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DECOLONISING

ARCHIVES

A PUBLICATION OF L’INTERNATIONALE BOOKS

DECOLONISING
ARCHIVES

COVER CREDIT
Footage for unfinished film about Guinean women. Labels on the
reels: women at work, women at school, women in politics, women
mother, farming women. INCA, Sana na N’Hada and Flora Gomes, 1979.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

4 36 83
Introduction Decolonial Sensibilities: The Archives of the Commons
Indigenous Research Seminar, Madrid 2015
9 and Engaging with Archives Mela Dávila and Carlos Prieto
Radically in Contem­porary del Campo (Museo Nacional
De-Historicising Colonial Canada Centro de Arte Reina Sofía),
the Archive. Crystal Fraser Marisa Pérez Colina
Decolonising Archival Memory and Zoe Todd (Fundación de los Comunes)
from the Supremacy and Mabel Tapia
of Historical Discourse 44 (Red Conceptualismos del Sur)
Wolfgang Ernst In Search For
Queer Ancestors 94
17 Karol Radziszewski Archives of the Commons:
Buried (and) Alive Knowledge Commons,
Jeffrey Schnapp 54 Information, and Memory
The Hump Carlos Prieto del Campo
23 of Colonialism,
H[gun shot]ow or The Archive as a Site 106
c[gun shot]an I of Resistance Biographies
f[gun shot]orget? Rona Sela
Lawrence Abu Hamdan
62
29 A Grin
Another Mapping without Marker
of Art and Politics. Filipa César
The Archive Policies
of Red Conceptualismos del Sur 77
Ana Longoni / Presenting Pasts
Red Conceptualismos del Sur Andrea Stultiens

L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – DECOLONISING ARCHIVES – 3

DECOLONISING ARCHIVES INTRODUCTION .

The higher accessibility and transparency. i. These changes have resulted in new challenges in fact tools for maintaining the role of an archive which offer unforeseen possibilities for democratisa.e. In a simi. ingly neutral Western criteria and classifications are gies. many archives around the world inhabit a fine ulate the conditions for the latter. we have witnessed the revolu- tutions in the old and new imperial centres is just one tionary redefinition of archives through digitisation L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – DECOLONISING ARCHIVES – 5 . The first level challenges the commodification of decades undergone significant changes towards the archive and attempts to manage it as capital. to the present. these also reg- time. While the former addresses mainly the issues of tion by new. In recent years. treasure hunt to satisfy the growing demand of insti. tion. accessibility and control. understanding line between the risks of neglect and decay on one the archives as sites of knowledge production and hand. neo-colonial power lar way to museums and other traditional institutions relations. facilitated second level dwells in recognising that the seem- mainly through the advances of the digital technolo. rent publication focuses on the archive and the ways The decolonisation of archives has a broader of recovering its political potential not only in relation meaning beyond interrogating the colonial legacy to history but. The archival the ruling exclusive classifications. interpretation and challenge to rising market value on the other hand. more urgently. we of the European nation states (though their roots are have chosen to address decolonisation on two lev- of course much older). voices. as an imperial project of domination and affirma- tion both in terms of access and knowledge produc. At the same ownership. DECOLONISING ARCHIVES Decolonising Archives is a second publication in the example of coloniality as a condition outliving colo- L’Internationale Research strand of Decolonising nialism itself and continuing to discipline archives in Practices. For the purpose of this publication. the cur. often marginalised. or even emerging. the archives have in the last els. and privatisation and fetishisation due to their political resistance. terms of access and political instrumentalisation. and existing. Following Decolonising Museums.

Wolfgang Ernst argues for the understanding of the when they are done with no reflection. easily turn archival order as an alternative to the dominance of into a pseudo-democratic end in itself. Such mis. American conceptual practices (which are continu- cial historical narrative into question or reframe what ously neutralised by both state violence and market is seemingly known and highlight its inner contradic. of vast amounts of archival documents can however. selves belong to the communities they speak for. Digitisation and online sharing are dedicated to the critical potential of the digital. while Jeffrey Schnapp sees as the priority for digi- guided generosity can solidify rather than challenge tal humanists the design of an effective mechanism the established Western narratives when colonised to activate or sustain cultural memory. Crystal Fraser and Zoe gatekeepers. cognitive capitalism. Ana Longoni (Red as new more welcoming guides rather than obsolete Conceptualismos del Sur). Crystal Fraser and Zoe Todd The contributions in this publication can be confront the reader with the difficulties of gaining split into four sections. as well as art. scholars for its incompatibility with the dominant narratives of within the field of digital humanities. logic) as an antagonistic force within contemporary tions to resist simplifying homogenisation. digi. DECOLONISING ARCHIVES and online sharing. cratic. as well as the archives merely supplement and thus confirm their urgency of so-called “crisis archiving”. While progressive code writers will Todd. if understood as a creative chance. ists. lance technologies that establish new hierarchies of gation and retrieval become of critical importance information as well as “noise” which is disregarded due to the abundance of digitised material. Yet. however. most of the decolonisation is. overload of the material available online. Lawrence primacy. violence in “troubled” neighbourhoods. and Karol Radziszewski describe three differ- undoubtedly continue to play an indispensable role ent geo-political situations where the authors them- in making the archives more accessible and demo. Abu Hamdan points out the biased nature of surveil- tisation can become a true decolonial tool. The three opening texts access to the archival material connected to the L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – DECOLONISING ARCHIVES – 6 . to be Ana Longoni presents the Southern Conceptualisms done on the epistemological level. It is precisely here Network’s sustained efforts to reactivate the dis- that artists play a crucial role when they engage with ruptive power and catalysing potential of the Latin archives and unearth testimonies which put the offi. point out new algorithms and semantic search In the following section. resulting in an the narrative history of the traditional nation state. As navi.

The contribution by collective memory and how they can be opened up to Filipa César. similarly. two essays were written in of the settler state of Canada. despite continuous dismissals by is considered as the beginning of a series rather the authorities. nar (Madrid. or at least avoiding perpetuation. The common question for core areas touched upon during the conference Rona Sela. (Commons Foundation) and Red Conceptualismos tors in Central and Eastern Europe as well as in other del Sur (Southern Conceptualisms Network). struggle is not over yet. from Guinea-Bissau. such as the politics of the archives. lective text by Mela Dávila and Carlos Prieto del The third section consists of three contribu. Campo(Museo Reina Sofía). based on her work with film archives the general public. this publication rials as relevant. Fundación de los Comunes West on the other. Karol Radziszewski connection with the Archives of the Commons semi- proposes strategies for resistance against homopho. Conceptualismos del Sur) offers an overview of the rial they have access to. Andrea Stultiens shares with the than a final word. Filipa César and Andrea Stultiens con. DECOLONISING ARCHIVES Indigenous populations guarded by the institutions In the closing section. continuing the work begun The collective project Luta ca caba inda dis- by Chris Marker and others decades ago. de-masking political activation in the present”. 11 and 12 December 2015) organised bia on one hand and rainbow colonisation from the by Museo Reina Sofía. Reina Sofía’s vision of the archive as “an engine for including herself as an Israeli scholar. of mies. Archives play a crucial role for reader her eye-opening experiences during her L’Internationale and its institutions who hope not long-term engagement with photographic legacy in only to develop progressive institutional practices Uganda leading to the HIP Uganda project. for their own archives but also to raise a discussion L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – DECOLONISING ARCHIVES – 7 . and techno-political devices. archives of the commons can serve as a vessel for val material in Israeli archives. points to cussed by Filipa César acknowledges that the ongoing battles for the recognition of certain mate. by revealing daring queer ances. archive econo- cerns undoing. Carlos Prieto del the neo-colonial epistemologies. Rona Sela reflects Campo expands on this by unpacking the Museo on projects by both Israeli and Palestinian artists. He discusses how the ideological framing of Palestine-related archi. A col- “peripheries” worldwide. Marisa Pérez Colina tions by decolonial advocates self-reflecting on (Fundación de los Comunes) and Mabel Tapia (Red their privileged positions with regards the mate.

and continue. the discussion started here. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – DECOLONISING ARCHIVES – 8 . DECOLONISING ARCHIVES beyond this first and therefore necessarily limited account. New voices overcoming the Eurocentric legacy of L’Internationale will be invited in the future to contribute to.

RESOURCES — L’INTERNATIONALE BOOKS RADICALLY DE-HISTORICISING THE ARCHIVE. DECOLONISING ARCHIVAL MEMORY FROM THE SUPREMACY OF HISTORICAL DISCOURSE WOLFGANG ERNST .

in the art world and in politi. as Friedrich Kittler has pointed tic fantasies of “the anarchival” (Fürlus & Giannetti out. Against intellectual or artis. is a read-only memory. while the dynar. Therefore. Just like in computing. could break up the alliance that the institutional 2014). 75). p. the organising structure. it such a uniquely powerful institution. Applying creative rect. Moreover. un-covering the the “content” of the archive (its records. neither can the archival order as such (key term algorithms to experiment with new forms of navigat- “tectonics”) be easily changed according to a new ing enormous amounts of archival signals and data L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – WOLFGANG ERNST – 10 . a rewriting of Unfolding the layers code in the operating system would make the whole of the “colonised” archive function collapse. historicism since 1800. records brings a creative chance. tional archives as grounded in the imperial nation lections of traces from the past. cal activism. RADICALLY DE-HISTORICISING THE ARCHIVE – WOLFGANG ERNST discursive will. presence once their combinatory connections were The administrative archive in the strict sense located (Kittler 1996. Digital archiving. course the archive is mostly (mis-)understood as through non-invasive re-reading. the digital archive is still rigorously rooted in archives have maintained with historiography and its techno-mathematical structure. It is exactly the non-discursive and non-narrative structure of the archive which makes In cultural discourse. the chronologi- chive lies between the archival and the anarchival cal sequence could be replaced by an order of co- spheres. states have to operate on an epistemological level. its data ties between archive and narrative history as master banks). One cannot simply take out The digitisation of vast amounts of archival archival records because they are politically incor. in archival sciences the term rather refers to discourse of the traditional nation state. the term “archive” has mostly become acts such as revealing the genealogy of the institu- a generalised metaphor for different kinds of col. While in public dis.

Via the historical discourse. case of Prussia. The rise of the modern nation operations are possible in computational space with. With scholars like Jules Michelet analysis of techno-cultural temporal dynamics of in France and Leopold von Ranke in Germany. pro. the admin- non-human agencies like the NSA (National Security istrative state which is an infra-structural function Agency). teleological (“metahistorical” in Hayden White’s cessing and surveillance on the Internet – is at the sense) justification. The L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – WOLFGANG ERNST – 11 . What look like creative applications of soft. administrative and technological systems. memory. with the present state as its same time colonised in new and unexpected ways by happy end. sto. which gave the state a deep-temporal sense and tures linked online to data circulation. cipline co-originated with the new impulse to go chastic analysis and similarity-based retrieval. state required a foundational narrative of its tempo- out destroying the material and symbolic order of the ral genealogy. storage. nothing but a side-product of data processing avant- gardes developed by intelligence services. resulting in a re-organisation of the existing archive. Such (back) to the archives. in the digitised archive allow new readings of the archive. RADICALLY DE-HISTORICISING THE ARCHIVE – WOLFGANG ERNST (textual or audio-visual) results in new insights by rise of research-based history as an academic dis- mathematical intelligence like entropy values. archives “in the name of history” as a new discourse Similar media-archaeological approaches to the – provided by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. (and represents the symbolic order of power) could ware in big data research by digital humanities are be transformed into an imaginary called “nation”. the critical focus has now shifted to the rial nation state. the social. Archival order as non-narrative De-historisation: De-coupling alternative to historiography the archive from the nation state Beyond the “cultural turn” of the last two or three decades concerned with cultural and collective The modern archive is closely related to the territo. with a proper philosophy of history Yet the archive – with the new digitised infra-struc.

forms contiguous with the modern means of tech- Since the notion of the archive has been extended nological reproduction – especially photography from the symbolic order (alphabetical texts) to the and film” (Ernst 2010). the archival mode of memory (record management) is a non-narrative Against the background of archives which are alternative to historiography. inely alternative model of processing data from the material archives of the past. discontinuous temporal layers with and within memory technologies. let us try a counter-analysis L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – WOLFGANG ERNST – 12 . evidence in forms of oral or literary “history” is being course of history and re-install it as an agency of replaced by a loose archival coupling (truly “mediatic” multiple temporal poetics in its own right. on the contrary. tographs as accumulation (different from private a memory has emerged which is capable of address. iconologic narrative by discrete counting (alphanu- My epistemological intention is to liberate archi. but as well a genu. p. the archaeo. presence. (media-) archaeology is not just Allan Sekula’s analysis – started already in the nine- an auxiliary discipline to history. Let us therefore early twentieth century avant-garde which “ques- address the archive not as a coherent depository for tioned all models of memory (especially narrative memory supply but instead identify its multiplicity of ones). 58). serial strings of information which – in an age of computing – gains as suspense (epoché) from new plausibility against literary forms of historical the temporal economy imagination developed in the nineteenth century. RADICALLY DE-HISTORICISING THE ARCHIVE – WOLFGANG ERNST archive is set in motion (Ernst 2010). it rather deconstructs narrative. story. photo albums) does not yet constitute a meaningful ing human perception in a kind of repeatable hyper. a process that – according to text discussed here. While historical dis- course strives for narrative coherence. Here. in the best tradition of increasingly in motion. An archival collection of pho- storage of signals (like physical sound and imagery). Monumentality logical aesthetics deals with discrete. This does not only re-present. teenth century (Sekula 1986. in Fritz Heider’s terms). favouring openly dynamic. As data bank structures. meric metadata). but actually Archival logistics of ordering images undercut the enacts different aggregations of the past. the tight coupling of symbolic val memory from its reductive subjection to the dis. In the con.

L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – WOLFGANG ERNST – 13 . Berlin (Media Studies). Copyright: Media Archaeological Fundus at Humboldt-University. Photo: Benjamin Renter. a technological form of dynamic short-time archiving in early digital electronic computing. RADICALLY DE-HISTORICISING THE ARCHIVE – WOLFGANG ERNST Magnetic core memory.

in the age of YouTube and Contrary to the archives of physical memory UbuWeb. which stops all motion. graph and film – have inevitably forced the archive to ter characterised as perpetual transmission rather confront the question of mobility. into vals or at least for moments – a “katechontic” coun- spatio-temporal “chronotopes” (Mikhail Bakhtin). change is indeed a virtue in the age of networked to arrest. 271). both practically and than permanent storage (Kessler & Schäfer. magnetic tape) The idea of an archive in motion is a paradox: characterised by limitations of access due to the the archive is traditionally that which arrests time. conceptually. where constant transfer and communication circuit of the present. val document itself. as Frank twentieth century – the introduction of the phono- Kessler and Mirko Tobias Schäfer proposed. fix and maintain chosen items. celluloid film. fragile nature of these documents (Prelinger 2009. media (paper records. For nineteenth century his- p. But archives of movement. torians. 276). the online data past time. thus turning documents which dissolve into memory-buffered floating records from contextual documents (files) into streaming data. secluded from public motion to the notion of an archive in motion is associ- insight – the arcana of political administration and of ated with the advent of computer technologies and their archival memory – is now directly wired to the ultimately. But the technological developments in the collections labeled archives could in fact. the Internet. The archive updating functions as well as “live” communication loses its temporal exclusivity as a space remote from and interaction redefine the temporality of the archi- the immediate present. the archive was in its essence an institution cally-biased (thus liberated from spatial and material that made it possible to access “frozen” sections of restrictions) use of the term archive. broadened. The archive might With increasing mobility and acceleration. themselves get in motion (Knörer 2011). p. the current liberal. taken out of time. ter-aesthetics usually associated with the archive. The acceleration counter-reactively discrete monuments (as defined in the “Introduction” leads to a wish to arrest movement for longer inter- to Michel Foucault’s Archaeology of Knowledge). Later. RADICALLY DE-HISTORICISING THE ARCHIVE – WOLFGANG ERNST which defends archival resistance. epoché as sublation. now – as a retroactive effect – re-discover its virtue should we rather value the immobile archive for its as institutional monument: to take out values from the time-resisting virtue? Archival resistance against ever-accelerating circulation and electronic economy. the transition from an archive of What used to be sacred spaces. be bet. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – WOLFGANG ERNST – 14 . electroni.

a virtue of Conclusion: Archive in the age the traditional archive has been exactly that it was of dynamic user culture outside (historical) time. The archive oscillates between “temporalities” 1994). While Émile Durkheim suggested a society based nature of modernist discourse. is in fact a kind of archival resis- tance against complete mobility which is the sig. Niklas Luhmann replaced this archive served as a bedrock against the complete sociological perspective for the age of communi- mobilisation of records. This refugium. Applied to memory agencies and today. their access. classification) will in many ways archival secrecy (the arcanum). necessarily persist. Although the traditional archival for archival services for the public versus defending format (spatial order. of a new kind. But such tradi- tional archival secrecy is not just an old-fashioned power instrument to be overcome in favour of open Archives have their inherent temporality. and “tempo-realities”. this demands a new both inside and outside the “Web 2. but actually there is a kind of archival secrecy Eigenzeit as memory institution and storage technol. multi-sensual. “ephemeral” (Chun 2011). hidden in technology itself (van Tijen ogy. In a contrary way. the new archive is radically tem- By becoming electronically-accessible “online”.0” or “social interpretation of its epistemological and aesthetic Web” economy. the archive is being deprived of its traditional power. More and more. archives find themselves especially the “digital archive”. this temporal exile from history. Emphatic storage waiting for (re-)circulation belongs to the logic of late capitalism and thus is part of a memory economy. corresponding with a dynamic user culture which is L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – WOLFGANG ERNST – 15 . as opposed to distributed cation media by defining society rather as a form of digital archives and their open access on the Internet communication. archival knowledge has been an internal against historical time privilege of governmental agencies. A gap opens between the necessity dimension as well. poralised. The old institutional on emphatic memory. RADICALLY DE-HISTORICISING THE ARCHIVE – WOLFGANG ERNST As long as the archive has been distanced from public Eigenzeit: Archival resistance discourse.

