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The Sūtra on the Residence of Mañjuśrī

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’jam dpal gnas pa’i mdo

The Sūtra on the Residence of Mañjuśrī

mañjuśrīvihārasūtra

’phags pa ’jam dpal gnas pa zhes bya ba theg pa chen po’i mdo

The Mahāyāna sūtra called “The Sūtra on the Residence of Mañjuśrī”

āryamañjuśrīvihāra-nāma-mahāyāna-sūtra

Toh. 196, Dergé mdo sde, tsa 266b1-271b2 (vol. 61)

University of Calgary Buddhist Studies

Copyright © 2016 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha – All Rights Reserved.

.Contents Summary Acknowledgments Introduction THE TRANSLATION The Sūtra on the Residence of Mañjuśrī Notes Bibliography Copyright © 2016 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha – All Rights Reserved.

and indestructible nature of awakening. After the Buddha preaches. Acknowledgements Translation by the University of Calgary Buddhist Studies team. Apple with assistance from Dr. an instruction that indicates the non-conceptual.Summary The sūtra is introduced with the Buddha residing in Rājagṛha on Vulture Peak Mountain together with a great monastic assembly of 500 monks and a multitude of bodhisattvas. A dialogue then develops between Mañjuśrī and the 500 monks. immutable. . Copyright © 2016 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha – All Rights Reserved. Shinobu Arai Apple. The power of Mañjuśrī’s teaching is explained and reiterated by the Buddha. Mañjuśrī corrects the monks’ misunderstanding and instructs them on the ‘non-increase and non-decrease’ (anūnatvāpūrṇatva) of the realm of sentient beings and the realm of reality (dharmadhātu). with the sūtra concluding by the Buddha predicting the future Buddhahood of the 500 monks and others in the audience. This sūtra was introduced and translated by Dr. Mañjuśrī walks through the monastic quarters of the area and he then sees Śāriputra engaged in meditation among the residences of the 500 monks. James B. The sūtra then consists of a dialogue between Mañjuśrī and Śāriputra regarding the nature of meditation and related topics.

The Mañjuśrīvihārasūtra enjoyed some popularity in eighth and ninth century Tibet. 508-535 c. we have also divided the text into numbered paragraphs and verses for reference and editing purposes. Tibetan. 130.g. Still.e). which can mean. but also adds that it was translated by Ye shes sde.Introduction The Mañjuśrīvihārasūtra (Tib. 151). a Dunhuang fragment of the Rnal ’byor chen por bsgom pa’i don attributed to Spug Ye shes dbyangs (771-850 c. commonly known as Bcom ldan ral gri. ’jam dpal gnas pa’i mdo) is preserved in Chinese. 800-815 c.) and the 文殊尸利行經 Wén shū shī lì xíng jīng translated by Jñānagupta in 586 c. 12a7-12b1). the translators listed are the Indian upādhyāya Surendrabodhi and the Translator (lo tsā ba) [in charge of] Great Revision (zhu chen) Venerable (ban de) Ye shes sde.e. 147. . for the most part. a fact attested to by its inclusion among the 104 titles of Buddhist scriptures found in Mahāvyutpatti §1329 (hereafter. either a (1) dwelling place. (2) condition of existence. The Dunhuang manuscripts contain an early Tibetan edition that was translated before the implementation of codified rules and principles for translating Buddhist texts issued by the Tibetan emperor Khri lde srong btsan (r. or (3) walking about. A listing of texts appended to the History of Buddhism in India and Its Spread to Tibet by Bu ston Rin chen grub (1290-1364) also lists the work as the ’Phags pa ’jam dpal gnas pa (Nishioka 1980:74.) (Kapstein 2013). Along these lines. Mvy) and the number of extant Tibetan Dunhuang fragments. the 文殊師利巡行經 Wén shū shī lì xún xíng jīng translated by Bodhiruci (Taishō 470. with Copyright © 2016 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha – All Rights Reserved. the Sakṛtpraveśikanirvikalpa-bhāvanārtha (Cig car ’jug pa rnam par mi rtog pa’i bsgom don) (D. fol. according to Edgerton (1953:505). p. We have indicated a number of these differences in the notes. A recently published critical edition of the Tibetan version of this sūtra identifies two extant Dunhuang Tibetan manuscripts and three fragments and utilizes seventeen available Kanjur and proto- Kanjur editions (Apple 2014). the Dunhuang manuscripts and the vulgate Kanjurs contain the same recension of the sūtra with differences in terminology and idioms of expression. Gyamtso 2008:139-141) and briefly analyzed by Pad dkar bzang po (16th century) in his overview of each sūtra preserved among Tibetan Kanjurs (2006:264-266).e. ca. lists the sūtra as ’Phags pa ’jam dpal gnas pa (Schaeffer and van der Kuijp 2009:131). 8v-5. §279) in one hundred and forty ślokas. The Chinese translators understood the title of the term in the sense of (3). There are two Chinese versions. Herrmann-Pfandt 2008:104) and the Dkar chag ’phang thang ma (Rdo 2003:16) as the ’Phags pa ’jam dpal gnas pa in one hundred and forty ślokas (shu log brgya bzhi bcu). Among vulgate Kanjurs that have a colophon. The late thirteenth century catalog of the Tibetan Bka’ gdam pa master Dar ma rgyal mtshan (1227-1305). The Chinese versions. match the Tibetan version but have several differences in terminology or portions missing from the Tibetan. The Mañjuśrīvihārasūtra is listed in two early ninth century Tibetan catalogs of the Lhan kar ma catalog (§195. The sūtra was cited as the ’Jam dpal gnas pa’i mdo in several early Tibetan treatises from Dunhuang. (Taishō 471). Tabo fragments of this Tibetan treatise preserve three citations of the sūtra (Otokawa 1999. 1 juan. The Mañjuśrīvihārasūtra was also cited two times by Vimalamitra (8th century) in his commentary on non-conceptual meditation. The Mañjuśrīvihārasūtra is a discourse which plays on the word vihāra. The sūtra is also sporadically cited in later Tibetan commentaries (e. including IOL Tib J 705. and Mongolian versions.1 The Tibetan version is preserved in Dunhuang Manuscripts and twenty Kanjur editions.e.

