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TUTORIAL FLIGHT

DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

Table of contents

INTRODUCTION 3

SECTION 0 – FLIGHT PLANNING 4

SECTION 1 – GROUND PREPARATION 8

SECTION 2 – ENGINE START 17

SECTION 3 – AFTER START 19

SECTION 4 – TAXI 20

SECTION 5 – TAKEOFF 20
5.1 – POSITIVE RATE OF CLIMB 21
SECTION 6 – CLIMB 21
6.1 – DEPARTING 22
SECTION 7 – CRUISE 25

SECTION 8 – DESCENT 26
8.1 – PASSING TRANSITION ALTITUDE 28
SECTION 9 – APPROACH 29
9.1 – CLEARED TO LAND 31
SECTION 10 – AFTER LANDING 32

SECTION 11 – ENTERING APPRON 33

SECTION 12 – PARKING 33

SECTION 13 – SUPPLEMENTENTARY PROCEDURES 35
13.1. – FUEL BALANCING 35
13.2. – ONE ENGINE OUT & IN FLIGHT RESTART 36
13.2.1. – INFLIGHT RESTART 37
13.3. – ONE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM OFF 38
Greetings 39

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

INTRODUCTION
About this manual

This manual is intended for flight simulation purposes only, and should not be
used for training or real life operations.

On this manual you will find a tutorial that will leads you to understand how to
operate the Sky Simulations DC-9 and you will find that is very similar to the real
world operations. However it does not replace the reading and understanding of
the operations manual and it goes directly with the checklists; In fact this manual is
a checklist explained more deeply and has visual elements that will help you to
understand the operation of the aircraft. Please take a time to read and understand
the OPERATIONS MANUAL before reading this manual.

As this manual is intended to provide you the flight technique of the Sky
Simulations DC-9 and we will advocate directly on the functions and operations of
the aircraft. In this tutorial we made a flight planning using real world dispatch in
order to obtain more accurate data, nevertheless it does not mean that the
knowledge of flight planning would be a requisite to operate the DC-9.

Important Considerations
- Cargo and Balance

The Sky Simulations DC-9 comes from factory, with a Maximum Gross weight
configuration.

The user can change the values of the fuel and weight directly or by using third
party software such as FS Passengers u others. In our website the user can find
the Payload Models to be used for the FS Passengers.

The DC-9 series come from factory with the C.G. in a Operating Empty weight
located between 25 and 27% of the MAC. Varying the CG depending of the aircraft
at maximum gross weight between 12 and 19 percent of the MAC.

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

0. - FLIGHT PLANNING
Situation:
Today we are going to make a regular flight from Minneapolis to Atlanta. The aircraft that would
supposes to realize this flight, comes delayed so, the company has to activate the reserve from the
hangar in order to hold the timetable. We are the crew assigned to this flight and we have been
informed about the situation so we will have to receive the aircraft and make the pertinent
inspections to it and also as it coming in cold and dark configuration we will have to make this type
of checklist.

0.1- Weather Briefing

Departure airport – Minneapolis-St Paul International, KMSP

METAR
KMSP 061753Z 20007KT 9SM FEW034 SCT150 BKN250 22/12 A2966 RMK AO2 SLP042
T02170122 10217 20133 56007

TAF
KMSP 061735Z 0618/0724 21006KT P6SM SCT035 SCT100 BKN250
FM062000 24010KT P6SM VCSH SCT040CB BKN150 TEMPO 0620/0623
BKN040CB
FM070200 27007KT P6SM SCT070 BKN250
FM070600 26006KT P6SM SKC
FM071500 27014KT P6SM FEW050 SCT250

Translated (Most important information):
Winds: 200 @ 07 Knots, No turbulence or gusts
Clouds: Few clouds 1/8 @ 3400ft
Scattered 4/8 @ 15000Fts
Broken 5/8 @ 25000ft
Precipitation: None
Visibility: More than 6 miles (9.6km)
Altimeter: 29.66 In HG / 1004.4 Hpa
Temperature: 22°C
Dew Point: 12°C
Runway in use: 22

ENROUTE WEATHER

Winds
0 to 5000ft 210 @ 10 Knots
230 @ 20 Knots Over Georgia
5000 ft to 15,000 ft Varying from 290 to 360 @ 40 to 25 Knots

30,000ft to 36,000ft 280 @ 75 knots
290 @ 50 knots over Illinois
300 @ 40 knots over Indiana
220 @ 45 knots over Tennessee
200 @ 30 knots over Georgia
Turbulence: Reported Moderated at 6000 over Indiana

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

Temperature -40 °C
Icing: Negative

Departure airport – Hartsfield - Jackson Atlanta International Airport, KATL

Actual METAR
KATL 061823Z 22015G22KT 10SM FEW037 SCT070 BKN150 BKN250 24/18 A2999 RMK AO2
FRQ LTG DSNT SW-W CB DSNT SW-W-NW CBMAM DSNT SW-W

TAF
KATL 061726Z 0618/0724 19013G22KT P6SM SCT025CB BKN035 TEMPO
0618/0622 VRB15G25KT 3SM TSRA BR BKN025CB
FM062300 21011KT 6SM -SHRA SCT025CB BKN050 TEMPO
0700/0704 VRB15G25KT 3SM -TSRA BR BKN025CB
FM070500 21007KT P6SM VCSH SCT040 BKN060
FM070900 23005KT 4SM BR OVC009
FM071200 24005KT P6SM OVC015
FM071600 25007KT P6SM BKN035
FM072300 23005KT P6SM BKN050

The Actual METAR serve us to know a little bit the actual conditions in the airport but, we know that
the weather is constantly changing so, we will need to know the forecast for our arrival time, which
is estimated at about 20:35Z.
The TAF was made at 1726Z, expiring next day at 2400Z. As the TAF says, the next significant
change will occur at 2300z so, the forecast that we will use is the first line (red one) which
corresponds to the forecast for our arrival

