You are on page 1of 20

Journal of Textile Engineering & Fashion Technology

Auxetic Textile Materials - A review

Abstract Review Article

Auxetic textiles are materials which possess negative Poisson’s ratio, this Volume 1 Issue 1 - 2016
implies that in contrast to conventional textile materials if they are stretched in
longitudinal direction, a marginal expansion will results in transversal direction. Hong Hu* and Adeel Zulifqar
Auxetic textile materials have become a point of focus for many researchers in
Institute of Textile and Clothing, Hong Kong Polytechnic
recent past years. This paper reviews the achievements in the area of auxetic University, Hong Kong
textile materials including fibres, yarns, fabrics and textile reinforcements for
composite applications. It is aimed that this review will be helpful for future *Corresponding author: Hong Hu, Institute of Textile and
advancement in the area of auxetic textile materials. Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom,
Hong Kong, Email:
Keywords: Auxetic; Negative poisson’s ratio; Textile structures; Fibres;
Reinforcements Received: August 04, 2016 | Published: September 14, 2016

Introduction
εy
Auxetics are materials that have a negative Poisson’s ratio. ϑ= − (1)
The term auxetic was derived from the Greek word (auxetikos) εx
which means “that which tends to increase” by Evans K [1] of the
University of Exeter. In contrast to most conventional materials, Where ε is the axial strain and ε is the transverse strain.
x y
auxetic materials possess the property that becomes fatter when
The Poisson’s ratio is an elastic constant and is independent
stretched and narrower when compressed as shown in Figure 1.
of the material scale. Therefore auxetic materials can be
This occurs due to their hinge-like structures, which flex when
single molecules or a particular structure of macroscopic to micro
stretched. It is claimed that auxetic materials have enhanced
level [11-17]. The known naturally and manmade auxetic materials
mechanical properties like shear modulus, energy absorbance,
include metals, silicates, zeolites, laminates, gels, composites foams
vibration damping, sound absorption and sync-elastic behavior [2-
and polymers [18-35]. These materials are incorporated as core
10].
materials to produce sandwich panels, to reduce creep buckling
The Poisson’s ratio υ is calculated using the following equation failure, drug release systems, vibration damping and energy
1. absorbance textiles [36-40].

Figure 1: (a) Auxetic Material (b) Conventional material

Auxetic fibres and polymers developed liquid crystalline polymer (LCP). The arrangement
of laterally attached rods in a main chain of LCP is shown in
Alderson K et al. [19] produced a micro porous form of ultra- Figure 2a. The nematic field leads to orientation of the laterally
high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), capable of attached rods parallel to the polymer chain axis. Under tensile
exhibiting large negative Poisson’s ratios as low as -1.2 depending stress as shown in Figure 2b, full extension of the polymer main
on the degree of anisotropy in the material. Liu P et al. [32] chain forces the laterally attached rods normal to the chain axis

Submit Manuscript | http://medcraveonline.com J Textile Eng Fashion Technol 2016, 1(1): 00002

Copyright:
Auxetic Textile Materials - A review ©2016 Hu et al. 2/20

leading to an expansion in the direction normal to the chain (230 °C) profile and gradually decreased the temperature to 210
axis and hence to auxetic behavior. It is important to consider °C until the viscosity of the powder bulk was too high to allow
that the laterally attached rods should be sufficiently long, in free flow through the die-zone. An important consideration for
order to increase the inter-chain distance and ultimately induce the production of auxetic fibres is maintaining the minimum
the auxetic behavior. Alderson A et al. [36] produced polymeric draw ratio and viscosity of the powder bulk. Therefore, the
monofilaments displaying auxetic behavior. The produced viscosity, take up speed and screw speed are critical factors which
filaments had a microstructure of interconnected surface-melted influence the production of auxetic fibres. The take up speed
powder particles. The structure and deformation mechanisms at during extrusion has direct impact on screw speed and optimum
the micro scale, rather than at the molecular level (as compared to processing conditions for extrusion could only be achieved at a
conventional filaments extruded from a fully molten polymer) are screw speed of 0.525rad/second with minimum take up speed of
responsible for enhanced mechanical properties, including the 0.075m/second. The fibres produced at 225 °C with screw speed
auxetic effect. In another study produced auxetic poly propylene 0.525 rad/second and take-up 0.075 m/second were found to
fibres by using thermal processing technique [18]. A large value exhibit auxetic behavior. They have an in-phase length–width data
of Poisson’s ratio (v = -0.6) was obtained when measured by using as shown in Figure 3. It can be observed that the width increased
video extensometry. A novel method to produce auxetic polyester as the length increases in response to the applied force along the
fibres have been reported by Ravirala N et al. [41]. The polyester length of the fibre. Similarly, the width decreased as the length
granules were grinded by using an in-house cryogenic grinding decreased on removal of the tensile load. Thus the fibre was
and particles of less than 150µm were collected to carry out the confirmed to be auxetic.
extrusion. The extrusion was carried out at higher temperature

Figure 2: Liquid crystalline polymer (LCP), Figure 3: Width–length data for polyester fibers processed
arrangement of main chain [32]. at temperature of 225°C [37].

The auxetic fibres have great potential to be used in fibre shrinking filament with relatively high modulus of elasticity
reinforced composites. Unlike conventional fibre and matrix such as modified cellulosic fibres e.g. cotton or rayon. The other
material which undergo lateral contraction in both the matrix component is an elastic material of lower modulus of elasticity
and fibrous materials during axial loading, leading to failure at the for example siloxane. The fibre is straight in its dry state with no
fibre-matrix interface, auxetic fibres could maintain this interface tensile load. When the fibre is in wet state the moisture sensitive
at higher tensile loads provided that the radial expansion of the shrinking component shrinks and a pulling force is applied along
auxetic fibres to the radial contraction of the conventional matrix to the elastic component causing it to deform and form helices
is carefully matched. Nevertheless, other mechanical properties and pores are created as shown in Figure 4. When the load (tensile
like, strength and very high modulus are essential in order to or due to shrinking in wet state) is applied along the length of
replace conventional fibres with auxetic fibres in these and the auxetic fibre the wrapped component gets straight and the
other applications. More advanced work is required in order to diameter of helices formed by the elastic components is increased
increase the range of the materials that can be finished in auxetic especially in areas where pores are created. The elastic component
fibre form together with the development of predictive models of auxetic fibres undergoes opposite displacement in y-direction
to understand the deformation mechanisms leading to auxetic as compared to the displacement of the elastic component of the
behavior in fibres. adjacent auxetic fibre. These opposite displacements cause the
thickness of material to be increased leading to auxetic behavior.
Auxetic yarns The important consideration in development of such yarn is
Lee et al. [42] invented an auxetic yarn which not only responds that there must be sufficient difference between the modulus of
to external force, but also responds to moisture by using moisture elasticity of the materials for two components. Further, the auxetic
activated shrinking filament. The invented fibre is a combination moisture sensitive yarn can only be produced by arranging two
of two components, one component is a moisture sensitive component sat different handedness.

Citation: Hu H, Zulifqar A (2016) Auxetic Textile Materials - A review. J Textile Eng Fashion Technol 1(1): 00002. DOI: 10.15406/jteft.2016.01.00002

