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OPERATIONS MANUAL

DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

Table of contents

INTRODUCTION 3

CHAPTER 1 – AIRPLANE IN GENERAL 5

CHAPTER 2 – AIR CONDITIONING AND PRESSURIZATION 25

CHAPTER 3 – FUEL 31

CHAPTER 4 – COMUNICATIONS 36

CHAPTER 5 – FLIGHT CONTROLS 39

CHAPTER 6 – ELECTRIC 47

CHAPTER 7 – HYDRAULIC 53

CHAPTER 8 – INSTRUMENTS AND NAVIGATION 57

CHAPTER 9 – ENGINES 67

CHAPTER 10 – PNEUMATIC 73

CHAPTER 11 – AUXILIARY POWER PLANT 77

CHAPTER 12 – ICE & RAIN PROTECT 80

CHAPTER 13 – FIRE PROTECTION 84

CHAPTER 14 – LANDING GEAR 87

CHAPTER 15 – AUTOMATIC FLIGHT 97

GREETINGS 105

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

INTRODUCTION

Welcome to the second airliner simulation of Sky Simulations.
This product is a State of art replica of the original one. More than 24 months have
taken to develop this product.

The developers have many years of experience on designing and programming in
the FS environment. Many products are; in which they have worked in the past,
such products have gained world recognition, due to its quality, performance and to
the realism that represents with the real airplane.
Now these developers have joined forces to create a whole new company, SKY
Simulations.

Sky Simulation's policy is Quality and Professionalism no matter what. This policy
starts to reflect on what will be a huge gamma of products focused on how far the
professional hobbyist wants to take the hobby. Our first release the Mc Donnell
Douglas DC-9 shows the policy of this company and the public that will be focused
to. This product has and endless list of qualities that will make it unique among the
followers of MD, which will enjoy while flying or just having fun with it.

This simulation product took around eighteen months of research, development
and testing, involving many people related to aeronautics, those people are experts
or users of this aircraft; such as mechanics, pilots and ground personnel all of them
part of airline which currently operates this aircraft.

On the part of Sky simulations team we want to thank you for your purchase, we
are certain that you will enjoy this product due to the innovated technology created
and implemented since the project was born. It’s a perfect replica of the external
model to the highest depth in realism while in the Virtual cockpit. All of this takes
the user to another level of realism without precedents. We suggest you to take the
time to immerse explore and feel the endless numbers of details, characteristics
and functions on the Instruments panel, Virtual cockpit, the Aircraft itself and the
environment.

PRODUCT SUPPORT

We at Sky simulations are committed with our customers, however we’ve found
during all of these years, that many support issues can be solved or answered by
reading this manual, this will avoid and prevent our valued customers a loss of time
while trying to reach support team.

So before anything else please read this manual from the beginning to its end.

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

If you still have questions or require further help, we will be glad to assist you,
product support is available through our website, you just require you register and
enter in the support area.
The most common questions, doubts or issues will be published on the “FAQ’s”
section of our website which will be updated frequently.

About his manual

This manual is intended for flight simulation purposes only, and should not be used
for training or real life operations.

This manual is provided for entertainment purposes only as required by Microsoft
Flight Simulator 2004 and/or Microsoft Flight simulator X

This manual was compiled for use with Sky Simulations DC-9 only.

Please take the time to read this manual entirely; by reading it completely you will
be well enabled and ready to operate the Sky Simulations DC-9. This will avoid
unnecessary support questions, and will let the user enjoy at maximum the Sky
Simulations DC-9.

This manual and all of its contents are copyrighted under international laws.
Modification, duplication or partial or total uses are prohibited.

Microsoft ®, Microsoft ® Flight Simulator ® 2004, Microsoft ® Flight Simulator ® X
are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

FLIGHT MANUAL
CHAPTER 1

AIRPLANE IN GENERAL

GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
FUSELAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
WING GROUP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
TAIL GROUP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
TAIL CONE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
ENGINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
AUXILIAR POWER UNIT (APU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
SIMICONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
FLIGHT DECK ARRANGEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
OVERHEAD PANEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
GLARESHIELD AND UPPER INSTRUMENT PANEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
CAPTAIN INSTRUMENT PANEL 2D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
FIRST OFFICER INSTRUMENT PANEL 2D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
CENTER INSTRUMENT PANEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
CONTROL STAND PANEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
PEDESTAL PANEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
PASSENGER, CARGO, COCKPIT DOORS &
MISCELLANEOUS CONTROLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
PASSENGER, CARGO AND COCKPIT DOORS INDICATORS . . . . . . . . . . . 20
ANNUNCIATOR PANEL & MASTER WARNING AND CAUTION LIGHTS . . 21
ILLUMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
EXTERIOR LIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
CABIN CONTROLS AND INDICATORS EXTERIOR LIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

GENERAL

This chapter has been prepared to provide to the flight crew, general information
about the airplane not covered in other chapters of this manual.

This Airplane has two turbofans engines, mounted in the rear part and is designed
to provide an effective and reliable operation in the transportation of passengers
and cargo. The simplicity of its design allows to an efficient operation with a crew of
5: Captain, First officer and 3 flight attendants.

The incorporation of an auxiliary power plant (APU) and front stairs, facilitates the
starting of engines and embarks and disembarks of the passengers in airports
equipped with minimum ground equipment. The points on watch can be reached
without the use of stairs or platforms, and the cargo can be packed with no need of
special equipment, which is in a time from I journey reduced.

FUSELAGE

The fuselage is totally metallic and consists of a nose section, a central section and
a section of tail.
In the nose section there is the radar, flight deck, nose gear well and two
pressurized compartments which are the forward accessory compartment and the
electrical compartment. The forward accessory compartment is located above the
floor level and contains part of the electrical equipment.
The electrical compartment is located between the wheel well and forward cargo
compartment. This compartment contains the electrical equipment and is cooled
with the air coming from the flight deck.

The central section is formed by passenger cabin, the forward and rear cargo
compartments and accessories compartments of the main landing gear.

The two cargo compartments are located beneath the passenger cabin floor.
Both compartments are pressurized and warm. The forward compartment is
adapted to transport living animals.

The main gear wells are located in the inferior segment of the fuselage beneath the
wing center section. Besides lodging the main undercarriage when is retracted, the
wells have the hydraulic system components such as the hydraulic liquid tank, etc.

In the tail section which is behind pressure dome, is located the aft electronic
compartment. On this compartment is installed the air conditioning besides engine
fire extinguishers.

Although the flight compartment and the passengers compartment.

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

The fuselage contains: the pit of the nose train, the front accessories compartment,
the electronic compartment, cargo compartment; forward and buttock, accessories
compartment in the pit of the main undercarriage and a compartment of air
conditioned and accessories, in the tail section, behind the pressure dome.

All the external doors and emergency exits, with exception of the front door stairs,
are of the cork type and sealed to pressure.

WING GROUP

The wing is metallic, of the cantilever type, mounted in the inferior part of the
fuselage. The wing incorporates slats, ailerons, spoilers, flaps, fuel tanks, and the
structure to support the undercarriage.

The aileron system and the trim tab provide lateral control and trim of the airplane
by the aileron operated aerodynamically. A cable system connects the ailerons and
move one aileron, aerodynamically or manually, the other aileron moves in an
opposite direction.
The aileron system provides the entry to the spoilers, which are actuated
hydraulically to help in lateral control.

There are two spoilers on each wing and are operated hydraulically and provide
help to lateral control also as speed brake. Both surfaces are used as ground
spoilers.

TAIL GROUP

The tail group consists in vertical stabilizer, horizontal stabilizer, two elevators and
a rudder. The vertical stabilizer is mounted in the rear part of the fuselage and the
horizontal stabilizer is mounted in the superior part of vertical stabilizer.
And it has a negative dihedral angle of 3 degrees which object is to retain the
aerodynamic characteristics.

The rudder and the elevator are mounted in the vertical and horizontal stabilizer
respectively.

The leading edge of the horizontal stabilizer is warmed when required for the
deicing process. The vertical stabilizer is cantilever type with sweep angle.
One air intake for the air conditioning system is located in the lower part of the
leading edge of the vertical stabilizer.

The longitudinal trim control system is a system actuated electrically, which
controls the movement of the horizontal stabilizer to provide longitudinal trim. The
system is controlled electrically from the flight deck. This system consists in a
primary system and an alternate system.

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

The elevators are actuated aerodynamically by the tabs controlled mechanically, to
control the airplane longitudinally during the normal flight. Also an augmentation
system operated by hydraulic energy is provided to operate the elevators to the
down position if only requires 10 or more degrees of upwards trim.

The rudder is operated hydraulically; however, if the hydraulic pressure falls below
operational pressure, the system automatically goes back to manual operation.

TAIL CONE

The tail cone is located in rear section of the fuselage and it is jettisoneable.
A door mounted in the inferior portion of the fuselage in front of the tail cone, allows
the access from the outside to the back compartment of accessories, without
coming off the cone tail.

ENGINES

The aircraft is propelled by two PRATT & WHITNEY JT8D – (Series), axial flow
turbofan. Besides propel the airplane, the engines provide pneumatic energy for
the pressurization, air conditioning, anti ice and deice. The engines are protected
by a fire extinguisher system.

AUXILIAR POWER UNIT (APU)

The APU is a gas turbine and a compressor that can supply electric energy and
pneumatic for ground operations, and electric energy in flight.
The APU is located in the aft accessory compartment and is surrounded by a fire
proof cover.

SYSTEMS

Besides the aircraft counts with the next systems: Air conditioning and
pressurization, Fuel, Communications, Electric, Hydraulic, Instruments and
Navigation, Pneumatic, Ice rain protection, Fire protection, Landing Gear and
brakes and automatic flight.

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

AIRPLANE IN GENERAL - SIMICONS

Simicons

The first three icons from top to bottom are standard MSFS Simicons

1. - ATC Icon
2. - Map Icon
3. - GPS Icon
4. - Throttle Quadrant
5. - Pedestal (Radios and Autopilot)
6. - Overhead Panel
7. - External Function Panel
8. - Left BWD Passenger Window (FS2004 Only)
9. - Right BWD Passenger Window (FS2004 Only)
10. - Left FWD Passenger Window (FS2004 Only)
11. - Right FWD Passenger Window (FS2004 Only)

*Note: The Passengers Views has been substituted on FS-X for Camera Views;
you just have to scroll between the different cameras on the aircraft. Or in the
Views\Aircraft Menu select one of the Passengers view and navigate with the “A”
Key.

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

AIRPLANE IN GENERAL - FLIGHT DECK ARRANGEMENT

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

AIRPLANE IN GENERAL - OVERHEAD PANEL

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AIRPLANE IN GENERAL - GLARESHIELD AND UPPER INSTRUMENT PANEL

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OPERATIONS MANUAL

GALRESHIELD DC – 9 SERIES 10’s and SERIES 30’s
GLARESHIELD DC – 9 SERIES 21, 41, and 51
DC-9
UPPER INSTRUMENT PANEL ALL SERIES
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

AIRPLANE IN GENERAL - CAPTAIN INSTRUMENT PANEL

DC- 9 Series 10’s and 30’s

DC- 9 Series 21, 41 and 51

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

AIRPLANE IN GENERAL - FIRST OFFICER INSTRUMENT PANEL

DC- 9 All Series

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

AIRPLANE IN GENERAL - CENTER INSTRUMENT PANEL

DC- 9 Series 10’s and 30’s

DC- 9 Series 21, 41 and 51’s

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

AIRPLANE IN GENERAL - CONTROL STAND PANEL

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

AIRPLANE IN GENERAL - PEDESTAL PANEL

DC-9 Series 10’s and 30’s

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

AIRPLANE IN GENERAL - PEDESTAL PANEL

DC-9 Series 21, 41 and 51

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

AIRPLANE IN GENERAL - PASSENGER, CARGO, COCKPIT DOORS AND
MISCELLANEOUS CONTROLS.