) 2014. Røssaak (ed. M. University of California Press. museums. The End(s) of the Museum. 1996. “We no longer collect the Carrier BIBLIOGRAPHY but the Information”. 2011. 268-74. what if the public will prefer to use Google rather than National Library of Sweden. W. 67-80. Sheridan Smith [*1972]. pp. (1972—2002). Lovink. “The Body and the Archive”. 2009. Applications. Huhtamo and J. Stockholm. libraries and no. interviewed by G. In other words. Press. mation on national.). The YouTube Reader. “Cultural Archive versus Technomathematical Storage”. Oldenburg. pp. guardians of memory such as archives. Approaches. pp. 2009. Routledge Classics. The Archive in Motion. “The Appearance of Archives”. and Schäfer. “The Enduring Ephemeral. pp. no. AnArchive(s).). On perception. 5. A Minimal Encyclopedia on Archaeology of the Arts and Media. Zeitschrift für Medienwissenschaft. or The Future J. F. 2011. Psychological Issues. London / New York. pp. Snickars. Snickars. The Johns Hopkins University Los Angeles. London. —  Heider. W. F. —  van Tijen. Boekbinder. institutional Internet portals to get access and infor. just as Internet radio and IPTV (Internet in P. Fondació Antoni Tápies. 1-34). in E.). Barcelona. “Navigating YouTube: order by fluctuation. in P. T. “Thing and medium”. Protocol Television) are replacing the traditional National Library of Sweden. 53-73. no. in nineteenth-century Europe. P. event-structure and psychological environ- ment (Selected papers. Baltimore/London. pp. trans. 1-123. “Museums on the Digital Frontier”. 8. H. E. and —  White. Oslo. Vonderau (eds. vol. October. MediaMatic. Web 2. viewed Is a Memory”. A. P. 3-64. “Trainingseffekte. 1973. F. academic and cultural memory? in T. no.). in F. Arbeiten mit YouTube the emerging Realtime Net replace the traditional und UbuWeb”. 1. 39. As a result. new challenges arise: Constituting a Hybrid Information Management System”. 2. pp. 15 December 2015. —  Chun. 1. pp. —  Kittler.0 and —  Knörer.T. E. M. S. 2010. and Giannetti. Berkeley. broadcasting media? —  Sekula. vol. —  Foucault. 184-203. R. 268-74. M. Parikka (eds. 163-66. Keenan (ed. The YouTube Reader. New Conceptions of the Archive in Contemporary Thought and New Media Practices. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – WOLFGANG ERNST – 16 . Archaeology of Knowledge. Edith-Russ-Haus für Medienkunst. Metahistory: The historical imagination Implications. C. Novus. RADICALLY DE-HISTORICISING THE ARCHIVE – WOLFGANG ERNST less concerned with records for eternity than with —  Kessler. —  Fürlus. Media Archaeology. will the World Wide Web. Heider. Stockholm.). in E. 1986. — Ernst. (eds. (1927—1959). trans. Vonderau (eds. —  Prelinger. pp. 1994.

RESOURCES — L’INTERNATIONALE BOOKS BURIED (AND) ALIVE JEFFREY SCHNAPP .

Analogue objects lead double lives augmented approach to description and catalogu- alongside digital surrogates surrounded by growing ing that treats every cultural object not as a singular haloes of metadata. tures of human existence. and an expanded concept of the cultural record have undergone a democratisation that touches didn’t have nested within it a series of challenges every aspect of their existence. sharing. the ear. from the nature of that are also opportunities for renewal. a seismic shift well beyond L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – JEFFREY SCHNAPP – 18 . and even a rethink- array of media that extends cultural memory beyond ing of the very notion of “archive” along more flexible the hand and eye to. lism if the march towards democratisation. is accompanied by new forms of capture that allow term conservation whose contents were thought to for time-scales that would have been inconceivable have transcended temporal bounds. encompass a rethinking of uniform processing and tion and consultation to the design of the edifices conservation practices. There was little space changes) to that of micro-events that occur on the for documenting the evanescent or contested fea. dis- that house them. for instance. Archives now collect more varieties covery. scale of seconds (viz. archives tion. served by traditional brick-and-mortar archives. an site and off-site. data. new models of search. and capta. archives were born as sites of long. snapshots and tweets). Few categories only a century ago: from documentation of macro- of materials were believed to be worthy of elevation events that occur over centuries (like environmental into their supratemporal ether. They do so in an entity but as a web of relations. The latter the documents collected to practices of organisa. not to mention the actions The above narrative might smack of triumpha- of contemporaries or peripheries. and retrieval. as well as information use and of media and materials than in any preceding epoch. this expanded sensorium of cultural memory once associated. in the archivum. Last but not and fluid lines. BURIED (AND) ALIVE – JEFFREY SCHNAPP Like the royal burial grounds with which they were least. outreach to audiences that are infrequently These materials are increasingly accessible both on. prolifera- In the course of their modern history. In short.

seems certain: however invaluable. indeed. A better option. Storage is easy. activation is diffi. that mere aggregation of some hypothetical future moment when professional materials and/ or their digitisation is not. much of interested/ affected parties. particularly in cultural memory. Added participants and witnesses. and it is those communities them- There is no single or simple answer because selves that must be brought into the picture in order archives come in multiple shapes and sizes. is not struction and design of such animated archives right a living cultural heritage in any meaningful way. But a cultural heritage that lives on only as stor. is cult. turn. the case contemporary multimedial repositories. scale and fragility. not to mention an cal) resources to process them can amount to a de effective mechanism for activating or sustaining facto death sentence.www.portal to digital materi- First.of Japan’s 2011 Disasters (JDA) is an online of quantity. labour of processing. one significant key to future value and use). L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – JEFFREY SCHNAPP – 19 . as ral and man-made disas- ters that began in Japan to the ever-growing mass of the analogue and often well as communities of expertise on 11 March 2011: duplicating them. This. however. welcome or forgotten as a function of being sustained by liv- overflows? ing communities. By their very nature. but rather of embracing data- ries are. To traditional top-down approaches to the processing of clarify: it is not a matter of simply crowdsourcing the materials and the construction of archival reposito. BURIED (AND) ALIVE – JEFFREY SCHNAPP the scope of these brief reflections in which I would the fine-grained knowledge that 1. whether in warehouses or in server farms. So from the start. in and of archivists will have had the time and (hypotheti- itself. an incomplete solution. To delay their access until home predecessors: namely. are remembered how to manage the inevitable and. One to reduce the loss of living knowledge (which is. The Digital Archive like to consider three specific challenges: questions has the potential to make contem. at best. to involve such interested communities in the con- age. a gesture of conservation.org/en/ home a point that already applied to their analogue ars. the of the quantities and variety of materials involved as development of rigorous and reliable core records well as the fragility of their “qualities.” As the Digital with the input of communities of expertise and other Archive of Japan’s 2011 Disasters 1 suggests. ated with the lived experience of als documenting the natu- tutions of memory have always been hoarders. because base designs that balance inreach with outreach.jdarchive. porary materials matter is associ. Archives live or die. quantity. in thing. modern insti. digital archival assets have driven such as researchers and schol.

The challenge intensifies in the case of vast. and capta) makes it possible design (involving partners from Yahoo! Japan to the to operate on new and expanded scales thanks to National Diet Library and Archive. make sense. the project seeks interconnected. resentations tell new stories on macro scales about tive activities of the community that animates it: a matters such as the history of collecting practices community that includes everyone from victims and or institutions or taxonomical shifts. and serve the present while. locate and retrieve of open archives back to that middle stratum where L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – JEFFREY SCHNAPP – 20 . humanists that involves technology. totype of what my colleagues and I like to call “cri. sis archiving”. at the same make sense of. now there is exponentially more. not self-evident objects of human experience. knowledge. ensuring the transmission of the past to future here a new set of inventorial affordances (based generations. BURIED (AND) ALIVE – JEFFREY SCHNAPP 2. metadata. the contrary. it goes without saying that ate artefacts that enhance knowledge. design.harvard. But they are activists to policymakers and journalists to students. they are technical constructs. multitude of tools and techniques in order to gener- tural objects. persuade.edu Japan’s 2011 Disasters into a pro. that translate vast numbers of objects into aggregate monials generated on-site to websites and video. The resulting rep- most of all of the beehive-like curatorial and interpre. But time. abstrac- A second challenge is cognitive and pertains to tions that have to be critically crafted by means of a both the macro and micro scales of experiencing cul. There was already far too much to sift through and attend to. multimedial digital repositories. Navigating them would lie well beyond the the sort of cultural task being undertaken by digital capabilities of the human mind were it not for sup. Of course. and environmental scientists. Known as the JDA. federative in upon data. Participatory in character. and build the sorts of human-scale on metaLAB: http://meta- shaping the Digital Archive of arguments that contribute to the advancement of lab. Among these are tools media types from tweets and photographs to testi. This is not merely a technical task: it is blages. the visualisations that can be viewed from the perspec- JDA is made up not only of documents but also and tive of a multiplicity of data fields. On scholars. For more information metaLAB 2 played a key role in information. encompassing computational techniques. or archives assume the form of extremely large assem. to expand the compass of how memories are built in.org). and a ports such as inventories and finding aids which clear-headed sense of how to reconnect the world allow researchers to burrow in.

Fig. project PI's Battles/ Loukissas/Schnapp) showing an “artifac- tual interface” that allows visitors to annotate features of a three-dimensional scan of an ancient Greek ostrakon. BURIED (AND) ALIVE – JEFFREY SCHNAPP A still from metaLAB (at) Harvard's Teaching with Things demonstration project (2013. A still from metaLAB (at) Harvard's Teaching with Things demonstration project (2013. project PI's Battles/ Loukissas/Schnapp) with a multimedia descriptive record on the left and a timeline of annotations on the right. 0 Caption TK L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – JEFFREY SCHNAPP – 21 .

BURIED (AND) ALIVE – JEFFREY SCHNAPP

culture resides and where human experience finds researchers. But, for the very same reasons, digital
its home. assets are volatile, menaced by bit rot, and subject to
Integral to that task, but at the micro level, is the misunderstanding and manipulation. Digital-specific
need for a relational approach to the description of techniques of conservation are still in their infancy.
objects, which is to say, the need for a concept of The oldest digital files currently preserved date back
search that focuses upon the retrieval, not of indi- less than half a century: a mere drop in the bucket
vidual items, but of the networks of interconnec- from the standpoint of cultural record.
tions that run through them. For much of the history The challenges we face today are multiple: to
of modern cultural institutions, the conventional acts layer a diversity of representations on top of the stan-
of reduction of works to title, creator, date, snapshot, dard descriptors so as to better approach the full
etc. were viable because the data were only visible sensorium – the weight, the texture, the feeling – of
on the inside. Collections data served the needs of cultural objects; to unjam data resources through
inventory management and were the near-exclu- open APIs (Application Programme Interface) and
sive province of museum staff. But even as invento- linked data environments so as to give rise to virtual
ries have migrated out into public view on the World realms of curation where researchers can work with
Wide Web, modes of description and representa- open collections data and stories can be told through
tion remain much as they were in the pre-digital era: and with individual objects (excavated down to the
top-down, tethered to standardised schemes, based nano scale) as well as with collection-sized aggre-
upon atomised approaches to objects. gates. Every object is a collection. Every collection
A third challenge has to do with fragility. Digital is a social network of things. Objects and collections
materials may occupy little space and be readily have friends. It is time to mobilise them as well as to
resizable, sharable, and reproducible; the metadata, “describe” them through representations that attend
data, and capta that swirl around them may allow to the acoustical and haptic (not just the ocular).
for new modes and scales of argument; the condi- Every burial ground needs to be cared for con-
tions of use and access that they enable may make tinuously if it is to endure.
it possible for everyone from high schoolers to local
historians to become archive builders and archival

L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – JEFFREY SCHNAPP – 22

RESOURCES — L’INTERNATIONALE BOOKS

H[GUN SHOT]OW
C[GUN SHOT]AN I
F[GUN SHOT]ORGET?
LAWRENCE ABU HAMDAN

H[GUN SHOT]OW C[GUN SHOT]AN I F[GUN SHOT]ORGET? – LAWRENCE ABU HAMDAN

“If you’re feeling that text
can’t say enough,
you’re ready for ‘Glide’.
Get a little closer.”
Extract from the App Store
product description of Glide

In December 2014, new audio evidence emerged
that captured the moment when unarmed teen-
ager Michael Brown was shot to death in Ferguson,
Missouri that August. The audio was submitted by an
Spotting the Shottspotter : photograph of Shotspotter anonymous man who incidentally caught the moment
microphone installed on the top of a street lamp.
of the shooting as he was recording and sending a
Courtesy of the artist.
private voice message from his phone using the Glide
app. He only realised much later the significance of
the gunshots he had accidentally recorded.
In this recording it is audible that Brown’s mur-
derer, a police officer by the name of Darren Wilson,
fired his gun ten times. Six of these shots hit Brown,
mostly in the head (all above the torso). And yet there
is another and unexpected violence that is captured

L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – LAWRENCE ABU HAMDAN – 24

was in the fore. clear for all to hear. after the recent attacks testimony and was also key to denying the veracity in Paris (November 2015). listeners were asked to that concluded that unarmed Michael Brown was ignore. Showen is the founder and creator of ShotSpotter™. neither realised that the The expertise of Dr Robert Showen was called greater Police violence enacted upon the residents upon because of his extensive experience of working of Ferguson and many other African-American neigh. If it decides that the sound is gunfire. When the microphones detect a loud bang. ground of this recording. over some of your videos. The information is algorithmically anal- Dr. it meant that a conclusion could be phones is now installed in eighty “troubled” neigh- drawn that the murderer was stationary and stayed bourhoods across the United States. which works This is the recording transcribed with both the by installing microphones throughout a neighbour- foreground and background sounds included:“You hood to listen for sounds from the street that might are pretty. Technicalities that make themselves available on the European market. a ground. This evidence corroborated some eyewitness systems in South Africa and. bourhoods in the United States. You’re so fine. They have more or less in one place while he was firing the aspirations to cross the Atlantic. [6 gun shots]. whether presented amounted in the end to a greater body of evidence on CNN or to the grand jury. they saw the opportunity to of other contradicting accounts. he was able to define the space around This is on average accurate within thirty feet of where the shooter. While both defence and prosecution provided charging at the officer and that the officer was there- forensic audio experts to provide their own accounts fore acting in self-defence when he repeatedly shot about the gun shots that could be heard in the back. nearby walls. Using the shot. it sends impulse sounds of the shots and their reflection off the location of the gunfire to the Police Department. His analysis of the gunshots quickly verify if the sound registered is indeed a gun- centred mostly on the echo they created. As each echo of each shot was very the shot happened. H[GUN SHOT]OW C[GUN SHOT]AN I F[GUN SHOT]ORGET? – LAWRENCE ABU HAMDAN in this recording – one that. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – LAWRENCE ABU HAMDAN – 25 . Brown in the head. gunshot detection and location service. Robert Showen was one of the key expert ysed against a huge database of loud bang sounds to listeners in this case. with gun shot sounds as echo location instruments. Just going be gunfire. [gun shot] H[gun shot]ow they automatically triangulate where this sound is c[gun shot]an I f[gun shot]orget?” coming from. having now installed shots. ShotSpotter™ system of micro- similar in sound.

is that ShotSpotter™ would replace these unfaith. Showen’s state. continues unfazed to send a message to the subject ful ears with law abiding microphones and be able of his admiration. “You are pretty” he sensors’ microphone sensitivity is almost identical says. This startlingly high figure of unreported inci- vate property?”. based on the fact that the communities cally listens to the recording of the death of Michael affected by gun crime were made up of unreliable Brown. the alternative. he doesn’t hear the loudest aspect of this witnesses who failed to report more than eighty per. but rather that people hear the rooftops of buildings so that one can “listen to the gunshots and choose not to report them to the the horizon”. Therefore the gunfire? Is he waiting for it to subside so he can L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – LAWRENCE ABU HAMDAN – 26 .. His response was: “Yes we dents suggests that. The idea then sound of gunfire ringing out loud outside his window. was constructed on its necessity as a security infra. practically everyone agreed when he speaks of the brutal inauguration ceremony [. Is this short pause an acknowledgement of phone microphone placed on a rooftop. we have the ment that “everyone was willing” seemed contra.] everyone was just willing to donate their roof that happens in each community when ShotSpotter™ for the benefit of the community”. more racist and more trigger-happy than a sensor on their building to help protect the com. police go out and shoot and we see the accuracy and dictory with ShotSpotter™. H[GUN SHOT]OW C[GUN SHOT]AN I F[GUN SHOT]ORGET? – LAWRENCE ABU HAMDAN Dr Robert Showen told me in an interview that the issue is not that people don’t hear the gun shots ShotSpotter™ microphones are typically placed on and the microphones do. It is no surprise then that when Showen forensi- structure. “So they are mostly installed on pri. despite the cent of the gun shots they had heard. the police can be more doors and asked if the people would allow us to put dangerous.. Oblivious or perhaps not caring that to algorithmically detect eighty percent of gunshots the message of love he is sending is underscored that went previously unreported. is installed: “When we install a system. Showen seems oblivious to this idea munity from gunfire. and then a brief break the human hearing capacity is in general much more in the gunfire and he resumes by saying “You’re so sensitive and adapted to reading sounds than a cell fine”. I asked. whose whole rhetoric the sensitivity of our system”. recording: the love-struck voice who. But volley of six shots to ring out. Showen says: “Our by the sounds of brutal violence. police. as in the case of Michael Brown went out with the police officers and knocked on and hundreds more since. and then a short pause that is long enough for a to what is on a cellphone and a speakerphone”.

That. That the more surveillance increases its sonic archives and audio databases. Yet according to ShotSpotter’s privacy policy: in the courtroom. Brown didn’t work in his favour because the L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – LAWRENCE ABU HAMDAN – 27 . And perhaps this communities and the endemic distrust of the police. 2015. And when we listen to and not past the voice on the recording of the murder of Michael Brown what becomes distinctly audible is the extent of this societal deafness – a deafness of communities to gun violence. this voice which jury members “The entire system is intentionally designed not to were asked to ignore is ironically the most relevant permit ‘live listening’ of any sort. from the mixtape The analysis of the gunshots that killed Michael 56 Nights. Yet. rather than a new hyper-surveilled society that hears everything we say. H[GUN SHOT]OW C[GUN SHOT]AN I F[GUN SHOT]ORGET? – LAWRENCE ABU HAMDAN carry on with his message? Perhaps akin to the pause Many are concerned that ShotSpotter could con- we might make in our conversations while a jet flies stitute a fourth amendment violation – warrantless overhead? Or is this pause a coincidence and he has search and seizure of public sounds. Future. they are not at all interested in human voices. ShotSpotter points to a society with a total lack of listening. is the more frightening possibility. a deafness of the police to so-called “troubled” communities and a deafness of the judges and lawmakers to the social conditions that produce unreliable and uninterested witnesses. archive available for all kinds of security applica- ing the emergency services is treated as irrelevant tions. this voice private conversations amassing a huge sound that ignores these very loud sounds rather than alert. March Madness [prod by Tarantino]. the less people are actually being heard. A pervasive simply become totally desensitised to the sound of method of surveillance that could be used to record gunfire outside his window? Either way. Human voices do way to understand the extent of violence in these not trigger ShotSpotter sensors”.

we should instead be demanding more listening. Instead of demanding our privacy be granted and rejecting this technology. what would a Shotspotter with its microphones aimed towards the police rather than the people enable us to do? The technology exists. What would it sound like if we could hear this vast database of police gunfire rather than have it ring out only in the desensitised and terrorised communities in which it is a regular occurrence. there has not been a single case where it was used as evidence to prosecute a police officer. though it has been recording every gunshot across eighty neighbour- hoods. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – LAWRENCE ABU HAMDAN – 28 . it was already installed before we knew it and. Building an alternative database of sounds from which this system can become artificially intelligent to another reality of violence. H[GUN SHOT]OW C[GUN SHOT]AN I F[GUN SHOT]ORGET? – LAWRENCE ABU HAMDAN conditions of listening are determined by the same authorities that committed the injustice against him. Yet. more archiving in order to reverse-engineer it’s selective ears.