ACTUAL METAR Translated (Most important information):
Winds: 220 @ 15 Knots, gusting until to 22 knots
Clouds: Few clouds 2/8 @ 3700ft
Scattered 4/8 @ 7000Fts
Broken 5/8 @ 15000ft
Broken 7/8 @ 25000ft
Precipitation: None
Visibility: More than 10 miles (16km)
Altimeter: 29.99 In HG / 1015.5 Hpa
Temperature: 24°C
Dew Point: 18°C
Additional significant information:
Frequent distant Lightings at the Southwest-west
Distant Cumulus Nimbus at Southwest-West and North west
Runway in use: 26’s

FORECAST WEATHER Translated (RED LINES):
Winds: 190 @ 13 Knots, gusting until to 22 knots
Clouds: Scattered @ 2500ft for Cumulus Nimbus
Broken @ 3500ft
Visibility: More than 6 miles (9km)
TEMPORARY BETWEEN 1800Z and 2200Z:
Winds: Variable direction @ 15 Knots, gusting until to 25 knots
Visibility: More than 3 miles (5km) by Thunderstorms Rain and Mist
Clouds: Broken @ 3500ft by Cumulus Nimbus

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

0.2- ROUTE PLANNING

COMPANY FLIGHT PLAN

RELEASE

PLAN 9860 06/05/2009 KMSP / KATL ALTN KBHM FL310 CRZ M76
NWA2456 N9337 ROUTE KMSP ZMBRO2 ODI J30 BRIBE BDF ENL PLESS J45 BNA ERLIN5 KATL

FUEL 13020 / 17954 FUEL ON RAMP 18434
W/C -029 TIME ENROUTE 01.55

ACFT N9337 CRZ M76 AC TYPE DC93
KMSP/KATL FPD 18.25Z FPA 20:20Z

DEST FUEL TIME DIST TAKEOFF LAND AV PLD OPNLWT
DEST KATL 13020 01.55 827 101638 083578 026829 056855
ALT KBHM 01890 00.25 109 SECONDARY ALT-NIL
HLD 02858 00.30
RES 00186 00.02
MIN DX 17954 02.52
TAXI 00480
FOB 18434

KMSP ZMBRO2 ODI J30 BRIBE BDF ENL PLESS J45 BNA ERLIN5 KATL

CPT FL WIND AW COMP TAS ZT BURN
FREQ LAT LONG MT TT GS CT REM

KMSP N4452.9W09313.

JEDET CLB 27041 ZMBRO2 P26 304 00.06 01547
N4427.7W09243.7 138 144 330 00.06 16407

ZMBRO CLB 27041 ZMBRO2 P40 387 00.04 00776
N4420.5W09226.9 119 122 427 00.10 15931

ODI 310 30065 J30 P65 420 00.06 01051
117.90 N4354.7W09128.1 120 120 485 00.16 14880

BRIBE 310 30065 J30 P62 410 00.05 00687
N4247.9W08956.4 135 137 472 00.21 14193

BDF 310 30060 DCT P38 428 00.13 01413
114.70 N4109.6W08935.3 171 178 466 00.34 12780

ENL 310 32035 DCT P22 428 00.21 02361
115.00 N3825.2W08909.5 173 180 450 00.55 12780

PLESS 24036 J45 M11 428 00.06 00599
N3748.6W08857.8 166 170 417 01.01 12181

BNA 24036 J45 P09 428 00.22 02242
114.10 N3608.2W08641.1 132 138 437 01.23 9939

DRAKK 24031 ERLIN5 P01 428 00.06 00532
N3544.8W08622.1 148 429 01.29 09507

RMG 32020 P20 428 00.09 00732

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

115.40 N3409.8W08507.2 147 147 448 01.38 08775

ERLIN 32020 ERLIN5 P16 337 00.05 00280
N3405.2W08501.3 160 161 353 01.43 8675

DALAS 28015 ERLIN5 P12 278 00.03 00110
N3357.1W08450.9 136 138 290 01.46 08584

STUTZ 26010 ERLIN5 P06 271 00.02 00173
116.90 N3351.3W08443.4 137 137 277 01.48 08511

ATL 26010 P06 185 00.06 00517
116.90 N3338.2W08425.7 135 137 190 01.54 08094

KATL DSC 22015 .. P03 185 00.01
N338.2W8425.6 079 89 196 01.55

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ALTERNATE ROUTING - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

KATL GEETK TDG KBHM

CPT FL SOT WIND AW COMP TAS ZT BURN
FREQ LAT LONG MT TT GS CT REM

GEETK 03515 DCT P07 319 00.07 01154
N3338.9W08514.0 275 276 326 02.02 08511

TDG 03515 DCT P05 341 00.14 00180
108.8 N3334.5W08602.6 267 268 346 02.19 08094

KBHM 28005 P03 216 00.10 00556
116.90 N3333.8W08645.1 271 272 213 02.29 08094

(FPL-NWA2456-IS)
-DC93 /M –SDGRW/S
-KMSP1825
-N0455F310 ODI J30 BRIBE BDF ENL PLESS J45 BNA ERLIN5 ATL
-KATL0155 KBHM
-REG/N9337)

This manual and all of its contents are copyrighted under international laws.
Modification, duplication or partial or total uses are prohibited.

Microsoft ®, Microsoft ® Flight Simulator ® 2004, Microsoft ® Flight Simulator ® X
are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

1. - GROUND PREPARATION

Cold and Dark
Let’s imagine that is the first flight of the day and the aircraft went overnight on the gate. The airline
personnel have performed the overnight inspection and you’re the first crew of the day.
Normally the Captain of the first officer performs the walk around, because you are on the flight
simulator, let’s assume that your first officer already done it.

So let’s advocate to the cockpit preparation.