110dtex) textured nylon wrap. The negative Poisson’s ratio value was observed a PR of . When the filament is stretched the high-stiffness performed using a Lloyd Instruments’ EZ20 testing machine. Hook et al. as core fibre and Polyamide as wrap fibre to produce DHY. The Miller et al. wrap material must be of an order of magnitude stiffer than the the lower the strain at which the auxetic mechanism activates. It was also reported that the of this behavior could be obtained. Tensile tests were behavior. When the longitudinal stretch is applied the stiffer wrap However. The wrap material used was a twisted ultra-high molecular yarn demonstrated different behavior as a function of design weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibre (220 dtex) and the core variables and by varying the initial wrap angle in manufacture an material used was a polyurethane (0. readily strained to above 20% by a human. the core and the wrap fibre on the auxetic behavior of the helical yarn. In filament straightens itself causing the lower stiffness filament to order to determine strain at different extension intervals. the manufacturing process of the The HAY yarn type C was consisted of Stretchline21 covered Citation: Hu H. resulting in the difficulty to make very regular yarn produced helical auxetic yarn(HAY) yarn as shown in Figure 6 and in twist.18mm core.15406/jteft. The lower the wrap angle. 4. J Textile Eng Fashion Technol 1(1): 00002. Bhattacharya like’ fabrics. [46] the core yarn. In thicker.9M pixel) produced by using the conventional wrap spinning technology. with a 2/ 110/34 filament is wrapped helically around a comparatively thicker (2 ends of 34 filaments.5% strain. and Image J public domain image processing software. The second one is its low yarns structural stability since used them for production of narrow woven fabrics into ‘bandage. As shown in Figure 7. the stiff wrap can easily get loose after extension. Copyright: Auxetic Textile Materials . The HAY yarn type B was consisted of a UK Sewing They developed four kinds of yarn samples with two types of stiff Services EL/M128 1mm diameter covered rubber core. B and C respectively.55 wrap as shown in Figure 5b.64 mm diameter) core with additional design freedom in order to vary the strain dependence an approximate wrap angle of 70°.01. yarn. Ge et al. including the effect of their relative moduli. They Although a number of applications can be explored using the HAY.2016.2. Three et al. This construction exhibits auxetic wrap angle of 45 °C was used for type B and C.A review ©2016 Hu et al. while embedding itself into the core fibre.00002 . and a yarns and two types of soft yarns using an especially built-up Rex H Perkins20 ring spun PET 16/1 (630dtex equivalent) wrap. [48] developed novel auxetic plied yarn structure. Each 5a. The yarn consists of two components. prototype. [43] have used a technique in which a high-stiffness rubber 3-end (2 wrap. The and low-stiffness filament.1. initially straight elastomeric core fibre as shown in Figure that way the Poisson’s ratio of the HAY was estimated. 1 core) 0. Such type of multifilament auxetic yarn can be resolution CMOS camera (Edmund Optics EO-5012C. Sloan et al. only yarn type C demonstrated dependence of Poisson’s becomes a helix with zero pitch and the thicker core becomes a ratio upon strain and achieved negative Poisson’s ratio value at helix with internal diameter equal to the diameter of the stiffer 12. [44] produced an auxetic yarn known as double helix effective diameter of the HAY at any given strain was determined yarn (DHY). when the up to 30% engineering strain. The thicker core performs two functions. The produced DHY yarn exhibited at 19. images helically wrap around it and a net increase in the width of the yarn were captured at corresponding time intervals by using a high- can be achieved. The strain-dependent changes in cross- the wrap. have concluded that the starting wrap angle of the yarn has the some intrinsic structural drawbacks could be found. [45] has suggested the use of Poly urethane section must also be taken into consideration during the analysis. The critical design parameters to stretch is applied it causes lateral deformation and on removal of manufacture HAY are the stiffness of the component fibres and the stretch it acts as a return spring to resume the original helix in initial helical wrap angle. thus decreasing the auxetic 6/110/34 textured nylon was used as wrap over a range of effect. wrap angles. 3/20 Figure 4: The moisture sensitive auxetic yarn [42]. and found that The HAY yarn type A was consisted of a UK Sewing Services19 an elevated difference in component moduli causes the wrap fibre 2mm diameter black covered rubber ‘shock cord’ core. a relatively by producing a negative binary image with help of Image J Line thin but stiffer fibre is wrapped helically around a compliant. [47] recently studied the effect of the interaction between HAYs were fabricated named A. Wright et al. DOI: 10.A review.3% engineering strain and maximum negative value of -1. The first greatest effect on auxetic behavior both in terms of the magnitude drawback is that the stiff wrap can easily slip along the surface of and strain range over which it may be observed. Zulifqar A (2016) Auxetic Textile Materials . Width variable in conjunction with a calibrated pixel count.

It can be found that the Poisson’s ratio stage due to yarn slippage effect. the axial strains of working area and is wound on a bobbin. Figure 6: Geometry of the helical auxetic yarn [46]. Although the geometric analysis can well predict Poisson’s ratio as a function of the axial strain obtained from the the variation trend of the axial strain. DOI: 10. it cannot well predict the experiment and calculation for four kinds of auxetic yarn samples Poisson’s ratio of the auxetic yarn structure in the initial extension are shown in Figure 9. J Textile Eng Fashion Technol 1(1): 00002.01.15406/jteft.2016. The four types of the auxetic yarn structure calculated are lower than those from auxetic yarns developed are shown in Figure 8. two important processing parameters which should that the calculated results from the geometric analysis are close be carefully controlled during the manufacturing process to to the experiment ones. The values of radial strain calculated are much higher rotating disc and the taking-up speed of the auxetic yarn.00002 . Copyright: Auxetic Textile Materials .A review ©2016 Hu et al. than those from the experiment in the initial extension stage. The reason area of the prototype. These results confirm that by considering the yarn slippage effect is further required. Citation: Hu H. except in the initial extension stage where assure the quality of the yarns are the twist and yarn tension. It was found Additionally. The the variation trends between the experiment and calculation are twist of yarn can be adjusted by changing the rotation speed of the opposite. In the first step. Figure 7: Manufacturing process of the novel auxetic Figure 8: Photographs of the auxetic yarn samples yarn structure [48]. The two soft yarns and two stiff yarns are alternately arranged and fed absolute Poisson’s ratio values calculated in the initial extension from the bobbins fixed onto a rotating circular disc to the working stage are much higher than those from the experiment. fabricated [48]. the proposed plied yarn structure has auxetic effect.A review. In the second step. Zulifqar A (2016) Auxetic Textile Materials . the fed yarns are twisted may originate from yarn slippage effect taking place between the together by rotating the circular disc and the auxetic plied yarn stiff yarns and soft yarns in the initial extension stage. Figure 5: The double helix yarn [44]. which structure is formed at point A. a mechanical analysis values of all four samples are negative. As the yarn slippage effect could not be taken In the third step. Therefore. The curves of the experiment. 4/20 auxetic plied yarn structure includes three steps. results in higher axial strains of the auxetic yarn structure in the experiment. the twisted yarn is taken away from the in consideration in the geometrical analysis.

This yarn must be placed between the stitch wales in They combined the principles of geometry. stability in the fabric structure. Stiffness ratio of two wrap around the straightened high stiffness filament as shown in yarns is also an important parameter to be considered. supplied by Unifi Inc. fabric structural the knitting direction to insure that the fabric structure will retain characteristics and conventional elastic yarn to engineer hexagonal the required configuration after relaxation.A review ©2016 Hu et al. The factor which becomes fully aligned causing the open loops of lower stiffness influences the Poisson’s ratio is the displacement of core unit size Citation: Hu H. It is also necessary to employ Auxetic knitted fabrics: Ugbolue et al produced knit structures a highly elastic yarn (polyester-covered Spandex) in the base made of conventional yarns by using chain and filling yarn inlays.01. a high denier polyester yarn enclosed with one end of 40 denier Spandex stiffness filament is inlaid around the under lap loops Figure 10a. Auxetic properties can the auxetic property. a high elastic yarn must be used in the base be observed in the resultant structure by mingling two or more of structure and filling yarn must be laid between neighboring wales these wales in some suitable manner as shown in Figure 10c. It Upon stretching the high stiffness filament get straight and becomes is also important to consider that yarn type is the most important fully aligned causing the open loops of lower stiffness filament to factor which influences the auxetic effect. J Textile Eng Fashion Technol 1(1): 00002. Copyright: Auxetic Textile Materials . 5/20 Figure 9: Poisson’s ratio as a function of the axial strain [48]. Also. A low in stiffness yarn manufactured by DuPont was used as ground and a 150 and thick filament was used for open looped wales while.A review.00002 . minimum of five or six guide Upon stretching the high stiffness filament get straight and bars are needed to produce such knit structure.15406/jteft. The to wrap the interludes of the ground loops and provide better resultant functional auxetic knit structure is shown in Figure 10d. A 250 denier polyester knit structures with negative Poisson’s ratio [49]. structure. Zulifqar A (2016) Auxetic Textile Materials . DOI: 10. was used as a high elastic inlaying element.2016. Auxetic fabrics filament to wrap around the straightened high stiffness filament exhibiting the auxetic behavior. To achieve Figure 10b exhibiting the auxetic behavior.