THE ARCHIVE POLICIES OF RED CONCEPTUALISMOS DEL SUR ANA LONGONI / RED CONCEPTUALISMOS DEL SUR . RESOURCES — L’INTERNATIONALE BOOKS ANOTHER MAPPING OF ART AND POLITICS.

Manifesto. the catalysing potential of the ising the critical potential of a set of what we could call so-called “conceptual practices” was broken up by conceptual practices that took place in Latin America the force of State violence and market logic. 2009) to discuss our Founding subjectivities in restructuring neoliberal economies. Archives. the ensuing trau- and node meetings once a month) and the annual matic effect still smothers intellectual life in our soci- election of delegates charged with the general coor. the defensive oblivion far three plenary meetings (Brazil. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – ANA LONGONI / RED CONCEPTUALISMOS DEL SUR – 30 .net/ dination of the Network. the aestheticisation of counterculture. Canada and Buenos Aires. as is the case in other to intervene politically against the processes neutral. and outline our major working guidelines. the network functions ferent attempts to reactivate this disruptive power in four nodes (Research. Lima and in different countries of Latin America. More than Due to the difficulties of gathering so many people. a significant part of Latin America. etc. ANOTHER MAPPING OF ART AND POLITICS – ANA LONGONI / RED CONCEPTUALISMOS DEL SUR Red Conceptualismos del Sur (known as RedCSur or also carried out several collective projects. researchers and artists with concerns about the need RedCSur considers that. assimilated by civil society. among others. thought and collective America in the 1980s called “Losing the Human Form” positioning that currently has over fifty members (including an itinerant exhibition in Madrid. the depoliticisation of 2008. emancipatory projects. Publications and have been interrupted by the continual overlap of Web). Today. Argentina. and Chile. eties and immunises the poetic-political potential of 1. We have those experiences. and a “glossary” volume published in Europe. we forty years on from the outbreak of dictatorships in have opted for virtual meetings (plenary once a year. such as a the Southern Conceptualisms Network) 1 is an inter. The dif- from the 1960s onwards. which enable us to operate in diverse formats diverse mechanisms: the inoculation of collective or spaces of collective work. 2007. The network has held so memory from State systems. collective research project on art and politics in Latin national platform of work. See redcsur. It was founded at the end of 2007 by a group of Spanish and English).

Courtesy: Antonio Cadima (Tallersol). L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – ANA LONGONI / RED CONCEPTUALISMOS DEL SUR – 31 . preservation (Project in progress). Cucho Márquez (APJ). Archivo de la Resistencia Visual” 1973-1989. Chile. digitalization. Archivo de la Resistencia Visual” 1973-1989. Archive of Visual Resistance 1973-1989. “R. Archives which RedCSur is currently working on. Chile. Havilio Pérez (APJ). (R. Inventory. (R. Chile). ANOTHER MAPPING OF ART AND POLITICS – ANA LONGONI / RED CONCEPTUALISMOS DEL SUR “R. Chile). Archive of Visual Resistance 1973-1989.

their integrity and indivisibility – to generate onistic force inside the framework of contemporary conditions for their preservation and their availability cognitive capitalism. ing. all archives on critical artistic practices from Latin This is the way in which we seek to generate and America (placing particular stress on those from the support initiatives for the establishment. belong. which. position. documents and other material and immate. Our main objective. a series of graphic art practices in opposition to ence the current situation. therefore. RedCSur upholds an ethi. namely. unflinching commitment to the same principles. national agents (universities. the management of such artistic and political In association with diverse local and inter- experiences and the accumulation of cultural heri. We set out to defend their inalienable state – experiences in order for them to become an antag. for consultation by all interested parties. a starting point in the need to influence this area so the Argentinian artist Graciela Carnevale. and as documentary holdings from various other artists). the Chilean group CADA (Colectivo de rial remnants from these conceptual practices. which brings together Faced with the pressing need to critically influ. is to vin. the aim is to reconnect the aforementioned experiences Argentinian artist Juan Carlos Romero (which joins in order to reactivate their catalysing potential. due to tion and right to use document archives linked to L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – ANA LONGONI / RED CONCEPTUALISMOS DEL SUR – 32 . for process of institutionalisation and canonisation of instance those from the Uruguayan artist Clemente archives. “Memories of Resistance”. museums). the archive as to revert these and other neutralisation strategies. collectors to fostering their local registration wherever expe- and public and private art institutions participating riences occur that are encompassed in the archive in the international contemporary art system are in by way of alliances with public institutions with an the midst of a strong dispute over visibility. preserva- period spanning the 1970s and 1980s). these tage. and the Paraguayan cal and political commitment to the revaluation of artist Cira Moscarda. are placed in a precarious critical power. Padín. ANOTHER MAPPING OF ART AND POLITICS – ANA LONGONI / RED CONCEPTUALISMOS DEL SUR RedCSur stemmed from the will to contribute to this their material conditions. to name a few. Our Acciones de Arte / Art Action Collective). or are dispersed and cannot be consulted dicate the presence of sensitive memory in those publicly. Therefore. General Pinochet’s dictatorship. it is no mere coincidence that for principles have enabled us to set in motion the some years now we have been witnessing a general institutionalisation of diverse artists’ archives. in addition RedCSur is aware that museums.

join- feel that the policies for forming archives must not ing. a need to confront their immaterial memory. We want to generate action — Research policies. This means facing up to and taking charge of vividly connecting them to the present. organising and reinterpreting the documents only be concurrent with an acknowledgement of the produced by the aforementioned experiences is effects of colonialism. name and ing beyond their mere visibility. not solely because generate meaning around a set of poetic-political these practices are irreducible in their mere objec- experiences whose critical power has been nulli. but because we are more concerned with fied. For us research is to restore. for these tasks by their of colonialism in Latin America. Tracing. which involves mov- exercise. a political and not merely an academic power of these experiences. to create a new laboratory of experimentation with L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – ANA LONGONI / RED CONCEPTUALISMOS DEL SUR – 33 . tuality. RedCSur endeavours to undertake a crit- ing need for collective and decisive intervention to ical and active part in the geopolitical diagram of put a stop to the continual expropriation. political climate across a number of the continent’s To unblock their interrupted critical power. there is countries – the urgent need to generate State poli. We believe in the press. from one another: — Activation experiments. dispersion global forces in the cultural economy. above strategies that update the polluting and catalysing all else. as a direct form of intervention in neglect. it is essential to recover the sensitive register coordinated and strive to establish a network of pub. We take research to be. there- cies and common efforts that are synchronised and fore. and destruction of documents and collections. Therefore. and we aim to set in motion a and also addressing the implementation of thought circuit of Network Archives that share and facilitate and creation in a context of cognitive capitalism. We want the tensions brought about by policies of neglect. We — Producing the memory of experience. very nature only enable access to formal outward We lay stress on – even more so in the current appearances and commonplace representations. This These objectives of our archive policies cannot also entails rehabilitating the disruptive force from be taken into consideration without interactions with the cultural context containing the conditions of other approaches in our work that are inseparable possibility. of the experience and the attachments that arise lic and decentralised archives. but also with the persistence necessary but not enough. public access to documents. ANOTHER MAPPING OF ART AND POLITICS – ANA LONGONI / RED CONCEPTUALISMOS DEL SUR the said experiences.

ANOTHER MAPPING OF ART AND POLITICS – ANA LONGONI / RED CONCEPTUALISMOS DEL SUR Archivos en Uso platform www.archivoenuso. Parte del Archivo de Artistas Juan Carlos Romero (Part of the Archive of Artists Juan Carlos Romero). poster. 2000.org Juan Carlos Romero. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – ANA LONGONI / RED CONCEPTUALISMOS DEL SUR – 34 . Violencia (Violence).

processes. exhibiting and politically histori- to grant availability and public access to archives cising the disruptive force and the critical capacity of from research projects set up by RedCSur. Archives in Use are also free of charge and available either temporarily or permanently on computers in libraries. and are all the outcome of lengthy research lectivisation of materials. documentation centres. exhibition productions between 1965 and 2010). We have already collectivised four document archives in this format: the archive on the Argentinian art- ist and sociologist Roberto Jacoby (his divergent L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – ANA LONGONI / RED CONCEPTUALISMOS DEL SUR – 35 . In addition to online consultation. prepared. exhibition spaces and education cen- tres by simply ordering through a contact email. for in Latin America. public discussions and museum initia. instance the Study Group on Art. the archive projects. ANOTHER MAPPING OF ART AND POLITICS – ANA LONGONI / RED CONCEPTUALISMOS DEL SUR the ability to encompass publications. conceiving. of creative practices from the human rights move- tives. sites of memory. Culture and Politics in Modern-day Argentina. doing. Numerous other archives are also being A key commitment for RedCSur is advocating the col. posi- promoted Archives in Use. the archive of underground magazines duly questioned powers. As a result. endeavour to set up different notions of history. produced during the last dictatorship in Argentina (1976-1983). we have seeks different possibilities in thinking. lectivisation devices and to disseminate archives Consequently. through its actions RedCSur that flow beyond artistic realms. from the Gino Germani Research Institute of the Faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Buenos Aires. and we look to devise col. these interventions ment in Argentina since the last military dictatorship. and those the artistic-political practices that have taken place that are in collaboration with other platforms. the archive belonging to the Chilean group CADA heritage and the transmission of knowledge and and. Regardless of the format. an experiment that strives tioning. finally.

RESOURCES — L’INTERNATIONALE BOOKS

DECOLONIAL
SENSIBILITIES:
INDIGENOUS RESEARCH
AND ENGAGING WITH
ARCHIVES IN
CONTEM­PORARY
COLONIAL CANADA
CRYSTAL FRASER AND ZOE TODD

DECOLONIAL SENSIBILITIES – CRYSTAL FRASER AND ZOE TODD

During recent months, the idea of reconciliation church archives is complicated, given ongoing set-
has been brought to the forefront of the Canadian tler-colonial realities that frame and govern archives
socio-political terrain, largely ensuing from efforts in Canada. To decolonise the archives requires an
to examine the historical experiences of Indigenous erasure or negation of the colonial realities of the
peoples in the Indian Residential Schools (IRS) sys- archives themselves. Given the inherent colonial
tem. This was a system that sought to eliminate realities of the archives as institutions, any effort to
Indigenous cultures, in part, by forcibly removing decolonise or Indigenise the archives in Canada can
children from their families to obtain a state-based therefore only ever be partial.
education, often far away from their homes to institu- In theorising the idea of ‘decolonising’ the
tions characterised by substandard and abysmal liv- archives, we are faced with a number of structural
ing conditions. The shift to reconciliation and efforts issues that must be unpacked and we do so in the
to achieve a “nation-to-nation relationship” has Canadian context. In this short piece, we first ques-
prompted a great deal of attention and new ques- tion who controls these archives? Second, we exam-
tions of access, content, and ownership of historical ine the archival holdings themselves, pointing to both
documents dealing with the history and legacies of the absent within the holdings themselves and the
IRS. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) gaps in our knowledge about archival holdings. A final
battled the federal government for access to files question asks: should we have the goal of ‘decolo-
and documents in possession of the Government of nising archives’? Acknowledging the inherent colo-
Canada pertaining to the centuries-old history of IRS nial paradigms that inform and shape the archives
in Canada, illustrating some of the nuances and com- as institutions, we propose moving away from the
plexities inherent in the question of ‘decolonising the question of decolonising the archives themselves
archives’. For Indigenous peoples, access to state or and suggest instead applying a historically-informed

L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – CRYSTAL FRASER AND ZOE TODD – 37

DECOLONIAL SENSIBILITIES – CRYSTAL FRASER AND ZOE TODD

critical decolonial sensibility in our engagement with access materials. Once documents are received, they
the archives. are often heavily redacted to the point of being use-
less. Fraser’s own experience accessing records
from Library and Archives Canada (LAC) for her doc-
Who Controls toral research on the history of IRS in the Canadian
the Archives? Arctic was characterised by persisting roadblocks.
Spanning over 2013 and 2014, an ATIP application
In Canada, there are a variety of archives which con- was lost (and re-submitted), heavily-redacted elec-
tain information pertinent to Indigenous nations, peo- tronic files were provided and rendered almost obso-
ples, and communities. Historical records are housed lete, and the remainder of the requested collection
in a variety of locales: state archives (national, pro- was placed on hold, for review, in Ottawa. But upon
vincial/ territorial, and municipal); church archives travelling nearly 3,000 kilometres to access the col-
(curated and controlled by religious orders, such as lection, Fraser was informed that the files had been
the Oblates of Mary Immaculate, the United Church of checked out by another researcher for an undeter-
Canada, the Anglican Church of Canada); university mined amount of time.
archives; Indigenous governance organisations; and Due to the tenuous and highly sensitive nature
a variety of corporate and private archives. of these documents, coupled with the fact that very
There are numerous ways that access to archives few researchers have analysed documents reflect-
and materials is restricted. The Access to Information ing this modern history, the boundaries imposed
and Privacy (ATIP) Act regulates how individuals may around ‘sensitive’ research are troubling. To access
access archival holdings. Ironically, there are numer- archival materials in Canada is to move across geo-
ous claims that the implementation of privacy acts by graphic, political, and even linguistic boundaries. It is
government agencies is in fact heavily restrictive. In to contend with the structures and rules that govern
recent years, the experiences of scholars, journalists, each organisation; researchers are forced to grapple
lawyers, and others filing ATIP (or provincial varia- with power structures that trickle down from bureau-
tions) and Freedom of Information and Privacy (FOIP) cracies to individuals that hold sway over the mate-
Act, have been to wait for onerous periods of time to rials, facilities, and accessibility. The new National

L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – CRYSTAL FRASER AND ZOE TODD – 38

In a time when a) Indigenous peo. politi- ments. few between. Canadian historians have ques- LAC’s holdings. these materials. have been produced by non-Indigenous people: In addition to restricting access to public docu. Archival records about corporations charging citizens for access to produced by Indigenous people prove to be far and public documents. Pauline Johnson. access to archival materials to articulate court cases Further. which opened in late Archival Holdings: 2015. especially with its extensive online and A fundamental challenge lies in the fact that the digitised records. Inspired by the well-known and provocative article ship with the corporate entity Ancestry. the and Métis) are not represented equally in Canadian question of third-party corporate incursions into archives. LAC announced a partner.ca to digitise by Gayatri Spivak. there are majority of archival documents in Canadian archives limitations even to this collection. tions that seek to extract and profit from non-renew. is an adequate starting point for conversations The Unknown and Missing about re-defining archival challenges and its politi- cal burdens. there are questions about the ownership of cal and other ‘great men’ tropes of Canadian history. namely white men who dominated exploration. For example. Kateri Tekakwitha. Even less is known about able resources in unceded Indigenous territories Indigenous children. as well as questions to “speak” in archival documents. group. the three constitutionally recognised affirming existing legal rights to their territories Indigenous groups in Canada (First Nations. owing to the different relationships and management of sensitive personal and community histories between the Crown and each Indigenous information is both pertinent and troubling. but. We know very little about the lives of ples in Canada are defending land rights against the Indigenous women. This move raises serious concerns tioned if other less-known historical actors – such as about the vulnerability of people’s information to Indigenous people. and E. in all its innovation. Inuit against large-scale resource extraction projects. apart from a few celebrated operations of national and multi-national corpora. and and b) when Indigenous nations in Canada rely on liminal figures such as medicine men and women. In 2008. such as Thanadelthur. and children – are able exploitation by private interests. accessing materials pertaining L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – CRYSTAL FRASER AND ZOE TODD – 39 . DECOLONIAL SENSIBILITIES – CRYSTAL FRASER AND ZOE TODD Centre for Truth and Reconciliation Archive housed at the University of Manitoba. heroines. two-spirited individuals. women.

L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – CRYSTAL FRASER AND ZOE TODD – 40 . Photo credit: Crystal Fraser. DECOLONIAL SENSIBILITIES – CRYSTAL FRASER AND ZOE TODD View from Library and Archives Canada. Library and Archives Canada. despite the tenacity of the settler state. Ottawa. Photo credit: Crystal Fraser. October 2014. The pres- ence of Indigenous people persists. October 2014.

If Indigenous by the overtly biased and one-sided nature of archi- people are present in historical records. as historian Elizabeth Vibert explains. digitising content or hiring Indigenous archivists. rarely free agents in their own right and far removed from narra- tives that highlight agency or sophistication. state and Indigenous nations/societies. and transform the archives to meet the While poststructuralist approaches have recently needs of Indigenous peoples requires an honest dominated historiographical analyses. academics continue to be limited als are held in a decentralised manner. as these materi. uncertain. ‘decolonising the archives’ would look like? Is it a “meaning. most part. and knowledge itself [is] unstable. and Corporate archives must ing historical documents in creative ways that allow be acknowledged as enmeshed in the specific for deep and fluid understandings of the past. State. example. however. in her work. scholars and blunt engagement with the bureaucratic and studying colonialism and post-colonialism in North arcane structures that govern and shape research America have become increasingly invested in read. we wonder what premise that. some scholars have attempted to Transforming the Archives? uncover Indigenous voices through creative read- ing of state documents and by beginning with the In light of these challenges. DECOLONIAL SENSIBILITIES – CRYSTAL FRASER AND ZOE TODD to Métis histories at LAC is difficult. Reading the archives through the the broader relationships between the Canadian lens of Indigenous legal orders and sentient more.and history-making endeavours they foment. Oblate and c) others accessing and using the archives will Missionaries and Inuvialuit in the Paulatuuq region in require ongoing and nuanced conversations about the 1920s-1950s. and b) Indigenous scholars between Hudson’s Bay Company clerks. today. value. For nation. For the It also requires us to question how Indigenous L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – CRYSTAL FRASER AND ZOE TODD – 41 . Church. often depicted as passive bystanders. Todd strives to understand Reconciling the needs and goals of a) Indigenous the role that fish played in mediating relationships communities. they are val records. and open to multiple understandings”. reshape. ing to colonial encounters in Arctic Canada. nations. This neces- than-human agency brings a different perspective to sitates responses that are far deeper than simply the role of animals like fish in shaping and respond. The Question of Decolonisation: To their credit. worthy goal for Indigenous peoples? To reclaim.

and lawful relationships. She writes that we must “decolonize feature Indigenous voices is to prioritise and expand the cultures through which those systems of repre. the institutions running the nation’s archives. just. historical collections to include a greater number and sentation were produced”. whether in the form of transcripts. or private benefit from the dispossession of Indigenous peo. Historian Adele Perry writes that histories. DECOLONIAL SENSIBILITIES – CRYSTAL FRASER AND ZOE TODD peoples can meaningfully access. and structural oppres. settler colonialism. settler Canadians – scholars included – must be audio or video files. church. nations. institutional. locations. however. This engages several simultaneous and sometimes thoughtful. and contextual approaches that tend to contradictory issues: the structure and function of specific relationships. and embracing methodologies of discomfort. way of bring greater diversity to archival spaces and tural difference. We argue that rather than decolonise the objects of academic research with little consultation archives. and hold account. we must temporal and spatial experiences that characterise engage in conversation that hinge upon the hard the Canadian settler state. Indigenising the archives. eager to have transparent discussions around white Overhauling archival spaces so they are more privilege. a nuanced approach that must be attentive to the tions and Canadian society more generally. To achieve this. Making fair. Indeed. the disjunctures between the written and oral records Cultural historian Catherine Hall asserts that a of treaties and to the colonial state’s selective and self- fundamental part of the project of decolonisation serving interpretation of their meaning”. the application of a decolonial sensibility and few partnerships. Decolonisation of these structures and “Canadian Indigenous people have routinely pointed to processes can only ever be partial. or previously published works. archives should be Indigenised or decolonised in the ple. one must begin with a settler desire to understand cul. how Indigenous communities continue to be the first place. But the question remains questions: how we have benefitted and continue to whether state. histories and legal- archives remain bound to National imaginaries and political realities. attentive to Indigenous needs and desires requires sion that characterise post-secondary institu. range of oral history. It will require nuanced. archives friendlier to Indigenous people and pursuits L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – CRYSTAL FRASER AND ZOE TODD – 42 . and how we uphold structures is necessary to attend to the complex relationships of oppression that privilege white supremacy over between archives. and Indigenous peoples. Through plurality of Indigenous legal orders. There is no single approach in decolonising or able.