MAIN DOOR SWITCH FWD STAIRS SWITCH AFT DOOR & STAIRS CARGO DOOR SWITCH
Control the main door Control the forward stairs SWITCH Controls the Fwd & AFT
aperture. Controls the rear stairs & Cargo Doors
DOWN – Extends door DOWN – FWD & AFT
DOWN - Main Door is forward stairs. DOWN – Cockpit door is are open
Open open.
. Not avail in Dc 9-10’s

GROUND SERVICE
SWITCH
Controls the service
ground support vehicles
(Catering, Loaders and CKPT DOOR SWITCH
Fuel Trucks) also open Controls the flight deck
Fwd Service Door door
On – Cockpit door is
DOWN – Ground support open
trucks coupled and Door
open.
(In freighter version also
opens the main cargo
door)

F/O WIND SWITCH
Control the First Officer
CAP WIND SWITCH cockpit window.
Control the Captain DOWN – First Officer
cockpit window. Window is open
DOWN - Captain
Window is open

GROUND CREW SWITCH GPU SWITCH AIR START SWITCH MAINT MODE SWITCH
Activates the ground Controls the external power Controls the external Activates the
personnel crew supply Pneumatic (Air Starter) maintenance mode
supply
DOWN - Ground Crew is DOWN – GPU Coupled DOWN – Maintenance
active, and ready for and is able to provide DOWN – AIR START mode is active (Engine
pushback. electric supply. Coupled and is able to Cowlings, gear bay doors
provide pneumatic and and nose open.)
EXT PWR L & R BUS bleed air supply.
Ignites on Overhead Panel.

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

AIRPLANE IN GENERAL - PASSENGER, CARGO AND COCKPIT DOORS
INDICATORS

FWD Cargo Door AFT Cargo Door

FWD Service Door

REAR STAIRS
PAX Door
Not Avail on 10’s
Series

Main Cargo Door
Cockpit Door Main Door On Freighter version

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AIRPLANE IN GENERAL – ANNUNCIATOR PANEL AND MASTER WARNING AND CAUTION LIGHTS
OPERATIONS MANUAL

MASTER WARNING
Light
Both lights will ignite when
some alarm light on the
annunciator panel
illuminates. This light can not
be extinguished. Pressing
any of MASTER WARNING
light will turn off and will reset
DC-9

the system for future
indications, This must be
made, immediately after
have identified on the
annunciator panel the light
which causes this would turn
on
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

AIRPLANE IN GENERAL - ILLUMINATION

FLIGHT DECK ILLUMINATION

INSTRUMENT OVERHEAD
PANEL LIGHTS PANEL LIGHTS
Operates the Illuminates the
instrument panel white lights on
lights the overhead
panel.

EMER LTS SWITCH
SEAT BELTS Switch ANNUNCIATOR OFF: Annunciator Panel is on,
OFF – The fasten seat PANEL the evacuation lights are off, the
belts and return to battery packs are being loaded
seats are extinguished from de Dc transfer bar.
ON – The fasten seat
belts and return to ARM: Normal flight position,
seats signs illuminate. Annunciator panel light is OFF,
the evacuation lights are off, the
battery packs are being loaded
from de Dc transfer bar.

NO SMOKE Switch ON: Simulates totally failure of
OFF – The no smoking the DC emergency bar;
signs are extinguished illuminates the annunciator
ON – The no smoking panel light and evacuation
signs illuminate. lights.

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

AIRPLANE IN GENERAL - EXTERIOR LIGHTS

R Navigation Light
(White)
R LOGO Lights

R Strobe Light

Nacelle Lights
R Navigation Light
(Green)

R Landing
Light
L Navigation Light
(White)

L LOGO Lights

L Strobe Light

L Landing
Light

L Navigation Light
(Red)
Taxi Light L & R
Upper and Lower
Ground Lights Anti Collision Lights.

Wing Leading
Edge Light

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

AIRPLANE IN GENERAL - CABIN CONTROLS AND INDICATORS
EXTERIOR LIGHTS

PANEL LIGHTS DC-9 Series 10’s and 30’s

LANDING LIGHT . TAXI LIGHT Switch GROUND FLOOD WING / NACL ANTICOLLISION POS/STROBE
Switches LTS L & R LIGHT SWITCH SWITCH LIGHT SWITCH
OFF - Nose Lights
RET – Wing for landing and taxi Controls the OFF – Leading Operates the OFF – Fwd and Aft
Landing lights are are off. Ground flood edge wing and upper and lower Position and strobe
retracted and off. Lights engine nacelle anti-collision lights lights are off.
BRT – Lights are off
EXT OFF – Lights illuminates with POS – Turns on
are extended and maximum intensity ON – Turns on Position lights
off Leading edge
wing and BOTH – Illuminates
EXT – Lights are nacelle lights position and strobe
extended and lights
ignites

(In Overhead
Panel)

PANEL LIGHTS DC-9 21, 41 and 51

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

FLIGHT MANUAL
CHAPTER 2

AIR CONDITIONING AND PRESSURIZATION

GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
PRESSURIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
RADIO STAND COOLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
CONTROLS AND INDICATORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
NORMAL OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

GENERAL

The pneumatic pressure supplies to two identical refrigeration units for the air
conditioning and pressurization of the airplane. On ground, it can have air
conditioning connecting an external pneumatic source or by the engine air purge or
by de air purge from the APU.
In flight the engine air purge is used for the operation of the air conditioning and
pressurization systems.

PRESSURIZATION

The system is semi automatic, and the compressed air flow, pass through air
conditioning system to pressurized areas. The desired pressurization level can be
maintained regulating the escape of the compressed air by the pressure control
valve.
Normally the control valve is positioned by the cabin pressurization system in order
to control the cabin regimen from the takeoff until landing in accordance with the
flight profile.

For the automatic operation of the pressure control valve, it must be positioned the
control pressurization handle in auto position (UP). The Pressure control wheel will
turn according to this adjustment to maintain the pressurization.

The automatic pressure control will maintain a maximum differential of 7.46 lb/in ².
If the lands partial or totally pressurized, the automatic system, in response to a
signal of the ground control relay, will depressurize the cabin in a controlled
regimen during 20 seconds, after this time the valves will open totally.

AIR CONDITIONING

The aircraft has two identical, air conditioning systems, designed to operate
independently or in parallel. Those systems, provides air conditioning for the
pressurization. Normally, the right system operates with the engine 2 air purge and
supplies the demands of the passenger cabin. The left system operates with the air
purge of the engine 1 and supplies the demands of the flight deck. Any system can
supply the demand of both cabins.

RADIO STAND COOLING

The cooling of the radio stack on the electronic compartment and the heating of the
forward cargo compartment, is made with flight deck and passenger air conditioned
In ground as in flight the radio rack venturi provides assures the proper cooling of
the electronic compartment.

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

AIR CONDITIONING AND PRESSURIZATION – CONTROLS AND INDICATORS

TEMPERATURE AIR CONDITIONING TEMPERATURE SELECTOR RADIO RACK SWITCH
CONTROL VALVE PNEUMATIC Provides the media to know the Controls the operation of the radio
INDICATOR (L & R) PRESSURE INDICATOR temperature of the cabin and stack cooling ventilator and the
Indicates the actual (L & R) left or right ducts, this reflected position of the Venturi valve.
position of the Indicates the pressure of in the CABIN TEMP.
temperature control the supplied pneumatic, The temperature sensors are FAN – Operates the ventilator of the
valve of air conditioning avail for each air located in the cabin and ducts radio stack and closes partially the
system. conditioning system. The of the air conditioning system Venturi valve.
COLD - valve closed pressure is measured in on the entry of mixer chamber,
and no hot air is a point beyond of the air VENTURI – opens the venturi valve
supplied. conditioning pressure and shut down the ventilator. In flight
HOT – Valve totally regulator valve. the cooling is made by differential
open to allow the pressure.
supply of hot air.

PACKS SUPPLY SWITCHES TEMPERATURE SELECTORS
(Left and RIGHT) FLIGHT DECK (“CKPT”) and Passengers (“CABIN”)
Each switch arms his respective augmentation valve, controls the Each control provides automatic or manual temperature control
position of the regulator pressure valve, the flow control valve and applicable compartment.
through ground control relay, the cooling ventilator of the heat 65 to 85 degrees range – Center position is 75
exchangers
The OFF position closes the pressure control valve, the flow control STOP - Respective trim air valve is closed (cold)
valve, the augmentation valve and (in ground) cuts the ventilator for
the cooling of the heat exchanger. COLD - (full) All 2 packs driven to full cold
The AUTO position opens the flow control valve, the pressure
control regulator valve, arm the augmentation valve and (in ground) HOT - Trim air is added
connects the ventilator for cooling of the heat exchangers

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

AIR CONDITIONING AND PRESSURIZATION – CONTROLS AND INDICATORS

CABIN PRESSURE HIGH TEMPERATURE OF THE PRESSURE
RED WARNING LIGHT EQUIPPED AIR SUPPLY LIGHT PNEUMATIC
Ignites when the Ignites when the temperature of the INDICATOR
pressurization system supplying pneumatic to the system (left Shows the available
does not maintain a cabin or right) of air conditioning exceeds pneumatic pressure for
pressure equals to 9,500’ 600°F. the system operation.
(+500, -0) of press altitude Acted by a thermal switch located before Senses the pressure in
or less. Also when the air conditioning pressure regulator valve. the multiple of cross
cabin press differential as Indicates a failure of the pneumatic feed between the valves
above of 8 psi. system augmentation valve of itself

RADIO FAN OFF LIGHT
Ignites in flight when the switch of the radio stand is set in fan and the
ventilator is inoperative.
In ground with the switch in VENTURI, the ventilator operates ground
control relay and light ignites if the ventilator is inoperative. APU AIR PURGE
This light is activated by a differential pressure switch connected SWITCH
through ventilator and (In ground) by the ground control relay OFF – Cuts the energy to
the purge control and cuts
APU pneumatic.
ON – Provides APU air
purge to the airplane
pneumatic system after
the master switch of the air
purge is beyond 95% of
the APU RPM's

MASTER WARNING MASTER CAUTION AMBER
RED LIGHT LIGHT
Ignites with the red Ignites with any of L or R AIR
light CABIN PRESS COND SUPPLY TEMP HI

CROSSFEED PNEUMATIC HANDLES
Provides the media to operate both air
conditioning systems with the pneumatic
supply of one engine when both handles are
open or to isolate the pneumatic supply
sources and provide parallel operations for the
systems.
Are used to direct and in necessary case,
manually control the air for ice protection. Are
used too to direct the pneumatic air from the
APU or External Source

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

AIR CONDITIONING AND PRESSURIZATION – CONTROLS AND INDICATORS

CABIN PRESSURE BAROMETRIC
CONTROL WHEEL CORRECTION CONTROL
Is used to adjust the
barometric pressure of
OUTFLOW VALVE
the destiny airport on the
POSITION INDICATOR
Shows position of the IN-HG window, before
outflow valve. takeoff or landing.
AFT – Valve is fully open
FWD – Valve is fully closed.

CABIN PRESSURE
CONTROL HANDLE
Operates the pressure
system mode.
DOWN – The pressurization
system is in manual model.

UP – The pressurization
system is in automatic
mode.

RATE RELATION
CONTROL ALTITUDE CONTROL
When the knob is aligned Before takeoff, is used to adjust
with index mark, will flight altitude in which will fly, in
maintain a relation of the AIRPL ALT AT MAX DIFF
ascent of approx 250 feet 1000FT window.
AIRCOND AUTO SHUT per minute Before landing, is used to adjust
OFF SWITCH destiny airport altitude, in the
In ARM, shutoff the air CABIN ALT SET 1000FT window.
conditioning systems if To assure that cabin altitude will
the pneumatic pressure be the same to the airport altitude
between the engines, in which where will land
differs more than 70
lbs/in.
IN OVRD, reestablish
operation of the systems RAM AIR SWITCH
with the engines In ON, opens the valve which allows
pressure unbalanced. entry of the impact air through air
conditioning ducts from both
systems, in certain point before of
the mixer chamber.
In OFF closes the impact air valve.

CABIN DIFFERENTIAL
PRESSURE INDICATOR
Indicates the pressure
difference between the cabin CABIN ALTITUDE
and aircraft exterior (In LBS/in). INDICATOR
CABIN VERTICAL SPEED (CABIN CLIMB) Indicates the
Provides a good way to watch
This an standard instrument. cabin altitude in
the fuselage pressurization
Is ventilated to cabin pressure in order to thousand and
during manual or automatic
indicate the ascend relation of the cabin. hundreds of feet
operation.
Is used to watch the change relation in
The limit operational range is
the cabin pressure during the
8.06 Lbs/in
pressurization control, in mode automatic
or manual.