each parallelogram changes its inclined position structure.01. the number of the courses and wales connected together side to side in a zigzag format as shown is not the same. It was also observed that the PR values The development was based on a geometrical analysis of a new firstly decrease and then increase with an increase of the axial three dimensional structure that can yield negative Poisson’s ratio strain (until 240%) because of very high folded effect and high (auxetic effect). When stretched either in horizontal or vertical In this regard. DOI: 10. a range of auxetic knitted fabric The auxetic effect was observed only in one principal direction has been produced by using weft flat knitting technology [50. Therefore such kinds of loading. the number of the stripes in a unit cell knitted auxetic fabrics by using conventional yarns.2016. the folded knitted fabrics are direction is higher than that when extended in the wale direction. 15/1Nm 100% lamb’s wool yarn was used to knit the fabrics shown in Figure 12b (free State) and Auxetic knitted fabrics developed based on foldable 12c (stretched state). this factor is not taken into the strain for both directions. This may affect the auxetic effect of the fabric. which increases more transverse increase their differences with the theoretical calculation results. the axial strain increase is faster than in the transverse fabrics are suitable for applications which require auxetic effect at strain due to the yarn transfer from the transverse direction to higher strain values. Hong H et al. 6/20 that depends on chain course numbers and the Poisson’s ratio conventional yarn types and computerized flat knitting machines. According can be found that the auxetic effect when extended in the course to the experimental observation. Unlike the first development the directions. geometries to induce auxetic behavior in knitted fabrics by using Figure 10: Warp knit structures from wales of chain and in lays yarn [49]. when designing an auxetic fabric with this kind of direction. This is The combinations of face and reverse loops in alternate fashion due to the fact that larger tricot courses lead to longer length of were employed in rectangle form.A review ©2016 Hu et al. more difficult to open at the beginning of stretching.15406/jteft. exactly like the structure shown in Figure 11a. Also. opening of the whole structure by increasing its dimensions in both the horizontal and vertical directions. The knitting pattern is shown in Nm yarn provided by Novtex Woolen Spinners (Macau) Limited. This auxetic effect comes from state). Therefore. rotating rectangles and reentrant hexagons account during design of this kind of fabric. The knitting can become broader during stretching. Copyright: Auxetic Textile Materials . knitted auxetic fabrics. They employed can affect the auxetic effect of the fabric and must be taken into foldable structure. which direction) because of less folded effect produced in this fabric. Figure 13a. in this development. auxetic effect of this fabric was achieved in a smaller range of the axial strain (45% in the course direction and 62% in the wale It is found that all of the fabrics have the auxetic effect. 30/2Nm 100% mercerized wool yarn was used to knit When the fabric is extended along the course direction. However. the width the fabrics shown in Figure 13b (free State) and 13c (stretched in the warp direction increases. in Figure 11a. Therefore. It is necessary to formed with parallelogram planes of the same shape and size point out that in a unit cell. The knitted fabric was in a planar form in structures: A folded structure can be unfolded when stretched on machine state which became folded in off machine state due in one direction this principle was used to create a range of weft to structural disequilibrium of the face loops and reverse loops. They employed a three-dimensional structure strain is needed to totally open this folded fabric.00002 .51]. It decreases with increasing strain in the course direction. the auxetic The second development of folded structure was an auxetic effect is observed while the shape and size of the parallelogram fabric based on arrangement of the face and reverse loops in planes remain unchanged. [52] developed a series of weft the axial direction. The yarn used was a 100% wool 2/28 horizontal and vertical stripes. It can In addition. Zulifqar A (2016) Auxetic Textile Materials . expansion effect when extended along the course direction. which results in an taken into consideration. This difficult The reason is that the stripes along the wale direction are closer opening behavior can reduce the auxetic effect of the fabrics and than in the course direction. pattern is shown in Figure 12a. the thickness of the fabrics also has a significant also be found that the auxetic effects decrease with an increase of influence on the auxetic effect. unit sizes with larger vertical rib used to change between the face and reverse loop. Citation: Hu H. the number of courses and wales in a unit cell should be related to the surface plane of the structure. This is because with an increase of consideration in the geometrical analysis. J Textile Eng Fashion Technol 1(1): 00002. values decrease as the number of tricot courses increase. The loop transfer method was vertical rib values.A review. the auxetic effect can be obtained the opening of the folded structures in both course and wale in two principal directions. For this development. Recently.

15406/jteft. DOI: 10. 7/20 Figure 11: (a) Three-dimensional structure. triangles [55]. (a) Knitting pattern (b) fabric at the free state (c) fabric at the stretched state [52]. Auxetic knitted fabrics developed based on rotating connected together at their vertices by hinges is demonstrated rectangles: Several studies have revealed that an auxetic effect in Figure 14. Figure 12: Auxetic fabric formed with the arrangement of face and reverse loops in rectangular forms.01. (b) unit cell (c) Knit pattern (d) Stretched state of the knitted fabric [50].2016. (a) Knitting pattern (b) fabric at the free state (c) fabric at the stretched state [52].2 machine was used to knit these fabrics Citation: Hu H. Copyright: Auxetic Textile Materials . rectangles [54].00002 .5. rhombi [56] and process is shown in Figure 14a. Figure 13: Auxetic fabric formed with the arrangement of face and reverse loops in horizontal and vertical stripes. One such example based on rigid rectangles and Stoll CMS530 E3. an can successfully be induced by using rotating units such as auxetic fabric was produced by Hong H et al.A review ©2016 Hu et al. [52]. J Textile Eng Fashion Technol 1(1): 00002. 15/2Nm 100% lamb’s wool yarn parallelograms [57]. Based on the same geometrical arrangement.A review. Zulifqar A (2016) Auxetic Textile Materials . The knitting squares [53].

The elastic rubber yarn was also to make them connected together at their vertices. The schematic of knitting process is shown auxetic effect rises with increase of the strain and the auxetic in Figure 16a. As unlike in whole fabric structure shown in Figure 16b (free State) and 16c model the rectangles in knitted structures are not freely rotated (stretched state). Whereas the measured auxetic on a real reentrant structure produced by using racking and effect decreases with an increase of the strain. the calculated intarsia techniques. Copyright: Auxetic Textile Materials . the auxetic effect in the whole structure is achieved.2016. At the same time. DOI: 10. Conversely. which leads to an increase of points are very limited due to loop connection. In order to avoid unraveling and laddering. It was also found that the trend for calculated and measurement based on this geometrical arrangement. the diagonal ribs 1–5. (a) Schematic presentation of knitting process (b) fabric at the free state(c) fabric at the stretched state(d) Poisson’s ratio vs.00002 . horizontal direction. Therefore. the calculated Auxetic fabrics developed based on reentrant hexagonal auxetic effect rises with an increase of the strain and the structure: A number of studies have revealed the potential of calculated auxetic effect is much higher than that measured. The elastic yarns used to connect through the racking process based on the Cardigan structure. However. the the distance between point 5 and 6 in transverse direction as a length of each rib side of the fabric can be easily deformed under result. The out. the rotations around the connecting move to the horizontal disposition. 3–6 and 6–4 will in case of knitted fabric. In addition their shape can be structure was used to connect the two neighboring pinstripes. empty needles with an interlock structure can be easily carried Figure 14: Auxetic fabric formed with rotating rectangles. in an interlock structure because an interlock structure has good the fabric knitted only has the auxetic effect when extended in the structure stability. The use of elastic rubber in knitting process. J Textile Eng Fashion Technol 1(1): 00002. while others remain out of action but keep or yarn for connecting the rectangle units can increase the recovery do not keep the loops on them. Another The binding-off technique was used to close the last knitting problem is the slippage effect of the yarns in the knitted structure. the interlock free rotation of the rectangles. The rectangle units were knitted capacity of the structure after release from extension.A review.A review ©2016 Hu et al. [52] successfully developed two kind of auxetic fabrics the calculation and measurement of the real knitted fabric. The zigzag shape for each pinstripe was realized around vertices under loading. The Citation: Hu H. a It was also found that the trend for calculated and measured simple geometrical model with rigid rectangles cannot be used to Poisson’s ratio are totally opposite. The first one was based Poisson’s ratio are totally opposite. As explained previously. prediction and measurement of the knitted fabric. The partial employed to knit the first course of each unit and to connect the knitting is a technique during which some needles are involved neighboring units in the course direction. Zulifqar A (2016) Auxetic Textile Materials . When a all sides of the re-entrant hexagon are assumed to be rigid and reentrant hexagonal structure of this kind is stretched in the can be freely rotated around their connecting points.15406/jteft. The the rectangles can increase the axial deformation and the knitting intarsia technique was used to knit each separated pinstripe with yarn passing from one rectangle to the next rectangle limits the an individual yarn carrier. 5–2. strain [52]. Whereas the auxetic effect predict the auxetic effect of this kind of the fabric. In addition. the binding-off knitting technique employed was partial-knitting to continuously technique was used to close the last course of each unit using a knit individual rectangle units along the course direction and high power elastic rubber yarn. easily changed to the parallelograms in knitted structure. This reentrant hexagonal geometries in order to induce the auxetic phenomenon can be explained by the fact that in the calculation behavior. course of each connecting band. One such geometry is shown in Figure 15. Hong loading. 8/20 shown in Figure 14b (free State) and 14c (stretched state). The knitted fabric exhibited the All these lead to the different variation trends between the model auxetic effect when extended in the fabric forming direction. measured decreases with an increase of the strain.01. the first knitting course on course direction. 24/2Nm 100% acrylic yarn was used to knit the effect calculated is much higher than that measured. All these lead to the different variation trends between H et al.