Mañjuśrī’s additional instruction to Śāriputra is the cause for four hundred of the monks’ minds to be liberated from the pollutions. The Buddha predicts that the monks will be reborn in Tuṣita heaven after going to hell and that they will then become Arhat disciples under the future Buddha Maitreya. and the “place” of an Arhat (§7). The Buddha then comes to the defense of Mañjuśrī and explains the great karmic benefit for these monks of hearing the profound Dharma. and future. Awakening in this sūtra is characterized as the nonconceptual awareness of the infinite realm of reality. full comprehension (§7). even if they doubt it. The Tibetan translation gnas pa may imply the sense of (1) or (2). in which Mañjuśrī wanders about the monastic residences. The topic of “non-increase and non-decrease” is an important theme in a number of Mahāyāna sūtras such as the Saptaśatikāprajñāpāramitā. present. equates the non-increasing and non-decreasing true nature (tathatā) with the realm of reality and realm of sentient beings. the emptiness which by nature is free from the conceptual fabrication of anything. present. In the first seven sections of the sūtra. The “non-increase and non-decrease” (anūnatvāpūrṇatva) of the realm of sentient beings and the realm of reality (dharmadhātu) is explained in the Suvikrāntavikrāmipari-pṛcchāprajñāpāramitā (Conze 1973: 12-14. the past. Suvikrāntavikrāmiparipṛcchāprajñāpāramitā. . Shiu 2006:124). §4). even for those who have doubt and do not follow the instruction (1995:132-133).” The dwelling place that Mañjuśrī explains to Śāriputra and the 500 monks is the realm of reality (dharmadhātu). The second half (§8-§15) of the sūtra consists of a dialogue that develops between Mañjuśrī and the five hundred monks in the audience. one hundred monks fall into a deep hell realm due to being greatly disturbed by Mañjuśrī’s instruction. Śāriputra then questions Mañjuśrī’s motives and mode of teaching. 106b7-107a5. a discourse which bears the name of this topic and is preserved only in Chinese. as a response to Mañjuśrī’s questions. 177). Mañjuśrī critiques the presuppositions of Śāriputra’s conceptual understanding of the practice of concentration (§2). connects this topic with the teaching of the tathāgatagarbha (Shiu 2006). Tibetan scholars like Si tu paṇ chen chos kyi ’byung gnas (1700- 1774) will cite this episode as an example of the power of the profound Dharma to bring great positive effects. immovable. are infinite Copyright © 2016 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha – All Rights Reserved.Bodhiruci translating the title as Mañjuśrī’s “going around” (巡行) and Jñānagupta translating the near synonymous Mañjuśrī’s “wandering” (行) (Meisig and Meisig 2012:207). The Anūnatvāpūrṇatvanirdeśa-parivarta. but the context throughout the sūtra implies that the “dwelling place” of Mañjuśrī is not a “place. and even the Heart Sūtra (Lopez 1988:82-83). However. 64. the concise meaning of this part of the sūtra is that Śāriputra is taught. unlocalized. Although difficult to verify. but the monks then return upon Mañjuśrī’s further instruction to Śāriputra. and is not able to be apprehended by conceptual thought. which is beyond time. sūtras of the Mahāratnakuṭa class (Chang p. where both realms lack any intrinsic essence (asatva). however. the presuppositions of Śāriputra may well represent the mainstream Buddhist understandings of a person following the Abhidharma of the Sarvāstivādin ordination lineage. particularly Śāriputra’s advocacy of the practice of standing firm in the past. The Mañjuśrīvihārasūtra. After Śāriputra praises Mañjuśrī on his eloquence of explaining the Dharma. According to Pad dkar bzang po (2006:265). 101. This connotation refers to the opening scene. and future (§2. Mañjuśrī then instructs the audience on the “non-increase and non-decrease” (anūnatvāpūrṇatva) of the realm of sentient beings and the realm of reality (dharmadhātu). Sarvapuṇya- samuccayasamādhisūtra (D. Hikata 1958:14-15). The five hundred monks are initially disturbed by and reject Mañjuśrī’s teaching and move away from him. We cannot be sure of the exact connotation of vihāra without a Sanskrit manuscript of the sūtra.

The Buddha explains to Suvikrāntavikrāmi that “non-increase and non-decrease” is a synonym of the vision of how things are in a non-conceptual manner (Conze 1973:13. Liberation is non-conceptual. At the conclusion of the Mañjuśrīvihārasūtra. “that which is unhindered in any way is awakening. .” a phrase found throughout the prajñāpāramitā literature. and particularly well-known from the Vajracchedikā-prajñāpāramitā (Harrison 2006:145. Paragraph §7 of the Mañjuśrīvihārasūtra mentions that Arhats are “constituted by the unconditioned.§7). and are designated through conventional expressions (saṃketena vyavahārapadaṃ gacchati). a prediction that is also give in a number of prajñāpāramitā discourses (Skilling 2012:119.(ananta). The non-conceptual is unfabricated and immutable. the Buddha predicts that the audience will achieve complete Buddhahood “in the ‘Starlike Aeon” (bskal pa skar ma lta bu zhes bya ba na ≈ tārakopame kalpe). 121. The Mañjuśrīvihārasūtra concurs with this understanding where in paragraph §12 the text reads.” The prajñāpāramitā literature also influenced the authorial community of the Mañjuśrīvihārasūtra as there are several themes found in the Mañjuśrīvihārasūtra that are derived from earlier prajñāpāramitā discourses. 125). The unfabricated and immutable is completely passed beyond suffering. We also note that a parallel to the episode of the monks falling into hell in paragraph §10 is found in the Bodhisattvacaryānirdeśa (Braarvig 1994).25-26). Hikata 1958:15. Copyright © 2016 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha – All Rights Reserved. Awakening is liberation.