CIRCUIT BRAKERS CHECKED

FLIGHT DIRECTOR EQUIPMENT CHECKED

GEAR HANDLE CHECK DOWN
Check gear handle is down to avoid retraction when the system powers up

Overhead Panel
BATTERY SWITCH ON

The Aircraft needs the essential power, so the battery must be turned on. After this, the APU can be
started or GPU can be connected.

FIRE TEST CKECKED
A Fire test must be performed before doing anything else. It’s located on the center panel below the
glare shield.

Press the TEST SWITCHES The ENG FIRE Lights in both handle
simultaneously and hold. should be ignited.

An Aural warning will sound
MASTER WARNING LIGHTS in the
glare shield should be ignited too.

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

APU FIRE (RED) and FIRE DETECTOR
LOOP (Amber) Should Ignite.

Once the FIRE TEST has been performed and we have confirmed that there is no fire on board, we
can proceed to energize the aircraft. We in this flight we used the External Power to provide the
energy, however we will show both procedures displaying first the use of the APU, because it is the
most common source of ground energy.

BEFORE START GROUND START ONLY
1.- BATTERY …………ON 8.- START PUMP……………SET
The Switch battery must be in
ON. The selector must be in
BATT VOLT and verify that
Voltage be 25 or more.
CAUTION
If the voltage of the battery is
less than 25 volts, the battery
switch must be off and the
batteries must be replaced.
START
1.- MASTER SWITCH…………..START
Release to RUN with increase of the
RPM
2.-APU OIL PRESS LOW LT……OFF
At approximately 35% of RPM
2.- FIRE CONT……………………..NORMAL
3.- APU (DOORS)………………….AUTO 3.-After increase of the EGT, Observe
4. - AIR……………………………… OFF the EGT limits and APU RPM
5.-MASTER…………………..........OFF

AFTER START (GROUND ONLY)
1.- START PUMP after have pressure
of the AC from the tanks……OFF
2.- PNEU PRESS if it doesn’t use
external pneumatic source or the
engines are not running……..ZERO
6.- APU OIL TEMP HI Light………OFF 3.- AIR……………………….As required
7. - APU OIL PRESS LOW Light… OFF
4.- PNEU PRESS if applicable Normal
Range.
NOTE: To keep the APU operation the
battery must be set in on.

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

Electric Energizing with APU
BATTERY……………………………………ON
DC and AC EMER BUS OFF……………..ON

APU BUS TIE L & R…..SET(once at a
time)
APU PWR AVAIL Light……………………ON The APU IN USE lights should ignite
Note: It could be necessary move the APU The following lights should be turn off
GEN momentarily to RESET.
L AC BUS OFF
R AC BUS OFF
AC EMER BUS OFF
DC EMER BUS OFF
DC BUS OFF
The APU LOAD indicator should show
some charge.
The DC LOAD indicator should show some
charge.
All the bars are now energized.
check the battery is being charging

INDICATOR
SELECTOR……………...APU VOLT/FREQ
The voltage should display approximately
115 volts and the Frequency should be 400
Cps
INDICATOR
SELECTOR……………...BATT AMP
The reading should be from zero to 65
amps. To the left or right, could be fixed or
pulsating, depending of the battery charger
operation.

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

Electric Energizing with External Power
BATTERY…………………………….……..ON
DC TRANSFER BUS OFF Light………….ON
DC and AC EMER BUS OFF……………..ON

EXT PWR BUS TIE L & R…..SET(once at a
time)
The EXT PWR IN USE lights should ignite
Connect the External Power on the MODs The following lights should be turn off
Panel.
L AC BUS OFF
R AC BUS OFF
AC EMER BUS OFF
DC EMER BUS OFF
DC BUS OFF
The DC LOAD indicator should show some
charge.
All the bars are now energized.
check the battery is being charging
GPU PWR AVAIL Light……………………ON

INDICATOR
SELECTOR……………...BATT AMP
The reading should be from zero to 65
amps. To the left or right, could be fixed or
INDICATOR pulsating, depending of the battery charger
SELECTOR…………EXT PWR VOLT/FREQ operation.

The voltage should display approximately
115 volts and the Frequency should be 400
Cps

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

ELECTRICAL POWER ON&CHECK

ELECTRICAL PANEL SWITCHES ALL DOWN
AC BUS TIE and DC BUS TIE should be in down position (AUTO and OPEN) respectively)

EMER PWR OFF

EMERGENCY LIGHTS CHECK & ARMED

ICE PROTECTION
Located in the Overhead panel in the ICE PROTECT section (Above annunciator) Contains PITOT-
PROBE-RAT-AIR FOIL, WINDSHIEDL, TAIL and ENGINE L & R
Engine Ice protections must be set when it has or is expecting ice conditions. It should be used
Engine ice protection during operations in ground, when the ambient temperature is below 42°F and
have visible humidity in the air; or when the ambient temperature (RAT o SAT) and the dew point
5°F is below from the other.

ANTISKID ARMED & CHECKED
Located in the Overhead Panel, Move the antiskid switch to the arm position.

OVERHEAD TEST CHECKED
Located in the overhead panel in the below right corner (WARN CAUTION LTS) Will perform a test
to all lights of the annunciator. Spring Loaded.

YAW DAMPER AS REQUIRED
Move the YAW DAMP Switch in the Overhead Panel.

GPWS CHECK

CABIN SIGNS SET
FASTEN SEAT BELTS and NO SMOKE sign. Both go ON during all phases of the flight.

FUEL PUMPS CHECKED & SET
LEFT AND RIGHT Forward and Aft Pumps must set in ON. Located in the OVERHEAD PANEL on
the FUEL section.

FLIGHT RECORDER & VOICE RECORDER CHECKED & SET

EXTERNAL LIGHTS SET
Almost all the light switches are located in the Glare shield. Except in the DC-9 21, 41 and 51,
which have the position-strobe and anti-collision lights in the overhead panel.

Cont next page…..