Copyright: Auxetic Textile Materials . DOI: 10.A review ©2016 Hu et al. Figure 16: Auxetic fabric formed with real reentrant hexagonal structure. the former reentrant hexagonal auxetic fabric. An triangular and double arrowhead geometries as shown in Figure 18-gauge machine was used.2016. The auxetic effect is produced due to hinging as shown in for the auxetic component were mono-filament PES (0. based on component and the other as the stabilizing component. effect when extended in the wale direction only. J Textile Eng Fashion Technol 1(1): 00002. the calculated auxetic effect rises yarns used for the face side and back side were 24/2Nm 100% with an increase of the strain and the calculated auxetic effect acrylic yarn and KN 20/70 DuPont Lycra yarn. The yarn effect is achieved due to shrinkage of the float elastic yarns on slippage effect within the fabric structure can also increase the the back of the fabric. Unlike. (a) Schematic presentation of knitting process(b) fabric at the free state(c) fabric at the stretched state [52].15406/jteft. which lowers the auxetic effect of the fabric. The is much higher than that measured. one as the auxetic knit textile structures using conventional wool yarn.01. While the section relief ridges form the upper and due to closed fabric structure. Conversely. The knitted fabric exhibited the auxetic measurement of the real knitted fabric. Different reentrant hexagonal geometrical axial strain. two lateral sides side of the fabric can be easily deformed under loading. this entrant hexagon are assumed to be rigid and can be freely rotated fabric is a close structure. the length of each rib lower horizontal sides of each reentrant hexagon. The reentrant hexagonal geometrical around their connecting points. respectively. In addition. It was also found Figure 15: Reentrant hexagonal structure. Whereas the auxetic effect measured decreases elastic yarn. Auxetic knitted fabrics developed based on double arrow order to realize the geometry of double arrowheads the fabrics head structure: Alderson K et al.A review.25mm) and one for the stabilizing Citation: Hu H. The with an increase of the strain.15mm) Figure 18a. In and mono-filament PES (0. Three types of fibres were used. 9/20 second auxetic fabric was a pseudo-reentrant hexagonal structure that the trend for calculated and measured Poisson’s ratio are produced using sectional relief ridges in the combination with totally opposite. two 18a. in case of knitted arrangement is achieved by both sectional relief ridges and float fabric. leading to opening of the network of arrowheads. Zulifqar A (2016) Auxetic Textile Materials . This phenomenon can be fabric is shown in Figure 17b (Free State) and 17c (stretched explained by the fact that in the calculation all sides of the re- state).00002 . [58] developed auxetic warp were produced by employing two components. All these forms could be obtained by changing the yarn float length and lead to the opposite variation trends between the calculation and relief effect precisely. the rotations around the connecting points are very limited elastic yarns. The knitting process is shown in Figure 17a.

The spacer fabrics depends on the tensile direction and value of tensile V-shape was achieved by employing a transfer pattern. Since the Poisson’s ratio is independent component. thus producing a capable of continuing to expand and. and angle formed between when the stress on the fabric is removed. that both fabrics exhibited conventional behavior.A review. Three geometrical parameters. The ribs were named as short which will make the stabilizing component to act as a return ribs and long ribs. where a strain. The modulus of the fibres of the auxetic The fabric was based on the geometrical structure formed component must be sufficiently high as compared to the by linking together parallelograms of same shape and size to resistance to rotation of that fibre about its vertices. DOI: 10. for this type of fabric.22 and -0. Figure 21 shows that although the short and long ribs have auxetic geometry into a knitted fabric. When the sample extended along stabilizing component was knitted in a tricot stitch with both Y-axis and transverse measurements were observed across the closed and open stitches by using a set of four guide bars as X-axis.and y directions but shown auxetic behavior when tested novel geometrical structure that is based on parallelograms of at_45° and +45° with values of (-0. The auxetic effect decreases with to the left onto a central stitch between each block as shown in increase of the tensile strain. Zulifqar A (2016) Auxetic Textile Materials . therefore it was assumed that the fabrics with the similar geometrical configuration should have similar auxetic Glazzard M et al. The changes in each transverse as shown in Figure 18b. Second fabric with tricot knitted spacer fabrics by using conventional yarn as shown in stitches retains its auxeticity with all Poisson’s ratio values being Figure 20a with negative Poisson’s ratio. of material scale. the fabric behaves linearly elastic up to the spacer fabric two face layers are joined together by monofilament 10% of applied strain. were used to determine the geometrical of the fabric will be dominated by the modulus of the stabilizing feature of the structure. The closer fabric structure will have the higher to the surface. Firstly. 10/20 component was double coated lyrca and the stitch pattern which showed interesting results exhibiting expansion in both X- was realized using four guide bars set. the transverse measurement increases up to an extension shown in Figure 18c. the types of fibres used for the auxetic component and knitting machine equipped with six yarn-guide bars. It was reported that the stretching of the measurement again. This rotation forces the re-entrant triangles of the auxetic nature of the double arrow head stitch structure this becomes less component to take the shape of regular triangles. the stabilizing and Y-axes. This modification was aimed to produce a of 50 mm and then the fabric starts to reduce in its transverse more isotropic fabric. There is no doubt that 0010. The resistance is dependent on the knit these auxetic warp knitted spacer fabrics on a double warp pattern.13) for the first and same shape and size to engineer three-dimensional auxetic warp (-0.A review ©2016 Hu et al. with neighboring parallelogram. In addition. the relative properties of the fibres of the auxetic and stabilizing components. It is formed with two parallelograms which are stretching or buckling. a Lycra yarn with a single polyamide covering were used under tension. The knitting technique employed was a change in auxetic effect is small if compared with the rotations of combination of relief and transfer structures as shown in Figure ribs. modulus of the auxetic component and A post fabrication heat treatment process was also carried elasticity of the stabilizing components are critical considerations out in order to fix the geometrical configuration as designed. [59] had also translated double arrowhead effect. This specific sample was chosen for repeat testing Citation: Hu H. Similarly. 400D/96F non-auxetic the modulus of the fibres of the stabilizing component and the polyester multifilament for face layer and 0.e. The modulus of the fabric is defined by spacer yarns as middle layer [60-62].. J Textile Eng Fashion Technol 1(1): 00002. owing to the unfolding vertices.01. Therefore. The repeating unit is shown force the shapes of the auxetic component to deform rather than in Figure 20c.2016. Therefore. when tested in Auxetic warp knitted spacer fabrics: Wang Z et al Adopted a the x. the lengths of ribs could be changed. The results for fabrics produced revealed begins to behave as a conventional fabric.12mm non-auxetic resistance of the fibres of the auxetic component to the rotation polyester monofilament for middle layer were used to produce about their vertices. In this 3D warp knitted negative. the modulus the short and long ribs ɵ. As one of the advantages of auxetic Figure 19b. this for this development. However. In another variation the first fibre of the measurement were observed. Only an initial auxetic effect is achieved fabric is caused by the stretching of the stabilizing component when the sample extended along the X-axis and expansion was and by rotation of the fibres of the auxetic component about their measured along the Y-axis nevertheless. the geometrical configuration as above technology to produce auxetic knit structures that were a designed was successfully achieved in the structure of the face combination of several rows of face stitches and then several fabric layers.13) for the second fabric. The geometrical parameters have an obvious effect on the 19a. i. They used weft knitting different thicknesses. length of spring forcing the auxetic component back to its original shape the short rib l1. length of long rib l2. and the lowest auxetic effect is obtained when the next row another block of stitches was transferred one space stretched in the warp direction. once unfolded completely it negative Poisson’s ratio. The highest auxetic effect is obtained when stretched in block of stitches was transferred one space to the right and on the weft direction. the elasticity of the fibres of the arranged in a V form.02 and -0. The relief pattern was chosen to impart three-dimensionality auxetic behavior. The auxetic effect of the structure mainly comes rows of reverse stitches. The images of produced samples were calibrated and component was knitted by using open loop stitches and the bases measured to give the lengths of each transverse line as shown in of the triangles knitted into the fabric using closed loop stitches Figure 19c as the vertical lines.00002 . Each parallelogram was consisted of six stabilizing component must be sufficiently high as compared to ribs which are separated by connecting points of parallelogram the resistance of the fibres of the auxetic component to rotation. Copyright: Auxetic Textile Materials . The auxetic behavior of this auxetic warp knitted several rows of reverse stitch in the structure (purl rib).15406/jteft. As there are several rows of face stitch and then auxetic effect. which will form a V as shown in Figure 20b. A 14 gauge Stoll CMS knitting machine from the rotations of ribs around their connecting points when and using multiple ends of Zimmermann Ultralastic 3772X- a tension is applied to the fabric structure.

A review. Figure 18: (a) Triangular or double arrowhead auxetic topology (b) stitch pattern for fabric with open and closed loop stitches (c) stitch pattern for fabric with tricot stitches [58].A review ©2016 Hu et al.00002 .15406/jteft. Copyright: Auxetic Textile Materials . The auxetic effect non-auxetic and auxetic warp-knitted spacer fabrics were placed of warp knitted spacer fabrics tends to be stabilize after the second on a spherical surface formed with a diameter of 100mm. J Textile Eng Fashion Technol 1(1): 00002. That composite parts. In order to check this shape fitting ability. both will affect its performance during repeated use.2016. One possible solution to increase the covers the spherical surface due to the formation of the dome retention ability of auxetic effect of auxetic warp knitted spacer shape indicating that it has much better shape fitting ability than fabric might be the use of yarns with high elastic recovery ability conventional spacer fabric which has a saddle shape. One of the problems to be encountered curvature under bending condition. 11/20 fabrics over conventional fabrics is their excellent shape fitting makes them very suitable for various applications where shape ability on a curved surface due to the formation of synclastic fitting is highly required. Zulifqar A (2016) Auxetic Textile Materials . This is very important for by an auxetic fabric is the loss of its auxetic effect under repeating the fabrics to be molded into different shapes for garments or tensile loading due to imperfect elasticity of textile materials.01. Figure 17: Auxetic fabric formed with pseudo-reentrant hexagonal structure. DOI: 10. (a) Schematic presentation of knitting process (b) fabric at the free state (c) fabric at the stretched state [52]. It was tensile cycle and about 65% of its auxetic effect is retained even observed that the auxetic warp knitted spacer fabric perfectly after 10 cycles of extension. This ability to knit face fabric layers. Citation: Hu H.