are you concentrating while dwelling on the past? Are you concentrating while dwelling on the future? Or are you concentrating while dwelling on the present?4 Venerable Śāriputra. smell. . what is it that the Tathāgata taught to śrāvakas as the teaching of disengagement? Venerable Śāriputra. I am concentrating to abide in bliss for this life5 and to stand firm in non-forgetfulness. “Venerable Śāriputra. body. Mañjuśrī. recognition.”7 Mañjuśrī replied. are you concentrating while dwelling on the eye? Or are you concentrating while dwelling on the nose. are you concentrating while dwelling on the internal? Or are you concentrating while residing on the external? Or are you concentrating while dwelling on the internal and external? Venerable Śāriputra. touch. Then. it is so. §2 Subsequently. together with a large community of exactly 500 monks and a great multitude of bodhisattvas. preached the Dharma. [D267a1] are you concentrating while dwelling on visible form? Or are you concentrating while dwelling on sound.The Translation The Noble Mahāyāna Sūtra called “The Residence of Mañjuśrī” Homage to all buddhas and bodhisattvas! §1 Thus have I heard at one time. tongue. what is that on which you rely Copyright © 2016 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha – All Rights Reserved. he said the following words to the Sthavira Śāriputra: “Venerable Śāriputra. “Venerable Śāriputra. are you concentrating while dwelling on the body? Or are you concentrating while dwelling on the mind?” §3 Śāriputra replied. are you concentrating while dwelling on the desire realm? Or are you concentrating while dwelling on the form realm. “Mañjuśrī. I truly do not see or perceive any dharmas which abide in bliss for this life. “Mañjuśrī. or abide in bliss not for this life. or consciousness? Venerable Śāriputra. “Venerable Śāriputra. When he went to the residence where the Sthavira Śāriputra was. “Mañjuśrī.”6 Mañjuśrī said. the Bhagavān. taste. on Gṛdhrakūṭa Mountain. are you concentrating?” Śāriputra replied. are you concentrating in order to abandon defilements that have already been abandoned? Or are you concentrating in order to abandon ones that have not yet been abandoned? Venerable Śāriputra. after emerging in the late afternoon from secluded meditation. or other phenomena? Venerable Śāriputra. volitional forces. The Bhagavān was staying at Rājagṛha. Mañjuśrī saw him sitting in solitude and concentrating in the correct practice of solitary meditation. or the formless realm? Venerable Śāriputra.2 surrounded and honored by a great assembly. However. the youthful Mañjuśrī was walking about. I rely and stand firm on that which the Tathāgata taught to śrāvakas as the teaching of disengagement.” Mañjuśrī said. or mind? Venerable Śāriputra.3 When he saw him. ear. are you concentrating while dwelling on bodily form? Are you concentrating while dwelling on feeling. going from residence to residence among all 500 monks. what are these dharmas which abide in bliss for this life? Do they abide in bliss not for this life? Are these dharmas of non- forgetfulness perceived?” Śāriputra replied.

In this way. it is like this. in brief. Venerable Śāriputra. It is not of anything. “Venerable Śāriputra. the true nature11 of the past and the true nature of the future and the present is not anything. or future and does not fully comprehend. then how can the Tathāgata reside in the true nature and teach Dharma? Venerable Śāriputra. In this way the true nature is uncorrupted. if these dharmas do not exist. then how can the Sthavira Śāriputra say. rely and stand firm on the future. for this. “I rely and stand firm on the past. the true nature of the past cannot be apprehended. However. Venerable Śāriputra. and cannot be conceived. The true nature of the future does not exist. why do you say. Venerable Śāriputra. One who does not perceive dharmas which have passed and does not fully comprehend dharmas which have passed. When his Dharma is taught. “Mañjuśrī. The true nature of the present does not exist. §5 Śāriputra said [D268a].and stand firm?” Śāriputra replied. The standing place of that non-standing place cannot be apprehended. Venerable Śāriputra. Mañjuśrī. “Mañjuśrī.14 Further. and in brief. the true nature of [everything] up to mind cannot be apprehended. is without designation. and. as mentioned before. who will become a recipient for a Dharma teaching like this?” Mañjuśrī said. In this way the true nature is 13empty. no other dharma capable of being explained or taught can be apprehended. rely on what presently occurs. relies and stands firm on the future. wishless.” Venerable Śāriputra. The true nature of the present cannot be apprehended. a monk relies and stands firm on the past. Why is this? Venerable Śāriputra. “I rely and stand firm on the past. Even the Tathāgata does not exist and cannot be apprehended. relies and stands firm on the present. It does even not stand in anything. present. if a true nature does not exist. Further. the Tathāgata taught these dharmas to śrāvakas as disengaged and I [D 267b] rely and stand firm on these dharmas. the future. It is not by anything. then how can the Tathāgata reside in the true nature and teach Dharma? All things do not exist and cannot be apprehended. aside from the true nature. who does not perceive dharmas which arise in the past. then how can the Tathāgata reside in the true nature and teach Dharma? If even the Tathāgata does not exist. . The true nature of the future cannot be apprehended. and the present” deprecate the Tathāgata. those who speak of stability proclaiming “the true nature12 of the past. present. and rely and stand firm on the present”? Dharmas that do not exist do not have a standing place. One who does not pursue either self or non-self. will be a recipient for a Dharma teaching like this. that one.9 one should understand that he relies and stands firm [on the categories of dharmas] all the way up to the mind. it is like this: The true nature10 of the past does not exist. Why is this? True nature is immovable and without vain imaginings. The Tathāgata is not distinguished by the expressible or the inexpressible. rely and stand firm on the future. or future. Further. accordingly. one who will not be disturbed in the conditioned realm and who does not desire complete nirvāṇa will be a recipient for a Dharma teaching like this.” §6 Śāriputra said. does the Tathāgata teach Dharma residing in the true nature?” Mañjuśrī said. as mentioned before. without signs. if even the Dharma does not exist. “Venerable Śāriputra.8 In brief.” §4 Mañjuśrī said. nor perceive dharmas which arise in the past. “Mañjuśrī. stand firm on the isolated. “Venerable Śāriputra. the Tathāgata is completely cut off from expressions. it has no distinction between either apprehending or not apprehending. and who does not pursue acquiring and relinquishing Copyright © 2016 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha – All Rights Reserved. rely on and stand firm in the isolated [on the categories of dharmas] all the way up to the mind. One who neither perceives nor appropriates defilement and purification will be a recipient for a Dharma teaching like this.