29
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

AIR CONDITIONING AND PRESSURIZATION – NORMAL OPERATION
Pressurization

30
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

FLIGHT MANUAL
CHAPTER 3

FUEL

GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
FUEL TANKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
FUEL FEEDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
FUEL MEASSURE INDICATORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
FILLING AND DRAINED OF FUEL TANKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
CONTROLS AND INDICATORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
LIMITATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

31
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

GENERALS
The fuel system is designed to provide a continuous fuel flow, under all the
conditions and attitudes found during the normal operation with a minimal
management of the system. This system is designed to allow the fuel supply to the
three tanks, be affected by one person without requiring another ground equipment
apart of the fuel service.

FUEL TANKS

The three wing tanks (main left, ventral and right main) has a usable capacity if
3679 U.S. GAL or 24,649 Lbs, based in a density of 6.7 lb/U.S. GAL.

A drained drain is had of in the low part of each main tank and two in the tank
central. Four magnetic rules are installed in each main tank and one in the central
tank. Inclinometer in the pit of the nose wheel provides information of the attitude of
the earth airplane for the calibration of the fuel measurers.

FUEL FEEDING

Each fuel tank had installed two A.C. fuel pumps; each pump has the right flow to
feed both engines in take off mode. An Intercommunication system and cross
feeding valve between fuel tanks, allow to the fuel use of any main tank towards
both engines.

FUEL MEASSURE INDICATORS

It is counted on a modular system for fuel measurement, which does not need
adjustment or calibration after being installed or when changing the component.
The fuel indicators in the screen of the EICAS FUEL show the amount of fuel in
each tank, the total amount of fuel in the airplane also the gross weight of the
airplane.

FILLING AND DRAINED OF FUEL TANKS

All the fuel tanks can be filled and be drained through of a single multiple adapter
and of fuel filling, located near the leading edge of the right wing behind of an
access door.

All the filling operations can be carried out with aircraft energy or by external
energy source. If it is not enough energy to the propellant charge, all the valves of
fuel tanks can operate manually.

NOTE:
During the drained filling operations and, the ground equipment must be connected
electrically to ground with the airplane.

32
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

FUEL - CONTROLS AND INDICATORS

START PUMP SWITCH
OFF – Shut off the 28
VDC energy to the
start pump.
ON - Closes the DC
transfer bar circuit to
energize the start
pump.
NOTE: Is used to start
the APU or an engine
when AC energy is not
available.

FUEL USED RESET SWITCH FUEL PUMPS SWTICHES
(Momentarily) When acting it, (LEFT, CENTER, RIGHT)
reset the fuel used counter, on (AFT, FWD)
each fuel flow to 00000.

INLET FUEL PRESS LOW
(Left & Right)
Ignites approximately at 5 lb/in to
indicate the fuel feeding pressure is
low.
MASTER CAUTION Lights ignites
too.

FUEL QUANTITY INDICATORS
(LEFT, CENTER, RIGHT)
Each indicator shows in Kilograms or
pounds, the fuel remnant on respective
tank.

FUEL FLOW
FUEL TEMP INDICATOR TOTAL FUEL QUANTITY INDICATOR/FUEL USED
(Left, Right) INDICATOR (Left & Right)
For its function, refer to Shows the total fuel Shows fuel quantity delivered
Engine chapter remaining weight expressed to the engine.
in Kilograms or pounds The digital readout shows the
total fuel used by the engine.

33
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

FUEL - CONTROLS AND INDICATORS

THROTTLES
For its operation, refer to
ENGINE chapter.

FUEL CROSSFEED Valve
HANDLE (INOP)
Opens/closes cross feed valve
OFF – Closes the cross feed
valve
ON – Opens valve allowing
that any fuel tank,
feeds engines or APU.

NOTE: The use of the fuel
pump determines which tank
is being used.

FUEL CONTROL HANDLES
(Left, Center, and right)
The button must be pressed
to unlock the handle, before
passing to on or OFF

OFF - First Cut the fuel and
then cut’s the, ignition

ON - Closes the engine’s
ignition circuit and
then open the valve to
supply fuel.
NOTE: Each control handle is
connected via cables, to the
cut valve of the engine fuel
control unit

ENGINE FIRE HANDLES
(Left & Right)
Operates the fuel shutoff
valve.
For its description, refer to
FIRE PROTECTION chapter.

34
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

FUEL - LIMITATIONS

FILLING
USABLE FUEL CAPACITY
PRESSURE
U.S. GAL. POUNDS

MAIN TANKS 1386 9 286
50 lb/in CENTRAL TANK 907 6077
maximum TOTAL 3679 24649

At 6.7 lb/gal density.

It is not recommendable, takeoff with less than 2400lb of fuel on each main tank.

Minimum fuel for Go-around is between 500 and 1000lb indicated on the main
tank.

It is not recommendable a go around with less than 500lbs on the main tank,
neither with inoperative aft fuel pumps and less than 1000lbs.

FUEL LOAD

The maximum asymmetric load between main wing tanks in all flight conditions,
should not exceed 1,500lbs (680Kg), including operation with one engine.

PROCCEDURE

A) Fill first main left and right tanks simultaneously.

Note: Do not exceed the maximum permissible asymmetric fuel load during filling.

B) Fill central tank.

35
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

FLIGHT MANUAL
CHAPTER 4

COMUNICATIONS

CONTROLS AND INDICATORS
VHF Communications Radios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Audio Control Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

36
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

COMUNICATIONS - CONTROLS AND INDICATORS

VHF Communications Radios – DC- 9 Series 10’s and 30’s

ACTIVE VHF FRECUENCY ACTIVE VHF FRECUENCY WINDOW
WINDOW COMM 1 COMM 2
The reading indicates the active The reading indicates the active
selected VHF frequency of COMM 1 selected VHF frequency of COMM 2

VHF SELECTOR KNOB COMM 1 VHF SELECTOR KNOB COMM 2
The inferior selector knob controls the second The inferior selector knob controls the second
and third digit of the VHF frequency, the first and third digit of the VHF frequency, the first
digit is fixed. The superior selective Knob digit is fixed. The superior selective Knob
controls the quarter and fifth digit of the VHF controls the quarter and fifth digit of the VHF
frequency. frequency.

VHF Communications Radios – DC- 9 Series 21, 41 and 51

ACTIVE VHF STBY VHF ACTIVE VHF STBY VHF
FRECUENCY FRECUENCY FRECUENCY FRECUENCY
WINDOW COMM 1 WINDOW COMM 1 WINDOW COMM 2 WINDOW COMM 2
The reading The reading The reading The reading
indicates the active indicates the Stand indicates the active indicates the Stand
selected VHF by selected VHF selected VHF by selected VHF
frequency of COMM frequency of COMM frequency of COMM frequency of COMM
1 1 2 2

VHF TFR SWITCH VHF SELECTOR KNOB VHF TFR SWITCH VHF SELECTOR KNOB
COMM 1 COMM 1 COMM 2 COMM 2
Transfer the Stand The inferior selector knob Transfer the Stand The inferior selector knob
By frequency to controls the second and By frequency to controls the second and
active frequency and third digit of the VHF active frequency and third digit of the VHF
vice versa. frequency, the first digit vice versa. frequency, the first digit
is fixed. The superior is fixed. The superior
selective Knob controls selective Knob controls
the quarter and fifth digit the quarter and fifth digit
of the VHF frequency. of the VHF frequency.
37
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

COMUNICATIONS - CONTROLS AND INDICATORS

Audio Control Panel (ACP) (VC ONLY)

VOR IDENT Switch DME IDENT Switch
Activates the IDENT Activates the IDENT
tone from VOR 1 or tone from DME 1 or
VOR 2 DME 2

ADF IDENT Switch
VHF Selector Activates the IDENT
Switch tone from ADF 1 or
VHF 1, VHF 2Transmit ADF 2
and receive switches.

MKR IDENT Switch Volume Selector
Activates the IDENT Selects VHF 1, VHF 2, INT
tone from MARKER or PA in order to control de
volume.

38
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

FLIGHT MANUAL
CHAPTER 5

FLIGHT CONTROLS

GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
FLIGHT SPOILERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
HORIZONTAL STABILIZER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
FLAPS SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
FLAPS INDICATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
SPOILER-FLAP EXTENDED LIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
SLATS SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
MAIN COMPONENTS LOCALIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
CONTROLS AND INDICATORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
CONTROLS AND INDICATORS SPOILERS/SPEEDBRAKE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
CONTROLS AND INDICATORS FLAPS/SLATS SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
CONTROLS AND INDICATORS LIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
LIMITATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

39
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

GENERALS

The DC-9 has a conventional control systems aileron, rudder and elevators. The
control surfaces of those systems are protected against ground bursts by hydraulic
dampers and cylinders. The horizontal stabilizer is adjustable in order to
compensate the aircraft longitudinally. The lateral control is helped by the spoilers
operated hydraulically. Those serve too, as speed brakes. The rudder it moves
normally by hydraulic media with automatic change to the flight help tab when
there is not available hydraulic energy. A yaw damper helps the directional stability
and a pitch trim system helps to the longitudinal stability at big mach numbers.

It has stall and over speed alarm systems. It uses flaps. In the wing leading edge,
are installed the slats operated hydraulically. The flight spoilers can be armed in
order to extend when the main wheels are being compressed.

FLIGHT SPOILERS

The lateral control by the ailerons is helped by the flight spoilers. The movement of
the yokes acts the ailerons and trough mechanic mixer to the hydraulic system of
the spoilers.
This mixer mechanism spoiler/aileron controls the movement of the spoilers in
relation to the movement of the ailerons. When the yoke moves, approximately at 5
degrees of the ailerons movement, the flight spoiler of the wing that goes down
begins to extend. A mayor movement in the yoke will extend spoilers proportionally
to the demands of lateral control.

When the spoilers handle is manually acted and control wheel is moved; the mixer
mechanism of aileron/spoiler operates asymmetrically the spoiler to increase the
extension of the spoiler of the lowering wing and to diminish the extension of the
spoiler of the wing that rises.

During the landing run, when the spoilers are totally extended (60 degrees), when
lowering an aileron (to raise a wing) causes that the spoiler of this wing retracts
partially.

HORIZONTAL STABILIZER

The horizontal stabilizer is movable and provides longitudinal compensation. The
stabilizer is moved by an endless screw, by the primary or alternate electric motor.
The control of primary adjustment is made by electric cocking mechanisms which
are controlled by the double switches in the control wheel or by the double handles
connected by cables in the pedestal.

The operation with the primary controls moves the stabilizer in a relation of 1/3 of
degree per second. The alternate stabilizer operation is made by the 2 handles

40
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

mounted in the center of the pedestal. The operation of the stabilizer by the
alternate control moves it in a relation of 1/10 of degree per second. The automatic
pilot uses the alternate electric motor for compensation.

FLAPS SYSTEM

FLAPS System consists of two segments of flaps in each wing and moves down
towards. Each flap is operated by two hydraulics cylinders (interior and exterior)
the exterior cylinders are moved by the left hydraulic system and the interior
cylinders are moved by the right hydraulic system. Normally the flaps are operated
by both hydraulic systems, but operate in a reduced pressure with one system
inoperative.

The FLAPS position through a range of 50 can be selected by the flaps handle.
This has positions UP, 0, 5, 15, 25, 40, 50 degrees.

FLAPS INDICATOR

This indicator installed in the flight deck contains two superposed needles and is
graduated in the flaps degrees range. The needles respond directly to the real
flaps movement not to the handle.

SPOILER-FLAP EXTENDED LIGHT

In the annunciator panel it has the light SPOILER-FLAP EXTENDED which
function is to alert the crew that the spoilers are being used with the Flaps
extended, which goes against aircraft’s limitations and operational procedures
established in the flight technique. In case of this light ignites, the spoilers or flaps
must be retracted

SLATS SYSTEM

The SLATS system increases the lifting located in the wing leading edge.
The Slats operates normally by the left and right hydraulics system but they will
continue operating with reduced pressure with just a single hydraulic system.

When the FLAPS/SLATS handle is in UP/RET, the slats are retracted, and when
its set in a position at or beyond 0/EXT the slats will fully extend.

41
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

FLIGHT CONTROLS - MAIN COMPONENTS LOCALIZATION

FIN OF FLIGHT AID
ELEVATOR Moved by the elevator to
Acted aerodynamically by the help the control fin.
deflection of the control fin, with
hydraulic energy augmenter

ELEVATOR CONTROL FIN
HORIZONTAL STABILIZER Mechanically connected to the
control column

RIGHT AILERON
Acted aerodynamically by the LEFT AILERON
deflection of the control fin. Acted aerodynamically by the
deflection of the control fin.