A review.A review ©2016 Hu et al. was used as the wrap material and the core material used was However. with the weft being the DHY and the ratio of 0.00002 . J Textile Eng Fashion Technol 1(1): 00002.(b) Diagram showing movement of the stitches in the pattern and the resultant deformation of the course shape to give the V-shped effect (c) Image showing sample in test frame and Cell^B software marking 11 transverse measurements [59]. causing an out W et al. 12/20 Figure 19: (a) Diagram showing stitch structures that can be altered to produce auxetic effects. The DHY yarn plane overlapping the sample was retested whilst having the was woven out of register to maximize the auxetic behavior as Citation: Hu H. Copyright: Auxetic Textile Materials . Zulifqar A (2016) Auxetic Textile Materials . [44] they used a double helix yarn.64 mm diameter) core with an approximate of plane thickness of the sample increased.01. Figure 20: Sketch of geometrical structure [60]. A twisted ultra-high of plane negative Poisson’s ratio and losing the in plane auxetic molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibre (220 dtex) behavior.06 was demonstrated. an out of wrap angle of 70° for production of DHY. DOI: 10. on stretching due to the fibres overlapping the out a polyurethane (0. Therefore. The textile structure was plane negative Poisson’s ratio but an in plane positive Poisson’s woven using a plain weave. In order to prevent the out of warp being a meta-aramid fibre (approx 475 dtex). It was observed that the yarns in the woven be used as reinforcement for composite was produced by Miller fabric were able to overlap each other out of plane.2016. Auxetic woven fabrics: An auxetic woven textile structure to shown in Figure 22.15406/jteft. Figure 21: Realization of auxetic effect due to rotations of ribs [60].

9M pixel) and Image J public domain image processing “single threads.A review ©2016 Hu et al. Plain woven fabric along with twill woven of images into Image J software. The Image/ Threshold facility fabric exhibited most auxeticity and satin pattern is statistically was used to identify and mark the open areas and the Measure significantly less auxetic. 2 /2 twill and 3/5(3) satin pattern. The determined by producing a negative binary image by using the weft density used was set 9 threads /cm. The spike in the graph weft material and weave geometry. 1100dtex geometrical parameter which greatly influences the behavior natural. material effect and effect of number of filaments. 4. They have used handle more corresponding with conventional bandages. This is largely a function of the choice of was observed. The effective diameter of the HAY at any given strain was multifilament yarn of 72 Tex with preventive twist for wrap. It out of plane negative Poisson’s ratio is achieved for this fabric. for example by inserting a on the out of plain negative Poisson’s ratio. The limitation of this fabric is that only out-of-plane negative Poisson’s ratio as shown in Figure 26b. fabric C wrap. In order to determine strain at different extension plain. multifilament PET yarn was used as weft with a density of fabric in terms of lateral expansion or contraction. However. structure for ideal pore opening effect and for auxetic effect by The HAY was consisted of Stretchline21 covered rubber 3-end study of these two fabrics only. 30% strain was observed. Further investigation in terms of (2 wrap. A single-ply plain woven narrow fabric having be investigated for better understanding of relationship among width of 25mm was produced. The first tubular fabric which contained red filler yarns as shown in Figure fabric named as “Fabric-B” as shown in Figure 24 was produced 26c. It was aimed to produce fabrics which gave a drape and yarns in warp to produce auxetic woven fabrics. The wrap angle of 45 plies on the negative Poisson’s ratio and pore opening must also degrees was used. creating a Two types of bandage like woven fabrics were produced. crimp of Citation: Hu H. under 0 N and 80 N tension respectively. Additionally. as shown in Figure 23. The pore-opening effect was the changes occurred in the structure of three fabrics due to also measured by analyzing the images. Probably. This procedure is described in detail by Sloan M et al. would be expected that a more elasticated weft or higher weft However. different woven structures which can provide thickness crimp can give rise to a negative in-plane Poisson’s ratio for the constraints (for example multilayered structures with outer fabric. warp tension. the fabrics were tested Image J Line Width variable in conjunction with a calibrated pixel on dynamometer In stron and images were captured at interval count. Tensile hand weaving loom to produce three kinds of woven fabrics tests were performed using a Lloyd Instruments’ EZ20 testing with the HAY in weft direction. The second fabric named as “Fabric-C” shown in it is very difficult to idealize the suitable material and weave Figure 25 was also produced by using HAY in the warp direction. elastic band having fineness of 922 Tex and two ply polypropylene [45]. DOI: 10. produced auxetic woven fabrics using helical auxetic yarns (HAY). Under tension the by using HAY in the warp direction. J Textile Eng Fashion Technol 1(1): 00002. both of the fabric has totally different structures and a Rex H Perkins20 ring spun PET 16/1 (630dtex equivalent) as fabric B is a 2-ply plain woven narrow fabric while. No direct association between load Longer the floating threads less will be the auxetic behavior and open area was found. thereby causing a thickening of the fabric and thus an the video extensometry.00002 . The weave pattern chosen were machine.15406/jteft. and in that way the Poisson’s ratio of the HAY (or fabric) of every 10th second by using a CCD camera. It was also observed that the distribution of the pores is layers as thickness constraints and central layer comprising of inhomogeneous with more opening in the center of the fabric HAY yarns) can be investigated in order to achieve an in plane due to greater density of yarns near the edges. fabric. Auxetic behavior of woven fabrics Figure 26a.01. It is also possible negative Poisson’s ratio. Wright JR et al. including the out-of-plane (thickening) effects. The core was industrially produced polyester software. Therefore. The open area of the deformation process at about 40% of their deformation during fabric-C for a range of strains was measured by loading a series the straining process. Copyright: Auxetic Textile Materials . Fabric B was modified by removing the binder thus. Monika V et al. 550dtex PET was used as weft with a density of 12picks/ [63] used helical auxetic yarn in weft direction and poly propylene inch. ends. 13/20 thickness constrained between two glass plates at constant warp and weft. Two ply multifilament intervals images were captured at corresponding time intervals polypropylene yarn of 72 Tex was used as warp with a density by using a high-resolution CMOS camera (Edmund Optics EO. The warp density was 48 warp different parameters and negative Poisson’s ratio. with a 2/ 110/34 (2 ends of 34 woven structural effects. it is obvious that woven narrow fabric having width of 20mm was produced. The pore-opening effect in Fabric C at approximately is likely to be influenced by floating threads in a woven structure. A 2-ply plain is a single ply plain woven fabric. Figure 28 illustrates –0. Finally Poisson’s ratio values for the strain range 15–40%.18mm core. 110dtex) textured nylon wrap.1 ratio for all strains. The image analysis was estimated. The HAY was consisted of a UK red color of the filler is exposed through the open pores of the Sewing Services EL/M128 1mm diameter covered rubber core. of 14picks/inch. allowing warp yarns to appeared is due to vibration of the camera equipment used in overlap. NIS Elements was used for analysis.A review. It was also observed that less auxetic facility used to report the percentage of open area as shown in behavior caused less porosity. woven structures other to exploit the pore opening effect to generate a color change than plain weave can also be explored to observe the weave effect for indicative or aesthetic purposes. the HAY was consisted of two types of 5012C. Therefore. reaching a maximum negative value of the concrete deformation were calculated. of set of 2 threads /cm.1 at approximately 32% strain. Fabric-C exhibited positive Poisson’s the yarn from overlapping and a negative Poisson’s ratio of _0. Four points at a distance 1 cm from each other were marked in the middle of each 5 cm × 20 cm The Fabric B exhibited a negative in-plane Poisson’s ratio in sample as shown in Figure 27. The extra constraint provided by the plates prevented homogeneity of the fabric. location of weft yarns and lack of separation. Zulifqar A (2016) Auxetic Textile Materials . The wrap angle of 45 degrees was chosen. this is due to a range of exhibited due to the fact that they have more space in the woven factors. [46] substrate of a different color beneath an exterior auxetic layer. 1 core) 0.2016. The they may have different behavior as structure is an important warp density was 26 warp ends inserted at 1end/dent.

Figure 22: Woven fabric made of DHY yarn [44]. Citation: Hu H. Figure 23: Graph of longitudinal against lateral strain for single DHY woven Fabric textile under load constrained between two plates [44]. J Textile Eng Fashion Technol 1(1): 00002. warp horizontal). (The fibrous nature of the textured nylon wrap obscures the HAY structure) [46]. Figure 24: Fabric B comprising helical auxetic yarn Figure 25: Fabric C comprising helical auxetic yarn as as warp fibres (horizontal) [46].01. Zulifqar A (2016) Auxetic Textile Materials . giving rise to negative Poisson’s ratio out-of-plane and a consequent reduction in in-plane negative Poisson’s ratio (c) Prototype color-change fabric B. a) 0 N tension.2016. Copyright: Auxetic Textile Materials . Conversely. It is of vital woven structures with short floating threads the threads have importance to consider the weave structures and balance of to apply pressure on nearby threads to transversally deform floating length (which means the float length in warp and weft themselves and finally the woven fabric extends transversally. in the in pores’ parameters,but is obvious on porosity”. b) 80 N [46]. Figure 26: (a) Measuring the proportion of open area of fabric at a given strain (b) Fibers overlap.15406/jteft.A review. DOI: 10. direction are equal or not) while comparing the results of above As concluded by the authors that “different auxetic behavior of three fabrics.A review ©2016 Hu et al. As far as weave structure is concerned no doubt all three observed patterns doesn’t statistically significantly manifest the fabrics have different weave structure and float length.00002 . 14/20 structure for their transversal deformation.