have departed.15 how much more so are childish ordinary beings?”16 Mañjuśrī said. nor does one accept that they are neither existent nor nonexistent. and thus do not exist. Arhats are distinguished by not perceiving. if there were to be something that was knowledge of the meaning of this exposition. one is called “he who abides in the quality of a recluse by way of being unlocalized. Because these five hundred monks have said. The youthful Mañjuśrī has abandoned the place on which we dwell on. That which does not exist and cannot be apprehended is not able to be seen and not able to be heard. “These five hundred monks have arisen from their seats and. [D269b] the words of these monks are well spoken. Why is that? Accordingly. Śāriputra. what would be the place of Arhats? Arhats are not distinguished by name and form. having expressed contempt as well as spoken unpleasant things. “Mañjuśrī. Mañjuśrī. and are also non-existent. the five hundred monks of the retinue got up from their seats saying. “Venerable Śāriputra. Thinking. “Venerable Śāriputra. Why is that? As the youthful Mañjuśrī has directly indicated that the thoroughly afflicted and the completely purified have a single characteristic. and thus exist. They are not conceptualized at the time of not being perceived. Arhats are free from the distinctions of places.””18 §8 19Thereupon. Distinguished by the unconditioned. as Arhats have thoroughly cut off utterances and non- utterances they are free from designation. then ask ‘In this regard. “Sthavira Śāriputra. They are distinguished by the unconditioned. one is without thought. The place where the youthful Mañjuśrī dwells Copyright © 2016 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha – All Rights Reserved. Childish ordinary beings conceptualize name and form. they are unelaborated and peaceful: one does not accept that they exist.” §7 Śāriputra said.17 They are without engagement. Arhats are not distinguished by name and form. Arhat. This is rarely fully apprehended. what is full comprehension?” Mañjuśrī said.is a recipient for a [D268b] Dharma teaching such as this. When one does not accept this.’ it is well-done. Even childish beings are not perceived. We do not hear the youthful Mañjuśrī. when even Arhats and those in training are discouraged with respect to this place. That one will fully comprehend the meaning of this explanation. The qualities of childish beings. The place that the youthful Mañjuśrī dwells on should be abandoned. this profound Dharma teaching is rarely directly perceived.” Mañjuśrī said. “We do not see the youthful Mañjuśrī. Arhats do not have a place. . there is not an observed object. We do not hear the youthful Mañjuśrī. Why is this? With respect to this. “Mañjuśrī. “How can we practice purely the disciplinary doctrine that is well-spoken by the Bhagavān?. since Arhats are without a place in the unconditioned. nor does one accept that they do not exist. that is so. and free from thought. Name and form are understood by Arhats as non-conceptual and without imaginings. They are not pursued in any way.” they departed. and Arhat qualities are also not perceived. By being free from all observed objects. [D269a] Without being pursued. Why is this? Accordingly. one does not accept that they are on the one hand existent. when this teaching was explained by the youthful Mañjuśrī. “Mañjuśrī. Therefore. Arhats are distinguished by being unlocalized. ‘We do not see the youthful Mañjuśrī. he has said something improper. §9 Then the Sthavira Śāriputra said the following to the youthful Mañjuśrī. what is full comprehension?’” Śāriputra said. Arhats are distinguished by fully cutting off utterances and non- utterances. in this regard. the youthful Mañjuśrī does not exist and cannot be apprehended. there would be an Arhat at a place where there is not even an Arhat. it is good.” Śāriputra said. “Venerable Śāriputra. do you not teach the Dharma so that sentient beings may understand all things?” Mañjuśrī replied.

” He is called “one who has attained the supreme. Why is this? 21Accordingly. but this does not occur through attainment on the four levels of concentration. Why is that? Since the youthful Mañjuśrī does not exist and cannot be apprehended. nor is it pure.24 Śāriputra. “Venerable Śāriputra. true nature does not diminish. they would without doubt traverse as hell-beings. and agitation.” When he explained this teaching. nor does it increase. In such a way are the activities of the Teacher’s śrāvakas.22 §11 Then the Venerable Śāriputra said the following words to the youthful Mañjuśrī.” “one worthy of offerings. they will experience very little of the karmic results of experiencing hell as a sentient being for an aeon.” a “leader.20 Monks. nor does it increase. They are nothing at all as they amount to nothing more than mere conventions. “Monks this is good. That which does not exist and cannot be apprehended should not be relied upon. it is the most excellent. . nor does it increase.” §10 Thereupon. The realm of reality also does not diminish [D270b]. suffering. therefore. They are not due to anything whatsoever. It is not defiled. Why is this? Śāriputra. said the following words to the youthful Mañjuśrī. the place where he dwells also does not exist and cannot be apprehended. if these monks had not heard this Dharma- discourse. this is good. do not speak such words.should be abandoned. after a moment of touching the great hell Raurava.23” Thereupon the Bhagavān spoke the following words to the Venerable Śāriputra. nor will one be liberated from birth. the way that you have fully matured sentient beings through your eloquent explanation of this Dharma-discourse is amazing. That which is the realm of reality is not a realm. will together take rebirth among the gods of Tuṣita heaven. death. these one hundred monks. lamentation. Since they have relied upon this Dharma-discourse. take rebirth as humans.” §12 Thereupon. the Venerable Śāriputra said the following words to the youthful Mañjuśrī. They do not abide anywhere at all and Copyright © 2016 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha – All Rights Reserved. this realm of reality itself resides in a manner which is unlocalized. were liberated from the pollutions. sorrow. no longer clinging. how is it that we do not understand your teaching?” Mañjuśrī replied. in this way. [D270a] I am shocked that one hundred monks have all gone to waste because you didn't teach a Dharma which protects sentient beings.” Mañjuśrī replied. the minds of four hundred monks. One who is without the vain imaginings of full comprehension and understanding is called “a śrāvaka of the Teacher. these do not exist and cannot be apprehended. among the five hundred monks. these five hundred monks heard this teaching by the youthful Mañjuśrī. there is nothing to fully comprehend [and] there is nothing to understand. “Mañjuśrī. One hundred monks in body and mind fell into the great hell (mahānaraka) Raurava due to their thoughts being greatly disturbed. nor through the four immeasurables. when this Dharma-discourse is heard by those who have doubt. ageing.26 Why is this? Accordingly. Why is this? Without hearing this Dharma-discourse one will not be completely liberated from cyclic existence. The realm of sentient beings does not diminish. That which is immovable and without birth and death is not to be fully comprehened. regarding this. sadness. sickness. “Śāriputra. nor through meditating on the four attainments of formlessness. and having exhausted their actions25. Śāriputra. these one hundred monks will be included among the initial śrāvakas of the Tathāgata Maitreya and become Arhats who have exhausted their pollutions. and having returned back to their place. “Mañjuśrī. Śāriputra. That which does not exist and cannot be apprehended is also immovable and without birth and death. It is not to be understood. “Mañjuśrī.