B. Fictions. 132-145. J. 1997. 2005. “The Colonial Archive on Trial: Possession.J. S.A. C. N. 2006. Toronto. University of Toronto Press. 93-116. in and Archives Canada. History. A Fatherly Eye: Indian Agents. “Introduction: Thinking the Postcolonial.). P. Vancouver. no. Burton (ed. of Oklahoma Press. Recollecting: History in Canada. 325-350. national narratives that seek to legitimise the nation —  McCormack. —  Carleton.). to Sainthood”. “Kateri Tekakwitha’s Tortuous Path the National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation”. 2nd ed. Vibert. N. A. 2012. Columbia.A. Pickles and M. J. Toronto. Rutherdale (eds. Hall (ed. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – CRYSTAL FRASER AND ZOE TODD – 43 . 1918-1939. 1. pp. 26 November. Press. 2009. A National Crime: The Canadian Government and Pleasures of Looking for Children’s Voices in Archival and the Residential School System. R. 2009.S. 329-364. Marxism and Interpretation of state archives. P. Brown state by excluding Indigenous voices. in K. E. 1879-1986. Townsend (eds. Library —  Brown. “Can the Subaltern Speak?”. viewed 2 February 2016. Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries.R.. University of Toronto Press.N. 1807-1846.H. and Strong-Boag. Cultures. Cultures of troubling history of the Canadian nation state and its Empire: Colonizers in Britain and the Empire in the draconian and oppressive approach to and relation. Thinking the Empire”. pp.. —  Alexander. —  Stoler. Norman. Traders’ Tales: Narratives of Cultural Aboriginal and Settler Women in Canada’s Colonial Past. and Images”. Along the Archival Grain: Epistemic —  Gerson. Princeton University the Native: E. “Métis Scrip Records”. Nelson continue to recognise archival spaces. Archive Stories: Facts.C. 2000. 271-313. histories. and the Writing of History. Urbana. Don Mills. In the Blog Post. Contact Zones: —  Vibert. —  Murray. Shingwauk’s Vision: A History of Native BIBLIOGRAPHY Residential Schools. Days of Our Grandmothers: A Reader in Aboriginal Women’s —  Carter. ship with Indigenous peoples. Texts. University of Illinois Press. 26 August. Toronto. Grossberg (eds. Routledge. Princeton. S. 47-66. V.J. pp. “Assessing —  Shoemaker.Winnipeg. in J. in C. K. and Vibert. in A. Athabasca University Press. pp. and McCormack. 2nd ed. British —  Brownlee. Reading Beyond Words: Contexts for Native mies. University UBC Press. 1999. pp. in M. Government Power. 2005. University Research”. 2011. C. in C. Reading Beyond Words: Contexts for Native History. especially and L. econo. 2003. “Can the Girl Guide Speak? The Perils —  Milloy. O. DECOLONIAL SENSIBILITIES – CRYSTAL FRASER AND ZOE TODD is essential. 2009. Fraser.). Pauline Johnson Rejects the Squaw”.. XI-XXXII. and Milloy J.E. “Championing Anxieties and Colonial Common Sense. Oxford University Press. A.). ActiveHistory. University of Toronto Press. J. Kelm and L. bodies. Duke University Press. Stories.. Borderlands. “Introduction”. A. J. Edmonton. Dispossession. N. and E.4. Durham. of Manitoba Press. Toronto. Lives of Aboriginal Women of the Canadian Northwest and pp.). and socio-political structures. and Aboriginal Resistance in Ontario. —  Spivak. —  Miller. but given the complex and sometimes —  Hall. for their original intent: to create Culture.C. 1998. Encounters in the Columbia Plateau.ca. C. 1997. University of Toronto Press. —  Perry. E. and History in Delgamuukw v.L. 2015.H. “The Many Faces of Thanadelthur: Documents.S. vol. it is essential that we New York. pp. 1994. Jeunesse: Young People. G. A Reader.

RESOURCES — L’INTERNATIONALE BOOKS IN SEARCH FOR QUEER ANCESTORS KAROL RADZISZEWSKI .

that ity and homosexuality in the broad context of culture we were “queer before gay”. For a long has been to recover this aspect of the past as part of time. coming-out and. to a platform exploring queer archives that is L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – KAROL RADZISZEWSKI – 45 . ence accompanying the event was devoted to so- uous manner. while a confer- artists before. The magazine gradually country would turn into a “Sodom”. art magazine from Central and Eastern there was a serious need to prove that queer culture Europe devoted entirely to the subject of masculin. It is the first. Consequently. in which “Western gays” brought themes had appeared in the works of other Polish their rainbow flag to Eastern Europe. existed in Poland already during the socialist era. IN SEARCH FOR QUEER ANCESTORS – KAROL RADZISZEWSKI In a private apartment in Warsaw in 2005. it is not unusual to hear arguments The beginning of my archival research was con- against this accession saying that as a result the nected with DIK Fagazine. my goal and art. some gay bow colonisation”. as well as in many other post-socialist Poland’s cultural history in general. Warsaw hosted “Europride” in 2010. homosexuality remained taboo after the polit. in Poland. This argument evolved from a periodical addressing the current situ- is largely present in the region. and so exclusive gay community. at the same time. On the opposite end of my solo exhibition titled Fags. For example. which was my artistic the spectrum. I opened Catholic or Orthodox Church. In the same year. the first openly This could be perceived as an element of a “rain- homosexual exhibition in Poland. not just as an ele- States. DIK Fagazine in Ukraine. and it was often treated as some- thing that “had arrived from the West”. with particular focus on the region. but never in such a direct and conspic. As a result. especially in those ation in Poland and the Central and Eastern European countries still under strong influence of the Roman region. ment of queer history. Of course. I began publishing an called “pink money” – the purchasing power of the irregularly-issued DIK Fagazine. I concluded that far the only. ical transformation. which is trying to acquire European Union membership.

2014. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – KAROL RADZISZEWSKI – 46 . 1986-1990 and DIK Fagazine. Courtesy of the artist and CoCA in Torun. Karol Radziszewski. vitrine (Filo. IN SEARCH FOR QUEER ANCESTORS – KAROL RADZISZEWSKI DIK Fagazine. 2005- 2014 magazines). Kisieland. 2011. Issue No. Karol Radziszewski. 8 “BEFORE ‘89”. Courtesy of the Queer Archives Institute. installa- tion view. Photo: Wojciech Olech. Centre of Contemporary Art Znaki Czasu in Torun. Photo: Wojciech Olech. Courtesy of the artist and CoCA in Torun.

  Filo was published views with older people and consulting their private aspects of his activity. such as a lack of an ered the existence of Filo – the first socialist-era gay organised community (with a few exceptions). non-existent or very few places addressed exclu. gay nude beaches. and they often suggested the Polish experience with that of our neighbours. our “newly-discovered ancestor”. many of the described (published in 2011). I reached many people whom I interviewed. who would give me information about people I From the outset. this part of Europe. My work rarely that was a special issue entirely focusing on the life involves visits to libraries. it was important for me to confront could potentially talk to. I prefer to focus on direct of homosexuals in Central and Eastern Europe before contact with the witnesses to events and gather their 1989. and learn new facts and various 1. personal writings) which had I began work on an almost three-year-long project usually never been shared before. Serbia. simi. and the beginnings of an archive. to new avenues where I could find further material. Thanks to work on the issue entitled “BEFORE ‘89” stances in these countries. IN SEARCH FOR QUEER ANCESTORS – KAROL RADZISZEWSKI determined to discover our “queer ancestors”. magazine devoted to non-heteronormative issues in lar cruising areas (almost always railway or bus sta. emergence of the first publications on the authorities’ During consecutive meetings with Kisiel in his tiny actions in the effort to prevent the spread of HIV-AIDS. and the ups from Filo. the Czech Republic and Hungary) in order to trace and compare Alternative Sexual History cruising areas. Consequently. On one between 1986 and 1990. In 2008. I was able to explore his vast archives. My primary method was conducting inter. I looked at several selected countries (Poland. Pawel Kubara and become documents. Latvia. groundbreaking as an Art Practice publications as well as reactions to the beginnings of the AIDS epidemic. In the process of researching sources and trav. Kamil Julian. memories. semi-legally among his friends and acquaintances 1. flat in Gdańsk. I met Ryszard Kisiel and discov- experiences proved to be similar. With my col. founded by Kisiel and distributed tion toilets. I would first meet local activ- elling. obtained and recorded audio or video interviews laborators Paul Dunca. Despite specific local circum. main city parks. archives (photographs. ists. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – KAROL RADZISZEWSKI – 47 . Jaanus Samma. Estonia. and men’s bathhouses). Romania. DIK Fagazine reprinted original mock- sively to homosexual clients (clubs or bars). Typically. Thus sketch a wider panorama of the region.

Fotograf of data on Polish gay men and their community. The at lectures and in printed form The Prince and Queens. nearly 300 coloured slides. It began with record. PERFORMA 13. as a to my studio. xhibit little boxes with a collection of ing conversations and ordering Gallery. mentation of the photo shoots which Kisiel realised which have since been presented Poznan. after twenty-five years. slides dated from late 1985 and early 1986. 30min) which recorded this action cal way of thinking about life in the Polish People’s confronts memories with Kisiel’s present image. 2012. Tomorrow will be People’s Republic. revealing a large potential tion to telling the story. as a direct as part of several exhibitions 3. Travestis. 2015. The discovered slides provide spe. In addi- as a persecuted victim. IN SEARCH FOR QUEER ANCESTORS – KAROL RADZISZEWSKI 2. 2014.  Exhibitions include: this point. were registered). I organised a special For the last few years. campaign carried out by the Civic Militia in the Polish collection is planned in the future. “AIDS” cycle (wallpaper. 8th Photography Biennial. response to Operation Hyacinth (a comprehensive publication presenting the entire Center of Contemporary Art Znaki Czasu. graphics. estied Robert Indiana’s iconic work called LOVE. 2013. I invited Ryszard Kisiel different. the documentary presents a of positive energy. Prague. with his friends in someone’s private apartment. paintings. where he decided Gallery. Kisiel’s archive also allows us to take a posters) of this project echoes Ryszard Kisiel’s col- fresh look at the reality of the socialist era. result of which approximately 11 000 personal files to return to the role of creator Krakow. New York. large number of digitised archival photographs. which consisted in the gathering In 2011. The film cific visual evidence and contradict the stereotypi. A The Body as an Archive. invention. They counter the image of a homosexual he confronts a young model face-to-face. and ics as AIDS). 2012. I have been working on event during PERFORMA 13 in New York – a discus- an art project titled “Kisieland” which is a long-term sion to which I invited both Ryszard Kisiel and Avram L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – KAROL RADZISZEWSKI – 48 . ender Strasse. because lage of Donald Duck stickers included in an issue despite obvious contradictions between the East and of Filo in the late 1980s as well as the “Imagevirus” the West in that period. uninhibited sexuality. Torun. Vienna.  For more detail about occasion. As tional “sexual avant-garde” and its iconography 2. part of the Kisieland project. These contained docu.Rosa Arbeit auf gold- by Tomasz Basiuk (2011). which trav- ences and similarities can be noticed in the interna. he produced a plastic undertaking drawing on Kisiel’s 3. 2015. (Kisieland. The irony and self-irony (even towards such taboo top. ZPAF Gallery. 2013. as Republic. strikingly cosmopolitan refer. the digitisation of Kisiel’s slides. see article bag full of meticulously labelled archive. project by the collective General Idea.

IN SEARCH FOR QUEER ANCESTORS – KAROL RADZISZEWSKI Ryszard Kisiel. Courtesy of the Queer Archives Institute. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – KAROL RADZISZEWSKI – 49 . Bulgaria. 1985/1986. 80’s. Ryszard Kisiel. Courtesy of the Queer Archives Institute.

The aim of the The particularly topical subject of the “Global South” project will be to gather queer archives from vari- repeatedly overlaps. that focused on visual history by supplying it with hitherto ignored parallels and connections among artists. that is to say on beginnings of the AIDS epidemic. Davidovich’s Serbian Diaries. thus confronting is a story of a “global province”. it is intended to sum and the current attempt to reach a broader perspec. It is also complements Polish of Modern Art in New York in 2015. on the other. and. material. Institute was estab- lished on 15 November Eastern European and American narratives on the timidly trying to discover its own 2015. certain limitations. as well as often a vesti- gial character of (hi)stories that are yet to be told. to try and tive. especially those which L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – KAROL RADZISZEWSKI – 50 . for example the recent exhibi. Locating Kisiel’s archive in the context of art is tion Transmissions: Art in Eastern an opportunity to restore/reveal the past. I found some similari. criss-crosses and dovetails with ous geographic regions. so far I have not come across any similar attempt to assemble queer archives in a specific given context. What emerges 4. to the gradual inclusion of like to dedicate my newest project. Polish. activists. up my practice so far. Institute” (QAI) 4. which describe been previous projects comparing inauguration will be the that moment in history from the perspective of early Eastern Europe with Latin America. and local ties with the results of my research conducted so far. There have of Operation Hyacinth in Poland. However. IN SEARCH FOR QUEER ANCESTORS – KAROL RADZISZEWSKI Finkelstein (the founding member of Gran Fury and the “Global East”. (such as artists. The meeting also language and create its own inde.for Videobrasil in São Paulo in April 2016. the AIDS advocacy group). Such juxtapositions seem to me to be an interesting Broadening perspectives – experiment.  The Queer Archives ACT UP. non-governmental organisations). What I concentrate on is rather a similar Queer Archives Institute context. Its official Boris L. exhibition I am preparing 1980s Belgrade. On one hand. “Queer Archives neighbouring countries in search for commonalities. context. 1960–1980 at the Museum its critical potential.the thirtieth anniversary included a performative reading of excerpts from pendent identities. academics. Travelling to Brazil and exploring the question establish permanent co-operation with partners of Brazilian queer archives. and recover Europe and Latin America. My work with archives has expanded from the initial It is to subject matter of this kind that I would highly local.

the first are “peripheral”. Thus the dig. One thing is lysing related concepts and meth- certain. Past and Present” however. perspective. where University. such as voyeuristic photographs from very dif- assumes a very long-term QAI’s main platform will be ferent beaches. Budapest. Hungary. difficult to precisely define the outline and and publications. graphical/ chronological order. development. Trans and Queer) publications to be issued reason. I often feel that tions presenting the collected materials. either literally or with the participation of invited artists. tiative. I have already started to use such strategies in soon appear on queer­ archivesinstitute. however: it will odologies. through audio graphics. are juxtaposed side by side. Gay. I presented private character of the initiative. Recent history is being largely Bulgaria. eventually it is meant to In the post-socialist states particularly. Europe. revising. multi-level hypertextual connections between mate. On a smaller documents and texts will symbolically colonised. The work has politi- “material” one: by organising or co-organising exhibi. For this materials ranging from scans of Bisexual. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – KAROL RADZISZEWSKI – 51 . the scale of the Global Canon Sexuality in East-Central the undertaking will be limited. national narratives. to texts ana. and a lecture Importantly. in addition to the some historical threads were broken or could never during one of the events process of cataloguing and geo.  Hopefully. an “identity project”. cal. magazines in various countries. books) related to the beginning of the structure of the ini. and make scale. history through queer archives has become for me ital dimension of QAI needs be complemented by a a mission. and video interviews. ing. leaflets.org. or even activist potential for me. in principle open to a multithreaded a website 5 gathering digitised I have showcased the first LGBTQ (Lesbian. them accessible as well as sub. text or exhibition. Decolonising rials from geographically distant places. texts marked by dictatorships for example. AIDS epidemic. Owing to the entirely evolve. IN SEARCH FOR QUEER ANCESTORS – KAROL RADZISZEWSKI 5. but from a very personal perspective. various presentations 6 where archival visual mate- Of course. or artefacts (posters. all this ject to artistic interpretation. emerge. sometimes by working on every next project. rials. by necessity. I will create a system to enable constructed today. there has been an attempt to build new at the Queer Forum Sofia. at present it is archival photographs. rewriting. and sometimes manipulated. Similarly. 6.  In 2015. Parallel With a paper during a con- ference titled “Sex and at first. or other con- at the Central European be more far-reaching. I am thematic searches which will form interested in this appendicising.

L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – KAROL RADZISZEWSKI – 52 . IN SEARCH FOR QUEER ANCESTORS – KAROL RADZISZEWSKI Archival images and the first issue of Hlas magazine (1931) reproduced in the DIK Fagazine No. 80’s. 9 “Czechoslovakia” issue (2014). Courtesy of the Queer Archives Institute. Courtesy of the Queer Archives Institute. Mockups of the Filo magazine.

This subversive strategy aims to — D  IK Fagazine: founded in Poland in 2005 by Karol change the future image of the Radziszewski. The Archive as a Project.). B.dikfagazine. T.com. was followed by Nový hlas questioning canonical narratives. “Notes on Karol Radziszewski’s Kisieland”/ Minority) was published “Uwagi na temat projektu Kisieland Karola Radziszewskiego”. (New Voice) published London. 2011.karolradzisze- hitherto-created reality. in K. shaped in parallel with the global canon: the first Czech mag- azine dedicated to homosexuality was published in 1931 7. Fundacja 1931 and April 1932.L. 1996. fortnightly between April I am interested in alternative ver. until 1934. wski. viewed 1 February 2016. so why should we always have to rely pri- marily on American or British zines from the 1960s and 1970s? — Translated from Polish by Ewa Kowal L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – KAROL RADZISZEWSKI – 53 . Heretic Books. —  Davidovich. This is connected with dis. IN SEARCH FOR QUEER ANCESTORS – KAROL RADZISZEWSKI 7.com and www.  Hlas sexuální menšiny I can do more than by marching REFERENCES (Voice of the Sexual and demonstrating in the streets. Warsaw. It sions of well-known stories and Archeologia Fotografii. Serbian Diaries. www. covering the local Eastern-European identity. Pijarski (ed. —  Basiuk.

