waste 1.663.757 560. registrations are missing for about two million tonnes of slag from coal power plants and sewage sludge. The recycling rate went up 2. but more than one-half is incinerated. and not only the plants receiving waste. by far the majority of Danish waste The total amount of waste from households is almost has been recycled (figure 3). More than one-third of household A total of 61 % was recycled.342. such as bulky centage of waste landfilled dropped considerably from 22 % waste.995 5 Service sector.640 71 165. ekskl.399.935 29 549.760 5. The incineration rate household producing 447kg of waste a year. 6 % was landfilled. Unlike the previous ISAG system.041 764.152 8 Industry 1. there is still some uncertainty in the data.388 36 1. Table 2 Den danske affaldsproduktion og behandling i 2011. recycling in 2011 is probably actually higher than the 61% shown in table 4.724 56 100. Moreover. the 2010 and 2011 datasets are characterised by the fact that waste operators and waste reception facilities have had to get used to reporting to the system. The low percentage of waste waste accounts for about one-quarter of the total being landfilled is due to a mixture of bans against organic waste in landfills and taxes on landfilling.101.604. whereas the per- includes waste collected from households.

Usually. In comparison recycling waste collected by municipalities. We have successfully achieved a high rate of recycling for construction and demolition waste. so the figures vary according to what this category actually includes. There are great differences from country to country waste can be exploited for biogas instead of for electricity in the amount of commercial waste included in “Waste and heating at incineration plants. these incineration has taken over. whereas data for 2011 is based on the Waste Data System. in waste by increasing recycling where this can pay and without compromising the quality of the recycled Comparisons across EU countries require certain reserva. there is a data loss from 2009 to 2011. see figure 4. At the same time. but the aspect which cannot be measured in tonnes. that is the quality of recy- cling. The dotted line indicates that a new waste data system has been introduced and therefore there is a break in the data. The Danish EPA assesses that recycling for 2011 has probably been underestimated as reports are lacking. collected by municipalities”. Data from 1994-2009 is based on ISAG Waste Information System data. material. . Figure 3 Waste volume and waste treatment trends from 1994-2011 70 % 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 Year Recycling Incineration Landfill Data is excluding soil 3. the energy from organic tions. but they either recycle or landfill option. with other EU countries. Danish waste treatment Denmark is 8th on the list of EU Member States for has shifted from landfilling to incineration. Denmark has successfully We are not achieving the same recycling rate as the reduced the waste volumes sent to landfill because waste European countries recycling the most. 3. Energy recovery through countries do not incinerate waste to the same degree incineration has been an important waste-treatment as we do in Denmark. Now it is time to focus also on the resources a larger percentage of waste.20 Denmark without waste Recycling and the other countries in How does Denmark compare overall? the EU – how does Denmark compare? Since the 1990s in particular. Due to the change in reporting system. needs to be improved significantly so that the recy- cled material does not cause new environmental problems and so that hazardous substances are managed better.

in 2010 (waste collected by municipalities in Denmark amounts to 42 % of total waste volumes). the Danish recycling rate for 2010 is probably larger than stated. Therefore. Source: Eurostat & EEA (2010) .Denmark without waste 21 Figure 4 Recycled waste collected by municipalities Austria 70 % 29 % 1% Germany 62 % 38 % >1 % Belgium 58 % 34 % 1% The Netherlands 51 % 33 % >1% Switzerland 51 % 50 % Sweden 49 % 49 % 1% Luxembourg 47 % 35 % 18 % Denmark 42 % 55 % 3% Norway 42 % 50 % 6% The UK 39 % 12 % 49 % EU27 38 % 22 % 37 % Ireland 36 % 4% 53 % Italy 36 % 14 % 48 % France 35 % 34 % 31 % Spain 33 % 9% 58 % Finland 33 % 22 % 45 % Slovenia 31 % 1% 65 % Iceland 21 % 11 % 68 % Hungary 21 % 10 % 69 % Poland 21 % 1% 61 % Estonia 20 % 64 % Cyprus 20 % 80 % Portugal 19 % 19 % 62 % Greece 18 % 82 % Czech Republic 16 % 15 % 65 % Malta 13 % 82 % Latvia 9% 91 % Slovakia 9% 10 % 78 % Lithuania 5% 86 % Croatia 4% 94 % Romania 1% 79 % Turkey 1% 84 % Bulgaria 98 % 0% 20 % 40 % 60 % 80 % 100 % Recycled Incinerated Landfilled No information Treatment of waste collected by municipalities in the EU etc. Due to the transition to a new Danish waste data system. not all reports on recycling have been received for previous years.