AILERON CONTROL
FIN
Mechanically connected
to the control wheel TRAILING EDGE
FLAPS (L & R)

L AILERON TRIM TAB
Mechanically controlled
R AILERON TRIM TAB
Mechanically controlled
L EXTERIOR
SPOILERS
R EXTERIOR
SPOILERS INTERIOR
SPOILERS
( L & R)
LEADING EDGE FLAPS L & R (Slats)

TRANSDUCTER VANES OF
ANGLE OF ATACK

42
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

FLIGHT CONTROLS - CONTROL AND INDICATORS

Directional, Lateral and Longitudinal control and compensation

STABILIZER TRIM HANDLES
Both control handles must be
move simultaneously and in the
same direction to actuate the
stabilizer. The operation of this
handles overrides the Pitch trim
switches on the Control wheel.

RUDDER HYDRAULIC
CONTROL
STABILIZER TRIM INDICATOR PWR – Opens the shutoff valve,
Is connected mechanically to allowing the hydraulic pressure
horizontal stabilizer and indicates locks the rudder control fin and
in degrees, the adjustment of the moves the rudder by hydraulic
stabilizer nose down or nose up. energy.
MAN – Closes the shutoff valve.
The rudder control fin unlocks and
responds directly to the rudder
pedals.

RUDDER TRIM KNOB
Turning the wheel
towards NOSE LEFT
or NOSE RIGHT, it
compensates moving
the complete plane of
the rudder during the
hydraulic operation or
the fin of control of the
rudder during the
AILERON TRIM
manual operation
CONTROL
Turning the Trim
Control to the left
ALTERNATE LONGITUDINAL
or right, actuates
ADJUSTMENT CONTROL
the Trim Aileron
(SECONDARY)
These two controls, when it
moves simultaneously, provide
a longitudinal trim. The alternate
system circuit to move the
stabilizer is independent from
the primary system

43
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

FLIGHT CONTROLS - CONTROL AND INDICATORS

By manufacturer procedure the Speed brake never should be used when Flaps or
Landing Gear are extended.

Spoiler retracted Position

Spoiler Arm Position (To Land)

Spoiler Full extended

SPEEDBRAKES
The speed brakes handle is connected to cables in the mixer set.
In flight, the backward movement of the handle will move the cables which
control the spoilers operation, to serve as speed brakes. It can be extended
to a maximum of 35° during this action

GROUND SPOILERS
When the speed brakes handle is raised to the ARM position, controls the
operation of the ground and flight SPOILER through the air to ground mixer
mechanism, or by the main gear tires rotation signal.

The backward movements of the handle during ground operations extend
symmetrically all flight spoilers serving as ground spoilers. The surfaces
extend at a maximum of 60° during this action.

Flaps Handle
It must be pulled before moving the handle.
The Slats extends on 0/EXT and will remain extended for
consequent adjustments.
Positions are 0, 5, 15, 25, 40 and 50.

Flaps Position indicator
Shows the position of the left an right flaps
Double needles must move at the same
time as the flaps.

44
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

FLIGHT CONTROLS - CONTROL AND INDICATORS - LIGHTS

RUDDER TRAVEL AUTOSPOILERS NOT USE LIGHT SLAT DISAGREEMENT
UNRESTRICTED LIGHT When ignites, indicates there is a failure LIGHT
When ignites, indicates that the on the automatic spoilers system. Do not Ignites if the SLATS position
diaphragm which operates the use the automatic extension of does no match with the
limitator is retracted, allowing SPOILERS. selected position by the
the full rudder travel. (Aprox 22° The extension should me operated control handle or if they are
to both sides) manually after touchdown asymmetrical.

FLAP/RUDDER STOP ELEVATOR POWER
INOP LIGHT ON LIGHT
When ignites, indicates When ignites, indicates
rudder limiter that is applying
controlled by the flaps hydraulic energy to
is not engaged if the move the elevator to
control handle is in 0° lowering the aircraft
or °5 position, or that nose.
the limiter is engaged
with flaps adjustments
SPOILER/FLAP
of 15°, 25° or 50°.
EXTENDED LIGHT
Ignites when the
spoilers are extended
STALL INDICATION
together with the flaps
FAILURE LIGHT
more than 5°. The
When ignites, indicates
system is de energized
system failure or
when the aircraft is in
discrepancy between
ground mode,
information compared MACH TRIM INOP
by the system 1 and 2 LIGHT
of stall alarm. When ignites, indicates
pitch trim monitor has
RUDDER CONTROL
SPOILER DEPLOYED deactivated the system.
MANUAL LIGHT
LIGHT Also ignites during test or
When ignites, indicates
When ignites, indicates when the switch is
that there is no hydraulic
that one or more spoiler passed to NORM with
energy rudder actuator.
tabs are extended 10°. the pitch trim indicator
Operative only in ground. extended.

MACH TRIM COMP
SWITCH
STALL TEST SWITCH TEST – Acts the system
Is used in preflight to test for preflight
the two stall independent NORM – Used position
systems for normal flight
operations.
OVRD – Retracts the
actuator.

YAW DAMPER SWITCH
ON and OFF positions MAX SPEED WARNING
provides operational Ignites when maximum
control of the Yaw operating speed is
dampers. reached, accompanied
with audible alarm.

45
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

FLIGHT CONTROLS – LIMITATIONS

LOAD FACTOR - FLAPS UP + 2.5 G, -1 G
- FLAPS DOWN + 2.0 G, -0 G

VMO – 350 Indicated Knots (KIAS), From Sea Level to 25,850’
Mmo – 0.84 MACH, above 25,850’

COMPLETE AILERON TRAVEL LIMIT
235 Indicated Knots (KIAS), at sea level and linearly to
274 Indicated Knots (KIAS), at 30,000’ to
256 Indicated Knots (KIAS), at 35,000’

VB
MACH 0.79 or 285 Indicated Knots (KIAS), for any weight and altitude.

YAW DAMPER – Maximum ± 1.7 degrees in air flow way

HORIZONTAL STABILIZER – 2.0 Degrees Nose Down (maximum)
12.25 degrees Nose Up (maximum)

FLAPS DOWN SPEED LIMITS
DEGREES KIAS MACH
5 280 .057 NOTE: The Flaps Indicator could have a difference of ± 2 °
15 240 .057 with respect of flaps handle position and a maximum
25 210 .057 difference between the needles of 5 °.
50 180 .057
EXTENDING SLATS LIMIT SPEED 280 IAS

STALL ALARM MARGIN – 105% VS Minimum

LOADS FOR GROUND GUST – Until 65 Knots

CROSSWIND LIMIT – 38 KNOTS at 90 DEGREES

DO NOT USE SPEEDBRAKES UNLESS FLAPS ARE UP
DO NOT EXTEND THE LANDING GEAR WITH SPEEDBRAKES EXTENDED
DO NOT MOVE THE SPOILERS/SPEEDBRAKES TO GROUND SPOILERS POSITION, IN FLIGHT
DO NOT ARM THE SPOILER BEFORE EXTENDING LANDING GEAR
DO NOT USE SPEEDBRAKES BELOW 220 KNOTS

OVERSPEED ALARM LIMITS
Vmo – 350 + 6, -0 Knots
Mmo – 0.84 + 0.01, -0.00 MACH

46
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

FLIGHT MANUAL
CHAPTER 6

ELECTRIC

GENERAL …….………………….…………………………...................................... 48
AC ENERGY SYSTEM GENERATOR ……………………………………………… 48
AC DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM………………………….……………………………... 48
CONTROLS AND INDICATORS .……………………………………………..…….. 49
CAUTION AND WARNING LIGHTS …………………………………………………50

47
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

GENERAL
The electrical system of the airplane consists of a energy generation system and
distribution of AC of 115/200 volts, 400cps, trifasic, which provides energy to the
normal bars and of AC emergency. For circuits controls, illumination and other
devices that requires DC; The 115Volts AC Energy of the AC distribution bars
converts to 26volts of DC by transformers rectifiers. For the Instruments, the AC
115volts are reduced to a Monofasic AC 28 Volts, by the monofasic transformers.
When the main distribution system is de-energized, to start the APU and certain
parts of the DC, The energy is supplied by two batteries.

When all the AC supply sources has been lost, and inverter energized by the direct
bar from the battery, provides AC of 115 Volts, 400cps, monofasic, for emergency
current. The inverter also provides AC to the refueling system when there is no
normal energy available.

It has a battery charger, which is been energized by the AC ground service bar,
which maintains the batteries loaded.

AC ENERGY SYSTEM GENERATOR

The AC energy is normally provided by any of the three generators of the aircraft.
One installed on each engine and other in the APU. Each generator can deliver 40
KVA of maximum continuous is capable to provide enough energy to essential
electrical system operation in case of lost of any generator.

Each control circuit of each generator has incorporated a failure protection system
do disconnect it automatically from its bar and be de-energized in a case of failure
of circuit. Pulling the fire extinguishing handles also de-energize de generator.
Each generator can be reset by the GEN control switch, when the failure is fixed.

AC DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

The AC distribution system is divided in two different systems, operating
independently one from each other, but with interconnection capacity. The Left and
Right generator supplies electric energy to it corresponding bar for distribution to its
respective systems. The energy from the APU generator can be directed to both
generator bar simultaneously when any of the engine generators are operating, or
directly to the AC ground service bar, when only service ground energy is required.

The loads of the Auxiliary hydraulic pump, ground ventilators, horizontal stabilizer
and galley energy, are supplied directly by the generator bars. In the left system,
the remaining energy is directed to the AC bar to supply energy to the smallest AC
monofasic loads and energy to the transformers-rectifiers. The right system is
identical with exception that part of the energy is directed through AC ground
service bar.

48
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

ELECTRIC - CONTROLS AND INDICATORS – Electric control Board

GENERATORS CONTROLS SWITCH
RESET – Resets the generator circuit control.
OFF – Disconnects the generator from the AC
distribution system
ON – Connects the generator to the AC distribution
system if the protection circuits don’t detects a
failure.

APU RESET SWITCH
RESET – Resets the
control circuit of the
APU generator
NORM – Normal
operational position
APU TO BARS SWITCHES
(L & R)
APU PWR AVAIL Selects the APU energy to
BLUE LIGHT deliver it to its respective bar
Indicates the APU
generator is operating
and its energy is (4) ELECTRIC ENERGY IN
available USE BLUE LIGHTS
Indicates the source of
selected energy, which is
EXTERNAL ENERGY
connected to the respective
BARS (L & R)
bar.
Selects the external
energy to deliver it to
the selected bar

EXT PWR AVAIL AC COUPLING BARS SWITCH
BLUE LIGHT OPEN – Opens the relay if it’s closed, isolating the left
Indicates the External and right AC distributions systems. Prevents the close
AC energy is of the relay, if it’s open.
connected and its AUTO – Is operated normally in this position. In this
energy is available position AC coupling relay is operating automatically

49
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

ELECTRIC - CONTROLS AND INDICATORS – Electric control Board

AC LOAD INDICATORS VOLTMETER and AC FRECUENCY METER
Indicates the load that the Indicates respectively voltage and frequency of
generator is delivering to the the generator (engines or APU), or External
distribution system. Indicates energy, as be selected by the indication
0 to 1.5, being 1.0 100% the selector
generator capacity.

DC VOLTAMPERIMTER
Indicates the current load or
discharge of the batteries, the
voltage of it, or the voltage of
the DC bar that is selected by
the indication selector

DC LOAD INDICATORS INDICATION SELECTOR
Indicates the load of the respective Selects the energy source to be read in the
transformer-rectifier is delivering to the AC voltmeter, Frequency indicator and DC
distribution system. The indicators are double voltamperimeter. When is selected the L or R
with separated scales, one per each position it reads on the corresponding
transformers-rectifier which feeds to instruments the frequency and voltage of the
respective DC bars. Indicates 0 to 1.5, being DC and AC Bars of the respective side. In
1.0 100% the TR capacity. other positions it selects the indicated source
only

50
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

ELECTRIC - CONTROLS AND INDICATORS – Electric control Board

CSD TEMPERATURE CONSTANT SPEED DRIVE
INDICATORS DISCONNECTION SWITCH
Indicates the oil temperature A switch with guard disconnects the
of the CSD and pressing the engine constant speed drive.
button switch, indicates the oil CAUTION: The action of this switch
temperature rising through is irrevocable.
the CSD

EMER PWR IN USE BATTERY SWITCH
WHITE LIGHT ON – Act the battery
Indicates the emergency relay to provide
switch is on and the energy from the
emergency bars are battery to battery
being energized through bar, through direct
battery direct bar and battery bar.
emergency inverter.