Georgia. Even after 40% strain. The value larger. On the other hand. In order to produce heat. But. the Poisson’s ratio for heat-compressed for as-received. heating was discontinued and In case of heat-compressed fabrics. USA). 15/20 Figure 27: Placement of four points for Figure 28: Woven fabrics: (a) plain. The instantaneous Poisson’s ratio for In this case. but at a slower rate. If the aim is to Where I i and Z i denote the measured specimen length and study the effect of weave structure only then 4/1 (3) satin is more thickness values. Zulifqar A (2016) Auxetic Textile Materials .1 and 0. strain as shown in Eq. at room temperature. and heat-compressed samples. J Textile Eng Fashion Technol 1(1): 00002.9 in the initial nonwoven fabrics is shown in Table 1. The Poisson’s ratio was -7. respectively. in the case of compressed samples.e. Therefore. Similar sample and the thickness values were observed during extension to compressed samples. After compressed samples a Carver1 auto series (model no. at the given ith strain level and suitable choice as this structure has almost equal floating length Z and Z i −1 denote their values at the previous strain level.A review. in both cases and failed at about 130% strain without using heating on the same press. both NW1 and NW2 show a the fabric samples were allowed to cool under full pressure for remarkably steep increase in thickness when stretched. Copyright: Auxetic Textile Materials . The as-received nonwoven samples showed a decrease fabrics from Ten Cate Protective Fabrics (Senoia. in thickness with extension and positive Poisson’s ratio varying These fabrics were composed of virgin polyethylene terephthalate between 0. The samples became positive after the specimen had attained its instantaneous Poisson’s ratio values based on these data were maximum thickness (approximately 80% strain) as shown in calculated at each ith strain level by using instantaneous true Figure 30a & b. compressed.00002 . the symmetry of floating length is also different. it cannot be concluded that the weave structure alone is responsible for this behavior of all three fabrics.45 MP a pressure for 20 h at a temperature of 70°C. Uniaxial tension experiment was performed on each for NW1 and -6. floating length in warp and ϑi = − ( Ii − Ii −1 )/ Ii −1 weft direction is not equal in case of chosen 3/5 (3) satin weave. i. corresponding to 5% strain.15406/jteft. after 24 h of total in the initial 30% strain region. specimens continued to increase in thickness. it was removed from the press. the compression. That is why it is called “instantaneous” Poisson’s ratio.A review ©2016 Hu et al. After 20 h. especially another 4 h up till the ambient temperature. i −1 in warp and weft directions.01. and heat-compressed it is possible to induce out-of-plane auxetic behavior in needle. (PET) crimped staple fibres. DOI: 10.e.5.2016. They obtained needle-punched nonwoven direction.. mostly around 0. (b) 2 /2 twilland (c) Poisson’s ratio evaluation [63]. NW2 in the thickness direction at 2.2 for NW1 and NW2. (1) Citation: Hu H. The total number of increased rapidly up to 40% strain after which the thickness needle penetrations per square inch was likely to be considerably began to decrease until sample failure at 130% strain. 4389) the maximum thickness was achieved at 40% strain the Poisson’s bench top press was used to compress both nonwovens NW1 and ratio is positive as shown in Figure 30a & b. i. Figure 30 shows the values of instantaneous Poisson’s ratio with respect to Auxetic non-woven fabrics: Verma P et al.. until they attained their maximum thickness at approximately The compressed samples were also prepared by compression 80% axial strain. they were compressed under the same pressure as heat-compressed samples is highly negative at small strain values above for 24 h and then removed from the press as shown in due to rapid increase in thickness. 3 /5 (3) satin pattern at 40% deformation [63]. strain regime which was decreased with increasing strain. [64] reported that axial strain for as-received. the thickness was direction were the same for all samples.6 for NW2. The carding direction and machine While. The technical data of the obtained needle-punched of instantaneous Poisson’s ratio obtained was -0.2 Figure 29. as shown in Figure 30a & b. In case of plain and twill weaves the floating length is equal both in warp ( Zi − Zi −1 )− Zi −1 (1) and weft direction. needle-punched nonwoven specimens tested along the machine punched nonwovens. compressed.

order to develop and ideal auxetic non-woven material. As the fibre columns in non-woven fabric are not highly rigid fibre columns are inclined at larger angles in heat-compressed also some are severely deformed by the processing conditions.A review ©2016 Hu et al. and fibres may offer some resistance to slippage due to frictional Auxetic textile structure for composite reinforcement: contacts.00002 . etc.40+0. they never return completely to their original near This process of producing auxetic non-woven fabrics and the vertical state. the heat compressed samples are of a denser Developments in auxetic materials production have made it structure as compared to the compressed (only) samples and the Citation: Hu H.25 280 Figure 29: Diagram showing the processing treatment of as-received samples in a Carver1 hot press to produce compressed” and “heat compressed” samples [64]. fibre pushes the fibres above and below causing an increase in needle-punching parameters.01. 30 5. may also be responsible to fabric thickness. 16/20 Table 1: Technical data of non-woven samples. In case of treated fabrics locally bent fibres that described phenomenon may be used as guideline for development are constrained to lie over a given fibre and then below another of further non-woven material and structures. fibre curl and contributes to the auxetic response. J Textile Eng Fashion Technol 1(1): 00002. fibre modulus and fibre column rigidity.14 280 NW2 6 3in.2016. Meanwhile. DOI: 10.15406/jteft. These factors together with the the structure is dense enough. Therefore. this phenomenon is only possible if influence the auxetic response. However.A review. When stretched this bent crimp. In case of dense structure local phenomenon of auxetic response must also be investigated in forces are transferred to neighboring bent-fibre configuration. fibre staple length. Error bars represent the standard deviation in Poisson’s ratio at each data point as calculated over five specimens of each type [64]. 20 4.32+0./yd2 Mean thickness (mm) Penetrations /in2 NW1 6 3 in. Figure 30: (a) Variation of instantaneous Poisson’s ratio with respect to axial strain for as-received. Fiber Columns by the Ceedle Sample ID Fiber Denier Fibre Length Areal Density oz. compressed. Some other factors proximal fibre is another important structural feature which including the nature of fibre–fibre entanglements. fabrics. Copyright: Auxetic Textile Materials . and heat-compressed NW1 (b) NW2 needle-punched nonwoven specimens tested along the machine direction. a greater auxetic response is therefore achieved for them. Zulifqar A (2016) Auxetic Textile Materials .