construction and demolition waste 34 Irrespective of whether it comes from households or 6. waste is primarily collected and transported – new commercial opportunities 37 by private companies. especially for household waste. With regard to recycling. More recycling of materials from is adequate capacity to treat Danish household waste as households and the service sector 23 well as waste suitable for incineration and landfill which arises in the municipality. Green conversion businesses. but there are many Danish enterprises – private and public – which 5. . These initiatives and their expected effects are described in the following six sections. From waste incineration to by the public sector. electronic equipment and shredder waste 27 The majority of the existing landfill facilities are owned 3. Improved quality in recycling separate and pre-treat the waste before it is exported. More recycling of materials from waste separated at source is subject to market conditions. Better exploitation of important agreements with private recycling companies. They are responsible – Denmark without Waste has the following initiatives: for ensuring collection of household waste and that there 1. Recyclable commercial waste 2.22 Denmark without waste Box 4 Initiatives How is waste managed? Municipalities are primarily responsible for the waste The Resources Strategy for Waste Management area. Most incineration plants are owned biogasification and recycling 31 by municipal companies. in many cases capacity is ensured by the municipality establishing 4. Most types nutrients such as phosphorus 33 of waste that are recycled are processed abroad.

000 tonnes to apply for subsidies for technological development. such as paper. municipalities. for example of separation facilities and for information about separation and recycling. Some forward for the past ten years. Today we recycle just 22 %. this may mean that citizens will see more containers on their Today we incinerate about 80 % of the waste collected drives. we can for organic waste. They The Resources Strategy therefore anticipates that are aware that materials must not be wasted and that over the years to come more household waste will be the hazardous substances in waste must not be spread. many household waste will be separated at households and Danes also say that they want to be sure that the time at central separation facilities. It is such as information and guidance. further initiatives may be considered. In the municipalities they spend on separating waste is time well spent. cardboard. in 2022. so that one-half of household waste is recycled in 2022. However.Denmark without waste 23 1. plastic. However. already used to separating. With this Resources Strategy. This ensures space for local priorities. be setting the level of service and deciding how collection glass and food from households has not really moved and treatment of the waste is to be organised. It will also be possible tonnes of organic waste to reaching up to 300. On the basis In future we will not just be separating the waste we are of this. plastic and metal) in 2020. with examples of expected that we will move from only separating 50.000 municipal experience and solutions. for example directly from households. ensure that many materials which could otherwise be exploited are not just wasted. cardboard. a number of initiatives will be implemented in which the “wet” organic waste is also included. while a longer phase-in period will be more relevant for others. we will also have to focus on all our household waste. More recycling of materials from households and the service sector Danes want to reuse and help recycle their waste. up to 2022 more Danish recycling sites are very popular. By recycling more. Ambitious goals for increased recycling This is entirely in line with the Government’s approach in the Resources Strategy for waste management. . cardboard and glass. municipalities will be quick to start reorganising waste management. An evaluation will be conducted in 2016 to ascertain developments in recycling in municipalities. under their sinks or down in the yard. glass. the individual municipality itself will of ordinary materials such as paper. including food waste. the Govern. Recycling a number As is the case today. In order to support work by the municipalities on increas- ment is setting an even more ambitious national goal ing recycling. Denmark will be meeting the EU objective of separating the state and at enterprises 50 % of “dry” household waste (such as paper. Initiatives in municipalities. that start source separation of household waste. separated and recycled rather than being incinerated at waste incineration plants. Therefore. which The Government’s ambition is that over the next 10 years places priority in not placing more requirements on or so we will recycle twice as much household waste.