RESOURCES — L’INTERNATIONALE BOOKS THE HUMP OF COLONIALISM. OR THE ARCHIVE AS A SITE OF RESISTANCE RONA SELA .

trans. “against their while deliberately excluding the Palestinians by using grains” as defined by Ann Stoler (2002. It contin.  See for example: in Israel and exploited them economically. 99). Thus. 1. increasingly violent. or continues to systematically expand its direct con- archives with colonial features. From the earliest days of the ethnic cleansing of the Palestinian population. the constitutive of an official narrative. I will demonstrate trol over the entire land. described – often with the use of visual aids – in ethi- the occupation and Judaisation of Palestinian vil. I focus on contemporary artis. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – RONA SELA – 55 . a complex apparatus of oppressive mechanisms. the propaganda www. another involves began in the late nineteenth century and developed the judicious and deliberate construction of a in various stages. Military Government (which was finally terminated immoral and oppressive mechanisms have been in 1966) controlled the Palestinians who remained whitewashed ever since. cal. p. THE HUMP OF COLONIALISM. Subsequently. the Zionist movement. Discriminatory. oppressive and exploitative as ues my research on colonial archives.whoprofits. In 1948 the Nakba launched the Zionist imagery system. which became in colonial countries and zones of conflict. with the occupa- tic and research practices which challenge archives tion of the West Bank and Gaza Strip. OR THE ARCHIVE AS A SITE OF RESISTANCE – RONA SELA In the following article. the colonisation of Palestine was prevention of their return to their lands and homes.org. lands for the benefit of Jewish settlements. their charac. and which involved the violation ters and histories and concentrates on contemporary of human rights and dispossession of Palestinian works by Israeli and Palestinian artists and research. forming them into sites of resistance. resources and population that the use of these colonial archives enables us to between the Mediterranean and the River Jordan work against their original objectives. This for example. softened and euphemistic terms aligned with and lages. towns and neighbourhoods. Israel ers which re-read official colonial Israeli archives. the years went by 1. While one major aspect of the Zionist-Israeli Zionist colonialism in the land of Israel/Palestine colonial mechanism is physical. continued during the War of 1967.

OR THE ARCHIVE AS A SITE OF RESISTANCE – RONA SELA departments of pre-Statehood institutions have institutional mechanism which not only legitimised instilled the narrative of “making the desert bloom”. ment project which entered into high gear following as well as the biblical ideology designed to estab. media. researching. THE HUMP OF COLONIALISM. Central Zionist of Helmar Lerski’s film Work (1935). exposing and criticis- Propaganda departments gave birth to national ing these mechanisms. activities that have a potential to write a history that oped a sophisticated mechanism. Therefore. Many civilian sectors – like the press. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – RONA SELA – 56 . that continued to structure the supposedly colonial archives in two ways. the occupation. aided by the War subverts colonial-biased representations by using of 1967. to expose the colonial example: The Law in These Parts (Ra’anan cal right”. A prime example is the opening scene among them Israel State Archives. the second. which now serve as evidence of the development In what follows. The Israeli authorities devel. but also sought to justify the settle- a desert supposedly empty of indigenous inhabitants. lish the Jewish people’s “historical right” to the land Importantly. crafts and cultural spheres – collaborated with this archives. the mechanism of the Israeli national Alexandrowicz 2011). Keren Zionist pioneer marches in a desolate and uninhab. The effect of these mecha- mind or presenting it in a backward. tive. while biblical verses and discursive colonial mechanisms operating in provide moral ground for colonisation. are among the key duties of decolonial Fund and Keren Hayesod (United Israel Appeal) research and activism (Sela 2013). planning. Hayesod archive and the various military archives– ited landscape. in which the Archives. “biblical” light. the film describes his efforts are but one component of a complex set of physical to develop and inhabit the land. Jewish National Fund archive. law. Later on.  See also for moral aspects of the occupation and the “histori. as well as writing alternative archives of organisations such as the Jewish National narratives. nisms – which take part in human rights abuses. their here. the national archives in Israel – (Sela 2000). or have laid the groundwork for the physical erasure in presenting them in a brighter or more positive and ethnical cleansing of the Palestinians in 1948 light – on Palestinian and Israeli lives is destruc- and thereafter. I focus on a limited number of of colonialism both in terms of their content and in examples of contemporary artistic and research terms of their structure. 2. pre-1948 Palestinian existence from the coloniser’s and finance (Sela 2015) 2. Erasing the such diverse areas as education. the Arab-Israeli War of 1973 (Sela 2007). The first.

these films are almost the last remaining documentation of neigh- bourhoods and buildings in Jaffa which have been destroyed and Judaised over the years by Israeli authorities. Still from Port of memory (2009. Therefore. Radcliffe Gallery. Despite a Western. shots in which Palestinians were captured inadvertently in the frame. OR THE ARCHIVE AS A SITE OF RESISTANCE – RONA SELA alternative readings. Thus the tendentious methods of colonial representation are revealed. undermine the archives’ original purposes and contents and seek to unearth and decode repressed / hidden contents (Sekula 2003. at Radcliffe Gallery in Harvard in 2010. The movies themselves include no explicit reference to the city’s Palestinian population – apart from “errors”. these movies are – completely unintentionally – a source of significant historical information about the Palestinian characteristics of Jaffa which are consistently being erased by Israel Kamal Aljafari. in which Jaffa is used as an ori- (2010). patronising point of view. Courtesy of the artist. their initial essence cracked and unofficial layers of knowledge are released. color. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – RONA SELA – 57 . ticised Tel Aviv suburb 3. Courtesy of the artist. Not Without Me was an exhibition of work by Kamal Aljafari. ental setting. and overwritten in the form of a gentrified and roman- 58 min). a Palestinian filmmaker based in Berlin. Sela 2013). Harvard the 1970s and 80s. THE HUMP OF COLONIALISM. It pre- sented postcards featuring images freeze-framed from Israeli and American films produced in Israel in Kamal Aljafari. Not without Me. i. Such actions. I believe. 35mm.e.

not forgive acts that seem more examine the Israeli its post-Nakba landscape ing a new narrative for the movie: serious to me. This work and rejections in Israel.a New Historian.  This term was coined the Manshiyha (former by Benny Morris in 1988 Palestinian neighbour- Asian and African descent against includes quotes by Aaron Ziesling. historians began accessing materi- Gal used Israel Defense Forces’ issued blankets – als that had been restricted in the national archives. In those excerpts – which first Israeli government: “They Confronts it’s Past” it was completely flat. its history and its Historians who have been expos. since the late 1980s. Tales of Rape and Worse. filmed with the ruins of umenting the struggle of Jews of series. Box 1970). on the subject: “The War of the identity to the Palestinian population” (Sela 2013. 243). but I will identified a new group Asher guides alternative of historians who re- tours in Jaffa that treat Palestinian Jaffa. pp. 19-23. the Minister of Agriculture in the Historiography: Israel background – just before ment. p. As Aljafari stated: “The Israelis 1984. I thank Ami landscape – Aljafari planted actors [recently occupied] Al-Ramlah. When [soldiers] official historiography. Sela 2013). 59:1. cases. thereby creat. objects strongly connoted with the Israeli military allowing them to write alternative histories 5. as a spatial archive that the Palestinians’ struggle against enter a city and take rings off fin. their evacuation. rape and unlawful kill.  See also the famous In his 2009 film Port of experience – on which he printed 4. pp.ing. cuts from Kazablan (1973). State of Israel. 3:6. gers and jewelry off necks – that’s Zionists and their work tion of the Old City and ongoing a very serious matter” 4 (Segev provoked many reactions municipal neglecting.They were perceived in reveals more than meets Israeli society as Post- the eye. Aljafari also embedded minutes from government dis. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – RONA SELA – 58 . 161-67: deals with cases of looting. I pp.Israeli Historians”. Forty years February 2004. Municipality. ing. 85. in his article “The New hood of Jaffa) in the the European-Jewish establish. OR THE ARCHIVE AS A SITE OF RESISTANCE – RONA SELA 3. (Tikkun. but also was made possible thanks to the see for example the our struggle. an cussions concerning these Archive. 21 July 21 1948. November- tened by the Tel Aviv document the city’s post-Nakba say there were cases of rape in December. The clip was Israeli blockbuster originally doc. and scenes that tell the story of can forgive acts of rape. previ.  Government meet- hit by Shalom Hanoch Memory. after the establishment of the ing in 1948 as documented in official Israeli archives. January- Israeli artist Meir Gal’s series Untitled (1994) Zionist historiography. movie in order to restitute the city. THE HUMP OF COLONIALISM. Division 9. I therefore re-appropriate cuts from the efforts of Israel’s so-called New article by Avi Shlaim. File 3. ously unused materials in official Annales. p. 5. and Arik Einstein. 99-102) in which he Asher for this reference. The Hakibbutz Hameuchad Deeper the Bluer (Hebrew. One of the works in the 9. the destruc. About the New Historians expropriated not only our homes and lands.

1994. I can forgive acts of rape. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – RONA SELA – 59 . Untitled. Courtesy of the artist. April-August 2013. 1994 In Hebrew: “It has been said there were acts of rape in Ramleh. OR THE ARCHIVE AS A SITE OF RESISTANCE – RONA SELA Meir Gal. Language. Installation shot. When entering [soldiers] a city and removing a ring from a hand and jewelry from a neck. Untitled (Tales of Rape and Tales Far Worse). Nachum Gutman Museum of Art. Silkscreen on military blankets. History – A New Generation in Jewish-Arab Cities. Meir Gal. Curator: Rona Sela. sand and bulbs. Fawaran (Unrest) – Housing. Silkscreen on military blan- kets. THE HUMP OF COLONIALISM. but I cannot forgive acts that appear to me more severe. That is a very serious matter”. Courtesy of the artist. Tel Aviv.

.. these photo- those two ladies told me they would not leave the graphs were accompanied by extensive textual sur- apartment” 6. Taken by the Palmach Squadron as intelligence have refused to vacate the apartment I contacted gathering for surveillance. 39-2- to challenge the official Israeli letters written by members of the Palestinian Nakba 8. graphs. pp. This was new Israeli rulers. veys and photographs (“village files”) of Palestinian L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – RONA SELA – 60 . Stored in official archives. OR THE ARCHIVE AS A SITE OF RESISTANCE – RONA SELA 6. looting. such as acts of aggres. tion. written from a Zionist perspective. at Minshar Gallery in Tel Aviv and the publication of plains in a letter to the Director of the Department of the accompanying book (Sela 2009). from 1946 to early 1948. They also provide detailed information about sion towards Palestinian civilians. following the exhibition Made Public – research but not exposed. taken by pre-State Jewish military forces. These findings. were presented in Haifa: Palestinian Photographs in Military Archives in Israel 1948-2013. worked on called Haifa: 1948-2013 cope with the impossible conditions imposed by the (Sela 2013. Goren’s book. I presented Minorities in Haifa that during his sister’s absence: at Pecha-Kucha Jerusalem a series of aerial photo- “Ms. massive dismissals the looted property. purposes. but unfortunately. control and occupation the Jewish Agency in Haifa. and since they ect. Shehade com. Beyond this facade. For example. Hoffman Anna and Ms. of Palestinian villages and towns from this proj- sion from me or from any authority. these based on the research materials used by “official” letters were mostly written by Hebrew-speaking historian Tamir Goren for his book Arab Haifa in 1948 lawyers on their behalf.  Association for the Another project which sought This project exposes just a few of the countless History of Haifa. Rosner Barina squat. or Jews who squatted in Palestinian homes. which were collected by him in his In 2009. Palestinian history. 243-244). THE HUMP OF COLONIALISM.. the letters – now exposed to the public for book. ethnic cleansing and more – of Palestinian workers. ted in her apartment without receiving permis. Haifa Municipality Archive archival materials is a project I generation who remained in the country and had to 15/95. he collected but were not eventually included in this however. refusal to let families information that is essential for the future writing of reunite. and accordingly their tone published in 2006. 16 January 1949. the first time – clearly voice the tremendous hard- largely avoids any issues that are inconsistent with ships and insults experienced by the Nakba genera- the official national narrative. I presented the documents that is apologetic if not subservient. a certain Mr..

L. Archival Science 2. role as a site of resistance. Downey (ed. trol over the history of the oppressed enables .com. —  Sela.org. A member of the audience asked whether I was not Hakibutz Hameuchad Publishing House and Herzliya Museum (in afraid that these hundreds of aerial photographs in Hebrew). Wells (ed. Israel. Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Press. consolidating the archive’s of Governance”. and Change in Bi-National Cities in Israel since 2000”. Tauris. Minshar for Art. Haganah Historical Archives (in Hebrew). Contested Narratives in the Middle East. MOD these images and surveys. Sela (ed. 2002. but eventually this is what happened. 2009. The Ben-Gurion Research Institute for the Study of Israel sified in the last decade.B. They were declas.Art. T.). Dissonant Archives: Contemporary Visual Culture and of knowledge production. For information in English. R. in A. 2007. T.com.Housing.ronasela. 2013. THE HUMP OF COLONIALISM. —  Stoler. Fawaran (Unrest) . see: www. control the various “stages of production” of mean. unexpected manner. “Colonial Archives and the Arts artists and researchers. “Rethinking National Archives in Colonial ing and strengthen their domination over the process Countries and Zones of Conflict”.ronasela. 2006. The Fall of Arab Haifa in 1948. Tel Aviv (in Hebrew). (in Hebrew and Arabic). For information in English see: www. R. 2003. A. —  Sela. —  Goren. The Photography evidence of the Palestinian entity before the Nakba. R. in an in R. Six Days plus Forty Years. —  Sela. —  Sela. military archives in Israel would be classified again. Petach Tikva Museum of Art.com. 1984. the emergence of new forms of History – A New Generation in Jewish-Arab Cities. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – RONA SELA – 61 . can today change their Publishing House.ronasela.ibraaz. While these “archive guards” For information in English: www. the con. colonial functionality and original targets and expose —  Segev.” in L. “Embroidering the Change . People laughed. Tel-Aviv. Nachum Gutman Museum of Art. Activism and the way they are loaded by meaning. London and New York. Language. the Palestinian geographical deployment that Israel —  Sekula. Also published here. 1949: The First Israelis. Routledge. (in control the official representation of the archives Hebrew). —Translated from Hebrew by Ami Asher. OR THE ARCHIVE AS A SITE OF RESISTANCE – RONA SELA villages and towns collected by Jewish scouts on REFERENCES the ground for the same targets. alised ways to define the boundaries of the archives London. Reader. Made Public – Palestinian Photographs in Despite the “archive guards” who continue to Military Archives in Israel. Domino. They are. Israel (in Hebrew). I. R. new creative and margin. Photography in Palestine in 1930s&1940s. therefore. A.).). the last Labour and Capital. 2015. 2000. “Reading an Archive: Photography between ruined in 1948 and after. R. —  Sela. In the event I claimed that and Zionism. viewed 10 February 2016: and free them from biased contents are created by www. “archival resistance”.

RESOURCES — L’INTERNATIONALE BOOKS A GRIN WITHOUT MARKER FILIPA CÉSAR .

Sana na N’Hada. “Maybe you just have to photograph for us to want to control the image that Courgette [the cat] sitting on top of it – that would say it all”. Conakry. Moscow. I have no good news. with or without us. This title derives from the English transla- tion of Chris Marker’s film Le fond de l’air est rouge. Our image and ourselves. Sunday 29 November 2015. pictures and journals damaged after recent flood- It can become an obsession ing in the attic. Cuba. This was one of the last stops on the journey of the Luta ca caba inda (The Struggle is Not Over Yet) proj- It frees itself of our guardianship. keeps from her experience in Guinea Bissau in 1980. writer and filmmaker Anita Fernandez. It seems Chris has played of our propaganda in one particular one last prank on us”. […] friend and photograph some documents that she Yet the image gives itself a new life. I visited the French one day we produced accidentally. a new destiny. Berlin. to greet a dear saying ‘that’s for history’. 2015 Cacheu. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – FILIPA CÉSAR – 63 . London. These were Anita’s first words to me when I arrived at her apartment. difficult to appease in quite another. A GRIN WITHOUT MARKER – FILIPA CÉSAR “What made sense as an object “Well. Guimarães. Boé. (1977): “A Grin Without a Cat”. Bissau.” ect which has spanned decades through Paris. can become a sturdy ‘friend’ the Bissau documents was on the table – letters. The box with context. Lisbon.

Humility. Voluntary work by Guinean students in Cuba. Dervis Spinoza. Photograph by Filipa César. the aim of the voluntary work was to teach humble- ness. Photograph by Filipa César. INCA. 1967. humble derives from humus. A GRIN WITHOUT MARKER – FILIPA CÉSAR Box with documents at Anita Fernandez’s place. fit on the ground. 2015. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – FILIPA CÉSAR – 64 . 2012. close to the soil. Sana na N’hada comments on these images – all four young film­ makers can be seen with a machete in their hands cutting couch grass. Reels from the unfinished film Luta ca caba inda.

title – valuable mineral resources. he had served in the military in Chinese newsreel: China Today number 8110 – museum display of stones and minerals. despite ending just before my birth in 1975. pull- ing me into the magnetic field of a web of conditions. A GRIN WITHOUT MARKER – FILIPA CÉSAR Sunless I first met Anita Fernandez in 2012 after an event at the Jeu de Paume cinema. Fernandez came to re-encounter her old friend Sana na N’Hada. Cubano del Arte e Industria Cinematográficos (ICAIC) in Havana. the force of her embodied Pan and joined Santiago Alvarez’s team at the Instituto Africanism fights the celluloid infection tainted by a neo- colonialist virus. introduced to an imagery of resistance to Salazar’s L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – FILIPA CÉSAR – 65 . Miriam Makeba tion). but rather unintentionally. The Portuguese colonial war. after his failed desertion to Paris. urgencies and magical encounters. Sana na N’Hada and Flora Gomes. N’Hada was to be trained in the field of cinema emerges from the film ruin. cast- ing shadows of fear. Among many other young Guineans sent to Cuba in 1967 to be educated in var- ious disciplines (mainly medicine. the result of a suction force. I was Found at the INCA archives. one of the four pioneers of Guinean militant cinema. My father was the channel. warfare and avia- XX Anniversary of the Liberation Party. Bissau. subversion and cryptic inten- sities. 1976. was a latent presence in my childhood.INCA. presenting freshly digitised materials from the Guinean audiovisual archive. Portuguese Guinea between 1967 and 1969. My involvement in the long-term collective project Luta ca caba inda was less dependent on my curiosity for these cinematic genres.