DC COUPLING BAR SWITCH EMER PWR SWITCH
CLOSE – Connects the left and right Selects the battery as emergency current source for DC and AC.
DC bars, allowing any combination OFF – Disconnects battery, eliminating it as emergency source. If
of the transformers –rectifiers other energy source (external or internal) is available, the energy
energizes both DC bars. to the emergency AC and DC bars is supplied through the normal
OPEN – isolates the left & right DC distribution system.
distribution systems. The DC system ON – Selects the battery as emergency current source. The
is operated normally in the open current to the emergency DC bar is supplied by the direct battery
position. bar and the AC energy is supplied through emergency inverter to
the emergency AC bar. The inverter is fed from the battery direct
bar.

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

ELECTRIC - CAUTION AND WARNING LIGHTS

APU GEN OFF LIGHT AC CROSS TIE
Indicates APU LOCKOUT LIGHT
Generator relays are Indicates that the DC TRANSFER BUS
open disconnecting his generator coupling OFF LIGHT Indicates
bars. bars relay is locked that the DC transfer bar
NOTE: With one APU in open, disabling is not energized
Generator relay (APR) the Ac cross feed.
closed, the lights go off

L or R GEN OFF LIGHT
Indicates generator relay
L OR R AC BUS OFF is open, disconnected
LIGHT Indicates that from its bar, being for
the AC t bar is not manual switch operation
energized or by circuit’s protection
failure

DC BUS OFF LIGHT
CSD OIL PRESS Indicates any DC bars
LOW LIGHT (Left or Right) are not
Ignites when CSD oil energized. The DC Load
pressure is below indicators and/or
operational limits. voltmeters should be
(MASTER CAUTION observed to determine la
LIGHTS will ignite too) DC condition bars. The
bars (L or R) can be
interconnected, switching
the DC coupling bars
switch in CLOSE.

AC EMER BUS OFF
LIGHT DC EMER BUS OFF
Indicates AC LIGHT
emergency bar is Indicates that the
not energized DC emergency
transfer bar is not
energized

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

FLIGHT MANUAL
CHAPTER 7

HYDRAULIC

GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
HYDRAULIC SYSTEM DEPOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
ENGINE DRIVEN HYDRAULIC PUMPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
AUXILIAR HYDRAULIC PUMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
CONTROLS AND INDICATORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

53
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

GENERAL

The Aircraft has two hydraulic systems totally independents designed left and right.
There is no way no take fluid from one system to the other. In some cases, the
pressure from each hydraulic system provides the same service, as example part
of the flaps actuator cylinders receives pressure from the left system, and other
part receives pressure from the right system. The service which normally receives
pressure from both systems will surely operate, but with reduced efficiency with
one system is inoperative.

Each system has a depot, an engine driven pump, moto-pump or alternate pump
which connects mechanically both systems. In the right system, it has an auxiliary
pump operated electrically. All pumps are designed to a continuous operation.

In both systems, is used a SKYDROL hydraulic fluid, which fire resistant. The
medium and high pressure, are stainless steel.

The left hydraulic system supplies and distributes pressure for operation of the
following subsystems:

1. - Interior Flight Spoilers
2. - Reverser Engine 1
3. - Wheel brakes left and right.
4. - Exterior Flaps actuators
5. - Exterior Slats Actuators
6. - Left cylinder wheel steering
7. - Elevator Augmenter
8. - Alternate hydraulic Pump (Moto-pump)

The right hydraulic system supplies and distributes pressure for operation of the
following subsystems:

1. - Exterior flight Spoilers
2. - Reverser Engine 2
3. - Rudder
4. - Interior Flaps Actuators
5. - Wheel brakes left and right.
6. - Landing Gear
7. - Right cylinder wheel steering.
8. - Alternate pump (Moto-pump)
9. - Flaps-Rudder limiter
10. - Passenger Aft stairs
11. - Interior Slat Actuators

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

The Engine driven Hydraulic pumps and auxiliary, provides a 3,000 lbs/in pressure.
During normal flight conditions, when the system demands are low, the engine
driven pumps will operate a 1,500 lbs/in pressure in order to augment the life
service of the systems and pumps.

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM DEPOT

The left and right hydraulic systems depots are located aft interior corner in the
main wheels well. Each depot, supplies exclusively to its respective system.
Each depot has a capacity of 3 U.S. Gal, 11.35 litters.

It has provisions for ground service on each system, localized in main landing gear
bays, and includes connection panel for ground use, a hand pump for maintenance
use and a valve for disconnect the spoiler and depressurize the system.

ENGINE DRIVEN HYDRAULIC PUMPS

The Left Hydraulic system is pressurized by a pump mounted on the left engine
and the pump mounted on the right engine, pressurize the right hydraulic system.
Each Pump is capable to deliver 3000 Lb/Plg² of pressure for any condition of the
flight.
The operations of each pump is controlled electrically by solenoids which are
operated by a 3 way switch (HIGH, LOW, OFF), located in the First Officer
instrument panel.

AUXILIAR HYDRAULIC PUMP

There is and auxiliary pump located in forward are in the main right gear well.
This pump can supply the demand of its respective hydraulic system and is
designed to continuous operation. However to increase its life should be shouted
off when it’s not required. This pump is capable continuous flow at a relation of 8
gal per min and a pressure of 3000 lbs/in. The Pump feeds from the left generator
bar and is controlled by the HYD AUX PUMP in the first officer instrument panel.

55
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

HYDRAULIC - CONTROLS AND INDICATORS

HYD TEMP HI LIGHT HYD PRESS LOW LIGHT (Left & Right)
(Left & Right) Ignite to indicate low pressure.
Ignites when the If the SPOILERS pressure falls below
hydraulic fluid 900 ± 100 lbs/in the light ignites. The
temperature reaches switch who activates the light, is located
approximately 105°C forward of the pressure
(221°F). MASTER reducer.(1500lb/in and the relay valve.
CAUTION Lights also MASTER CAUTION Lights also ignites.
ignites The light will turn off when the pressure
rises at minimum of 1200 lbs/in

HYDRAULIC PRESSURE
INDICATORS (Left & Right)
ENGINE DRIVEN Shows the system hydraulic
HYDRAULIC PUMP (Left & pressure between the pump
Right) and the depot.
NOTE: In case of electrical
failure , the pumps will
operate in HIGH no
matter the switch
position
HI - Connects the pump
and delivers 3000 lb/in AUXLIARY HYDRAULIC
PUMP (Left & Right)
LOW –Connects the pump ON - Connects the pump
and delivers 1500 lb/in and delivers 3000 lb/in

OFF - No exit pressure for OFF – Disconnects the pump.
the hydraulic system
operation. The
hydraulic fluid will
circulate to lubricate
the pump.

HYDRAULIC QTY
INDICATOR (Left & Right)
Indicates the quantity of the
hydraulic fluid in the depot.
0 to 10 quarts

56
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

FLIGHT MANUAL

CHAPTER 8

INSTRUMENTS AND NAVIGATION

GENERALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
STATIC PITOT SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
COMPASS INDICATOR SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
HORIZONTAL SITUATION INDICATOR (HSI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
VHF NAVIGATION SYSTEMS
- ANTENNAS LOCALIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
- NAVIGATION VHF SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
- DISTANCE MEASURE EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
ADF SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
TRANSPONDER XPNDR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
RADIOALTIMETER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
ALTITUDE ALERT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

57
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

GENERALS

This chapter covers all the related to the systems and equipment of flight
instruments and navigation. The systems and navigation equipment understand
the dependant as independent systems. The equipment and the systems provide
through of instruments attitude of the airplane, speed, altitude, vertical altitude,
course, direction and time.

STATIC PITOT SYSTEM

This system for his operation takes information from the pitot probes (dynamic
pressure) and from the de static pressure intakes.
The instruments groups from this system are: Speed/Mach indicator, Barometric
Altimeter, Over speed sensor and Vertical speed indicator (VSI).
A Static selector allow to change, if requires, normal source of static pressure from
the captain and first officer to use the alternate static source.

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

INSTRUMENTS AND NAVIGATION - STATIC/PITOT SYSTEM

VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR (VSI)

ALTITUDE TAPE BAROMETRIC ADJUST
WINDOW
FIRST DIGIT Indicates the barometric
TEN THOUSAND OF FEET pressure adjust in Milibars
SECOND DIGIT (MB)
THOUSAND OF FEET
THIRD DIGIT
HUNDREDS OF FEET
BAROMETRIC ADJUST
WINDOW
Indicates the barometric
pressure adjust in IN HG

BAROMETRIC ADJUST
KNOB ALTITUDE NEEDLE
Is used to adjust the Indicates 1,000 feet
BAROMETRIC ALTIMETER per revolution.
barometric pressure

BARBER POLE SPEED SPEED FIXED DIAL
From 60 to 400 Knots

MOVING MACH SCALE SPEEDMETER INDEX
Range from 0.4 to 1.0

SPEEDMETER INDEX
MOVING NEEDLE KNOB
For SPEED AND MACH Used to adjust to a one speed
MACH AND AIRSPEED the speed meter index
INDICATOR

59
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

INSTRUMENTS AND NAVIGATION - CONTROLS AND INDICATORS
COMPASS INDICATOR SYSTEM

WIND ROSE FAITH LINE
Is revolving and it is Wind rose it reads against
graduated in increments of 5° faith line. Shows the aircraft
real heading when system is ADF/VOR2 NEEDLE
synchronized properly Indicates ADF or VOR2
marking according to adjusts
ADF/VOR1 NEEDLE with the ADF/VOR2 selective
Indicates ADF or VOR knob
marking according to adjusts
with the ADF/VOR1 selective
knob

ADF/VOR1 SELECTOR ADF/VOR2 SELECTOR
KNOB KNOB
VOR – ADF/VOR1 Needle VOR – ADF/VOR2 Needle
shows the heading to shows the heading to
the elected VOR the elected VOR
facility in the Captain’s facility in the First
VHF/NAV Control Officer VHF/NAV
board. Control board.
ADF – ADF/VOR1 Needle ADF – ADF/VOR2 Needle
shows the heading to RECIPROCAL HEADING shows the heading to
the selected ADF MARKER the selected ADF
facility in the ADF Shows compass reciprocal facility in the ADF
Radio. heading Radio.

STANDBY ARTIFICIAL HORIZONTAL INDICATOR

BANK INDEX

HORIZON

COMPENSATION KNOB
Turning it allows to adjust
in vertical, the reference
bar.
REFERENCE BAR
(AIRCRAFT SYMBOL)

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

INSTRUMENTS AND NAVIGATION - HORIZONTAL SITUATION
INDICATOR (HSI)

COURSE INDICATOR FAITH LINE DME INDICATOR
Shows the Selected Indicates the magnetic heading Shows distance to the
Course. stabilized aircraft gyro in the wind rose. selected VOR facility

SELECTED COURSE
AND RECIPROCAL
SELECTED HEADING INDICATOR
INDICATOR
Shows the selected
heading by the
TO / FROM Indicator
HEADING SELECTOR
Indicates VOR station
direction along the
selected course

GLIDESLOPE POINTER
AND DEVIATION PATH
COURSE DEVIATION
INDICATOR AND
DEVIATION SCALE
HEADING SELECTOR
Is used to adjust the
desired heading indicator
COURSE SELECTOR
Is used to adjust the
desired course indicator.

AIRPLANE SYMBOL

COMPASS FLAG
Appears when it has lost the
compass system energy, with
respect to indicator’s mobile portions

GS FLAG VOR LOC FLAG
The Glide path scale Appears when the VOR
disappears to show the LOC information is
GS Flag when the glide unusable.
path information is
unusable.

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

INSTRUMENTS AND NAVIGATION - NAVIGATION VHF SYSTEMS
ANTENNAS LOCALIZATION

62
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

INSTRUMENTS AND NAVIGATION - NAVIGATION VHF SYSTEMS

*DC-9 Series 10’s and 30’s*

FREQUENCY SELECTOR. FREQUENCY SELECTOR.
Selects the second and third Selects the fourth and fifth
digit of VOR / LOC digit of VOR / LOC

VOR (1 & 2 ) WINDOW FREQUENCY
Shows selected frequency of the
VOR/LOC NAV 1 and 2 systems.