000 0 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 Year Organic household waste – base Dry fractions – base Organic household waste – initiatives Dry fractions – initiatives Projection of the unseparated volumes of dry fractions (paper.000 250. However. and this means that the nutrients can be recycled as fertiliser. larger branches Initiatives to recycle more waste from enterprises have only contain few nutrients and these are a good car.24 Denmark without waste It is also important that the right incentives structure and Finally. For example. However. support efficient environmental and socio-economic conversion to more recycling.000 50. The projection of the expected effects is based on ISAG data (2009).9 mill. almost 50 % more than industry. focussed on industrial waste and waste from the building bon-neutral fuel which it would be better to burn instead. recycling. . wood and metal) and organic waste from households. Enterprises wanting to take is a need for an overall assessment of where such models the lead must be allowed to do so. and the amount has been growing in recent years in line with a growing service sector. or metal bottle-tops can the individual household delivers for incineration.000 200. For example.000 300. a number of enterprises have said so that recycling is increased where most appropriate that they want to set up their own return schemes so that in an environmental and economic context. Service enterprises A lot of garden waste delivered to recycling sites is treated can also recycle more at composting plants. they can take back their products after they have ended a number of municipalities in Sweden and Denmark their useful life at customers. plastic. and construction sector.000 150.000 100. tonnes of waste every year. the rules must be adjusted if they actually prevent the best instruments to increase recycling are in place. The basic graph assumes the same waste treatment as today. Figure 5 Recycling of household waste – expected effects of the initiatives in the Strategy 400. glass. There be used in new products. For example plastic bottles have set waste fees according to the amount of waste or lids which can be recycled. cardboard. the service sector produces about 1.000 Tonnes 350.

including at recycling sites –– Energy recovery from 25 % of garden waste in 2018. plastic and metal) from sector build on voluntary efforts and information. –– Analysis of fee structures in the waste area which can support the goals in the Resources Strategy for more recycling. –– Partnership between municipalities. This may be because the costs of waste –– Funding for development and demonstration of management account for a relatively small proportion of better separation and treatment facilities. in which companies. glass. Dialogue must be established with the sector on more –– Partnership for plastic waste. order to promote recycling. Many enterprises in the service sector are not aware including organic waste. food shops etc. plastic and metal waste. both domestic waste and bulky waste. Initiatives in the service to manage dry fractions (e. wood and metal waste). enterprises. common information initiatives on separat- packaging from the service sector increased by 25 %. Initiatives designers. plastic and packaging waste). municipalities which ensure citizens easy access to separate and thereby recycle more household waste. More recycling of waste materials from households –– Pool to support projects by green entrepreneurs which and the service sector. or through local information initiatives. 2018 is 70 %. e. these may be projects which secure sustainable consumption. –– Support development of new collection schemes in cardboard. This applies for organic waste. and expected effects easily accessible waste systems. plastic and metal waste. –– Guidelines with examples of 3-4 solutions which work –– Almost four-times as much organic waste from restau. The expected level in waste can replace materials. so that it is suitable for processing to new high-quality products. glass. recycling of the most important fractions (including knowledge institutions. The expected level in organic waste. Today this figure is 4 %. can contribute to local implementation of the green conversion. for example. anthropologists etc. (organic waste. paper. or 2018 is 60 %. for those producing the waste and those who collect it. plastic and metal waste. collected and exploited for biogas.Denmark without waste 25 Waste from the service sector is similar to household Initiatives waste and has great potential to contribute to higher recycling rates. Today 22 % is recycled and the goal –– Campaign/information initiatives for the public in is 50 % in 2022. metal and plastic up to 2018. plastic. of the possible benefits and savings arising from more recycling. including a service company’s total costs. treatment technologies which increase recycling. organic. to develop simple. –– Dialogue with the service sector on recycling initiatives –– Recycling of paper. The following effects are expected from the initiatives in the Resources –– Establishment of possibility in legislation for private businesses to set up their own return schemes for Strategy: products placed on the market in other areas than –– Twice as much household waste will be recycled electronic equipment. together promote organic waste. paper. metal and plastic waste) so that the separated Today we collect about 17 %. For example. . cardboard. Today we recycle about 53 %. plastic. well and which support waste separation (including rants.g. for example in fertiliser. cardboard. of organic.g. etc. metal and glass waste. ing and treating waste from the service sector.