these do not exist and cannot be apprehended. [2] That which is conceptualized without characteristics Will itself become a characteristic. nor does it increase. Concepts produce wavering. It is not defiled. Copyright © 2016 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha – All Rights Reserved. . [4] All of the aggregates. The realm of sentient beings does not diminish. that which is unhindered in this way is awakening. nor does it increase. nor is it pure. The names and the unproduced31 Are both of a single characteristic. The realm of reality also does not diminish. Those who do not conceptualize are unwavering. [3] That which is conceptualized as conditioned30 And that which is conceptualized as nirvāṇa Both are explained by the wise As the activity of Māra. Awakening is liberation. the youthful Mañjuśrī has taught correctly. or future Do not objectively exist but are mere conventions. True nature does not diminish. They are nothing at all as they amount to nothing more than mere conventions. They do not have the characteristics of being one or many. the Bhagavān spoke the following words to the Sthavira Śāriputra. nor does it increase. 28 §14 Then the Bhagavān at that time uttered these verses: 29 [1] Dharmas which are said to arise In the past. The non-conceptual is unfabricated and immutable. The wise do not conceptualize even a little bit. present. Conceptuality is not a characteristic either. Being without concepts is nirvāṇa. 27Why is this? Accordingly. sensory media. They are not due to anything whatsoever. and elements Are formulated by name.are unlocalized. [D271a] [5] That which is properly conceptualized Is itself not proper. That without characteristics is non-conceptual. §13 Thereupon. [6] Those who conceptualize waver about. “Śāriputra. The unfabricated and immutable is completely passed beyond suffering (parinirvāṇa). Liberation is non-conceptual. They do not abide anywhere at all and are unlocalized. Venerable Śāriputra. Their sphere of activity is actually empty.

Those who have forbearance in wisdom like this Are known as “those who have wisdom. the youthful Mañjuśrī. .34 Eighty thousand deva- putras who belong to the sphere of form generated the mind for unexcelled. no longer clinging. [10] Practicing for myriads of aeons Giving. and complete awakening in the aeon called “like a star” and that all of them will bear the same name: “Tathāgata. morality.” On that account they have attained cessation.32 That is non-conceptual wisdom. forbearance. Arhat. were liberated from the pollutions. [8] With wisdom is wisdom proclaimed. §15 When this Dharma-discourse had been explained. humans. This concludes the Noble Mahāyāna sūtra called the “Abode of Mañjuśrī. [11] This Dharma and this vehicle Are taught by the perfectly complete Buddha. Even the proclamations of wisdom are vain. Superior to the generosity By which one would fill the trichilocosms with jewels. true and complete awakening. Diligent effort.” Translated and edited by the Indian master Surendrabodhi and the great editor translator Venerable Ye-shes-sde.”35 The Bhagavān having said this. one hundred thousand33 living beings purified the dustless and spotless Dharma-eye with regard to dharmas. The Bhagavān predicted that they will all realize unexcelled. and the world with its gods.” [9] The endurance by which one endures a holy Dharma of this sort Is the supreme endurance. Venerable Śāriputra. The minds of five hundred monks. Flower. and concentration Is not equal to this sūtra. perfectly complete Buddha. true. demigods and gandharvas [D271b] rejoiced and praised what had been proclaimed by the Bhagavān. Copyright © 2016 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha – All Rights Reserved. [7] Those who understand this nature Are known as “those who have wisdom. When relying on this sūtra All will become Tathāgatas.

Copyright © 2016 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha – All Rights Reserved. tsa 298b3-304a3 (vol. http://tbrc. delhi: delhi karmapae chodhey gyalwae sungrab partun khang.istb. Digital scans from Resources for Kanjur & Tibetan Studies (http://www.istb. Rpt. 41). 1976-1979.ac..e. Tsa 310a6-317a8. ca. Tokyo: Taishō shinshū daizōkyō kanko kai. 82). Go ’phags pa ’jam dpal gnas pa zhes.at/kanjur/xml3/xml/). Hemis Manuscript Kanjur. Cone (Co ne) Printed Kanjur. bka’ ’gyur (sde dge par phud). http://tbrc. [co ne rdzong]: [co ne dgon]. Watanabe Kaigyoku 渡辺海旭. 1962. Gondhla Collection Proto-Kanjur.univie.istb. 508- 535 c. C ’phags pa ’jam dpal gnas pa zhes bya ba theg pa chen po’i mdo. chos kyi 'byung gnas.org/link?RID=W22084 F ’phags pa ’jam dpal gnas pa zhes bya ba theg pa chen po’i mdo.ac. Digital scans from Resources for Kanjur & Tibetan Studies (http://www.ac. and Ono Gemmyō 小野玄妙. Phug brag Manuscript Kanjur. Lithang Printed Kanjur. Derge (Sde dge) Printed Kanjur . sa 194b8-202a5 (vol. Tibetan Kanjur Editions Ba ’phags pa ’jam dpal gnas pa zhes bya ba theg pa chen po’i mdo.at/kanjur/xml3/xml/).e. 1924-34.istb. Tsa 277a4-384a5. Digital scans from Resources for Kanjur & Tibetan Studies (http://www. TBRC W1PD96685. . 103 vols. tsa 328a1-333b7 (vol. 56).Bibliography and Abbreviations Chinese Sources T Taishō shinshū daizōkyō 大正新脩大藏經. 1926. 053 mDo. 16). Wén shū shī lì xíng jīng 文殊尸利行經 (T. Basgo Manuscript Kanjur. mdo sde. 61). readings from variants preserved in dpe bsdur ma. J ’phags pa ’jam dpal gnas pa zhes bya ba theg pa chen po’i mdo. Digital scans from Resources for Kanjur & Tibetan Studies (http://www. tsa 266b1-271b2 (vol. Edited by Takakusu Junjirō 高楠順次郎. Ka 15a6-19a6 (vol.org/link?RID=W1PD96685 D ’phags pa ’jam dpal gnas pa zhes bya ba theg pa chen po’i mdo. He ’phags pa ’jam dpal gnas pa zhes bya ba theg pa chen po’i mdo. mdo. mdo sde.univie.at/kanjur/xml3/xml/).univie. Wén shū shī lì xún xíng jīng 文殊師利巡行經 (T. 108 vols.at/kanjur/xml3/xml/). 470) translated by Bodhiruci. mdo sde.univie. 1 juan. TBRC W22084.ac. 471) translated by Jñānagupta in 586 c.mdo sde. 100 vols.