COURSE INDICATOR
Shows the Selected
Course.

COURSE SELECTOR
Is used to adjust the *DC-9 21, 41 and 51*
desired course
indicator.
FREQUENCY HEADING SELECTOR FREQUENCY
SELECTOR. (NAV 1) Is used to adjust the SELECTOR. (NAV2)
Selects the VOR1 / desired heading indicator Selects the VOR2 /
LOC Frequency LOC Frequency

NAVIGATION VHF SYSTEMS - DISTANCE MEASURE EQUIPMENT (DME)

DME1 INDICATOR
Shows distance in nautical miles between one
ground station and the airplane in the NAV 1.
A flag covers the distance indicator when this
information is unusable.

DME2 INDICATOR
Shows distance in nautical miles between one
ground station and the NAV 2.
A flag covers the distance indicator when this
information is unusable.

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

INSTRUMENTS AND NAVIGATION - ADF SYSTEM
DC – 9 Series 10’s and 30’s
ADF WINDOW FREQUENCY
Shows selected frequency of the ADF
system.

ADF FREQUENCY SELECTORS
Selects the ADF Frequency
Right – Selects Thousand and hundreds.
Center – Selects Tents
Left - Selects Units

ADF SYSTEMS - DC – 9 Series 21, 41 and 51

ADF1 ACTIVE FREQUENCY ADF1 STANBY FREQUENCY ADF2 ACTIVE FREQUENCY
Shows selected Active (FSX ONLY) Shows selected Active
frequency of the ADF system. Shows selected standby frequency of the ADF2
frequency of the ADF system. system.

ADF1 ACTIVE FREQUENCY ADF1 STANBY FREQUENCY ADF2 ACTIVE FREQUENCY
SELECTOR (FS 9 Only) SELECTOR (FS X Only) SELECTOR
Selects the ADF1 Active Selects the ADF1 Standby Selects the ADF2 Active
Frequency Frequency Frequency

64
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

INSTRUMENTS AND NAVIGATION - TRANSPONDER XPNDR

TRANSPNDER CODE
WINDOW
Shows the selected transponder
code by the selector knobs.

Click Spot Thousands
(+ and -) Click Spot Integers
(+ and -)

Click Spot Hundreds Click Spot Tens
(+ and -) (+ and -)

INSTRUMENTS AND NAVIGATION - RADIOALTIMETER

RED FLAG
DECISION HEIGHT FLASH Will appear when the radio-
LIGHT altimeter indications isn’t
When ignites, indicates that reliable or when the instrument
minimum decision altitude is out of operation
has been reached

MINIMUM DECISION
ALTITUDE SELECTOR BUG

MDA CONTROL KNOB
NEEDLE INDICATOR Turning it, controls and set the
Hidden at altitudes higher MDA bug in the selected
than 2,500 feet. minimum decision altitude

65
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

INSTRUMENTS AND NAVIGATION - ALTITUDE ALERT

ALTITUDE DIGITAL SCREEN
Adjustable from 0 to 52,100 feet.

ALTITUDE SELECTOR KNOB
Turning to select the desired
altitude

66
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

FLIGHT MANUAL
CHAPTER 9

ENGINES

GENERALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
ENGINE START . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
THRUST REVERSER SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
ENGINES CONTROLS AND INDICATORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
- ENGINE INSTRUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
- THRUST COMPUTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
- CAUTION LIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
LIMITATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

67
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

GENERALS

The aircraft is equipped with two Pratt and Whitney JT8D Series rated at 14,000 to
16,000. The engines are equipped with a reverse thrust system.

The accessories installed and impelled on each engine are:

A 40KVA generator installed on the CSD

Hydraulic Pump

Generator Tachometer (N1)

Generator Tachometer (N2)

Fuel control and pump

Pneumatic march.

ENGINE START

Any engine could be started using ground pneumatic plant or by the pneumatic
supply of the auxiliary power unit. Once an engine is operating, the opposed one,
could be started, using the pneumatic cross feed system

THRUST REVERSER SYSTEM

The reversers are used only in ground.
The static thrust developed by the engines, is about of 40% of the forward thrust.
The reversers are actuated hydraulically, with deploying time of 2 seg. Each
reverser consists on two reflectors oriented vertically, which, when they are stored,
form part of the aft engine cowling. When are extended, directs the exhaust gases
to up and down of the engine.

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

ENGINES - ENGINES CONTROLS AND INDICATORS

Reverse Handles (left, right)
Pulling back it deploys the reversers and
push reverse is obtained.
Reverse thrust can only be selected when
the forward thrust levers are in idle position

Throttle Handles (left, right)
Each throttle is connected by wires to their
respective unit of fuel control to regulate
engine push.
The thrust levers can only be advanced if
the reverse thrust levers are down

IGN SWITCH ENGINE START SWITCH
OFF – Systems de energized (L & R)
GRD START CONTIN – ON – Closes the circuit to
Provides ignition of 20 joules energize the solenoid of the
of AC to the exciters when march valve(controlled
the fuel control handle is set. electrically, operating
OVRD - Provides ignition of pneumatically). When the
20 joules of AC to the exciters march valve opens 5º the
over passing the fuel control START VALVE OPEN ignites
handle. in the annunciator panel. The
valve directs the pneumatic
pressure to the turbine march

FUEL HEAT SWITCH
ON – Is used to prevent or PNEU PRESS INDICATOR
remove filtrated ice in the Indicates the available
Engine’s fuel. pneumatic pressure for
FUEL HEAT ON Ignites starting engines. Should have
during the time that is being a pressure fall, when the
energized. march valve opens

ENG REVERSE UNLOCK ENG REVERSE THRUST
Ignites when the reversers Ignites when the reversers
are unlocked and extending are totally extended.

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

ENGINES - ENGINES CONTROLS AND INDICATORS
ENGINE INSTRUMENTS
RAT INDICATOR ENG PRESS RATIO N1 INDICATOR (L & R) OIL PRESS INDICATOR
For description (L & R) Indicates the RPM of the (L & R)
refer to ENGINES Pressure measured in N1 compressor. The Indicates the oil pressure in
– CONTROLS the engine entry small dial is graduated in the distribution lines,
AND (PT12) and exit of the incremental of 1%, together main oil filter
INDICATORS – same(P17) is marked from 0 to 9. The
THRUST transmitted to the EPR Exterior dial is graduated
COMPUTER instrument . The in increments of 2%
difference between the marked each 10%, from OIL TEMP INDICATOR
entry and exit is the 0 to 100. The tachometer (L & R)
thrust measure systems are auto Indicates the oil temp
developed by the generated that has not passed by
engine the fuel/oil radiator.

FUEL TEMP INDICATOR
Indicates the fuel temp OIL QTY INDICATOR
ahead of the hot air-fuel (L & R)
exchanger Indicates the usable oil
quantity in the tank.
Expressed in Quartz
N2 INDICATOR (L & R)
Indicates the RPM of the
N2 compressor. The
small dial is graduated in
FUEL FLOW INDICATOR incremental of 1%, EXH TEMP INDICATOR
For description refer to Fuel marked from 0 to 9. The (EGT) (L & R)
chapter Exterior dial is graduated Indicates in centigrade
in increments of 2% degrees the temperature
marked each 10%, from of the exhaust air
0 to 100. The tachometer (TT7).The face is
systems are auto graduated in increments
generated of 20ºC, from 0ºC to
860ºC
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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

ENGINES - ENGINES CONTROLS AND INDICATORS
THRUST COMPUTER

RAM AIR TEMPERATURE
(RAT)

NOTES: RIGHT WINDOW
1.- The EPR limits on this scales Shows the Engine pressure
does not make adjust by engine ratio for maximum ascend o
anti-ice and/or lost by ice maximum continuous thrust.
protection in the surfaces See Notes

2.- To adjust the MCR in the JT8D
at altitudes below 1500 feet or
above of 20,000 feet, use the RAM AIR INDICATORS
MCL scale selected in the (Joined mechanically)
NORM1
SELECTOR KNOB
NORM 1 – STA TO Static
takeoff to the Left and MCL
LEFT WINDOW Maximum Climb to the right.
Shows the Engine pressure ratio NORM 2 - MCR (Max Cruise)
for static takeoff or flight takeoff. to the left and MCL to the
White numbers are the EPR. right
Amber numbers indicates the EMER - FLT TO (Flight Take
EPR limitation for the showed off) to the left and MCT (Max
altitude. Continuous Thrust) to the
right

ENGINES - ENGINES CONTROLS AND INDICATORS
CAUTION LIGHTS

START VALVE OPEN LIGHT (L & R) FUEL HEAT ON LIGHT (L & R)
Ignites when the butterfly march valve opens 5 or Ignites when the engine air purge cut valve
more opens to the air-fuel heat exchanger

OIL STRAINER CLOGGING (L & R)
Ignites when the differential pressure through the
main engine oil filter is 35 lb/in or less.
MASTER CAUTION LIGHT ignites too.

OIL PRESS LOW (L & R)
Ignites when engine oil pressure is 35 lb/in or
less. MASTER CAUTION LIGHT ignites too.

INLET FUEL PRESS LOW (L & R) FUEL FILTER PRESS DROP (L & R)
Ignites when pressure fuel supply is Ignites when differential pressure in the main fuel
approximately 5 lb/in or less. MASTER CAUTION system is approximately 5 lb/in or less. MASTER
LIGHT ignites too. CAUTION LIGHT ignites too.

71
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

ENGINES - LIMITATIONS

ENGINE THRUST
The takeoff thrust levels, maximum continuous and Maximum ascent are established by EPR appropriate
values for the ambient pressure and engine total entry temperature conditions.

OPERATIONAL LIMITS
OPERATIONAL Maximum rotor
CONDITIONS MAX. Observed Minimum oil Oil Temperature
TIME LIMIT speed
EGT ºC pressure Lb/In ºC
(RPM)
Takeoff 5 min 650 40 130 N1 N2
2min 660 40 130
Maximum cont. Continuous 610 40 130

12250 RPM
8800 RPM
Maximum Ascent Continuous 610 40 130

(102.4 %)

(100 %)
IDLE Continuous 480 + 40 130
Starting:
- In Ground Momentarily 550
- In Flight Momentarily 650
+ Applies when is using some air purge or thrust extraction

OPERATIONAL MARCH CYCLE
Standard Alternate
90 seconds set 90 Seconds Set
5 minutes off 10 minutes off
30 seconds set 60 seconds set
5 minutes off 10minutes off
30 seconds set 60 seconds set
The sequence can continue The sequence can continue

IGNITION
The engine ignition is not included in the FAA limitations, However, observance of the following cycle work will
increment the life and will help to prevent damage to the equipment
SELECTOR POSITION CYCLE WORK
GROUND START/OVRD 10 Minutes set
(20 AC JOULE) 10 minutes off

ANTI ICE

THE ENGINES ANTI ICXE MUST BE SET DURING TAKEOFFS IF THERE IS ICE FORMATION
CONDITIONS OR IF FORESEING THIS.

REVERSERS
REVERSE USE DURING TAXI OR IN FLIGHT IS NOT ALLOWED

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

FLIGHT MANUAL
CHAPTER 10

PNEUMATIC

GENERALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
AUGMENTATION VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
CROSSFEED VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
CONTROLS AND INDICATORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
LIMITATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

73
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

GENERALS

The Pneumatic system is divided in two identical systems. Each system is
designed to operate independently or in parallel.

Is used and pneumatic purge for the engine starting, ice protection, air conditioning
and pressurization.

The pneumatic for the engines starting is supplied by the APU or by pneumatic
equipment on ground. For the start of the opposed engine, can be done by the
pneumatic purge from the engine already started.

The Pneumatic is obtained from the air purge from the 8a and/or 13a compressor
stage from both engines. Normally the engine purge supplies the demands of its
respective air conditioning systems.

AUGMENTATION VALVE

An augmentation valve on each system regulates automatically the flow of the 13th
stage inside the system, when the pressure of the 8th stage is not high enough to
satisfy the demands of the air conditioning system. During DE-ICE system
operation , the augmentation valve operates as a temperature control valve.