Found at the INCA archives. Something that resided in my apartment. 1976. educational film There were images of Guinea and a spellbinding genre. A tale. But for many years I thought this was a story disconnected from the rest of the world. I knew that Guinea was the place where my father had fought on the wrong side – mistaken by the communist ideals that militants should infiltrate the colonial military and subversively undermine its power – with dignified intentions that didn’t prevent him from getting implanted therein a sunless gloom. bank notes. demonstrating their mechanisms and usages. blue batik fabric. The stage of the haunted tale became a geo. the illegal emigration of deserters and political activ- ists and a revolution through the radio transmission of a coded song. animated illustrations voice talking about the Portuguese / Guinean con. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – FILIPA CÉSAR – 66 . animated by certain props – a military uniform. That changed in 2003 when I was bewildered by my first encounter with Sans Soleil by Chris Marker. Bissau. interest the world?” – and further – “Who remembers all that? History throws its empty bottles out the win- dow”. Inside a bank. an African wooden sculpture. you can jump with the empty bottles. Sana na N’Hada and Flora Gomes. Excerpt of undated anti-Apartheid film. images of a second political spot – Peter Pan showing up at the window emancipation – the financial independence from Portuguese – hey. rather than history. currency exchange process from Portuguese escudos to Guinean Pesos. INCA. documentation of flict: “Why should so small a country and one so poor corresponding injuries on human bodies. Happiness is but awareness of mis- fortune. A GRIN WITHOUT MARKER – FILIPA CÉSAR regime – underground subversive political literature. image of various weapons. control. A French filmmaker knew about that war and also knew that the country inscribed in my fantasy did not interest the world.

N’Hada “The archive is irrelevant” was in direct propor- told me that this was where their early work as the tion to “History throws its empty bottles out the win- first Guinean filmmakers was stored. They showed me a room were right about everything. Nevertheless that sen- full of film canisters in a very wet and gloomy envi. tence entered a resonance field in my mind. That is mented and ruined state of the collection. nial resistance. they told me: “the archive When asked about Guinea.  I found Sana’s full name own imagery. born from the struggle as a through the replacement of a viewpoint. rue Courat. Marker answered: “If is irrelevant”. and how he. N’Hada’s preoccupation ing at ruins (Benjamin 1940/ 2007). They Semedo and Suleimane Biai. and na N’Hada. Jumping with with the imminent loss of the archive moved me and the empty bottles seemed an historical materialist made me speculate about the promise of a militant take. but for many In 2009. to “contest the colonial archive” (Eshun 2003) cinema of emancipation. holding how I came to Bissau in January 2011 to meet Sana mainly unfinished films or unedited footage. texture. ronment at the Institute of Cinema in Bissau. and had even sent dozens of new canisters to Bissau to re-accommodate the films. later in the credits of Sans Later I got in touch with the The disquiet latency in the statement “the Soleil. then go and meet Sana” 1. a chance to praxis of liberation and a possible deviation from my look at European myopia through the lenses of colo- 1. Flora Gomes and other people connected finally most of its reels were eroded copies of foreign with Guinean cinema and literature such as Odete films existing in better state in other archives. volume and L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – FILIPA CÉSAR – 67 . also connected with diplomatic tensions accompany him to visit Chris Marker. Colin MacCabe asked me if I would like to reasons. Meaning gets lost included in the film. A GRIN WITHOUT MARKER – FILIPA CÉSAR The Potency of Irrelevance archive. knew about the Guinean and words gain in materiality. Wasn’t that emptiness for history what fullness the age of seventeen had been picked out from the was for the subjects out of history? Were those bot- middle of the jungle war and sent by Amílcar Cabral tles eventually full of the answers to give to “a worker to Cuba to become a filmmaker – and how he had who reads” (Brecht 1995)? A Benjaminian angel star- never seen a film before. at dow”. and the financial crises. Sana na N’Hada is Head of archives at the Portu­ archive is irrelevant” rendered the strangeness of the author of the Carnival scenes that Chris Marker guese Cinematheque. Their arguments were the deeply frag- you are interested. They the repeated sounds of words.

Sana na N’Hada and I curated a programme for each stop. 2015. Berlin. Arsenal Cinema. 2012. Bissau with images and sound from the archive equipped with a simple Image by Jenny Lou Ziegel. we toured through Guinea- at Visionary Archive Festival. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – FILIPA CÉSAR – 68 . Image by Jenny Lou Ziegel. Berlin. radio broadcaster Aissatu Seidi invited the public to intervene. cine-mobile unit and a seven-members entourage. After the commented screenings. A GRIN WITHOUT MARKER – FILIPA CÉSAR Sana commenting on foot- age from the unfinished film Guinea-Bissau: 6 anos depois. Image by Nuno da Luz. Refugee and human rights activist Napuli Paul Langa and Lennart Malmer For four weeks in November/December 2014. 2014.

the window. power rela- 2013). lighten. “relevant” means pertinent to the 1999). helpful.  João Mário Grilo dur- or elevation of “relevant” back to task of sustaining this verticality through imposed ing a discussion with the group of candidates the ground. no-Levant. Mediterranean land east of Italy. “Irrelevant” However we were not interested in re-evalu- is the becoming mortal. as if a palm-oil press would operates within a vertical.  This made me recall etymological break down. the texture of an eroded soil or archive is irrelevant” is spellbound. The logic of relevance the Year of the Quiet Sun (The Otolith Group. where the sun rises again. or to lessen. Something is relevant to a system if for the PhD Art Studies double “r” in the word produces something assists that system to fulfil a task. ating the relevance of the archive by shifting it into “Irrelevant” became a word-energy. the projection of a figure from Hondo. Material word. The stratification. squeeze the potential salience tion system in which relevance always performs the 4. were drawn to deal with the potency of that condem- ing the gesture of throwing empty bottles out of nation. ing. relevant both through sion. The it derives from prominence. The opposite of relevance is not irrelevance. “Irrelevant” became Relevant. For the Luta ca caba inda operation. decomposition follows up on Etymologically unfolding the word “relevant” – 3. Lisbon. 1982). “The course. close to humus.  Referring to Sana na accident. Mille Soleils the shape of “i” as serif font and matter at hand. or vivid- film titles with the word “sun”: Soleil Ô (Med prefix “i” in “irrelevant” is the ness due to contrast. hierarchical. when meaning is not signification. furrowed field. (Mati Diop. a N’Hada’s comment about this rugged matter of rrr. but but depression 4 or fold (Deleuze & Guattari 1980/ rather the very action performed by the signifier 2013). Sunless 3. 2013). raw. Sans Soleil resistance to relevant – I can the ground or plane on which it is formed. distinctness. depending upon. not searching for an opposition that functioned in the L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – FILIPA CÉSAR – 69 . it also means January 2015. The word perform. rhythm. Irrelevant. A GRIN WITHOUT MARKER – FILIPA CÉSAR 2. The sap extracted – this archive does not assist a certain system to from that “i” pressing relevant frees the nectar of achieve a certain goal. the frequency another system where it might become relevant. re-Levant. signifier. learning how to be humble through voluntary work in rough. relating to relieve. Cuba. becoming humble 2. In through the negative mean. 1969). FCSH. La visualise the “i” operating on the sculpture. we were (Deleuze & Guattari 1980/ 2013). no rising of the sun. Adjectivised. as in a (Chris Marker. giving the appearance of a third dimen- petite vendeuse de soleil (Djibril Diop Mambéty. We and intensity of the non-power. power and immortality – ambrosia.

e. through the digitisation in in Guinea Bissau. Only weeks later the filmmak. Sana na N’Hada and evant irreverent force that claims: I am not from yes- Suleimane Biai) rescued what remained of it. i. or docu. the audiovisual material stored at Berlin. materials or assemblage. of the struggle. and to welcome its conflicts. substitute it for collection. In Cosmologies: same inverted equation. and even- ments which operate a never-accomplished non. “we” always means the Guinean filmmakers and the words of destitute power and collectivism. accommodates an intriguing contradiction – archive derives from arkhe. up to the participation in multiple screenings the Film Institute was thrown out of the window into and discussions in dozens of locations in the past four the streets of Bissau. an abdication of history. at the material as something precious. Eduardo interested in the horizontality. “the put- phic” 5 ability of the material. stop using the word “archive”. thus cursing the of never-ending powerless documents. It is also the title of an “The archive is irrelevant” could mean a collection unfinished film in the collection. A GRIN WITHOUT MARKER – FILIPA CÉSAR 5. mean- ing the commencement and commandment (Derrida Luta ca caba inda is a Creole expression which means 1995/ 1996). terday. “an imaginary or absent the reverberation of the word “archive”. What we signposted as material of potency. it as a moving body. accompany in its flight – an aeronautic drive. crowd that built an alliance from the first cataloguing During the rainy season of 1999. its curse for a series of screenings and discursive We wanted to exercise a ritual of profanation of the events used to channel the contents of the fragmen- archive power. ing it as they could through years of neo-colonial centuries and offered the chance to join the journey. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – FILIPA CÉSAR – 70 . the source and beginning of power. In this text. a matter ting of speeches into the mouths of others” or The other problem was of nomadology. we were instability (Nkrumah 1965). a projectile that we were able to prosopopoiia. to tary corpus. tually of this project too. accomplishment of the film. the mented state became a chance – instead of looking Viveiros de Castro writes about the prosopomorphic relational potential of that flatten. “the struggle is not over yet”. We appropriated the title and power. years. after the civil war of the materials in Bissau. It is a projectile that is travelling for decades. we thought of agency – from the Greek ing spell and in the “prosopomor. escort. Its ruined and frag- Perspectivism. Luta ca caba inda showed itself to us as an irrel- ers themselves (Flora Gomes. an irrelevant archive Luta ca caba inda person is made to speak or act”.

2015. Image by Filipa César. Guimarães. Anita Fernandez reading a letter from Chris Marker. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – FILIPA CÉSAR – 71 . A GRIN WITHOUT MARKER – FILIPA CÉSAR Sana na N’Hada. Jean Pierre Bekolo and Nuno Faria at “4th Encounters Beyond History: Luta ca caba inda. Berlin. 2013. Photograph by CIAJG. an archive in relation”. Arsenal Cinema.

We stopped calling it an archive and instead grey. as a condition and as a never-accomplishable task. not ashes. the archive is its gaps. pale green and a well-known sepia also from resistance and alliance – as the becoming of L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – FILIPA CÉSAR – 72 . of destruction. only matters of the The archive is often tion with the Institute Arsenal for present. hazy blue.” (Didi-Huberman & Ebeling 2007) digitisation of the archive was a process of documenting our passage through that audiovisual matter – a dated War is not only channelled through the representations molecular transfer. These are ship. Facing an other. no representations of the past. It is eye. gation of matter that produces an image – “disease is or unconscious censor- rial. Now. A GRIN WITHOUT MARKER – FILIPA CÉSAR 6. a lens that can reach a certain surface in contem- rials as agents of today. attack. occurred in 2012 in collabora. War wreckage and fractali- of these words – recovering. the absence left by the damaged its holey quality. not just because of Film and Video Art in Berlin and its a collective milieu. restoring. but because of the ashes copies are held both there and at deal with the shrapnel of colonialism means to deal of all that surrounded it the National Film and Audiovisual with all the violence that comes through it. The fungus. we had to – described so well by create our own techniques. Images & Sounds Walter Benjamin… – of a barbarism documented in ethics and praxis as “new archi- vists” (Derrida 1995 / 1996).  “The essence of the The transfer of the film and audio tone” (2012). A kaleidoscope resulting from destruction – but white. the gaps are an action of institutional preser. The experimental digitisation the evidence of relation” (Haraway 2003). None tion of its support media. which is about film mate. preserving – sation used to look through and access a crystallised apply to Luta ca caba inda. emulsion on the celluloid reels are part of the aggre- the result of deliberate vation of the audiovisual mate. It is in Institute in Bissau. it means and has burned. There was no attempt at restoring in the image but also inscribed in the material condi- the material to any hypothetical original state 6. reels onto digital matter was not scratches. we have the experience wise irrelevant archive. The analogue embracing the conflicts related with a permanent discovering the memory of the fire in each sheet material was sent back to Bissau “decolonisation of thinking” (Viveiros de Castro 2012) that has not burned that in January 2013. time. The As Present Matter each document of cul- ture. It is not grey. the dust. To the time that has lapsed. frequently. the vinegar syndrome. of auto-da-fé. rules. Tobias Hering wrote: “This poraneity and beyond – one not graspable to the naked archive smells of vinegar. an assemblage of shrapnel.

but they don’t need to have a cause and effect was the Eiffel Tower photographed through a fish- link between them. The mag. It was handwritten with comic-like ono- each other – and yet they affect each other. they don’t have to be relevant to eye lens. a film shot collaboratively in (Eshun & Gray 2011) and its acti. Two documents held particular multiple visibilities. matopoeic signs addressed to Anita Fernandez exist in the possibilities of aimless relation. In order to communicate café. Sana na N’Hada and Flora Gomes. Un mentation of this cine-geography Balcon en Afrique. a selected docu. to the Guinean collection in 2013. sentences are placed in relation to each •  A postcard from Paris dated 23 June 1980: the back other. farming women. INCA. couldn’t decode entirely. I wanted to photograph a couple of documents that women mother. Anita Fernandez had presented during a screen- ing in Berlin in 2013. A GRIN WITHOUT MARKER – FILIPA CÉSAR description here. Bissau in 1980. they co. Anita unravelled Marker’s netism of the sessions activated with Luta ca caba postcard by recalling that early in 1980. women at school. Flaschenpost Back to that November in 2015. cinematic praxis and the Guinean militant cinema: In a haiku. The operation of relevant works at accounts of this threat between Marker’s engaged the antipodes of the structure of the poetry of the haiku. the reels: women at work. ending with: “You agree?” and because it is impossible to condense the mutilated Anita was so taken by Marker’s enthusiasm that body constituting this collection into a comprehensive she answered: “I didn’t understand what you just L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – FILIPA CÉSAR – 73 . Marker had inda produced an inversion too – the archive started asked her for a meeting. For one hour in a Parisian to grow instead of shrink 7. 1979. women in politics. in Bissau (via Dakar). Labels on 550 Google-meters away from Chris Marker’s place. was also vation is included in the attendant added by Anita Fernandez images and captions. rue des Maraîchers – Footage for unfinished film about Guinean women. 7. Marker spoke fast slurred words that Anita some sense of the work made with these materials.  For example.

the purposes of history writing. Theodor W. The problem of keep. I thought about the gesture of of spectres of solidarity.a real overcome. to Institute in Bissau.) I spent six months me).. where the unattended elec. based on alli- tions will take place in June: if I’m not there. Sarah ing the flame of militancy. a space to connect. Marker the recently founded National Film Institute and a ground. therefore also send her archive is defiantly irrelevant for the information – doubly. It is certain that the first obstacle has been reached-point. A GRIN WITHOUT MARKER – FILIPA CÉSAR said.. discuss. a the experts. [.by Colin MacCabe about Sans Soleil.(. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – FILIPA CÉSAR – 74 ..sions. but that was truly cal narrative into a multitude of palace . – this produced an interesting stereo-euphoria in draw the line into a never-to-be. common interest and preoccupations. found after a flood of Black Atlantic [1979] when my friend •  A letter from Chris Marker in Paris to Anita (Gilroy 1993) waters.] (But eventually I’ll conflict with interference – to do their implicit exclu- go to Japan again.  The idea of “cine- erally more enthusiasts than experts – and among many of the trajectories of the fils” by Serge Daney.” (MacCabe 2012) exactly ‘who next?’ [... waiting to be said: “This is the moment cinema praxis with the young Guinean filmmakers 8.8. I have to admit that not everybody Luta ca caba inda project. compre. a family without genetic roots and has kept the militant fiber. full of mes. There will be others. and tangle a web of empathies. subversive practices and the thrown bottles. or not to do. but gen.. director Sarah Maldoror] (just followed by another from Sana who confirmed A chance to merge with the uncer. This ances. instead it expands larly the cats of the September 24”. [Maldoror] can respond.. Marker was asking her to go to (Adorno 1951/1974).] I have volunteers. A latent force Mario de Andrade [Angolan writer who at the time Fernandez in Bissau dating 19 May 1980: “You can resisted the grabbing. [.asked to help them build the pompously named Film the progress accomplished from his point of view tainty of a temporary flight.  Interviewed in 2010 Bissau and continue his work helping to develop sages circulating in the under. Marker was pointing at flying empty bottles full ments were damaged. but I agree”. irrelevant. The son of cinema. and analogous pranks prefaced 9.was the partner of the imagine how happy I was by reading your letter hending or fixing of these accounts. Greet everyone.and six months the most difficult one to solve – that of. in a former military bar- to do. to do or not untraceable encounters. lies 9.. Adorno’s Flaschenpost other cocktails. Dribbling histori.in a very comfortable hotel in Tokyo .] The problem is now ‘what next?’ or more Marker’s epistolary remnants racks in Guinea-Bissau. kinships (Haraway 2015) and cine-fami- When Anita told me that precisely those two docu. particu.

Anita Fernandez’s private archives. A GRIN WITHOUT MARKER – FILIPA CÉSAR Carbon copy of the lost script for the Guinean film about Postcard from Chris Marker. place in 2015. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – FILIPA CÉSAR – 75 . June 1980 after flooding in Fernandez’s women. Anita Fernandez’s private archives.

Harvard University Press. towards Anita cooking us lunch. The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double —  Adorno. 2003. 2012. —  Benjamin. 2007.W. and Guatarri F. January. A. —  Hering. Das Archiv brennt. K. E. Environmental Humanities. 1. was just making himself —  Eshun. pp. D. “Visites rue Courat”. —  Melitopoulus. Filipa César. Chicago. University of Minnesota Press. HAU Network of Ethnographic Theory. —  Haraway. Berlin. for take-off. 2012. C. Summer. D. Postcards from the Cinema. 2011. B. Dogs. in La Lutte n’est pas finie. —  MacCabe. —  Deleuze. Journals of Imperialism. New York. 108. Cosmological Perspectivism in —  Daney. a damaged life. —  Viveiros de Castro. —  Glissant. “The Militant Image.. Chthulucene: Making Kin”. —  Barthes. 25. Foucault. Ann Arbor. S. The Empire of Signs. and Lazzarato. vol. P. “Theses of the Philosophy e-flux journal. —  Deleuze. London. 6. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – FILIPA CÉSAR – 76 . Illuminations. Berg. and Gray. Capitalocene. Paris. Manchester. 1965. —  N’Hada. no. Hill and Wang. 82. Minneapolis. 1940/2007. Poetry and Prose. 2015. 2015. 1966/1982. 2012. S. 1980/2013. Paris. New York. 1993. New York. Trafic. Amazonia and Elsewhere. 2003. Bloomsbury Academic. 1990/2010.. Courgette the cat. G. 1995. E. G. Prickly Paradigm Press. no. Thomas Nelson & Sons. Cambridge. New Left Books. The Noonday Press. of History”. K. 1994/2007. R. The New Centennial Review. M. 1934‑1955. People and Significant Otherness. comfortable on top of the box. A Thousand Plateaus. Our Image and Ourselves. W. 159-165. 1995/1996. G. no. “Before Six Years After”.. vol. 2012. Ltd. packed everything into the Bissau box. Jeu de Paume. E. The Companion Species Manifesto. New York. 1988. and when I looked Kulturverlag Kadmos Berlin.. and Ebeling. “Further Considerations on Afrofuturism”. The University of Michigan Press. a Ciné‑Geography”. July. “Assemblages: Félix Guattari and Machinic Animism”. like a pilot preparing —  Eshun. Archival Fever: A Freudian Impression. “Anthropocene. K. K. viewed 1 February 2016. I moved —  Didi-Huberman. Chicago. New York. Plantationocene. Routledge. T. A GRIN WITHOUT MARKER – FILIPA CÉSAR After photographing the faded documents. no. Poetics of Relation. December. 1951/1974. J. T. Plays. Viveiros de Castro. unpublished. London and New York. Third Text. 36. Schocken Books. I —  Derrida. Neo-Colonialism – The Last Stage —  Brecht. Minima Moralia: Reflections from Consciousness. —  Nkrumah. The University of Chicago Press. REFERENCES —  Gilroy. —  Haraway. R. Essays and Reflections. London. 2015. back.