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

External light squeme POS/STROBE-ANTI
COLLISION LTS
DC-9 21, 41 and 51

Set:
POS/STROBE LTS Switch to POS
FLOOD LTS GRD/ WING/NACL to on position

AIR CONDITIONIG SET

Normal Ground Operation using the APU

Pressurization………………………………………….AUTO/VALVE OPEN

CABIN TEMPERATURE (75°F 24°C) OR MORE CABIN TEMPERATURE BELOW 75°F (24°C)
APU AIR…………………………….ON APU AIR…………………………….SET
PNEU CROSSFEED………………OPEN LEFT PNEU CROSSFEED……..………OPEN
AIR COND L & R…………………..AUTO LEFT AIR COND……..…………………..AUTO
PENU PRESS INDICATORS…….MONITOR TEMP SLECTORS……………………….AUTO
If pressure is less than 12 lbs/in, shut off right
Verify the air conditioning valve position in
air cond.
order to obtain the desired results.
When the cabin temperature is below than
75°F (24°C)
RIGHT AIR COND………………………..OFF
RIGHT PNEU CROSSFEED……………CLOSED

Cont next page…..

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

CABIN PRESSURE CONTROLLER SET
NOTE: The feet cabin altitude change (taken by
the controller) divided between the aircraft time
in ascend or descend minutes is equal to the
feet per minute rate of change.

3. - Adjust the RATE knob in the mark.

4. - Check the Cabin pressure control handle is
in automatic and the indicator is fully
1.- Adjust the Destination barometric or cruise backwards.
level Cabin pressure control, plus 1000ft in
the cabin pressure control. (Do not exceed
8400ft in the cabin scale).

2.-Calculate the cabin ascend rate.

AIR CONDITIONING AUTO SHUTOFF ARM
Leave the switch in the default position.

ANNUNCIATOR PANEL &LIGHTS CHECKED

RADIO EQUIPMENT CHECKED & SET

• Set VHF1 comm Radio. In this case first 120.8 to listen to the ATIS and to confirm important
information concerning your flight.
• Then set VHF1 to 133.2 to obtain ATC clearance
• Set VHF Nav Radios
We will use ZMBRO2 RWY 22 Departure which requires left turn at 8 DME till reach outbound
course 138 from MSP.
TUNE
NAV1: MSP 115.3,
NAV2: FOW 111.2
• Place RMI selector VOR/ADF to VOR1
Place RMI Selector VOR2/ADF2 to VOR2
• Check DMEs

TRANSPONDER CHECK & SET
After receiving ATC Clearance you will have assigned a Squawk number. Tune this code on the
transponder.

RUDDER POWER PWR
This corresponds to the full fwd position.

STABILIZER TRIM CHECKED
Check the free movement of the stabilizer trim in order to verify that it operates properly.

Cont next page…..

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

HYDRAULIC POWER CHECKED & SET

AUXILIARY HYDRAULIC PUMP OPERATION
Note: Low pressure lights must be ignited when the
pumps are off and the pressure has diminished.
QTY Indicators……………………………....UP RED ARC
AUX HYD PUMP………………...............OVERRIDE/ON
ALTERNATE………………………………………..……ON
R PRESS INDICATOR………………......Inside green arc
L PRESS INDICATOR…....................Minimum 1800 Lb/in
Left sys indicator varies between 1800 and 2500 lb/in
HYD PRESS LOW…………………………..……..CHECK
AUX, ALT HYD PUMPS………………….……………OFF

BEFORE START

AUX, ALT HYD PUMPS………………….……………OFF
L & R HYD PUMPS………………………………………HI

DURING ENGINE START
RESPECTIVE PRESS INDICATOR…....Inside green arc
QUANTITY INDICATORS……………….....UP RED ARC
(3.25 QT)
HYD PRESS LOW, HYD TEMP HI LTS.…..……..CHECK

LANDING GEAR LIGHTS & HORN CHECKED
Check 3 green lights

Brake Temperature CHECKED

AUTOPILOT SERVOS ON

TAKEOFF WARNING CHECKED
Perform a takeoff warning test, just move the throttles beyond the half of its run, the take off alarm
must sound.

ALTIMETER CHECKED & SET
In our last weather report says the altimeter is 29.66 so, we must adjust to this value using the
altimeter knob.

Cont next page…..

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

TRIM TABS SET
Check aileron, rudder and stabilizer trim tabs are centered.

AILERON
Needle in the center

RUDDER
Needle in the center

STABILIZER TRIM
Center at 0 (between
green and black range)

FUEL, OIL, HYD QTY CHECKED
Check the correct fuel qty in this case we are going to need 16932 LBS .
The oil and HYD quantity must be between green range.

APU ON & CHECKED

STABILIZER CHECKED & SET

Adjust the vertical stabilizer trim. In our flight we will
require 2.8 units.
This essential for takeoff, If the stabilizer is not
configured properly for takeoff, the TAKEOFF
Warning will sound and the aircraft will require many
more runway distance for lift off, in the case that the
aircraft can go airborne.

TAKEOFF DATA CHECKED & SET
We must check the takeoff data in order to get our takeoff speeds
Our Takeoff weight is about 100200 LBS so, our speeds will going to be:

TAKEOFF 100,000 LBS
FLAPS 0° 5° 15°
V1 143 130 120
VR 148 134 125
V2 155 142 133

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

EPR RAT/ BUGS SET & CHECKED

We must adjust the maximum power settings for takeoff. In order to do this, we have to check the
EPR-RA, located in the center instrument panel and observe the bugs, which will mark the OAT,
then locate the value in the left column, this will give us the EPR maximum takeoff power.
Then adjust the EPR bugs to this value in the EPR instruments, using the EPR knobs.

EPR Maximum value.
In this case, our outside
temperature is 22 celsius
and the value show us
1.95
EPR BUG’ s
Adjust to 1.95. This is
EPR RAT BUG
the maximum EPR
Takeoff thrust.