CROSSFEED VALVE

The cross feed valve are controlled manually from the flight deck by means of two
handles located in the aft part of the pedestal. This valves serves to direct the
pneumatic supply from the APU or Ground plant to one or both engines during
starting, or from one engine to another when one engine is used to starting the
other. Directs the air for one or both engines to ice protection system and to the air
conditioning system.

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

PNEUMATIC - CONTROLS AND INDICATORS

RED ARC YELLOW ARC

PNEUMATIC PRESS INDICATOR
Indicates the pneumatic pressure
on the cross feed multiple

PNEUMATIC PRESS INDICATOR
(PNEU PRESS)

CROSSFEED PNEUMATIC HANDLES
The handles for the operation of the
Cross feed valve (Left and Right)
They are of the type of multiple
adjustment and can be left in any
position. Since totally closed to totally
opened, As required

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

PNEUMATIC - LIMITATIONS

RED ARC YELLOW ARC

PNEUMATIC PRESS INDICATOR

Yellow Arc ……………………………………….0 – 20 Lb/In2
Red Arc………………………………………..82 – 100 Lb/In2

Minimum Pressure for Ice protection………………………20 Lb/In2
Maximum operational Pressure…………………………….82 Lb/In2

NOTE: Pressures between 0 and 50 Lb/In2, with the Cross feed handles
Closed are considered –normal-

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

FLIGHT MANUAL
CHAPTER 11

AUXILIARY POWER PLANT

GENERALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
CONTROLS AND INDICATORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

77
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

GENERALS

The auxiliary power plant (APU) is a self contained gas turbine installed on the
aircraft with the primary purpose of supply electrical power and pneumatic for the
air conditioning and engine starters, else energy for the normal operation of the
electrical systems while de aircraft is in the ground. The unit can be started and
operated on flight as alternate electric. The APU is installed in non pressurized
area of the bottom of the fuselage behind the pressure bulkhead.

The APU is feed from the fuel of the right tank. The Starting pump or any right or
central fuel pump which is operating, will supply fuel to the auxiliary plant. The APU
can be feed also with by any left fuel pump if the fuel cross feed handle is in one
position.

A fire detector system, with the same characteristics as the engine fire detection
system, is installed in the APU.

The APU has a 40Kva generator. The electric energy to starting the APU is
provided by the aircraft battery. The air purge for the engine starting and the
operation of the air-conditioning system is obtained in a port in the turbine collector
chamber of the APU.

The starter and fire controls are situated on the APU control panel, in the overhead
panel.

It has a circuit to provide 1minute automatic warming when the APU is starting,
independently of the air purge position switch, and 1 minute for the automatic
cooling after the master switch is set to off.

A switch control for the doors allows the automatic selection in order to position of
the air intakes doors. The switch is set in AUTO for all normal conditions of Starting
and operation.

The APU fuel control is automatically. The extraction of the pneumatic energy is
regulated by a load control valve, controlled by a pneumatic thermostat which
regulates the fuel flow as the APU load requires. The APU generator demand has
priority over pneumatic extraction.

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

AUXILIARY POWER PLANT - INDICATOR AND CONTROLS

APU EXHAUST GAS APU RPM % INDICATOR
TEMPERATURE Outer face is calibrated until 100% and has a green arc which comes from 95 to
(In ºC) 105% to indicate a normal operational range. The small face is calibrated 1/10
from the external face.
NOTE: It can not be obtained energy from the generator until RPM reaches
95%

FIRE AGENT SWITCH AIR SWITCH
In OFF the circuit do not discharges In OFF position de energizes the
the FIRE extinguishers bottles. In control circuit of the APU air purge
DISCH closes the circuit and valves.
discharges the extinguisher agents, In ON completes the electric
if the FIRE CONT is in APU OFF & circuit of the APU air purge valve,
AGENT ARM position providing pressure air to the
pneumatic system after the APU
RPM passes 95%.
FIRE CONT SWITCH
NORM position completes the APU DOOR SWITCH (INOP)
master circuit switch. AUTO Position (Locked) It Selects
In OFF & AGENT ARM shut offs the automatically the doors in RAM for
fuel supply and arm the FIRE starting and NON-RAM for ground
AGENT Switches for manual operation and flight.
discharge of the fire extinguisher OFF opens the door control circuit
agent

APU MASTER SWITCH
START - position momentarily completes control circuits RUN - retains all the circuits that was started in the
of the APU air intake doors, arm the shutdown relay of START position with exception of the starter portion of
110% of over speed, complete the APU march circuits, the march circuit. When it reaches 95% of the RPM the
which is maintained closed until the 35% switch is de- more than 95% switch de-energizes the ignition and
energized or the switch is passed manually to OFF, open energize the hour counter and the 95% R.P.M. retention
the fuel tank solenoid valve, arms the more than 95% relay, which arm the air purge switch and the pneumatic
switch, energize the amplifier of the fire detector, arm the solenoid valve for the shut down.
external APU fire switch, arm the oil pressure sequence OFF - Position de-energizes the circuit of both fuel
switch in such way that the ignition and fuel, are provided solenoid valves, which closes, de-energize the hour-
when the APU oil pressure reaches 2 lb/in or counter, arm the closing air intake doors control of and
approximately 5% R.P.M. isolate the starting and ignition systems

APU OIL TEMP HI LIGHT
Acted by a thermal on the APU Oil
tank when the Oil temperature
reaches approximately 123.9ºC
(255ºF)
APU FIRE LIGHT
Acted by a signal
of the fire
protection system.
APU OIL PRESS LOW LIGHT
Actuated by a APU oil pressure
switch when the pressure is
between 35 and 45 lb/in. Light
must be ignited on APU starting
and should off during Starting

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

FLIGHT MANUAL

CHAPTER 12

ICE & RAIN PROTECT

GENERALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
ICE PROTECT IN ENGINES AND CONTROL SURFACES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
PROBE HEAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
COMPONENTS LOCALIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
CONTROLS AND INDICATORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

GENERALS

Ice protection systems uses hot air and electric resistance for anti ice, defog and
de-ice. The rain removal is made it by chemical repellent and the windshield wipers
electrically operated.

The air purge of anyone of the engines provides hot air for Anti ice of: Slats, air
probe pipes and for De-Ice of stabilizer’s leading edge. Separated systems control
the Anti-ice on the compressor blades and the nacelle.
A system of ducts of crossed feeding allows that the heating of the leading edge of
the wing is provided by one or both engines.

Electrical resistance are used for De-Ice of the pitot tubes, static ports, Stall
sensors and the TAT.

ICE PROTECT IN ENGINES AND CONTROL SURFACES

When one or both AIRFOIL switches and their associated valves of feeding
crossed of pneumatics are acted; the system of protection against ice of the
surfaces, provides heating to Slats, Strakes, and to the blower pipe of impact of the
conditioned air in flight.

The protection against ice for the engines is provided by independent systems,
controlled by located individual switches in the board of DE-ICE protection. Each
system provides protection against ice to its respective engine, nacelle and fan.

PROBE HEAT

Operation of the probe heat system is fully automatic. Power to the electrically
heated probes is applied any time an engine is running.

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

ICE & RAIN PROTECT - COMPONENTS LOCATION

82
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

ICE & RAIN PROTECT - CONTROLS AND INDICATORS

AIR FOIL L SYS AND R SYS SWITCH WINDSHIELD SWITCH
Acts the shutoff valve and pressure regulator of the ice protection, allowing the Controls the heat for
air purge of the engine 8th stage supplies with hot air the anti ice system. Also Windshield anti ice and
activates the augmentation valve of the corresponding system, allowing that defog for the central
windshield, and heat for the
opens the necessary to rise the temperature in the ducts between 232 and direct vision and upper
254ºc.The switch can be set in ON in one or both at a time. windows

HEATER CUR ENGINE L OR R SWITCH
Monitor the current ON – Opens the regulator
flow en in the circuit and anti ice shutoff valves
selected by the of the respective engine,
METER SEL & admitting air of the purge of
HEAT. The normal the 8th purge to the guide
operational value is blades of the compressor
from 2 to 10 units. entry and the bullet. Also
Depending of the opens the shutoff valve of
selector position. the nose hopper, admitting
air of the 13th stage to the
nose hopper.
METER SEL & HEAT SELECTOR TAIL BUTTON OFF – Shutoff
When the selector moves from the OFF position, Pressing it, closes the shutoff
all the heating circuits are energized. The selector valve of the ICE protection of the
provides DC energy to the PITOT probe heaters wing and opens the ice protection
and AC energy to the Static ports to the RAT shutoff valve of the Tail for 2.5
probe, to the stall probe and heater to the rudder minutes, after, it returns the hot air
limiter Pitot probe. During ground operations does to the wings
not supply energy to the RAT probe

WING ANTI-ICE ON LIGHT L OR R ENG ANTI-ICE TAIL DE ICE ON LIGHT
Indicates anti ice hot air has been ON LIGHT Indicates De ice hot air has been
selected to for the wing leading Indicates engine anti ice selected for the leading Edge of
edge system switches are ON. the horizontal stabilizer
Note: When any valve
opens no matter position
AIRFOIL ICE PROT PRSS AB of the switch, the light PITOT HEATER OFF LIGHT
LIGHT ignites. Ignites to indicate that the METER
Indicates low pressure or SEL & HEAT selector is in off
unbalanced in the wing, or low position or if the selector is in
pressure in the leading Edge on other position, indicates loss of
the horizontal stabilizer electric energy to the resistances
from one or more pitot probes or
stall sensors. MASTER CAUTION
lights ignites too.
ICE PROTECT TEMP LOW
Indicates temperature in the ICE PROTECT TEMP HIGH
pneumatic crossfeed duct is on or LIGHT
below 199ºC (390ºF). This Indicates temperature of the
indicates that temperature is too delivered air in the cross feed duct
below due a low engine thrust or a is above 265ºC (510ºC), indicating
failure in the respective a failure in the temperature control
temperature control system. system.

L OR R RNG VALVE LIGHT ICE PROTECT SUPPLY PRESS HI LIGHT
Indicates discrepancy between any of the 3 anti Indicates an excessive pressure in the ducts due
ice valves and the switch position. a failure in the anti ice pressure regulator valve

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

FLIGHT MANUAL
CHAPTER 13

FIRE PROTECTION

GENERALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
FIRE INDICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
ENGINE FIRE INDICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
APU FIRE INDICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
FIRE EXTINTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
CONTROLS AND INDICATORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

84
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

GENERALS

The fire protection system provides de media to detect and extinguish fire on the
engines, APU compartment besides to immediately alert the crew by audible and
visual indications. The system consists in components of: detection, extinction and
indication of fire and electric circuit.

The system is double, has two separate fire detection circuits (LOOP A and B) and
an individual control on each area. Even with an inoperative detection circuit
(LOOP) in an area, the aircraft can be dispatched or continuing the flight with the
other operative circuit.

FIRE INDICATION

It has fire alarm indication on the flight deck by MASTER WARNING light, the
corresponding light of each engine and APU, a fire bell and a fire alarm speaker.

ENGINE FIRE INDICATION

The Engine fire alarm lights are located in the Fire extinguisher handle (R & L ENG
FIRE) which are on the upper panel. The handle are red, of transparent material,
which illuminates when the lights ignites.

When a fire condition is detected on an engine area, the respective fire handle
ignites and fire bell will sound.
The Bell sound will be silenced automatically when the fire extinguisher handle is
pulled.

APU FIRE INDICATION

It has red fire alarm lights of the APU, are located on the anunciator panel and
APU ground control panel. MASTER WARNING will ignites together with a APU
fire detection system signal.

FIRE EXTINTION

The Extinguisher system consists in a fixed system and a portable. The fixed
counts with 2 extinguisher bottle agents, distribution lines control circuit a low
pressure indication lights

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

FIRE PROTECTION - CONTROLS AND INDICATORS

FIRE AGENT SWTICH
When They are set in DISCH position discharges
the extinguisher agent to the APU

APU FIRE CONT SWITCH
NORM – Closes the circuit f the APU Master switch
for normal operation.

OFF & - Shutoff APU and closes the FIRE AGENT
AGENT circuits for the subsequent discharge of
ARM the fire extinguisher agent.

APU FIRE Light FIRE DETECTOR LOOP
Illuminates by a signal of the Light ignites when any Light of the
APU FIRE detection system. Engine Fire detection Panel
ignites.

AGENT 1 LOW or AGENT 2
LOW LIGHTS
Will ignites when the pressure of
the applicable agent extinguisher
bottle will be less than 275 lbs/in
approximately.