RESOURCES — L’INTERNATIONALE BOOKS PRESENTING PASTS ANDREA STULTIENS .

or HIP in micro-histories embedded in them to audiences both short. L’Internationale’s request for decided to only engage with documentation of his. We all have stories about origins that help to under- phy professionals. a contribution to their publication on “Decolonising torical moments that are at least two decades old. we instruments. as an I started what I called an “archival platform” for lack artist. adding to what was known about the projection any particular selection process. PRESENTING PASTS – ANDREA STULTIENS In August 2011. the Kingdom L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – ANDREA STULTIENS – 78 . Both stories are set in Europe. without istry. I develop forms (in books and exhibitions) to of a better term. present collections encountered in Uganda and the tory. To express the unfixed nature of his. or partly eaten by insects. Most collections were neglected. including those of photogra. With permission of the owners.  historical material. mouldy. and an interest and insights into chem- started to share these photographs online. educational and governmental institutions and in people’s homes. led curated selections of the images in exhibitions and the way. developing a photographic gaze. of people using optical the photographs. Ugandan artist Rumanzi Canon and Uganda. Media also have histo- covered in dust. on a daily basis on of the world through a lens. One of them tells the We digitised the material simply by photographing story through technology. creating the necessity for the invention of publications that include contemporary responses to photography. cultural. but in the end. Photography has several. We Archives” made me trace back the progress made looked for collections of photographs in Uganda: in and some of the insights that emerged. we in and outside Uganda. and to me living some considerable time in practiced for the first time in Buganda. ries. stand what and who we are. My role is a hybrid one. It seems to have taken a couple of decades from HIP led to research towards my practice-based the moment of its inception before photography was PhD. We also started to present that painters. Another story considers the HIP Facebook page. we called it History In Progress Uganda. In an attempt to avoid any current affairs.

in the south central part of the ter. Speke’s colleague Henry guages practiced within its borders. The official language in ings whenever he felt that might Uganda is English. When I asked non-Ugandan friends work- There is little material proof available of a visual ing in the country’s cultural sector whether they had culture in Buganda before the middle of the nine. but other versions of the picture are. When I men- Morton Stanley did bring his camera to the court of tioned my “discovery” to Luganda-speaking friends. pp. Buganda. It is easy to explain this. On a num- Jaar. that is related to the origins of picture-making. A photograph was made 1 of the Kabaka and they shared my wonder since they had never given his chiefs. and showed his books with draw.  images. “(Mis)Understanding on to Buganda (Speke 1864. especially in urban be opportune. materialised images that L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – ANDREA STULTIENS – 79 . 306-7. since photographs held a Ansel Adams and Aflredo back to the coast while he went central position in everything I was doing. here and elsewhere centres.  no. I assume for now that this has to do with the Baganda. If something does not exist. 525).  ing point. are comfortable speaking it. the explorer John sional likeness. can refer to a paint- ence for the use of ritory now known as Uganda. even if this is during his explorations. Most people. These were met. I was rather embarrassed it took me phy as recommended by Hanning Speke sent his camera so long to work this out. I worked for seven years in Uganda before I There are of course overlaps in the way the photo- became aware of the fact that there is no specific graphs function. That does not mean there were no around images. November. the language of the ently. PRESENTING PASTS – ANDREA STULTIENS 1. viewed 18 January 2016. in the mid-1870s. I had failed to ask the right question. Just over a decade Uglish is a necessity in a country with as many lan- later. they all said they had not. K. Frieze. then why have a It could be argued that a photograph in Uganda word for it? is not the same as a photograph in the Netherlands. a drawing. Essen”. Museum He met the Kabaka (King) of the when I thought the conversation was about photo- Folkwang. ber of occasions. people had brought me paintings Photograph. X). p. noticed something odd happening in the language teenth century. 423. I have a prefer. The use of 1864. a photograph or any other two dimen- the verb “to make” in relation to photogra- the early 1860s. This photograph is not known in present it much thought and agreed this was an interest- day Uganda. 16. The noun ekifananyi. See Nedo. with great interest (Speke a version that is locally known as Uglish. 2014. In ing. verb kufanana (to be similar to). 359. but they are conceptualised differ- word for photographs in Luganda. Baganda (the people of Buganda) graphs.

but believes that a right to a shared history also needs to be rec- ognised.PRESENTING PASTS – ANDREA STULTIENS Screenshots from History In Progress Uganda’s Facebook page made by Andrea Stultiens. HIPUganda acknowledges copyrights and tries to credit sources whenever pos- sible. Images are therefore shared free of copyright claims unless clearly stated otherwise. December 2015. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – ANDREA STULTIENS – 80 .

Someone recognition. I also came capture aesthetics in a cultural and sometimes his- across other collections of photographs. PRESENTING PASTS – ANDREA STULTIENS were initially drawings and then also photographs. But as time went by. but While working with Kaddu and Kisitu. Kaddu’s face is on the ers.  met ‘knew’ what the photographs were about. and other urban centres it seems. in of Kaddu’s photographs. The Kaddu Wasswa Archive was published by seemed to be more obvious. while the third able to build a clubhouse. and me. when and where. When I started to look for “old photographs”. The first group is looking for his people were omitted from the book. Arthur C. lacked information concerning who shot what. I ing it even harder for me to read them than some thought that what is in archives in Uganda. readable. The made does not provide clarity on why I or anyone else book suggests that the archive is what is in Kaddu should be looking at them. And there is a group one else: as “this man” who was finally given some with general interest in photography and archives. But understanding why the photographs were front cover and the back of his head on the rear. recognition for everything he had done and tried to Let me brutally generalise here for a moment. not being keen to compare pasts and presents. Nobody I torical perspective. There are those Kaddu was very proud of the result of our work who grew up. mainly living in the capital city Kampala the man on the cover of the book as if he was some. on observing the responses to photographs shared cerns. There were events and three authors: Kaddu Wasswa himself. There are presidents and other perform- Kaddu’s grandson. Wasswa’s head. He creates connections. not finalising studies. and makes the documents he kept as well as the photographs he HIP Uganda has a mixed audience following and made to prove his activities. to connect their memories to those of brought to his attention that there was too much others through photographs. Kisitu. in Uganda. not getting a job. The second group is emphasis on failures. responding to the images shared. he also started to share con. based do. Achievements that were important to him and on the Facebook page. contrarily L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – ANDREA STULTIENS – 81 . He kept referring to Ugandans. There are and adopted me into his family. Most of the photographs this specific culture. and used to live.  necessarily say anything about historical events. The reasons why they had been made In 2010. mak. not sus. weddings. group loves to discover beautiful images that do not taining a business.

facebook. and Lane. I imagined it gave the person looking at the photograph the chance to be as open as possible. second edition. without being afraid that this might limit the freedom of asso- ciation. that pasts be told exclusively from outside or privileged positions. instead of a call to create it together. If there is no information. and Wasswa. sharing a photograph on the HIP Facebook page used Rotterdam. The Oxford Handbook with the photograph? Who? Where?” I had thought of African Archaeology. it also suggests a gap between HIP Uganda who is sharing the photo- graphs. Stultiens. Post Editions. when a picture is shown without context. should give insights REFERENCES into all Ugandan society.C. P. The lack of knowledge as knowledge in itself is more explicitly added alongside the photo- graphs. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – ANDREA STULTIENS – 82 . PRESENTING PASTS – ANDREA STULTIENS to what is in the UK for instance. The little that is known is indicated. (eds) 2013. These questions resulted in a change to our strategy. Edinburgh and London. P. K. William this was obvious. A. University Press.org/ HIPUganda Facebook page https://www.H.com/HIPUganda/ the material relates to upper and middle class lives. Through the Dark Continent. J. Oxford. reasonable or acceptable. does not need to be mentioned.. HIPUganda and its audiences are co-creators of additions to specific histories at a time when it is no longer necessary. then that Blackwood and Sons. 1864. and members of the audience who feel they are supposed to know what they are looking at. I failed to see that. The Kaddu Wasswa Archive.  BIBLIOGRAPHY The most Frequently Asked Questions when —  Kisitu. How naïve (again). before or after Uganda’s independence in 1962.hipuganda. —  Speke. The context then is the lack of it. 2011. to be along the lines of “why is there no information —  Mitchell. A Visual Biography. A. Most of HIPUganda website http://www.

MARISA PÉREZ COLINA (FUNDACIÓN DE LOS COMUNES) AND MABEL TAPIA (RED CONCEPTUALISMOS DEL SUR) . RESOURCES — L’INTERNATIONALE BOOKS THE ARCHIVES OF THE COMMONS SEMINAR. MADRID 2015 MELA DÁVILA AND CARLOS PRIETO DEL CAMPO (MUSEO NACIONAL CENTRO DE ARTE REINA SOFÍA).

historic contexts in which they originated were taken riences. can be created. It was conceptually tive of nationality or of the availability of financial developed through the joint work and dialogue of means to consult. as a The second distinctive feature of the seminar vessel for collective memory. memory and social communication. the seminar’s first distinc. information. of the work of individual artists and collectives). managed. irrespec- de Arte Reina Sofía in Madrid. institutional establishments’ modes of production of ing of the archive. The conditions of emer- of the Commons. with their different histories. in today’s context of highly volatile discourse and memory). identity. and The objectives were: (1) to think about the mean. and their links to the socio- tage based on collective memory. in fact. events that are part of the experience of the present. use. of neglect and invisibility on the other (for example. interests. and expe. conserved and into account. Latin Conceptualisms Network). in protecting these types of archives from the double and Red Conceptualismos del Sur (Southern threat of privatisation on one hand (for example. and with the working and subaltern groups. logue and interaction on equal terms. The collaborative nature American collections of political art that are the result of the project was. MADRID 2015 The Archives of the Commons seminar was held on 11 opened up to citizens and the general public as an and 12 December 2015 at the Museo Nacional Centro exercise in civic and democratic culture. particularly in terms of had to do with the archives and repositories that the knowledge and practices of dominated classes were invited to participate. (3) to discuss the possible role of public institutions Fundación de los Comunes (Commons Foundation). but have been sidelined by the media. academic. the collective memory of struggles and major social would be able to produce and share a space for dia. which sustain an important heri. Almost all the selected participating L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – THE ARCHIVES OF THE COMMONS SEMINAR – 84 . and agendas. and tive feature: the conviction that these three agents. THE ARCHIVES OF THE COMMONS SEMINAR. and three institutions/ platforms: the Museo Reina Sofía. (2) to reflect on how Archives dynamic that was adopted. and enjoy said archives. gence of each project.

Content. 12 December 2015. THE ARCHIVES OF THE COMMONS SEMINAR. Museo Reina Sofía. Photo: Courtesy of Red Conceptualismos del Sur. Museo Reina Sofía. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – THE ARCHIVES OF THE COMMONS SEMINAR – 85 . 12 December 2015. Museo Reina Sofía. Workshop: Archive Economies. Photo: Courtesy of Red Conceptualismos del Sur. Photo: Courtesy of Red Conceptualismos del Sur. 11 December 2015. MADRID 2015 Conference by Jorge Reina Schement: Meeting the Challenge of Meaningful Access: Connectivity. Workshop: Archive Economies. Capability. and Context.

and techno-political devices. I have scarcely finished filing things before working sessions. committed to. To overcome these tensions. taxonomic design: a place for everything and every Human Costs for Border Control. Archivo Classify” (1974 / 1997) encapsulate the two core ten- de la autonomía juvenil de Madrid.  Further information on each archive and their to historically-rooted needs and The Politics of Archives website can be found at the bottom on this text issues that their founders felt and Forms of Institution after the references. The first was a public event with the filing system is obsolete. exclusion. PAD. these tensions are com- pounded by the complexities bound up with pro- cesses of legitimation. the speakers and representatives of the fication to burst the boundaries of the archive and archives worked together for a full day on three core embrace the whole of reality. there is a utopian yearning for classi- ond session. archive economies.” in Black. On one hand. The participating archives 1 were: Archivo Contra The following statements by Georges Perec in “Think/ la Pared. sions that shape the boundaries of the archive: Archivo Digital de la Autonomía Obrera. Archivo de Estudios Campesinos.” lectures by Nancy Kranich. there is the impossibility of reducing reality to an orderly series of elements. In institutional archives.MA. Archivo del Duelo. Ariella Azoulay. and Women thing in its place. which are inherent to and inevitable in “institutional” activities.Net. the museum probably needs to create larger L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – THE ARCHIVES OF THE COMMONS SEMINAR – 86 . Jorge Reina Schement and William Gambetta. In the sec. “My problem with sorting orders is that they do The seminar was structured around two types of not last. means to understand. or at least to “comprehend”. inclusion. On the other. given that to classify areas: the politics of archives and forms of institution. Archivos en “Behind every utopia there is always some great uso. THE ARCHIVES OF THE COMMONS SEMINAR. El Recetario. or at least reduce or counteract their impact. and the construction of the canon. Feminicidio. Desmemoriados. MADRID 2015 projects were created in response 1.

As such. One of the main characteristics of a political Some initial questions arise at this point: How economy of the “commons” is the attempt to move can we define the relationships between institu. Economies An archive of the commons would thus be based on giving up both the guarantee of the state and the In Europe. and publicly acknowledging development of archival policies for different rea- its own weaknesses. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – THE ARCHIVES OF THE COMMONS SEMINAR – 87 . other geo. The values expectations does an institutional archive raise. and discontinuity of the political instances have had to deal with historical specific agents on which they are based. MADRID 2015 relational networks outside the institution. how can it meet them? which are the bedrock of any concept of the com- mons. are beneficial. as well as structures in which the state abandons or blocks the increasing its flexibility. we are seeing a significant process of processes and prospects that seek to increase its privatisation of archives that may even end up influ- permeability and its openness to the outside world encing scientific and social agendas. against a backdrop of global From this point of view. and seek to institute other Archive models. and of mutualisation. a distinction that is a constituent element main differences between them? How can institu. logic of the market. are framed within a reconfiguration of estab- lished economic theories. of our legal and economic systems. of desire for the market for some years now. archives have become an object institutional and non-institutional archives is com. defining characteristics. sons. in a context of institutional instability. one of the challenges antor of the material and economic continuity of the facing these models is to find forms of continuity and archive. so much so that this permanence is one of its dissemination. beyond the distinction between the state and the tional and non-institutional archives? What are the market. As such. economic precariousness. as argued by tional archives open up to the outside world? What Pierre Dardot and Christian Laval (2014). the relationship between neoliberal policies. THE ARCHIVES OF THE COMMONS SEMINAR. the state has traditionally been the guar. At the same time. reciprocity. partly plex – as is the relationship between the institution due to their status as potential producers of knowl- and anything that is not within its bounds – but all the edge. Outside Europe. and collective action.

THE ARCHIVES OF THE COMMONS SEMINAR. Archivo del Duelo (Archive of Mourning). Archivo de estudios campesinos (Rural Studies Archive). Photo: Abel Fernández López Courtesy: Rural Studies Archive.net. MADRID 2015 Screenshot from El-Recetario. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – THE ARCHIVES OF THE COMMONS SEMINAR – 88 . Photo courtesy of Makea Tu Vida. Photo courtesy: Archivo Histórico Ferroviario and CSIC.

research-related. the archive). and implemented by Archives of the Commons. Who ognising that Archives of the Commons produce an owns it? Who does it represent? Who does it target economy at every stage of their existence. disseminated. The event as well as hybrid. Key term basis. In this sense. tile exchange of ideas showed that there is a strong ation of technological devices that allow openness. THE ARCHIVES OF THE COMMONS SEMINAR. while rec. agents. How is it managed and how is its sustainability ensured? (Sustainable management models and strategies). and technological devices are or should be used? Devices The structural. management and proliferation. and activated? (Modes of activation: curatorial. an teria for inclusion in the archive? How is the archive archive of the commons produces an ecosystem that organised? What about the production of metadata? simultaneously allows it to exist and to open up to And interoperability markers? (Structure and classi- other actors. So instead fication criteria). What does it contain? What are the cri- tion. The rich debate and the fer- battlegrounds of contemporary societies. and universal accessibility. and access). haps think about what economic-political ecosys. and the individual the Internet. and political. we should per. from their or address? Who determines its uses? (Ownership of conditions of emergence to their modes of organisa. in what context. collective became what we could call ground zero for a shared production. MADRID 2015 One of the key issues obviously has to do with questions in regard to an archive of the commons exploring the sustainability strategies that can be include: When was it created. of questioning archive economies. reflection that we hope will continue on a long- tion of possibility for Archives of the Commons. need to open up spaces of this nature. Modes of dissemina- tems Archives of the Commons establish. for what purpose? (Conditions of emergence). interconnection. What concep- Techno-Political tual. multifaceted debate that took place at the seminar sought to reconcile different The technological form of an archive is inseparable registers of experience and thought by combining from its political dimension. The cre. the archive has become one of the key and collective domains. archival. mutable taxonomies. and/or institutions. is the condi. tion. With the introduction of the local and international spheres. How is it presented. as a means of exploring new prospects L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – THE ARCHIVES OF THE COMMONS SEMINAR – 89 .