DEPARTURE CLEARANCE RECEIVED
We must get the ATC clearance for engine start and pushback.

DOOR, GROUND VEHICLES & CARGO DOORS CHECKED
Verify that all doors are closed and the space is clear for pushback and/or engine start. Without any
ground support equipment (except GPU and AIR STARTER if it is the case).

ANTICOLLISION LIGHT ON
We must advice to any ground personnel and vehicles that we are about to start engines and/or
pushback.
DC-9 10 and 30 The switch is located in the glare shield on the First officers panel.
DC-9 21, 41 & 51 Is located on the overhead panel below the pos/strobe lights.

2. - ENGINE START

START SEQUENCE
As we said before, we can use two different methods for engine ground start.

1. - USING APU.
The APU will provide Electric energy and Pneumatic pressure for the engines. We just need to have
engaged and fully operational the APU in order to the engines started

2. - USING EXTERNAL POWER
The GPU will provide enough electrical power for engine start but it will not provide pneumatic
pressure for that.
So, for engine start using external power we will have to get engaged the GPU and also we will
request the AIR STARTER.
We have to open the MODs Panel and engage the AIR START SWITCH (next to GPU)

Once we have engaged
the AIR STARTER. The
PNEUMATIC PRESS
INDICATOR
automatically will jump to
show the pressure value.
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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

START SEQUENCE
Before ENGINE START………………………….COMPLETE
IGNITION………………………………GRD START CONTIN
PREUMATIC CROSSFEED……………………………OPEN
PNEUMATIC PRESSURE……….Verified, 36 lb/In² or more
Minimum 26 lb/In², during Start
Cycle (1 lb/in² less per 1000ft
above sea level)
INLET FUEL PRES LOW lights………………………….OFF
START…...……………………………………..HOLD on GRD
START VALVE OPEN Light & Pneumatic pressure fall.
N2 RPM…………………..……Verified rotation inside 10 sec
OIL PRESURE…………………...………Rising inside 30 sec
N1 RPM………………………………………..Verified rotation
FUEL (At 15% of N2 Minimum, Desired 20%)………….SET
Initial Fuel Flow……………………800 Lb/Hr Approx.
CAUTION: A 1100 lb/hr or more fuel flow reading during
start sequence, is an imminent indication of hot start.
The fuel must be cute off before reaching this condition.
EGT…………………..Rising inside 20 sec
START SWITCH…………………..Released
After 30% and after 40% of N2:
START VALVE OPEN Lights……………………....…….OFF
Lights off and the pressure recovers.
OIL PRESS LOW Lights…………………………….…….OFF
Established at IDLE:
N2 52-62% RPM
EGT 300 – 480°C
F/F 800 -1100 Lb/Hr
IGNITION……………………………………………………OFF

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

3. - AFTER START
AIR CONDITIONING SET
Set CABIN/CKPT selectors in AUTO and the supply Switches AUTO.

APU SET OFF
After start we must shutdown the APU. This is the procedure:
APU AIR…………………..OFF
APU BUS TIE L & R…….OFF
MASTER APU……………OFF
After 1 minute, verify RPM begin to fall to zero.

ICE PROTECTION & FUEL HEAT As required

PNEUMATIC CROSSFEED SET
Leave the handles in open.

ANNUNCIATOR panel Lights CHECK

CLEAR SIGNAL RECEIVED
From ground personnel.

TAXI LIGHTS SET
Turn on the Taxi lights

FLAPS & SLATS SET FOR TAKEOFF
Select the desired flap/Slats position. In this case 15°/SLATS Extended
Normal take off positions are:
0°/SLATS Extended
5°/SLATS Extended
15°/SLATS Extended

FLIGHT CONTROLS CHECKED
Perform a Flight controls test.
Move the control column full aft and fwd. Check the full movement of the elevator.
Move Yoke full left and then full right. Check the free movement of the ailerons and spoilers
Move the Pedals full left and then full right. Check the free movement of the Rudder.

HYDRAULIC PRESSURE & PUMPS CHECKED & ON
Check the L & R pumps are in Hi. Verify the pressure is in Hi pressure range. (Between
3100 and 2800 lb/In²)

CABIN SIGNS CHECKED
Verify FASTEN SEAT BELTS and NO SMOKE signs are ON.

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

4. - TAXI
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS CHECKED
Check all your flight instruments operate properly.

BRAKES SELECTOR SET
Check the Brake selector is in both.

TRANSPONDER SET
Set the transponder code.

FLAPS & SLATS 0/5/15 SET & CHECKED

TAXI - TAKEOFF INMINENT
STROBES ON

LANDING LIGHT EXT & ON
Extend and turn on the Landing lights.

5. - TAKEOFF

Advance the throttles smoothly to the half and wait to EPR stabilizes on 1.4 EPR’s, then move
forward the throttles until reach the Maximum EPR Takeoff power. In our case 1.95 EPRs.

V1
We make a cross check and everything goes normal so continue the takeoff.

Vr
Smoothly pull the control column till reach a 8° nose up, wait the VSI and altimeter comes alive.

V2

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

5.1. - POSITIVE RATE OF CLIMB

LANDING GEAR UP

LANDING LIGHTS RET & OFF

ALTIMETERS CHECKED
Check the altimeters and rate of climb. Passing 18,000ft adjust to 29.92 or 1013.2 Hpa.

CABIN PRESSURE CHECKED
Check the Out flow valve indicator is open and the aircraft is being pressurized properly.

FLAPS & SLATS RETRACT
Commence retracting FLAPS and SLATS

Retract to:
5°/SLATS Extended at 168 IAS
The continue retracting to:
0°/SLATS Extended at 177 IAS
The continue retracting to:
0°/SLATS Retracted at 189 IAS

6. - CLIMB
CLIMB THRUST
Adjust the climb thrust using the same method with the EPR-RAT, but now using the right column to
obtain the corresponding EPR value. Then adjust the EPR bugs on the EPR indicator. Then adjust
the thrust.