FIRE EXTINGUISHER HANDLES LOOPS A or LOOP B
(LEFT & RIGHT) TEST BUTTON
Each handle provides the fire When a Test button is
alarm and protection indication for pressed, sends a false
the respective engine. Light inside alarm signal to the
the handle ignites by a signal of respective circuits, and
the fire detection circuit and the if the (LOOPS)
test circuit. Pulling the handle, will selector is on the
silence the fire bell horn, shut off corresponding
the generator control relay, the position, The LOOP
fuel and hydraulic supply and applicable lights
closes the pneumatic crossfeed FIRE BELL OFF SWITCH “MASTER WARNING”
valve. Turning the handle to the Silence the FIRE alarm sound ENGI FIRE, APU FIRE
left or right, will discharge the when is pressed. and FIRE DETECTOR
extinguisher agents No 1 or No 2. LOOP will ignites and
Fire bell will sound.

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

FLIGHT MANUAL
CHAPTER 14

LANDING GEAR

GENERALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
NOSE GEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
NOSE GEAR BAY DOOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
MAIN LANDING GEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
MAIN COMPONENT LOCALIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
VISUAL VERIFICATION OF POSITION OF THE LANDING GEAR LOCK . . 90
CONTROLS AND INDICATORS
FLIGHTDECK & BRAKES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
NOSE WHEEL STEERING CONTROL BRAKES & ANTISKID . . . . . . . . . . . 92
MINIMUM TURNING RADIOS
- DC-9 Series 10’s and 21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
- DC-9 Series 30’s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
- DC-9 Series 41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
- DC-9 Series 51 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

87
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

GENERALS

The airplane counts with a conventional landing gear tricycle type. When is
retracted, stays fully covered by doors. This are actuated hydraulically and
mechanically.

The landing gear is acted by the landing gear handle installed on the first officer
panel. Can be extended by free fall using an emergency extension handle, located
on the floor, right to the pedestal.

The undercarriage is retracted by hydraulic pressure from the right system and can
be extended and locked by pressure of the right hydraulic system, by pressure of
the alternate system or by free fall. When free fall is used, the main landing gear
doors, operated hydraulically, will not close

An a visual and audible system, provides electrically an indication of the landing
gear position and its doors.
A tail skid is located in lower aft section of the fuselage to prevent structural
damage, if this would have contact with the runway.

NOSE GEAR
The set of the nose gear consists of two installed double wheels of a steerable
strut. The nose gear is insured in the extended or retracted position by a centered
mechanism. During the normal operation, the mechanism of trim unlocks
hydraulically to allow to the extension and retraction of the gear.

NOSE GEAR BAY DOORS
The cover of the nose gear well, consists in four doors, two in the front and two
back. These operate mechanically and by the movement of nose to gear during the
extension and retraction. The front doors remain closed when the nose gear is
extended, but it can be opened for maintenance operations.

MAIN LANDING GEAR
The airplane has two sets of landing to gear compounds, by two double wheels,
mounted on a shock absorber. Each set locks in extended position by trim
mechanism.

Once main gear is retracted, will be sustained by hydraulic pressure as long as the
hydraulic pumps are operating to 3000 PSI. If the pumps operate to 1500 PSI,
main gear will rest on the doors. If there’s not enough hydraulic pressure to the
extension of gear, the locks of the doors of main to gear can loosen with the handle
of extension of the emergency gear.

88
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

LANDING GEAR - MAIN COMPONENT LOCALIZATION

89
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

LANDING GEAR - VISUAL VERIFICATION OF POSITION OF THE
LANDING GEAR LOCK

90
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

LANDING GEAR - CONTROLS AND INDICATORS
FLIGHTDECK & BRAKES

LDG GEAR GREEN LIGHTS
Illuminates when landing gear handle is
down and the gear is down and locked.

GEAR DOOR OPEN LIGHT
When ignites indicates the main gear
doors are not completely closed, or the
landing gear valve is on derivation and
there is no available pressure to close
completely the doors

GEAR UNSAFE RED LIGHTS
Indicates an unlocked landing gear condition. Will remain illuminated unless the landing gear
condition (totally down or totally up) concords with the selected position of the control handle.

LANDING GEAR HANDLE
UP - It positions the control valve to retract the landing gear
hydraulically. It activates the alarm system of the gear until is
retracted totally.

UP LATCH CHECK - Provides media in order to verify landing
gear doors are locked and the nose leg is locked. All the
indication lights must remain off

DOWN - It positions the control valve to unlock hydraulically,
extend and locks the landing gear. It activates the alarm system
of the gear until this one extends and it assures totally.

LANDING GEAR RELEASE BUTTON
Allows to unlock the anti-retraction and set the landing gear
control handle in UP position, in case of the air-ground changer
mechanism fails after takeoff

BRAKES MANOMETERS L & R
Provides indication of the available pressure in any of the
hydraulic Systems for brakes application.

BRAKE SELECTOR HANDLE
Allows to select any or both hydraulic Systems to the operation
of the brakes. The handle is retained in Left or right positions.
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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

LANDING GEAR - CONTROLS AND INDICATORS
NOSE WHEEL STEERING CONTROL BRAKES &
ANTISKID

A nose wheel steering wheel is installed on the left sidewall.

PARK BRAKE CONTROL
In order to set parking brakes,
press the pedals, rise the
knob and release the pedals. STEERING WHEEL
When the parking brakes are Provides directional
set, this can be released control over the
pressing any pair of pedals. nose wheels during
ground operations
NOTE: If the throttles are set
to takeoff position and the
parking brakes are set, the
take off alarm sounds.

PARKING BRAKES ON LIGHT RUDDER BRAKE PEDALS
Ignites when the parking brakes Pushing the full pedal turns the nose wheel up to 15
are set. When the brakes are no degrees in either position.
set and the light is on, indicates Pushing the top of the pedal actuates the wheel
a failure on the ANTI-SKID brakes.

ANTI-SKID LIGHT
OFF – ANTI SKID system is
inoperative. The foot pressure over the
pedals, controls the hydraulic pressure
over the brakes. 4 ANTI-SKID lights
on.
NOTE: The OFF position is also used
CIRCUIT TEXT SWITCH
to cycling the system. If any anti-skid
OFF – Test circuit inoperative
light remains ON with the switch in
A or B positions are duplicated
AMR position must be set in OFF and
circuit test. Anti-skid lights should
return to ARM to cycling the system.
ignites with the switch in any of this
ARM – After the wheel turns, the anti-
positions. Before the test, the ANTI-
skid system will measure the hydraulic
SKID Switch should be in ARM
pressure on the brakes, resultant of
position to activate the system and
the pressure applied to the brakes.
the parking brakes should be
The Anti-skid system will watch the
released.
wheels speed to provide maximum
cooling without skidding until
approximately 20 knots. ANTI-SKID
lights OFF

ANTI SKID LIGHTS
The corresponding Light will ignites to indicate a failure on
the antiskid protection of the specific wheel.
All light will remain on if the Arm switch is in OFF position,
or while the parking brakes are set.

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

LANDING GEAR - MINIMUM TURNING RADIOS
DC-9 Series 10’s and 21

93
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

LANDING GEAR - MINIMUM TURNING RADIOS
DC-9 Series 30’s

94
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

LANDING GEAR - MINIMUM TURNING RADIOS
DC-9 Series 41

95
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

LANDING GEAR - MINIMUM TURNING RADIOS
DC-9 Series 51

96
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

FLIGHT MANUAL
CHAPTER 15

AUTOMATIC FLIGHT

CONTROLS AND INDICATORS
FLIGHT DIRECTOR INDICATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
AUTOPILOT CONTROLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

NORMAL OPERATION
SERVOS ENGAGE AND PITCHING MANEOUVERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
VOR AUTOMATIC CAPTURE WITH AUTOMATIC PILOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
AUTOMATIC ILS APPROACH WITH AUTOMATIC PILOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

97
DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

AUTOMATIC FLIGHT - CONTROLS AND INDICATORS
FLIGHT DIRECTOR INDICATOR

BANK INDEX AND
SCALE
AIRCRAFT SYMBOL
BANK ATTITUDE
INDICATOR

FLIGHT DIRECTOR BAR
Presents the flight director as RADIO HEIGHT INDICATOR
it was adjusted in the mode Connected to the radio
selector. altimeter on the same side to
NOTE: Is not visible when provide rising runway display.
there is a failure Starts to indicate at 200ft and
will touch the symbolic main
gears of the aircraft symbol at
touch down
PITCH ATTITUDE
KNOB
Can be used to manually TURN & BANK
adjust horizon sphere in
pitch

AUTOPILOT MODE
ANUNCIATOR
HDG SEL LIGHT ALT HLD
HDG SEL switch is in Vertical speed wheel is
ON position in ALT HOLD position

V/L ARM LIGHT G-P ARM LIGHT
Autopilot armed to Autopilot armed to
automatically capture automatically capture
the VOR or Localizer the Glide path

V/L CAP LIGHT G-P CAP LIGHT
Autopilot has captured Autopilot has captured
the VOR Localizer the Glide Path

AUTOPILOT OFF YAW DAMPER SWITCH
LIGHT ON –Energizes the lineal servo
Ignites when of the rudder axis to control in
abnormal the yaw axis, damping the yaw
condition tendency in controlled flight,
disengages the automatic or manual way. The
autopilot, except Yaw damper will activate, no
when the wheel matter the position of the switch
switch is used to when the autopilot is engaged.
disengage it. OFF – Damper will be
deactivated when the autopilot
is disengaged, by the SERVOS
ENGAGE/DISENGAGE or by
autopilot servo switch,

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

AUTOMATIC FLIGHT - CONTROLS AND INDICATORS

TURN KNOB (INOP) HDG SEL SWITCH
Primary control of the AFCS; allows Locks the directional control of the
to start manually changes to the aircraft to the compass heading,
heading. A block system disengages as selected and with the Turn
automatically any other lateral Knob in center position.
control when the knob is moved
from center position.

SERVOS ENGAGED DISENGAGED
Engages the autopilot
VERT SPEED CONTROL
Allows the insertion of the control of
vertical Speed in the automatic pilot
ALT HOLD position (central
position) maintains the existing
altitude. The approximately vertical
speed relations are indicated on the
wheel.

PITCH SELECTOR NAV SELECTOR
Select the desired mode on the pitch Allows radio selection to control the
axis. Aircraft.
MACH HOLD – The Mach number DOP – This position engages lateral
existing at the time of engagement is navigation, Engages VOR/LOC and
maintained by corrections in pitch GPS, follows the GPS plan
attitude previously loaded on the flight
IAS HOLD – The speed existing at the planner.
time of engagement is maintained by NAV LOC – Provides automatic
corrections in pitch attitude capture and maneuvers along of the
VERT SPEED - Allows the vertical path of the VOR or Localizer.
speed control by the VERT SPEED TURN KNOB – (INOP)
Wheel or by a Glide path deviation ILS – Arms the automatic ILS
signal. capture system.
PITCH HOLD – Maintains the current MAN G/P - Same as ILS, except
pitch attitude in the moment of engaging. autopilot start capture of the glide
path.
NOTE: PITCH HOLD can be engaged
anytime always that the pilot is not under
command of some glide path.

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

AUTOMATIC FLIGHT - NORMAL OPERATION
SERVOS ENGAGE AND PITCHING MANEOUVERS

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

AUTOMATIC FLIGHT - NORMAL OPERATION - VOR Automatic Capture
With Automatic Pilot (SHEET 1 )

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

AUTOMATIC FLIGHT - NORMAL OPERATION - VOR Automatic Capture
With Automatic Pilot (SHEET 2 )

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

AUTOMATIC FLIGHT - NORMAL OPERATION - Automatic ILS Approach
With Automatic Pilot (SHEET 1 )

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

AUTOMATIC FLIGHT - NORMAL OPERATION - Automatic ILS Approach
With Automatic Pilot (SHEET 2 )

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DC-9 OPERATIONS MANUAL

Greetings

Sky Simulations would like to thank the support, effort of all the people that help or
contribute in any way on the development of this product.

We also like to thank to all of our customers for helping us increase realism and
professionalism of our products and our company, without you we are nothing.

The information contained on this manual should not be altered in any way.

COPYRIGHT © 2009 
SKY SIMULATIONS ® 
All Rights Reserved MMIX 
www.skysimulations.com 

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