The matrix material for the composite samples selected is the action of the stitch yarn tension. Critically. Further. Figure composite components. The third yarn is placed through release [36]. 17/20 possible to produce auxetic fibre reinforced composites. There totally straight at the initial state. Instead. the double helix yarn (DHY). In addition to helical auxetic yarn structure and its made unchanged under compression and the size of structure will not fabrics. radome applications. lines. The suitable selection of structural parameters is also an textile network. A double yarn should be flexible and the warp yarn should be rigid.2016. The warp yarns are placed one in and one out. Copyright: Auxetic Textile Materials .26]. [44] reported that an auxetic composite can be produced of the structure. Their studies demonstrated that such the weft direction and zero Poisson’s ratio in the warp direction. Therefore. warp yarns and stitch yarns. of filter can be controlled by tension [5. Zulifqar A (2016) Auxetic Textile Materials . directional pass 32a shows a repeating unit of the structure outlined by breaking band filters. It is notable that if the maximise the auxetic behaviour. resulting in of optical fibre can be used as sensors and moisture sensitive shrinkage of the structure in the weft directions. As this 3D auxetic structure is developed as by using a woven auxetic fabric made of auxetic yarns. if a matrix with a suitable same type of yarn is used for both the weft and warp yarns. was produced by Ge Z et al. if the pore novel 3D auxetic fabric reinforcements that could be utilized as opening in the auxetic woven fabric structure can be exploited. can open a large number of pores under tension allowing the they are placed at 90° upon one another and held in position by a shock wave through but leaving the curtains intact to catch glass third yarn. manufacturing process that combines both the non-woven and Therefore.A review ©2016 Hu et al. It is important to consider that a single layer composite to predict the auxetic effect of the structure with given structural will not be auxetic. most probably the constraint imposed by the parameters. i. The auxetic effect in the composite is likely to be due yarns in two neighbouring layers must be alternated by half yarn to the extra constraint provided by the additional layers of DHY spacing. micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) devices. When the structure is compressed through the drug delivery or exudate removal [45]. the matched modulus is selected. a special textile adjacent yarns in the fabric and material properties are optimized. fibre [44] and woven fabric made of auxetic yarn [46] were also under compression the structure will exhibit auxetic behaviour in investigated by Miller et al. 2 part elastomer). Figure 32b demonstrates the condition under compression.1 can be yarn with diameter lesser than warp and weft yarns can be used produced using the woven fabric reinforcement manufactured as the stitching yarn for better binding effect. and the and other debris and smart bandage in which applied drugs can positions of all of the warp yarns in two neighbouring layers are be automatically delivered like the dental floss with in-built drug alternated by half yarn spacing. Miller the warp yarns. the weft yarns cannot be kept silicone rubber gel (Dow Corning 3-6512.1. shock absorbency the pore The weft yarn and warp yarns are not interlaced as is the case opening effect can also be utilized in bomb blast curtains which in woven fabric preforms and therefore not crimped. Therefore. composites exhibit auxetic behavior as well. Auxetic composite The auxetic effect is mainly produced due to the spaces between laminates and composites containing auxetic constituents also Citation: Hu H. Auxetic materials can also be used for vibration damping. the shape of the warp yarns remains [42]. J Textile Eng Fashion Technol 1(1): 00002. the wrap is an order of magnitude stiffer than auxetic effect of the structure is not constant. This may result in the reduction of the stability W et al. The composite reinforcement. it is important that the warp yarns must be matrix will not be sufficient to prevent the fibres overlapping out placed one in and one out. The novel 3D auxetic This behavior makes auxetic fabrics very attractive for some fabric structure as shown in Figure 31a composed of three yarn special applications. i. The DHY yarn is used as weft and Meta can be held by stitches without causing the obvious deformation aramid yarn of approximately 475 dtex linear density is used as of the weft yarns at the initial state.00002 . The auxetic behaviour of DHY yarns stability of the composite structure will be ensured.e. the compressible matrix will be filled in reinforcement for an auxetic composite can be made using a the spaces of the structure to make the composite. The components. The high yarn fineness ratio between the warp and weft 3-D Auxetic textile structure for composite reinforcement: A yarns must be used to obtain a high auxetic effect of the structure novel 3-D auxetic (negative Poisson’s ratio) textile structure for when other structural parameters are kept constant. which in turn is an order of magnitude stiffer than the compression strain increases. the auxetic composites can also be auxetic effect of the structure would not be very obvious. and the positions of all of the warp of plane. It is also important that under warp. such as in Figure 31a. DOI: 10. [65].15406/jteft.e. it increases as the the yarn. They combined the non-woven and Potential applications of auxetic textile materials: The auxetic knitting technology with conventional yarns and produced some materials have many potential applications like. It is usual for composites to be multi layered. weft yarns. The weft engineered by using woven fabric made of DHY yarns. composite reinforcement which shrinks when compressed. composites reinforced by auxetic yarn made of carbon change in the warp direction as shown in Figure 31b. important consideration in order to achieve the desired auxetic effect. preform to produce auxetic composites.01. Helical auxetic yarns made thickness direction the weft yarns will get crimped. By exploiting the ability to open pores in the fabric the thickness direction and serves as stitching yarn as shown structure there are possible applications in fluid transfer. The DHY yarn has a PR of . So this initial effect should be should be a notable difference in stiffness between the three taken into consideration during the analysis of the structure. the DHY yarns should be woven out of register to knitting technologies has been proposed. Auxetic materials The phenomenon of compression and shrinkage in the weft can also be used as core materials in curved sandwich panel direction can better be demonstrated with help of Figure 32. The elasticity of the from DHY yarn.2. To fabricate can be reserved into a woven fabric if the pitch levels between this 3D negative Poisson’s ratio fabric structure. The geometrical model can be used matrix. An elastic layer auxetic composite with an approximate PR of -0. such as filtration in which pore opening size systems. Since the weft auxetic materials for functional garment were also suggested yarns are fully arranged. The reinforcement stitch yarn may be selected in such a way that the whole structure is a plain woven fabric. seat cushion material and fastening devices.A review.

15406/jteft. Additionally. In order to develop auxetic fabrics the use of auxetic fibre or yarn to fabricate the auxetic woven that could be used for clothing it is essential that the thickness as well as knitted fabrics. Auxetic textile materials can also be used in applications possibilities for promoting clothing longevity due to adaptability in including geo textiles. DOI: 10. The auxetic fabrics have an excellent shape fitting ability. The demerits of this approach are the and structural stability must be taken into account. availability of very few auxetic fibres and yarns. J Textile Eng Fashion Technol 1(1): 00002. like bra cups. Figure 32: The cross section of 3-D auxetic structure (a) Initially (b) Under compression [65].00002 .under garments and shape wear.01. shock absorbency and fabrics have been produced based on two approaches. Due to property of lateral incorporated in fashion clothing [46]. aesthetic and interaction where shape fitting is highly required [62]. as the auxetic on larger scale needed to be developed as most of the fabrics up behavior is purely linked with the geometrical arrangements of till today are produced on laboratory scale. auxetic knitted structures cannot be successfully used in garment manufacturing but they have other potential From this study it can be concluded that. vibration damping. such as performance costumes. due protective garments such as bulletproof vests and batting gloves to stretch. Auxetic fabrics engineered expansion auxetic fabrics can be used as clothing for periods of with optical properties can be used to produce the green-house growth such as maternity clothing and child development and effect. to the technology to develop the auxetic materials specially fabrics fabricate the auxetic fabrics from conventional yarns. clothing where good oxygen transportation and sweat evaporation velocity impact performance that suitably demonstrate potential is required. Zulifqar A (2016) Auxetic Textile Materials . different auxetic applications including. due to the limitations like low structural auxetic materials is also unaddressed. higher thickness and difficulty out to develop modelling techniques for auxetic materials so in the fabrication because of their complicated geometrical that the properties of auxetic materials can be optimized and Citation: Hu H. reinforcements in advanced composites sizing. Conclusion structures. research must be carried stability. Further.A review. The color change indication under tension can be in energy absorber components.2016. Firstly. 18/20 provide enhancements in fracture toughness. reinforcement for composites. under wears for aerospace and auto motive sectors and personal and sports and leggings and sportswear where transverse shrinkage. The area of modelling structural units. interactive art installations and This ability makes them very attractive for various applications textiles as a therapy through texture. might be problematic other applications may include [36]. As the porosity of auxetic fabrics increases they can be used in Figure 31: Three dimensional auxetic textile structure (a) Initially (b) Under compression [65].A review ©2016 Hu et al. Secondly. [50]. low elastic recovery. Copyright: Auxetic Textile Materials . and static and low.