EPR Maximum value.
Outside temperature is
10 celsius and the value
show us 1.85
EPR BUG’ s
Adjust to 1.85. This is the
maximum EPR climb thrust.

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

6.1.-DEPARTING
We depart with RWY heading until 6mn climbing to 3,500 ft as published. At 6mn we make a left
turn to couple to the 8Dme Arc with 200 IAS

HYDRAULIC PUMPS SET
Once we have cleaned the aircraft and FLAPS/Slats are no longer necessary we must adjust the L
& R Hydraulic pumps to LOW PRESSURE.

IGNITION SET

8DME ARC
We’ve continued the 8 Dme Arc until the CDI bar comes alive, then we make a left turn until couple
to the Outbound course 138.

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

ALTITUDE ALERT
As we are established in 138 outbound heading, we’ve been cleared to 15,000 ft so we have
adjusted the altitude alert at this value.

EXTERNAL LIGHTS SET
Passing 10,000 ft we must turn off the WING/NACL and FLOOD Lights.
.

AUTOPILOT ENGAGED
Now that we have configured the aircraft in a climb attitude, we can proceed to engage the
autopilot. (Normally never below 1000ft above ground level)
Adjust and leave the Pitch selector in VERT SPEED, adjust the VERT SPEED until reach desired
climb rate.
In this flight we decided to use a initial climb rate of 2,800 Ft/m, but as we are gaining altitude this
value has to be constantly changed in order to not lose speed. Finally, when we are about 3000ft
from our target altitude, this value should not be more than 500 ft/m.

JADET
At 34 Dme from MSP and in 239 QDM we are in JADET FIX so we have to adjust our heading at
121 so, we make a left turn until reach heading 121.

Cont Next Page……

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

CLEARED TO CRUISE LEVEL
The ATC has cleared us to climb to 31,000ft. So we must adjust our ALTITUDE ALERT to
31,000FT

LATERAL NAVIGATION
We decide to fly VOR to VOR route, so we have to select in the NAV SELECTOR the VOR/LOC
mode.

However we can fly using a preloaded GPS-Flight plan. If you want to do it in that way, you must
adjust the NAV SELECTOR in DOP position. In this mode the autopilot will engage automatically
the GPS LOC MODE and will follow the GPS- Flight Plan. If you want to disengage, fly manually or
select another Lateral Navigation mode, you will just have to select TURN KNOB, NAV/LOC or
HDG SEL.

TRANSITION ALTITUDE
Once we pass the transition altitude, we must to adjust our altimeter to 29.92 Inhg

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

7. - CRUISE
Once we are established on Cruise the aircraft will continue gaining speed, if we keep maintaining
the EPR maximum Climb thrust (which varies with the altitude).
Our target speed is MACH .76 so we will keep adjusting the Throttles until we hold this speed.

PRESSURIZATION
Also when we are leveled we take a look to the pressurization system, in order to check that we
have the desired altitude cabin pressure.

We see that everything is alright, our cabin altitude pressure reading, concords with the airplane
altitude and the differential pressure is below limits.

ICE CONDITIONS
At 31,000 ft we’ve encounter ice conditions so, we have to turn on the ice protect systems before
ice formation begins.

ENG ANTI ICE SET

AIR FOIL SET

FUEL HEAT SET

In the annunciator all the ice protection system must illuminate in color blue.

The cruise transcurs without notice, we continuing navigating vor to vor, however we are reaching
ROME VOR (RMG) and the ATC instruct us to cross ERLIN to 18,000 so we are approved to leave
310 level to 18000.

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

8. - DESCENT
As ATC instructions, we must cross ERLIN at 18,000ft so, we adjust our altitude alert at this altitude

We adjust the VERT SPEED wheel and we pulled back a little bit the throttles, in order to maintain
280 IAS. Begin to descend with a rate of -2500 Ft/m/

IGNITION ON

PRESSURIZATION SET
As we are descending we need to adjust the cabin pressure controller to 18,000ft. The system (as
we have it in AUTO) will begin to decrease the cabin altitude. Also as we are making a stepped
descent we will have to constantly adjust the cabin pressure.

EPR BUGS SET
Set EPR bugs to MCT.

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

HYDRAULIC PUMPS & Pressure HIGH/ON & Checked
Set Hydraulic Pumps to HIGH and check the pressure is no less than 2800 psi/in

LANDING WEIGHT & DATA Checked
We check which is going to be our expected landing weight with this we can know the approach
speed
Our estimated landing weight is 87000 lbs so we must check our landing speeds

LANDING 88,000LBS
VHOLD 201 211 221
Clean……….201 GO AROUND
0……………...166 V2 5 …………...166
VP 5……………...155 VFI up….………..155
15……………142 VSI in…………...142
25……………138 Vclean…….....…138
VA 25……………130
FLAPS 50° 40° 25°
VA 125 130 130

VTH 120 125 129

CABIN SIGNS SET
Set FASTEN SEAT BELTS and NO SMOKE sign on.

FUEL SUPPLY, PUMPS CHECKED & SET
Check the fuel supply which is delivered to each engine and verify that is the correct value. FWD
and AFT fuel pumas must be ON.

FUEL HEAT SET

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

As required the FUEL HEAT must be on in ICE formation conditions or during very low
temperatures.

CABIN PRESSURE CHECKED
Also when we are leveled we take a look to the pressurization system, in order to check that we
have the correct altitude cabin pressure.

BEFORE DALAS

Continuing our descend we are about to pass ERLIN, the ATC instruct us to continue descending
and cross DALAS at 12,000.
We have to adjust again the pressurization panel.

8.1-PASSING TRANSITION ALTITUDE
ALTIMETER Set InHG or hPa
We have received the last altimeter from the ATC which is 29.99 InHG or 1016 hPa, we must adjust
eh altimeter to this value.