26 Denmark without waste .

This is where there electric cars. Environmentally there may be benefits are the most hazardous substances and the greatest in recycling metals and rare earth elements globally recycling potentials. . in the long term it will be profitable to recover even small amounts from electronic appliances before they are destroyed. of innovation partnerships. This applies in particular to rare a need to focus initiatives so that mobile phones. every year. There is als are still being lost. equipment are already being recycled to a large extent. and focus of EU research funding on key goals for resource-efficiency. We are already doing this in Denmark 14 resources which the EU has designated as “critical” and we are one of the best in the EU at collecting waste raw materials. where this is profitable. The market for treating waste elec- Directive requires that from 2016. which is an essential saving bulbs and digital cameras are not incinerated. computer hard discs and are collected separately and recycled. Even Denmark will need new initiatives to standards are vital. increase collection. development collection. energy- earth elements such as neodymium. but many of the critical raw materi. Many of the resources in waste electronic electronic equipment and batteries from households. From 2019 the collection in the process. and propose initiatives to increase tion in products and their recyclability. In addition. ”  We must recycle metals and mineral resources in waste electronic equipment and shredder waste. to promote material exploita- collection is to focus. The EU roadmap for a resource-efficient Europe sets New initiatives have to be developed which motivate up a number of goals and targets for better exploitation delivery of obsolete electronic equipment by making of resources and more recycling to support more this simple and easy. requirements pursuant collection will identify the fractions on which increased to the Ecodesign Directive. waste electronic tronic equipment is international and specialised across equipment corresponding to 45 % of the volume placed waste enterprises with different roles and competences on the market must be collected. but raw material in wind turbines. copper and iron. it establishes manufacturers of electronic equipment and batteries must contribute actively with solutions. However. we must ensure that the WEEE recycling potential is exploited and that there is good The revised Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment quality recycling. Almost 100. rather than extracting new ore. e. The Directive was finalised during the at EU level and therefore common EU regulation and Danish Presidency in 2012 and it is an ambitious objective at EU level.g. Initiatives will have the greatest effect requirement is 65 %.g. we can do even better. A partnership for a large number of initiatives. More recycling of materials from waste electronic equipment and shredder waste Waste electronic equipment and shredder waste contains The first requirement for recycling is that the waste is many valuable materials.000 tonnes is being collected in Denmark e.” Box 5 When waste is collected. It entails changing the behaviour of citizens and enterprises. including in particular the actually collected. If the prices on the world markets for these rare earth elements continue to rise. There is already a requirement that resource-efficient production.Denmark without waste 27 2.

glass and Recycling of metals to be increased through more metal-containing fractions. volumes of electronics. Therefore there are good poten- This waste contains resources which could be exploited tials for recycling metals. this type of vehicle becomes waste. there are already high levels improved treatment of waste electronic equipment of recycling. such as collection of waste electronic equipment and batteries. we can increase recycling. New technologies are constantly entering the market. especially in relation to end-­ today large amounts of this type of waste are landfilled. far more appropriately. of-life electric and hybrid vehicles.28 Denmark without waste If we focus on technological development of the processes Initiatives in which waste electronic equipment is pretreated and and expected effects separated into different material fractions. therefore there will be attempts to establish a partnership for example. at some time in the future. In the future. while other resources in waste are being as well as more and better separation and recycling lost during waste treatment. For some metals. and between relevant players. when. which contain hazardous substances. for example of plastic. these In fact so much is landfilled that shredder waste is one will be included in shredder waste and they contain large of the largest waste types for landfilling in Denmark. It is vital that we find the right treatment option and Shredder waste is composed of old bicycles and cars. could also increase recycling of valuable metals such as rare earth elements. gold. including rare earth elements. silver and copper. . More effective treatment of shredder waste.