univie.at/kanjur/xml3/xml/). readings from variants preserved in dpe dur ma. Digital scans from Resources for Kanjur & Tibetan Studies (http://www. 865. mdo sde tsa. 39). London Manuscript Kanjur.238). bka’ ’gyur stog pho brang bris ma. 62).istb. Ka 37. Narthang (Snar thang) Printed Kanjur. 10 (13b3-18a7).univie.at/kanjur/xml3/xml/). 2006-2009. Digital scans from Resources for Kanjur & Tibetan Studies (http://www. 108 volumes. 61). Ta2 Tabo Mauscript. mdo sde. http://tbrc. Z ’phags pa ’jam dpal gnas pa zhes bya ba theg pa chen po’i mdo.istb.ac. N ’phags pa ’jam dpal gnas pa zhes bya ba theg pa chen po’i mdo. Bathang Manuscript Kanjur.K2 ’phags pa ’jam dpal gnas pa zhes bya ba theg pa chen po’i mdo. Ki 46-49. Taiwan.istb. Stog Palace Manuscript Kanjur mdo sde.ac. 286/427a4-291/535a6).at/kanjur/xml3/xml/). mu 275a6-280a2 (vol. Shey Palace Manuscript Kanjur. krung go’i bod rig pa zhib ’jug ste gnas kyi bka’ bstan dpe sdur khang (The Tibetan Tripitaka Collation Bureau of the China Tibetology Research Center). vol.ac. Peking Qianlong Printed Kanjur. Volume deb re gcig pa. . Copyright © 2016 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha – All Rights Reserved. No. S ’phags pa ’jam dpal gnas pa zhes bya ba theg pa chen po’i mdo. ta 367b2-374a5 (vol. 1975-1980. Ne ’phags pa ’jam dpal gnas pa zhes bya ba theg pa chen po’i mdo. Digital scans from Resources for Kanjur & Tibetan Studies (http://www.ac. 725-737 in Comparative Edition of the Kangyur.org/link?RID=W22083 Ta ’phags pa ’jam dpal gnas pa zhes bya ba theg pa chen po’i mdo. 56). mdo sna tshogs.univie. Y ’phags pa ’jam dpal gnas pa zhes bya ba theg pa chen po’i mdo. ta 443b2-451a4 (vol. 34. 109 vols. mdo sde.Ulanbatar Manuscript Kanjur. pp. ta 394a5-401a4 (vol. TBRC W22083. mdo. V ’phags pa ’jam dpal gnas pa zhes bya ba theg pa chen po’i mdo. Q ’phags pa ’jam dpal gnas pa zhes bya ba theg pa chen po’i mdo.at/kanjur/xml3/xml/). leh: smanrtsis shesrig dpemzod. Facsimile reprint preserved in National Palace Museum.istb. mdo sde. 60). Beijing: krung go’i bod rig pa dpe skrun khang (China Tibetology Publishing House). volume Tsu.Yongle Printed Kanjur. dpe bsdur ma ’phags pa ’jam dpal gnas pa zhes bya ba theg pa chen po’i mdo.univie. readings from variants preserved in dpe bsdur ma. ta 370a3-377a3 (vol. Kangxi “Dragon” Manuscript Kanjur. ba 427a7-435b1 (vol. L ’phags pa ’jam dpal gnas pa zhes bya ba theg pa chen po’i mdo. p. Tabo Manuscript. Digital scans from Resources for Kanjur & Tibetan Studies (http://www. See Chou 2011.

Deleanu. The Buddhist Schools of the Small Vehicle. 1994. 國立故宮博物院 (National Palace Museum). Conze.” Annual Report of The International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology (ARIRIAB) at Soka University for the Academic Year 2013. Braarvig. Braarvig..Y. 1962. 65-113. Sara Boin-Webb. Soka University. Ltd. Apple. Edward. C. Edward. 2011.” Journal of the Centre for Buddhist Studies. The Short Prajñāpāramitā Texts. A Garland of Jewels: The Eight Great Bodhisattvas. The Large Sutra on Perfect wisdom: With the Divisions of the Abhisamayālaṅkāra. Gyamtso. I: Edition of Exant Manuscripts with an Index. 2013.: KTD Publications. Garma C. 7 pp. Akṣayamatinirdeśa. 2 vol. 龍岡印刷股份有限公司 Long-Kuang Digital Culture Co. pp. A Stairway taken by the Lucid: Tsong kha pa’s Study of Noble Beings. 108 volumes. “The Practice of the Bodhisattvas: Negative Dialectics and Provocative Arguments. Chang. “Qualities of a True Recluse (Samaṇa) –According to the Samaṇamaṇḍikā-sutta and its Madhyama-āgama Parallel. Berkeley: University of California Press. Conze. Edition of the Tibetan text of the Bodhisattvacaryānirdeśa with a Translation and Introduction.Ltd. 153–184. 1953 (1970 reprint). Soka University. London: Allen & Unwin. “A Preliminary Study on Meditation and the Beginnings of Mahāyāna Buddhism.References Anālayo. and Andrew Skilton. Motilal Banarsidass: Delhi. 293-335. Jens. Bareau. New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan. Golden Ink Dharma Treasure”). Apple. Taiwan. 1983. 2008. II: The Tradition of Imperishability in Buddhist Thought. Jens. Edgerton. Oslo. vol. 1973. André. Edward. 2014. 2013. Copyright © 2016 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha – All Rights Reserved. XVII. Bhikkhu. “Preface” in Tibetan Scripture-Index to 龍藏經.” Acta Orientalia 55: 113-160. 2000.” Annual Report of The International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology (ARIRIAB) at Soka University for the Academic Year 1999. Franklin. Tokyo: The International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary. 2009. London: Luzac & Co. Honolulu : University of Hawai’i Press. Sri Lanka. Vol. N. Buddhist thought in India. Woodstock.金字法寶 (“The Tibetan Dragon Sutras. Chou. Tokyo: The International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology. James B. Florin. “Fragments and Phylogeny of the Tibetan Version of the Mañjuśrīvihārasūtra: A Case Study in the Genealogy of Tibetan Kanjurs. Kungshin. pp. Conze. 1975. James B. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press. Yeshe. . 1993. A Treasury of Mahāyāna Sūtras: Selections from the Mahāratnakūta Sūtra.

“Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā: A New English Translation of the Sanskrit Text Based on Two Manuscripts from Greater Gandhāra. Jaini. Edited by Mi nyag mgon po. Paul M. Étienne. H. 2006.1119-1733). 99-162. Volume 3 (pp. The Heart Sūtra Explained: Indian and Tibetan Commentaries. Albany. N. Nishioka. “ ‘Putun bukkyōshi’ Mokurokubusakuin 1/Index to the Catalogue Section of Bu-ston’s ‘History of Buddhism’ 1. 1990. Fukuoka: Kyushu University. 2012. Matthew. Lopez. 2006. “New Fragments of the rNal ’byor chen por bsgom pa’i don from Tabo. Cristina Anna. In the Mirror of Memory Reflections on Mindfulness and Remembrance in Indian and Tibetan Buddhism. 2013. editor. Donald S. Buddhist Manuscripts in the Schøyen Collection. Kurtis R. The Samādhi of direct encounter with the Buddhas of the present: an annotated English translation of the Tibetan version of the Pratyutpanna-Buddha- saṃmukhāvasthita-samādhi-sūtra with several appendices relating to the history of the text. Roma: Istituto italiano per l'Africa e l'Oriente.” In Janet Gyatso. Herrmann-Pfandt. and Gray Tuttle. Adelheid.” in Jens Braarvig. Konrad. Japan. and Marion Meisig. eds. Dkar chag ’phang thang ma / sgra sbyor bam po gnyis pa. Padmanabh. Tokyo: International Institute for Buddhist Studies.Harrison. and Ernst Steinkellner. translator.” Tōkyō daigaku bungakubu Bunka-kōryū- kenkyū-shisetsu Kenkyū Kiyō 4: 61-92. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. Hikata. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 1980. In Scherrer-Schaub. . Indian Buddhism: A Survey with Bibliographical Notes. Albany: State University of New York Press. 1958.” In Schaeffer. 2008. Louvain: Institut Orientaliste Louvain-la-Neuve. Lamotte. 1999. pp. 1999.. Hermes: Oslo. and the Arts. Soshū. Suvikrantāvikrāmi-paripṛcchā-prajñāpāramitā-sūtra. Edited with an introductory essay by Ryusho Hikata. Pe cin: mi rigs dpe skrun khang. Texts.: State University of New York Press. 72-76. Copyright © 2016 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha – All Rights Reserved. Bun’ei. Kazunobu Matsuda & Lore Sander. 133-59.. Harrison. Nakamura. Kufs Publication. Matthew Kapstein. 1980. Pad dkar bzang po. Jens–Uwe Hartmann. Die Lhan kar ma: ein früher Katalog der ins Tibetische übersetzten buddhistischen Texte. 1992. Paul. Le Traité de la Grande Vertu de Sagesse de Nàgàrjuna. Meisig. Wien: Verlag der österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mdo sde spyi'i rnam bzhag. R. Paul Harrison. “Smṛti in the Abhidharma Literature and the Development of Buddhist Accounts of Memory of the Past. Sources of Tibetan Tradition. 1988. Tokyo. A Buddhist Chinese Glossary Buddhistisch- Chinesisches Glossar. pp. 47-59 Kapstein.. “An Imperial Decree on Translation. 1944. Otokawa. 2003. Pe cin: Mi rigs dpe skrun khang. Ryusho. Tabo studies II: Manuscsripts. Rdo. pp.Y. Inscriptions.

1995. Dergé Tanjur. Reprint 1990.. §2. Shiu.4. Indian Buddhism.” Annual Report of The International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology (ARIRIAB) at Soka University for the Academic Year 2011. 152a2) and is most likely synonymous with mthong ba’i chos la bde bar gnas pa ≈ dṛṣtadharmasukhavihāra “abiding in bliss in the present life. The phrase occurs throughout the Śrāvakabhūmi (D 25a5. 1938. 117-126. NOTES 1 This version is mentioned by Nakamura. Tôh. Tr. See. §3) when he is confronted by Vimalakīrti. Peter. Vimalamitra (Dri med bshes gnyen).” 3 Note that Śāriputra is practicing meditative seclusion (nang du yang dag bzhag pa ≈ pratisaṃlīna [pratiaṃlayana] in the Vimalakīrtinirdésa (Chapter 3. phyem red kyi dus kyi tshe nang du yang dag 'jog las bzhengs nas is. An Early Tibetan Survey of Buddhist literature: The Bstan pa rgyas pa rgyan gyi nyi ’od of Bcom Idan ral gri.yeng ba).” a term applied to certain types of Arhats (see Apple 2013). Philosophy in the Samādhirājasūtra: Three Chapters from the Samādhirājasūtra. Non-forgetfulness (brjed pa med pa) is one of the three qualities of mindfulness (dran pa ≈ smṛti) including familiarization (’dris pa’i dngos po) and non-distraction (mi g. van der Kuijp. Harvard University. Copyright © 2016 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha – All Rights Reserved. Jaini (1992: 47-59) on asaṃpramoṣa in Abhidharma literature.D.the formless realm” are missing in the Chinese (T470). University of Toronto.Y. Canada. N. Soka University. folios 6v. Delhi: M. but misspelled as Mañjuśrīvikārasūtra. as noted by Harrison (1990:8n8). related to the Pāli sāyaṇhasamayaṃ paṭisallāṇā vuṭṭhito and Sanskrit sāyāhṇa(kāla)samaye pratisaṃlayanād vyutthāya. 2009.. “Notes on the Bhadrakalpika-sūtra (III): Beyond the Fortunate Aeon. Constantin. 74b6. Sakṛtpraveśikanirvikalpabhāvanārtha (Cig car 'jug pa rnam par mi rtog pa'i bsgom don).” Ithaca. Toronto. “emerging towards evening from solitary meditation. 4 The following questions from “…bodily form?” to “.: Snow Lion Publications. Tokyo: The International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology.Regamey. Dissertation. 70b2.1-13v. 5 tshe ’di la bde bar gnas par bya refers to blissful meditative practices achieved in this life as a result of advanced progress on the path in mainstream forms of Buddhism. KI. Unpublished Ph. Si-tu Paṇ-chen Chos-kyi-ʼbyuṅ-gnas. 6 brjed pa med par gnas pa ≈ *asaṃpramoṣavihāra. pp. and Raṅ-byuṅ-rdo-rje. Cambridge. A Survey with Bibliographical Notes (1980:167). The Nonduality of Nonconceptual Wisdom and Conceptual Cognition: A Study of the Tathāgatagarbha Teaching in the Anūnatvāpūrṇatvanirdeśa- parivarta. and Leonard W. by Dharmatāśīla and Ye shes sde. 2006. Banarsidass Schaeffer. A type of samādhi in the Mahāvyutpatti §526. for example. Kurtis R. 74b5. no. J. Sherab Dorje. vol. Mass: Dept. 2 Tib. 3910. Mahāmudrā Teachings of the Supreme Siddhas: The Eighth Situpa Tenpa’i Nyinchay on the Third Gyalwa Karmapa Rangjung Dorje’s “Aspiration Prayer of Mahāmudrā of Definitive Meaning. Chung Hung Henry. Skilling. of Sanskrit and Indian Studies. 2012. .