ENGINE ANTI ICE SET
Set the Engine anti ice in case that you need it, in this flight it wasn’t necessary.

NAVAIDS SET
From the ATIS, and last weather report provided by the ATC we know that the RWY in use is the 26
and 27.
So we know the navigation aids that we are going to use.
NAV 1 116.9 ATL Vor until we are cleared to intercept localizer of the RWY 26L

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

NAV 1 108.7 Once we are cleared to intercept localizer.

NAV2 116.9 ATL Vor, this will help us to give reference in all moments about our position with
respect of the station.

9. - APPROACH
-ENTERING ATLANTA TMA
PASSING 10,000FT
EXTERNAL LIGHTS SET
Passing 10,000 ft we must turn on the WING/NACL and FLOOD Lights.

From DALAS we have been instructed to continue flying to STUTZ and cross it at 8000 ft with 220
IAS. We need to make the adjustments again to the Cabin pressure controller.

We pulled back the Throttles to reduce the speed until reach 220 IAS.

STUTZ
From STUTZ the ATC vector us to fly to JUDYY heading 092 reducing to 200 IAS, descending to
6000ft.

JUDYY
From JUDYY the ATC indicate us to fly direct to TUCKR heading 122 reducing to 180 and
descending to 3500 ft. Once again we adjust the Cabin pressure controller, but this time we adjust
the cabin altitude to the Airport Elevation

NEAR TUCKR
With 190 IAS
SLATS EXTENDED

TUCKR to FABPRO
We have crossed TUCKR, the ATC indicate us to fly to FABPRO and clear us to intercept the
localizer of the RWY 26L. Reducing to 160 IAS.

Now we tune the NAV1 to 108.70 Mhz and adjust the course to 273.

178 IAS FLAPS 5

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

RADIO ALTIMETER & DH SET
Adjust the Decision height in the radio altimeter. We will use 280 Ft AGL

At 170 IAS Extend Landing gear

Be aware the landing gear and the flaps will generate a considerably amount of drag, so in
order to avoid an a STALL condition, keep monitoring the speed and make the adjustment
on the Throttles.

162 IAS FLAPS 15

TUCKR
Over TUCKR we are now established on the localizer at 160 IAS. ATC indicate us to continue
approach and we must advice runway in sight.

SPOILERS ARM

As we continuing reducing speed, the airplane will tend to increase the descend rate, our typical
reaction is to pull the nose up, however the technique is to use the Elevator trim and make constant
adjustments to the trim, in order to maintain the nose, about 6 degrees pitch up and about -700 ft/m
of descent rate.
Use much trim as you require, the idea is that you don’t come pulling the aircraft. Once you have
the correct elevator trim amount, if you should release the controls, the aircraft should maintain the
correct attitude, with the desired descent rate.

154 IAS FLAPS 25

We continue reducing until 143 IAS then we extend FLAPS to 40.

Report Runway insight.

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

9.1. - CLEARED TO LAND

The ATC cleared us to land, wind from 228 degrees with 15 knots gusting to 22.

LANDING LIGHT EXT & ON
Extend and turn on the Landing lights.

After extending landing lights and having the aircraft in a proper landing configuration continue to
the approach speed 132 IAS.

As we have a little cross wind, we have to make some corrections, the flight technique indicate us
that the Aileron needs to go to the wind direction and the Rudder against it. This will put the aircraft
in a “Crab style” position. This is normal for this kind of situation.

We heard the GPWS callouts

FIVE HUNDRED………………………………………………………………. CHECKED

THREE HUNDRED…………………………………………………………….CHECKED

MINIMUMS
When you reach the decision height, it will sound “MINIMUMS” This is the moment to GO AROUND
if your approach is unstable or there is something that could put your aircraft in dangerous situation.
I.E. Other traffics, Birds, Weather, or simply, you don’t feel confident enough to continue approach.

ONE HUNDRED………………………………………………………………. CHECKED

FIFTY……………..……………………………………………………………. CHECKED

THIRTY………………………………………………………………………….CHECKED

TEN…………………………………………..…………………………………. CHECKED

FLARE!!!
Pull the Aircraft a little bit and pullback the throttles the aircraft it would put smoothly in the runway.

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

Once we are on the ground the spoilers will extend automatically, we hear the sound of the spoilers
handle “pulling back”. We apply the reverse thrust until 80 IAS, then push the throttles to idle
position. Just on 80 IAS and in just this speed, you can apply directly the wheel brakes.

10.-AFTER LANDING

We let the aircraft reduce speed and we’re directing to leave the runway via E7 to the apron.

SPOILERS Retracted
Retract the spoilers or leave and when you advance the throttles, the spoilers automatically will
retract.

FLAPS SET
Normally, the flaps are retracted entering the taxiway.

IGNITION OFF

AIRCONDITIONING SET
Adjust the cabin temperature to the airport temperature to avoid a shock to the passengers.

RADAR STBY

LANDING LIGHT EXT & OFF
Let the Landing Lights extended but turn it off, this will let the light cools down.

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

11. - ENTERING APRON
APU AS REQUIRED
Depends of the company politics, many companies due a fuel crisis, are establishing politics that
the APU should not be used on destination which has enough ground equipment, instead they
prefer to use the External Power units and Air Starters. So, in this case we will not start the APU.

AIRCONDITIONING R OFF
Right PACK should be turned off.

FLAPS & SLATS UP & RETRACTED
Verify the Slats and Flaps are completely retracted.

12. - PARKING
Once the marshaller give us the signal of stop:

PARKING BRAKES SET
We wait until the marshaller give us the signal of GPU is connected. (You should activate the GPU)

Once the EXT PWR AVAIL light is on:

ENGINES SHUT DOWN

We make the same procedure mentioned before “Electric Energizing with External Power” in
order to energize the aircraft.