Denmark without waste 29 The expected effects for waste electronic equipment –– In 2018 more and better shredder waste is to be will be achieved by ensuring effective collection of the collected. no more than 30 % of shredder waste is waste and at the same time supporting development to be landfilled without treatment. –– Partnership between manufacturers. categories for increased collection as well as propose initiatives to increase collection. test and demonstrate new technol- ogy for pre-treatment of waste electronic equipment. Initiatives opment. If there are environmental and socio-economic benefits from increased recycling. 47 % were – for recycling waste electronic equipment. In 2011. . treatment require. all shredder waste is landfilled. see box 5 on WEEE. –– Contribute to EU work on the technical foundation for setting standards for treating waste electronic equip- ment with a view to ensuring exploitation of resources. –– In 2018 a total of 55 % of the portable batteries placed –– Strategic collaboration – preferably international on the market are to be collected. –– Preparation of lifecycle analysis and socio-economic analysis of shredder waste. –– In 2018 a total of 65 % of the electrical and electronic equipment placed on the market is to be collected. The following effects are expected from –– Partnership between relevant players to increase the initiatives in the Resources recycling of end-of-life electric and hybrid vehicles so that these are reused and recycled to the same Strategy: extent as other types of vehicle. funding to develop. Today almost elements from each other so that they are not wasted. and 70 % is to of technologies which can separate metals and rare earth be recovered (minimum 10 % recycling). the entail additional costs for enterprises and households. Any treatment require. –– Investigation of possibilities for a voluntary scheme including 75 % from households. to collect mobile phones. for example in phone shops. Among other things. including collected. recycling will be supported by the financial incentives in waste taxes on landfilling and incineration and by funding for technological devel. partnership will identify the fractions and product see box 2 on treatment requirements. and registered collectors on collecting small waste ments should also be assessed in light of whether they electronic equipment. With regard to shredder waste. municipalities ments may be considered later.

30 Denmark without waste .

Analyses show –– A framework must be established for a more efficient that there is a socio-economic efficiency-improvement incineration sector. recovery. 80 % of organic waste. There is a difference of DKK 600 per tonne in the price of incinerating waste at different incineration Initiatives plants. in parallel with energy one-quarter of all Danish waste ends at waste incinera. waste is part of energy supply and around resources. Reorganisation of the sector must potential of up to DKK 380 mill. and it increases their energy production. such as food waste for incineration is sent to the most economically waste. incineration plants and biogas plants. Denmark leads the world in exploiting the energy resources in waste. We will continue to do so. waste incineration will is that we are to be independent of fossil fuels by 2050. Organic waste is a valuable supplement in manure-based biogas plants which gasify livestock manure.” heating and 5 % of electricity. This means we will be The following effects are expected supporting biogas production in line with the initiatives from the initiatives in the Resources to promote biogas in the 2012 energy agreement. play a less important role and there will be focus on the material Today. The goal  In future. ensure that the waste incineration sector helps ensure recycling and that waste is incinerated at the most cost-effective plant. where this is profitable. intelligent exploitation of recyclable waste which today is incinerated. Reorganisation must entail that the could be recycled. is water and this is burnt away. must help ensure that we recycle more and incinerate less. These plants supply about 20 % of district and incinerate less. per year for the sector. At the same time we will exploit the materials resources.Denmark without waste 31 3. the Government has set ambitious objectives for Danish energy supply. and waste sent to the most cost-effective There must be cohesion between the capacity at incineration plant. for example of organic waste from Reorganisation of the Danish waste-incineration sector households and the service sector for biogasification. We can Strategy: also exploit valuable plant nutrients such as phosphorus and the contents of carbon in food waste. –– The Government will present a model for the new organisation of the waste incineration sector. This indicates that there is considerable potential for efficiency improvements in the sector. . because it can –– Greater efficiency in the incineration sector. effective plant so that waste is utilised most appropriately in a socio-economic context. The system must be organised so that there are no barriers to recycling. From waste incineration to biogasification and recycling ” In the 2012 energy agreement. A framework must be established for a more efficient We know that today we are incinerating waste which incineration sector. We must recycle more tion plants. –– Increased collection. but in the future there is a need to exploit the Initiatives and expected effects energy in waste even better. more be used as fertiliser.