after Mañjuśrī completed this teaching. in short…. the realm of reality has. as such. 16 I have based the translation on the Dunhuang (IOL Tib J 149. See Conze (1962:59-69). 511b01-b02) for the following two sentences has “Because this realm of reality is itself ‘dharmatā’ – the way things are. the Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā §7 (Harrison 2006:145). we should abandon him. See Apple 2014:307. 511a03) has “abiding in the quality of a śrāvaka. including D (268b2). Mahāvyupatti 5435. 511a04-a10) begins this paragraph with “At that time. 510b19) reads tathāgata rather than tathatā 13 The Chinese (T470. Why? Mañjuśrī is different from our “brahma-carya. and Deleanu (2000:74- 78). The Them-spang-ma (LSVZ) and Tabo (Ta) manuscripts read dge slong for dge sbyong. add mi slob pa rnams kyang “even those not in training” (aśaikṣa). 510b13) reads tathāgata rather than tathatā 11 The Chinese (T470.” 20 The Chinese (T470. then we should abandon there. 17 ’dus ma byas kyis rab tu phye ba ≈ asaṃskṛtaprabhāvita. those who are śravakas. who are disciples of the Tathagata. note 171.” 14 Emptiness (stong pa nyid). 510b17) reads tathāgata rather than tathatā 12 The Chinese (T470. See. nor is it pure” Copyright © 2016 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha – All Rights Reserved. in brief…a résumé of a preceding series of stanzas. This phrase occurs throughout a number of Perfection of Wisdom discourses and several other sūtras (Apple 2014). See Anālayo 2009 for this concept in early Buddhist sources. “You. for example. we do not listen for Mañjuśrī’s name.” 19 The Chinese (T470.” 26 The Chinese (T470. 510b21) states “true nature is irreversible. 23 The Dunhuang (IOL Tib J 149) reads ’khyims ≈ pariveṣin “to circle about” rather than chud zos te ngo mthar byas. and wishlessness (smon pa med pa) are known as the “three doors to deliverance” (triṇivimokṣamukhāni) or the “three concentrations” (trayaḥ samādhyaḥ) and as a set appear in both mainstream Buddhist sūtras and Mahāyāna sūtras.” 21 The Chinese (T470. 6a) as all the later vulgate Kanjurs.” Thus. present. and future (anāgata) really and substantially exist (Bareau 2013:177ff). the five hundred monks stood up from their seats and left saying.” 25 The Chinese (T470.” 10 The Chinese (T470. “We do not view Mañjuśrī’s body. should train as follows. “et cetera…. 9 de bzhin du sbyar te ≈ peyālam. 24 The Chinese (T470. 511a29-b01) for this sentence reads. 18 dge sbyong gi chos ≈ śramaṇadharma (samaṇadhamma). 511b29-c01) is missing “It is not defiled. Edgerton 1953:354a. 511b17) adds “…because these monks were able to listen to this Dharma. . 510b5) translates “teaching freedom from desire” for “teaching of isolation” throughout the sūtra. no thought or no retrogress. However. arhats are synonymous with aśaikṣas and so this phrase seems to be an addition to the text. true nature has no aspect.” 22 A parallel episode is found in the Bodhisattvacaryanirdeśa (see Braarvig 1994:136). fol. Wherever Mañjuśrī is and abides. all monks. 8 The fundamental thesis of the Sarvāstivādin school is that the past (atīta). a frequent wrong reading in Tibetan Kanjurs. 7 The Chinese (T470. signlessness (mtshan ma med pa). Lamotte (1944:1213-15). 511b18) adds “for one kalpa. The Chinese (T470. 15 Note that CGoJMQY reads phyogs and all other editions read sa phyogs.

512a01) reads “ten thousand. again. 31 I have based the translation on the Dunhuang (IOL Tib J 149) and other vulgate Kanjurs (GoLNeQTa) which read ming dang skye med gang yin pa against Derge which reads ming dang skye mched gang yin pa. note 400. This reading matches an early Tibetan commentary attributed to Spug Ye shes dbyangs (771-850 c.” Copyright © 2016 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha – All Rights Reserved. 512a05) reads “Dharma-Flower. 28 The Chinese (T470.e. 511c08) reads.) which preserves the reading ’dus byas la ni gang rtog dang (Otokawa 1999:151). “At that time.” 35 The Chinese (T470. 512a03) reads “Five hundred monks generated the mind for unexcelled. The vulgate Kanjur reading does not fit the context as the unconditioned (’dus ma byas) and nirvāṇa (mya ngan ’das) are quite often synonyms. . 27 The Chinese (T470. See Apple 2014:315. 32 Note that all editions read zad pa except for Derge which reads zag pa. in order to reveal this meaning. the World Honored One.” 34 The Chinese (T470. uttered these verses:” 29 The Chinese (T470. 511c08) is missing the following four sentences. and idioms of expression that we have not noted. true. and complete awakening. 30 I have based the translation on the Dunhuang (IOL Tib J 149) which reads ’dus byas la ni gang rtog dang” against all vulgate Kanjurs which read ’dus ma byas la gang rtog dang. terminology. 33 The Chinese (T470. 511c09-c29) has the same number of verses but there are differences in style.