ANTI-COLLISION LIGHT OFF
Turn off the Beacon light just then, the ground personnel will entry to the safety area of the aircraft
and will set the CHOCKS, CONES and the ground equipment will couple.

CHOCKS SET PARKING BRAKES OFF

PNEUMATIC CROSSFEED OPEN

AIRCONDITIONING SET
If APU or Pneumatic supply is available.

CABIN SIGNS SET
NON SMOKE sign let it ON and SEAT BELTS turn it off.

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

LIGHTS RETRACTED & SET
Retract the Landing Lights and let the WING/NACL and flood lights on.

ALT & AUX HYD PUMPS CHECK OFF

EMERGENCY LIGHTS OFF.

Now we are ready to disembark the passengers, open the Main Door and Cargo Doors. If required,
extend the Rear Stairs.

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

13. - SUPPLEMENTARY PROCEDURES
13.1.-FUEL BALANCING
In certain situations the aircraft can spend more fuel from one tank than the other. The maximum
admissible unbalance is 500Lbs per tank, but when is greater it is needed to balance the fuel tanks
in order to make safer the operation of the aircraft.

This is an example of how to balance the fuel tanks

We are in flight at FL 290 at .76 mach speed and we are seeing the right engine have spent more
fuel than the left one. And it has passed the maximum unbalance so, is necessary to take correction
action before this situation can take more effect in our approach.

The left tank contains
around 4517Lbs
meanwhile the right has
3676Lbs. The Center is
almost empty.

FIG1

The procedure is the following:

TANK which supplies Determinate
We know the right tank contains more fuel than the left tank. So this is the tank which will supply
fuel.

CROSSFEED HANDLE OPEN

FUEL TANK PUMPS (Which supplies) SET

Remaining FUEL TANKs pumps OFF

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

Watch the fuel tanks indicator. When it has the desired quantity:

FUEL PUMPS Both tanks SET

CROSSFEED HANDLE CLOSED

NOTE: Be aware to follow the exact sequence otherwise, if you shut off the Fuel pumps from the
tank that will receive the fuel, it will shut off their respective engine as well.

13.2. - ONE ENGINE OUT & IN FLIGHT RESTART
If we have IN FLIGHT an engine flame out, we have to take immediately actions, before the
respective generator of the engine that is being shut down loses its power. Otherwise the Autopilot
will disengage. Of course the engine driven Hydraulic Pump will lose power too.

PREVENTING CONSEQUENCES
In order to prevent an autopilot disengage and overload the remaining generator, which results in
other systems shutdown, we must close the DC BUS TIE in order to feed the line that is being
losing power.

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

13.2.1. - INFLIGHT RESTART
Once we have prevented consequences after being lost an engine and we assure that the
shutdown of the engine is not due a mechanical, fire or something that can generate bigger
consequences. We can begin to try restarting the engine.

DC BUS TIE CLOSED

START PUMP ON

IGNITION ON

PNEUMATIC CROSSEED OPEN

PNEUMATIC PRESSURE Verified, 36 lb/In² or more minimum
26 lb/In², during Start Cycle (1
lb/in² less per 1000ft ASL)

NOTE: If there less PNEU pressure we will going to need to shut off one PACK in order to recover a
pneumatic pressure.

INLET FUEL PRES LOW lights OFF

START HOLD on GRD

START VALVE OPEN Light & Pneumatic pressure fall.
N2 RPM Verified rotation inside 10 sec
OIL PRESURE Rising inside 30 sec
N1 RPM Verified rotation
FUEL (At 15% of N2 Minimum, Desired 20%) SET
Initial Fuel Flow 800 Lb/Hr Approx.

CAUTION: A 1100 lb/hr or more fuel flow reading during start sequence, is an imminent indication
of hot start. The fuel must be cutted off before reaching this condition.

EGT Rising inside 20 sec

START SWITCH Released
After 30% and after 40% of N2:

START VALVE OPEN Lights OFF
Lights off and the pressure recovers.

OIL PRESS LOW Lights OFF
Established at IDLE:
N2 52-62% RPM
EGT 300 – 480°C
F/F 800 -1100 Lb/Hr
IGNITION OFF

START PUMP ON

DC BUS TIE CLOSED

Keep monitoring the engine and its operation.

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

13.3.-ONE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM OFF

Our best efforts could not make operates again the flamed out engine so, we will have to proceed
with one engine, the remaining route. For this we have to descend to a flight level or altitude, which
allow us to maintain a safety speed.

The problem is: with one engine we have the half of the Hydraulic system and this is not enough to
operate all the hydraulic systems. In fact flaps, slats, brakes etc operates with its respective
hydraulic line.
Which means: the engine one, feeds the left system and the engine 2, the right system. Lets
imagine that in our situation; we’ve lost the right engine so, the right flaps, slats, brakes, etc are
inoperative

This how it would looks the HYD Panel

FEEDING THE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Low pressure light must be ignited when there is no hydraulic pressure on its respective system

QTY Indicators UP RED ARC
OPERATING HYDRAULIC SYSTEM PUMP HIGH

AUX HYD PUMP OVERRIDE/ON

ALTERNATE ON
R PRESS INDICATOR Inside green arc

L PRESS INDICATOR More than 2800 Lb/in
HYD PRESS LOW Lights CHECK goes off

This action will powers the right hydraulic system and will allow us to operate FLAPS, SPOILERS,
LANDING GEAR, BRAKES, etc normally. You just will have worry to land the aircraft with one
engine out. But for this there is its respective procedure.

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DC-9 FLIGHT TECHNIQUE MANUAL

Greetings

Sky Simulations would like to thank the support, effort of all the people that help or
contribute in any way on the development of this product.

We also like to thank to all of our customers for helping us increase realism and
professionalism of our products and our company, without you we are nothing.

The information contained on this manual should not be altered in any way.

COPYRIGHT © 2009 
SKY SIMULATIONS ® 
All Rights Reserved MMIX 
www.skysimulations.com 

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