32 Denmark without waste .

32 mill.6 mill.g. tonnes organic waste are produced. in ash after incineration. sewage sludge and to be more targeted in exploiting the phosphorus in livestock manure so that it is absorbed by crops without impacting the soil and aquatic environ. There is a potential to exploit to be used as a fertiliser. or by spreading it on agricultural soil. especially in agricultural The Strategy supports increased exploitation of production. in the ash from incinerating sludge as fertiliser. In this context it is important to take into account whether any treatment requirements entail financial costs for businesses.Denmark without waste 33 4. –– Follow-up of lifecycle and socio-economic analyses of treatment requirements for sewage sludge and possi- bly livestock manure so that the content of phosphorus is exploited. where important and critical nutrients such as in waste at the moment supply cannot keep pace with demand with a particularly high phosphorus content. sewage sludge and to a lesser degree the initiatives in the Resources Strategy: organic waste from households and service enterprises. We must exploit the phosphorus resource in this waste –– In 2018. 80 % of phosphorus from sewage sludge at the same time as exploiting the energy as efficiently is to be recycled through exploiting the phosphorus as possible.7 mill. . e. testing and demonstrating technologies for recovering phosphorus from sewage sludge. tonnes sewage sludge. Today 50-55 % Today a total of 2. Better exploitation of important nutrients such as phosphorus There are important nutrients in sewage sludge and Initiatives and expected effects livestock manure. of sludge is recycled. when the fertiliser is used the phosphorus in the ash arising from incinerating for energy recovery. see box 2 on treatment requirements. –– Funding for developing. The largest sources of phosphorus and other nutrients are The following effects are expected from livestock manure. The substances are valuable resources which are impossible to replace.000 tonnes phosphorus. Initiatives ment with excessively large amounts of nutrients which are not absorbed by the crops. tonnes livestock manure and 0. and prices are rising. Together this waste contains around –– Phosphorus from livestock manure is to continue 50. –– Possible establishment of “phosphorus banks” for separate landfilling of ash from incineration of sewage sludge. An important example is phosphorus.

because the materials can be used for other purposes and partly because the blades are difficult to deal with. technology quently. amongst other things to ensure that chemicals in products do not prevent or complicate future recycling. Much of construction and demolition waste contains District-heating pipes comprise an iron core which is hazardous substances. Partly ensure better quality recycling. 87 % of construction and demolition waste is recycled. largest ever expansion of wind turbines. When the plastic may pose a risk for the environment and health. but such that it does not impact the environment by spreading hazard- ous substances. This is a result of the PCB is a hazardous substance for the environment and government goal for 50 % of electricity production to health. From the 1960s and up to remove these substances so that they are not spread into 2002. The initiatives regarding waste in the 2011 PCB come from wind energy in 2020. foam in the district-heating pipe is treated. larger turbines. the PCB Action Plan to improve the quality of recycling. There is a need to improve management of the often In addition to implementing the PCB Action Plan. roads. This means that ucts to return to the resources cycle. see box 2. there are also other substances harmful to the largest percentage of total waste volumes. initiatives on substances of concern in waste should be applied which collects the ozone-depleting must be supplemented by measures in a new chemicals gas and helps alleviate the greenhouse effect. There is also a need to secure cycle analyses and socio-economic analyses will be better quality of the demolition materials which are initiated in order to assess whether treatment require- crushed and used as a substitute for gravel and stone in ments can help ensure better quality recycling. life­ mixed waste materials. In the long term recycling rate will again increase. This drop has already been apparent over the past couple of years in line with increasing awareness of PCB.g. Therefore it is important to insulated with plastic foam. initiative. many smaller wind turbines will be pulled down to be replaced by new.” . the plastic foam was produced using halogenated the environment and be aware of new substances which hydrocarbons such as CFCs (e. if they The Resources Strategy therefore focuses the aims of are landfilled. Therefore it is important Action Plan are being implemented so that construction to find the best possible way of ensuring that end-of-life and demolition waste containing PCB is managed to wind turbines are used and exploited as a resource. Moreover. ”  We must improve the quality of recycling of construction and demolition waste and ensure that hazardous substances are not spread in the environment. in the years to come we will be facing the and focus on making it possible for materials and prod. and these provide potential for better and safer recycling. Conse. about the environment in construction and demolition waste. This may mean that recycling drops for a period.34 Denmark without waste 5. Improved quality in recycling construction and demolition waste Construction and demolition waste accounts for by far However. freon).