(2004) Review on auxetic 30. Evans K (1994) Auxetic polyethylene: 5551 The effect of a negative poisson’s ratio on hardness. Pickles A. Evans K (1992) The fabrication of microporous continuing research. Duckett R. Ciffo L. Evans KE. Shacklette JM. Li Z. Scarpa F. Keskar NR. Journal of Sound and Vibration 230(1): 45-67. Nature 392(6674): 362-365. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 40(5): 1105- negative poisson’s ratios. Bezazi A. 7. Shi W. International 777: 29-34. International Journal of Fatigue 29(5): 922-930. J Textile Eng Fashion Technol 1(1): 00002. Hutchinson JI. Evans K (2000) A novel mechanism for 15. 25. Part G: Journal of Aerospace Negative poisson’s ratios as a common feature of cubic metals. et al. Weidner DJ. Kaburaki H. Scarpa F. poisson ratios over the α-β transition of cristobalite. Negative poisson’s ratios as a common feature of cubic metals. et al. ratio near the volume phase transition of polymer gels. Alderson K. 23. Xie B.00002 . Alderson A. Acta Metallurgica Et Materialia.15406/jteft. 10. Alderson A. Journal of Cellular Plastics 34(3): 231-260. Lim T (2009) Out-of-plane modulus of semi-auxetic laminates. Acta Metallurgica Et Materialia 42(4): 1137. Grima J. Zakhidov AA. materials and structures from lateral thinking! Advanced Materials 12(9): 617-628. of Chemical Physics 94(5): 3949-3957. acoustic. Macromolecules 23(3): 903-905. Scarpa F (2007) Mechanical behaviour of conventional 22. Physical Review Letters 89(22): great potential to be classified as smart and intelligent textiles and 225503. Engineering 221(4): 565-575. Abstracts of papers of the american chemical society poisson’s ratios. Evans K (1989) Micro porous materials with negative mesophase. Chiang F (2007) Auxetic foam as a core material for nanotubes. Kimizuka H. Smith CW. Galvao DS (1993) Crystalline networks with unusual 1. Baughman RH. Evans KE (2002) Molecular origin of auxetic behavior production of fabric. Proceedings of the 21. Alderson K (2005) Expanding materials and A silicon dioxide with a negative poisson’s ratio. Evans K (1998) Indentation resilience of conventional and and negative Poisson’s ratio thermoplastic polyurethane foams auxetic foams. 2. 735-737. I. Baughman RH. Ding Y. experiment. 42(7): 2261-2266. 8. Alderson A (2000) Auxetic materials: Functional 29(1): 113-128. Evans K (2000) Do zeolites have negative poisson’s ratios? Advanced Materials 12(24): 1912-1918. Lakes R (1995) Nonlinear analysis of the poisson’s ratio of negative poisson’s ratio foams. 26. model. Griffin A (1998) Liquid crystalline polymers as potential auxetic materials: Influence of transverse rods on the polymer 13. Hutchinson I (1994) Auxetic foams: Modelling to-1. Nature. auxetic textile materials have in tetrahedral framework silicates. Alderson A. Liu P. 216. pp. 29. Nature 392(6674): 362-365. U108. Physical Review B 67(2): 024105. Yates J (2003) Dynamic properties of high 28. Lakes R (1987) Foam structures with a negative poisson’s ratio. Structures 13(1): 49. Copyright: Auxetic Textile Materials . Neale P. Yang M.2016. Science 257(5070): applications: Exploiting auxetic textiles. Chelikowsky JR (1992) Structural properties of nine of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures 15(12): 973-979. 365(6448): network design. silica polymorphs. Zulifqar A (2016) Auxetic Textile Materials . SiO2: A molecular-dynamics study. 17. Grima J. Stafstrom S (1998) Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Chan N. Tomlinson G (2000) Theoretical characteristics of the Journal of Materials Science Letters 19(17): 1563-1565. Physical Review B 46(1): 1-13. 34. Physical Review Letters 84(24): 5548- 11. Zakhidov AA. Scarpa F. Rogers SC (1991) Molecular predicted mechanical and thermal properties. Nkansah M. microstructure and mechanical properties.A review. Kimizuka H. Wei G. Grima J. Citation: Hu H.01. Uzer G. Polymer 33(20): 4435-4438. Jackson R. to be incorporated in to real life applications but it is a matter of 19. Hirotsu S (1990) Elastic anomaly near the critical point of volume structural integrity auxetic open cell foam. Yang W. 24. Smith F (2004) Passive and MR fluid-coated auxetic PU foam–mechanical. Journal 27.A review ©2016 Hu et al. Kogure Y (2003) Molecular-dynamics study of the high-temperature elasticity of quartz above the α-β 12. References 20. 16. Hirotsu S (1991) Softening of bulk modulus and negative Poisson’s 9. The Journal Physical Review E 58(5): 6173. Evans K (2000) Auxetic behavior from rotating squares. Kaburaki H. Journal of Composite Materials 4. Wang C (2010) Nanocomposites with auxetic 35. International Journal of Smart and Nano Materials 1(2): sandwich pamels. Composites 25(9): 863-868. Kogure Y (2000) Mechanism for negative materials. Alderson A. 3. Nkansah MA. Alderson K. Journal of Materials Science 39(10): 3269-3279. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 22(12): 1877. 19/20 tailor made according to specific requirements before actual 18. vibration of sandwich plates with in-plane negative poisson’s ratio values. Choi J. Science 235(4792): 1038-1040. 770-772. Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics 2. 31. 6. 33. Scarpa F. and electromagnetic properties. Stafstrom S (1998) phase transition. Nature 353: 124. pp. Edwards S (1998) Poisson ratio in composites of auxetics. 32. DOI: 10. Undoubtedly. 1289-1294. Acta Materialia 48(17): 4349-4356. Clarke J. Technical Textiles 650-652. Hutchinson I. Caddock B. Evans K. Parise JB (1992) Elasticity of agr-cristobalite: 36. Shacklette JM. Ward I. He C. Hine P. Smart Materials and phase transition in polymer gels. Proceedings of the SEM Annual Conference and 83-94. Baughman RH. generating auxetic behaviour in reticulated foams: Missing rib foam European Journal of Mechanics-A/Solids 28(4): 752-756. under compressive cyclic loading. Haeri AY. Alderson K (2007) Auxetic materials. Milton GW (1992) Composite materials with poisson’s ratios close 14. polyethylene having a negative poisson’s ratio. Adhikari S. Evans KE. (1994) Negative poisson’s ratios in angle-ply laminates: Theory and 5.

51. Heo J. et al. et al. Wang X. Sloan MR.00002 . Grima JN (2008) Auxetic behaviour from rotating rhombi. (2012) On the design and characterisation of low-stiffness auxetic yarns and 61. 42. viscoelastic sandwich column materials tailored to minimize creep Chemical Communications 16(16): 1531-1532. Physica Status Solidi (b) Poisson’s ratio composite. 47. 45. knitted spacer fabric structure. Alderson A. buckling failure probabilities and prolong survival times. Evans KE (2014) The variation 62. et al. Hong H (2014) 3D auxetic warp‐knitted spacer fabrics. Verma P. (2012) manufacture and characterisation of a novel. Wright JR. et al. Wang Z. et al. Petra V (2013) Auxetic woven Fabrics-Pores’ parameters Technology 102: 87-93. Wang Z. Hilton HH. El Fouly. 38. Hong H (2014) A finite element analysis of an auxetic warp- fabrics. 59. Hook P. FanQ. Zhang Y. Evans KE. in helical composite auxetic yarns. Monika V. Textile Research Journal. 57. Textile Research Journal 82(7): 645-654. Physica Status Solidi (b) 245(11): 2395-2404. Attard D. Ghita O. Smart G. Ge Z. Evans K (2005) On the auxetic 40. Textile Research Journal 81(14):1493- Medical Devices 1(1): 47-55. Breedon P (2013) Weft‐knitted auxetic textile design. Evans K (2011) The helical auxetic yarn–A novel Physica Status Solidi (b) 251(2): 267-272. Grima JN (2009) On rotating rigid parallelograms and their potential for exhibiting auxetic behaviour. Research Journal 83(5): 543-550. Grima JN. 1063. Lee W. Liu S (2010) Negative Poisson’s ratio weft. Smith CW. (2010) Moisture sensitive auxetic materials. Zhang G. Yang C. Copyright: Auxetic Textile Materials . geometry. Griffin AC. structure for composites and textiles. Hong H. Hook P. Warner SB. Physica Status Solidi (b) 246(9): 2033-2044. Attard D. et al. (2014) Auxetic nonwovens. DOI: 10. J Textile Eng Fashion Technol 1(1): 00002. manufacture and mechanical properties. Simkins V. Ravirala N. Composites Science and Technology 249(7): 1322-1329. 69(5): 651-655. (2015) Poisson’s ratio. Hong H (2013) Innovative three-dimensional fabric structure 50. Evans KE (2000) Self expanding molecular networks. Davies P. Evans KE (2009) The 58. 56. Bhattacharya S. James E. 1502. performance of auxetic polyurethane foam for antivibration glove Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 74(10): 2866-2867. Miller W. Plastics. negative Auxetic warp knit textile structures. Journal of flat knitting technology. Sloan M. 48.2016. Glazzard M. Burns MK. Evans KE (2006) Auxetic behavior from rotating triangles. Zulifqar A (2016) Auxetic Textile Materials . Shofner ML. Giacomin J. 44. Inducing out‐of‐plane auxetic behavior in needle‐punched 49. Alderson K. Physica Status Solidi (b) 252(7): 1455-1464. Xiao X (2014) Deformation behaviors of three- in Poisson’s ratio caused by interactions between core and wrap dimensional auxetic spacer fabrics. Manicaro E. Scientific Research and Essays 5(10): 1052- characterisation. Textile knitted fabric. Hu H. Alderson KL. Composites Science and 63. Liu Y. Hu H. Rubber and Composites 31(8): 344-349. Alderson A. Yanping L. Davies PJ. Wang Z. low modulus. Wang Z. observation. Alderson AE. Koh C. Hong H (2010) A review on auxetic structures and (2002) Auxetic polypropylene fibres: Part 1-manufacture and polymeric materials. Dolla WJ. Gatt R. Textile Research Journal 76(7): 540-546. Lin A. Ugbolue SC.A review. Abdul Rahman A (2007) Designer auxetic 53. 41. Textile Research Journal 80(9): 856-863. Alderson K.15406/jteft. Fricke BA. Liu S (2011) Development of auxetic fabrics using models of conventional and auxetic drug-eluting stents. Simkins V. Kim YK. 54. Cellular Polymers 24(5): 1-16. 60. Wagner KB. Hong H.01. 65. (2006) Negative Poisson’s ratio polyester fibers. 46. Scarpa F. Textile Research Journal. Ge Z. Pastorino P (2005) Mechanical properties ofRotating rectangles’ with different connectivity. Lam JKC. Wright J. applications. Nazare S. 43. Anand S. Grima JN. Alderson A. Grima JN. with negative poisson’s ratio for composite reinforcement. Liu S (2016) A novel plied yarn structure with negative 64. Becker BR (2007) Structural and drug diffusion 52. Journal of Materials Science 41(10): 3193-3196. Lee S. Evans K (2006) How do Auxetic Materials Work.A review ©2016 Hu et al. Simkins VR. 39. Citation: Hu H. Physica Status Solidi (b) 251(2): 281-288. Fabric Structures and Related Fabrication Methods. The Journal of the Textile Institute 107(5): 578-588. 55. 20/20 37. Mechanics of Materials 43(9): 476-486.