and investigation of the advantages and disadvantages of introducing treatment requirements for end-of-life wind-turbine blades. see box 2. Initiatives –– Investigation of the advantages and disadvantages –– The waste-relevant initiatives in the Government’s of introducing treatment requirements for district- PCB Action Plan will be implemented. –– Materials in at least 70 % of the total amount of construction and demolition waste will be used –– Support for recycling of end-of-life wind-turbine blades for new purposes (recovered). including: heating pipes. ·· Enhanced requirements for the qualifications Specifically this means: of demolition companies.Denmark without waste 35 The following effects are expected from ·· Stricter requirements for demolition of buildings to the initiatives in the Resources enable a better and more comprehensive overview Strategy: of the materials and substances contained in build- ing waste. see box 2. Better quality in recycling construction and demolition waste while maintaining a high recycling rate. see box 2. in building waste. assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of introducing new treatment requirements will focus on whether possible requirements entail increased costs for businesses. see box 2. . ·· Stipulation of limit values for the content of PCB In addition to environmental and socio-economic aspects. bricks and impregnated wood as well as requirements to separate roofing felt. –– Restricting unacceptable spread of substances –– Investigation of the possibilities for better recycling of concern in the environment from construction of concrete and investigate the advantages and and demolition waste by improving the quality disadvantages of new treatment requirements for of the waste used for new purposes (recovered).

36 Denmark without waste .

for example. with a growing middle class The following effects are expected of consumers and rising demand means there will be from the initiatives in the Resources increasing needs for new and resource-efficient solutions.” equipment. Danish solutions in the waste and resources areas. (plastic. Strategy: Efficient use of raw materials and other materials are the largest Danish business sector within the environ. within separation. ment could be extremely important for these Danish companies. for example the Danish companies which implement these solutions through the Programme for Green Technology. to achieve more resource-efficient production.Denmark without waste 37 6. ·· Better exploit the resources in shredder waste. incineration and treatment of organic waste. ·· Reuse and recycle construction and demolition Furthermore. ·· Optimise resource consumption at enterprises in order to reduce waste volumes and increase The Government has placed priority on subsidies to recycling. as well as increased exports of are market leaders in the area. we must help green technology enterprises waste. . Initiatives The key word for companies is competitiveness. –– Better solutions for waste management and to establish ment and a number of large Danish export companies closed resources cycles. and in part for –– More focus on green technology. develop new technological solutions which can promote resource-efficiency and the green transition in Denmark. more separation and recycling of household waste. ·· Design products which establish closed resources cycles. cardboard etc. Green conversion – new commercial opportunities Global development.). ties linked to improved waste prevention. –– Promote better quality and more recycling of house- The Resources Plan for waste management will promote hold waste and similar waste from the service sector. This will support Danish technological development and ·· Develop a state-of-the-art waste separation facility strongholds. to reach out to export markets. ·· Recover more phosphorus from sewage sludge and livestock manure. metal. in part for those that supply innovative solutions. among other things with the Resources Strategy for waste prevention. Therefore global develop. recycling which will contribute to more recycling and better materials. exploitation of the resources in dry waste fractions This must be supplemented by exploiting the opportuni. slag from incineration plants and waste electronic ”  We must develop new competitive and resource-efficient solutions with export potential.

including how consumer demand can contribute to promoting eco-friendly design and increased use –– Green conversion fund will contribute to equipping of secondary raw materials in products. Danish enterprises for the resources-scarce economy . to lower resource consumption and more reprocessing and recycling. test and demon. including link together their materials flows so that waste from announcement of funding to develop. The fund will aim at business develop- will collect knowledge and experience within closed ment. development of efficient markets for secondary raw tials in waste management of electric and hybrid materials. production. one enterprise can become a resource for another strate new technology for pre-treatment of waste enterprise. new business models can contribute solutions abroad. –– Denmark will contribute to implementation of the EU 7th Environmental Action Programme in which sus- –– Green conversion loans for resource-efficiency tainable consumption and production play a prominent improvements at enterprises. –– Investigate how. role. sales and market-maturity of resources cycles. electronic equipment. –– Denmark will contribute actively to the EU process on a roadmap for a resource-efficient Europe. green products and solutions. disseminating and providing advice about green sumer behaviour. vehicles and reuse of batteries for electric vehicles in the renewable energy system. –– Enhance green export initiatives by developing. including –– Analysis of Danish technological development poten. –– Strategic collaboration – preferably international –– Promote industrial symbiosis in which enterprises – for recycling waste electronic equipment. in connection with changes in con.38 Denmark without waste –– Establish a knowledge centre for resources which of the future.

Denmark without waste Recycle more – incinerate less 2013/14 : 8 Enquiries regarding the publication can be adressed to Electronic publication 978-87-03026-59-5 Content design BGRAPHIC Cover design e-Types & India Photo Stig Stasig Colourbox Scanpix Web The publication can be downloaded at . .