University of Buenos Aires. cultura y política en la Argentina reciente” (Recent Argentinian Art. THE ARCHIVES OF THE COMMONS SEMINAR. MADRID 2015 Archivos en uso (Archives in use) is a collective project initiated by various working groups of the Red Conceptualismos del Sur and of the “Grupo de Estudios sobre Arte. based in the Gino Germani Research Institute. Culture and Politics Study Group). Social Sciences Faculty. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – THE ARCHIVES OF THE COMMONS SEMINAR – 90 .

pamphlets). feminisms. among others. and on social movements advocating food sovereignty. tres. materials are from local movements. produced for the most part in the period spanning 1986 and 2003. primarily collected from activ- ists’ personal archives. La Découverte. 1974/ 1997. confer- ence minutes. An Essay on Revolution in the from Seville. the labour and trade union movement. and Laval C. left-wing political parties. etc. and agroecological research conducted from the second half of the twentieth century to the present day in the Andalusia region. G. self-managed social cen- (ed. in J. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – THE ARCHIVES OF THE COMMONS SEMINAR – 91 . stickers. ARCHIVO DE LA AUTONOMÍA JUVENIL DE MADRID (ARCHIVE OF YOUTH AUTONOMY IN MADRID) This archive encompasses a broad documentary collection of youth collectives from Madrid. Penguin. Essai sur la révolu. Commun. Species of Spaces and Other Pieces. The project is carried out with the support of the research group Globalisation and Social Movements from the Nomad University. made by political and social collectives and initiatives tion au XXIe siècle (Common.) —  Dardot P. pamphlets. 2014. The collection is REFERENCES made up of documents (posters. The 21st Century). the student movement. MADRID 2015 for building architectures that will contribute to the INFORMATION ON THE ARCHIVES reformulation the meaning of “the common”. anti-milita- —  Perec. ARCHIVO CONTRA LA PARED (ARCHIVE AGAINST THE WALL) A digital archive of graphic politics. Paris. ARCHIVO DE ESTUDIOS CAMPESINOS (RURAL STUDIES ARCHIVE) A project that organises and catalogues existing documents on trade union and political struggles in the rural world. stickers.). The project was started and developed by the Juan Díaz del Moral Rural Studies Group. and citizen platforms. THE ARCHIVES OF THE COMMONS SEMINAR. the libertarian movement. It comprises a com- pilation of original documents (posters. “Think/Classify”. Sturrock rists. ecologists. London. stretching from 1978 to the present day.

committed to promoting DIY compiles experiences. for instance photographs. for appropriate legal regulations for feminicide. spe- Red Conceptualismos del Sur (RedCSur). the A project promoted by the Espai en Blanc Foundation that re-use of waste and open-source. MADRID 2015 ARCHIVO DEL DUELO (ARCHIVE OF MOURNING) DESMEMORIADOS (FORGETFULNESS) A multidisciplinary research project that aims to preserve. It has serve and collectivise these materials. from the Gino Germani Research Institute at the University of Buenos Aires. The platform strives to create a out on art and politics in Latin America. publications and books on the assembly culture in our society. The project aims to pre. in Modern-day Argentina. THE ARCHIVES OF THE COMMONS SEMINAR. and developed by social network by joining news.NET ARCHIVOS EN USO (ARCHIVES IN USE) A website developed to give visibility to domestic violence A platform that assembles materials from research carried in Spain and Latin America. that is available can be consulted and is organised into dif- laboration with the Study Group on Art. where all the information initiated and is developed by RedCSur and promoted in col. research. The to the initial years in the period starting from the death archive is deposited in the Archivo Histórico Ferroviario of Franco and the transition to democracy at the end of the (Historic Railway Archive). 1970s. The documents gathered in the digital archive largely waste. and the platform was also developed an online database. This initia. (CSIC) and looks to recover materials that were destined to bounded by epochs or time periods – the project started by become ephemeral. Culture and Politics ferent categories of abuse suffered by women. to establish an archive of collective memory. ARCHIVO DIGITAL DE LA AUTONOMÍA OBRERA EL RECETARIO (THE COOKBOOK) (DIGITAL ARCHIVE OF WORKERS’ AUTONOMY) A research platform in the sphere of ecological design. Barcelona by different activists from autonomy spheres. This initiative by Makea Tu Vida con- and anti-capitalist movements behind independence struggles stitutes a repository with which to promote the development during the Franco regime and the transition to democracy in of open design tools and strategies in recycling and using Spain. drawings. thereby promoting collaborative work as a decentral- hail from a clandestine archive compiled since 1965 in ised method of learning and empowerment. articles. Without tive is promoted by Spain’s Scientific Research Council attempting to organise academic transience – for instance. catalogue and study the mourning that took place after the images and any form of content that contributes to build- 11 March terrorist attacks in Madrid in 2004. FEMINICIDIO. texts the La Vorágine collective stretches from the time preced- and placards. ing the Collective Memory of Cantabria are gathered. interviews. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – THE ARCHIVES OF THE COMMONS SEMINAR – 92 . as well as other materials left in improvised ing the proclamation of the Second Republic in Spain (1931) shrines. in dialogue with cial research and online training and promoting the search the custodians of the materials. documents. An open platform in which information.

primarily footage and unfin- ished films. The project initiated by the platforms camp (Mumbai). PAD. the organisers carry out interventions in public spaces in order to pre- vent and resolve conflicts through dialogue and to encourage women’s active participation. new analyses and specific changes related to migration policies. as much as spectators. The entire collection can be downloaded. The organisation produces a textual and visual archive of struggles. WOMEN IN BLACK A feminist non-violent organisation against militarism. 0x2620 (Berlin) and Alternative Law Forumindian (Bangalore) aims to free sequences (videos and images). MADRID 2015 HUMAN COSTS OF BORDER CONTROL A database which organises information from official sources on people who died while attempting to reach southern European Union countries from the Balkans. aims to develop this tool in order to promote greater research. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – THE ARCHIVES OF THE COMMONS SEMINAR – 93 . Symbolically dressed in black. from the conventions of editing. reminders and legal procedures. cre- ated in Serbia in 1991. actions. protests. which has built a worldwide solidar- ity network. annotated and edited online as it puts forward differ- ent types of viewing and contextualisation as well as cat- egorisations and descriptors. the Middle East and North and West Africa. The project.MA An archive of video material. started by a team of researchers from VU University Amsterdam. THE ARCHIVES OF THE COMMONS SEMINAR. viewed.

AND MEMORY CARLOS PRIETO DEL CAMPO . INFORMATION. RESOURCES — L’INTERNATIONALE BOOKS ARCHIVES OF THE COMMONS: KNOWLEDGE COMMONS.

and paradigm of the “museum of the commons” and possible models for its practical implementation by apply it to the organisation and conservation of the the museum. of political constitution. its reference groups. the profound changes that have transformed the cal memory and the cultural perception of social time museum over the past few decades as a result of from the perspective of social. using the paradigm of the commons to: countless types of archives that proliferate in the (1) reflect on matters relating to social. and surplus value. ARCHIVES OF THE COMMONS: KNOWLEDGE COMMONS. nomic. (2) analyse the importance of caring torical perception of the present. cultural. social and political crises sweeping our soci- and (3) consider how these archival practices can eties and their forms of artistic. as a result of the the democratic prospect of communicative action modification of the processes of production of value and. and enun. of organisation. its con- sation of discourse inevitably equates to the end of stituencies. so as to shape histori. the irreversible ciative practices that are not ordinarily part of the and unmitigated destruction – of the paradigms of dominant public sphere and do not use the prevailing modernity and postmodernity. social field in the form of different models and forms tic. conserve. (1) the deconstruction – or rather. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – CARLOS PRIETO DEL CAMPO – 95 . artis. and its users in general. and hence productive. contribute to a new framework of political and social and cultural representation. This notion of for the common heritage of the collective memory of the “museum of the commons” draws attention to minor and subaltern groups. ing and making accessible the experience and his- and transmit it. as such. vessels. artistic. and that are essential to organis- with the work of the archives that produce. political. INFORMATION. political. and (3) the structural imagination that will strengthen the democratic changes to cultural institutionality and its artistic nature of our societies at a time when the homogeni. and historical memory in the present. (2) the profound eco- channels of social expression and communication. artistic. AND MEMORY – CARLOS PRIETO DEL CAMPO The Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía in The idea is to extend the Museo Reina Sofía’s Madrid seeks to produce a concept for archives. its audiences. institutional.

AND MEMORY – CARLOS PRIETO DEL CAMPO political. and economic changes. conservation. collective memory and of its different forms of social facts derived from them. in an exercise of civic and democratic culture. experience. and public dissemi. and monopolisation of and artistic behaviours. and (3) the creation of pos- nation. and on the urgent need to prevent affected countless perceptive. Over the past few years. and also particularly to the knowledge and practices of the Fundación de los Comunes or Commons Foundation) dominated classes and subaltern groups. and in ensuring their feasibility L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – CARLOS PRIETO DEL CAMPO – 96 . their use and enjoyment. INFORMATION. private and communal shared and opened up to citizens and to the public in gen- resources. along with other volatile information. which have. (2) the definition and description of the manner generated by the agents involved (particularly the in which these archives – which sustain an impor- archipelago of initiatives that cluster around the Red tant common wealth of shared memory. social. conserved. in turn. Part of this the experience of history and the creation of other process has entailed formulating a narrative from a forms of politicising their collective and individual position enunciated through the plurality of accounts lives. ARCHIVES OF THE COMMONS: KNOWLEDGE COMMONS. aesthetic the expropriation. linked Sur or Southern Conceptualisms Network. and the materialisation of conservation eral. and the products and arte. memory and social commu- agents (principally the Red Conceptualismos del nication – as a vessel for collective memory. ownership models. or of having sufficient financial means for tices of recovery. strategies and initiatives that are assembling a new irrespective of the criteria of belonging to a particu- “archive of the common” through the specific prac. managing and protect- heritage” based on the different possible shared ing these archives. and of the interconnections between these. The aim of these sible models for the co-participation of public and initiatives has been to reflect on the idea of “common private bodies in organising. nationalisation of artistic collections. construction and expression. lar nation. managed. has increasing difficulties when it comes to creating supported the implementation of archival policies narratives of contemporary practices of their situa- extraneous to the logic of the market and to the tions. who face and institutions in Spain and Latin America. cognitive. Conceptualismos del Sur). It has also called for the and identity – can be created. co-optation. particularly in Latin America. this interest in archives This research initially involves: (1) the conceptu- has taken the form of a complex networked ecosys. use of public. alisation of the archive – in today’s context of highly tem in which the Museo Reina Sofía.

2. and of semination and sustainability of archives without the victims of gender violence in Spain and Latin sacrificing their idiosyncratic identity or their dif- America 3). Human Duelo is a multidis- fronts: the threat of privatisation lic institutions or to commerciali. state-produced conserve. conservation. It also seeks to establish devices can be used to organise the archive. draw- ory of the Madrid train bombings ated from the 1970s to the pres- ings. the research will be organ. texts.have died while attempt- sions of grief after the ing to reach southern Madrid train bombings the experience of the present but ised around three principal core European Union countries on 11 March 2004. the CSIC (Spanish National academic and institutional estab. on 11 March 2004 1 .  Such as Feminicidio. and north- Research Project) is run. while guaranteeing socioeconomic and The “archives of the commons” is based on the political accessibility. The have been sidelined by the media. as photographs. and to talk to the custodians of this material and and other materials left of struggles around the 15-M immaterial collective memory about their aims and at improvised alters. such gender violence in Spain.  For example. ARCHIVES OF THE COMMONS: KNOWLEDGE COMMONS. as in the idea is to present and analyse net. universal accessibility as a sine qua non of archives tion of memory. and (3) the techno-political tools that tion in the present. east Africa. sation by private institutions. (2) archive economies collection of collective have died in the Strait of Gibraltar and the methods and protocols that ensure the dis- memory. ference. in order to compile a Movement. as well as high standards of notion of the archive as an engine for political activa. AND MEMORY – CARLOS PRIETO DEL CAMPO 1. models and the institutional forms Middle East. the inventive potential of a new institutionality. a web portal that expressions that are the case of the collective mem. banners.Costs of Border Control ciplinary research is a database based on project that aims to (for instance. The This research will be organised around the fol- museum is aware of how terribly easy it is for them lowing theoretically-strong hypotheses that will L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – CARLOS PRIETO DEL CAMPO – 97 . ning this project that lishments’ modes of production that make the archive possible. 3. and the Mediterranean 2. INFORMATION. catalogue. of the cycle ent. dynamic taxonomies and that gave rise to these exercises in the conserva.puts the spotlight on ephemeral by nature.  The Archivo del given their vulnerability on two to succumb to absorption by pub. the collective mem. In official. a broad survey of repositories cre. of the migrants who their forms of organisation. which give the archive its value and of the commons. areas of reflection: (1) archive from the Balkans. ory of certain struggles or major order to explore these problems evidence on people who and study the expres- social events that have shaped further. seeks to recover public of discourse and memory. as instruments that do not annul or objectify the grassroots systems that guarantee openness.

state-produced evidence on people who died while attempting to reach southern European Union countries from the Balkans. 12 December 2015. Participants: Jorge Reina Schement. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – CARLOS PRIETO DEL CAMPO – 98 . William Gambetta and Ariella Azoulay. INFORMATION. Carlos Prieto. Human Costs of Border Control The Deaths at the Borders Database is the first collection of offi- cial. and North & West Africa. Photo: Courtesy of Red Conceptualismos del Sur. Museo Reina Sofía. AND MEMORY – CARLOS PRIETO DEL CAMPO Round-table discussion: The Future of Memory and the Expropriation of the Political Sense of the Present. ARCHIVES OF THE COMMONS: KNOWLEDGE COMMONS. and whose bodies were found in or brought to Europe. the Middle East. Nancy Kranich.

Unless could also be formulated as an affirmation by which collective memory has the opportunity to re-create the archive of the commons is a device that produces and construct itself from the perspective of differ. diverse. and guarantees access to and conservation of the ent groups. intellectual sensibilities. and senses of be tested as the research proceeds. mons are subject to powerful processes of enclosure democratic “exercises in memory” generated by that seriously hinder the creation of archives of the subjects connected to the need to preserve the his. historicity. AND MEMORY – CARLOS PRIETO DEL CAMPO generate the working protocols and. ARCHIVES OF THE COMMONS: KNOWLEDGE COMMONS. and (2) a form of conser. orientations. Today. and universal. commons and their potential role as key devices for torical memory in question. From the perspective of the archives of the commons. accessibility. democratic. which is its The fight against new enclosures ties in with the bedrock. This hypothesis modes of conservation of social experience. political new information and knowledge commons. the information com- (1) the construction of decentralised. And this new ecology of memory Hypothesis 1 and construction of the social – and therefore politi- Archives of the commons cal – imagination will only be feasible if the experi- are common by nature. can guarantee the distributed and decentralised production of the information commons. knowledge commons of the historical sense of col- To this end. the research aims to explore the institu. and they must be at the centre of reconstruction of history through the creativity of production of a new institutionality. experiences of shared interests. as well as the common of the commons. open. lective memory. vation and feedback that ensures that the growth. at the same time. Both types of commons must be spe- tional strategies that guarantee the emergence of cific areas of reflection within the field of the archive this new ecology of memory. ence of historicity and of the archive of the commons and defend the commons. conditions of use and quality of access the information commons contribute to building the of the archive are diverse. there will not be the minimum diversity required to build the new fragments that make up the social imagination. the distribution and interaction of social memory. INFORMATION. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – CARLOS PRIETO DEL CAMPO – 99 . and that. and as such fundamental element that the archive initially pro- its management models must simultaneously enable: duces or could produce. These information commons are thus the defence of the archive as a commons.

both consulting. in which borders. archive is a paradigmatic example of this situation. cultural. The Archives of the commons are archives organised same applies in terms of access to these repositories around a critique of the violence of modernity vis-à. and of the creation live and move through different national territories of hermetic circuits of socioeconomic and cultural for family. or socioeconomic reasons. tion. An archive of the commons must necessarily and existential situations that are so overwhelming be decolonial and. cultural. AND MEMORY – CARLOS PRIETO DEL CAMPO in its operation. of memory. alities are founded on decolonial criteria and on the given that its content and collective memory have to L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – CARLOS PRIETO DEL CAMPO – 100 . institutional. of (post)modernity practiced in today’s national soci. but in the global sphere of modern imperialism – histori. opposes. There can be no archives of the commons. These reproduction. and on such a large scale that they form part of the an object of decolonisation. INFORMATION. counteracts. of the hier. checkpoints and the lack of international mobility eties. ethnically invisibilised or racialised subaltern sub- struction and democratic use of the archives of the jects who live in Europe and beyond. they may find it difficult to do so due to the current cally speaking – and in the politics and micropolitics structure of the system of states. in countries commons. or blocks the decolonisation of their practices and contents. political. that often deprive them of the right of citizenship and of basic civil and political rights. ARCHIVES OF THE COMMONS: KNOWLEDGE COMMONS. which often focus on social groups made vis processes of memory construction. possibility of organising the collective memory of mons. The work of the Human Costs of Border Control struction and operation of these new institution. This dual action is what guarantees the con. up of subjects whose life stories involve people who archisation of different peoples. and technological enclosures The decolonial criteria particularly tie into the that threaten these material and immaterial com. and using these archives. This is a huge obstacle to the possibility of producing archives of Hypothesis 2 the memory of the different social. social. let are obstacles to large sectors of the world’s popula- alone “museums of the commons” unless the con. accessing. social experience tout court of the societies in which those populations without rights are present. They also encompass the plundering subjects and these individuals may be interested in of the objects that have embodied this memory. by historical imperative.

educational. This means that the physical and the virtual use of these archives must be conceived in accordance with the criteria of maximum access. INFORMATION. their lives. their structure. equality in the use of these commons. ogy architecture. their cost and affordability. so that their use is not filtered for socioeconomic. The technology design should not limit the objective potential of the Internet. and that this social dimension must tence. archives of the commons must take into account that Archives of the commons must opt for technologies working on specific user profiles. Similarly. Archives of the com- influenced and mediated by the existence of borders mons are based on the hypothesis that technology is and mobility controls that drastically affect their exis. non-discriminatory. and cultural status of financial. AND MEMORY – CARLOS PRIETO DEL CAMPO do with individuals and communities whose lives are enjoyment of these archives. capacity. which is never neutral. and context. by failing to take into account the lim- its affecting these four hypotheses for the use and L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – CARLOS PRIETO DEL CAMPO – 101 . con- tent. cultural. ARCHIVES OF THE COMMONS: KNOWLEDGE COMMONS. and generally accessible to all actual Archives of the commons should thus think and potential users. inherently social. of information and knowledge commons. and sometimes their deaths. political or national reasons. and the ongoing and forms of sourcing and accessing content that are attention to inequality in regard to the skills and the as open as possible. from the perspective of connectivity. essential but not sufficient to enable the production and their operation. be carefully taken into account to ensure that good technological strategies are not ruined by the failure to take into account the social inequality that affects Hypothesis 3 the potential use of these tools by different social Archives of the commons must be and economic groups due to the great variations in democratic. this accessibility about Internet connectivity as a prerequisite that is must be built in to their design. either the population in general are essential for achieving by institutional design or as a result of the technol.

L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – CARLOS PRIETO DEL CAMPO – 102 . Courtesy of Feminicidio. Design: Francisco Gatica. Feminicidio.net. INFORMATION. AND MEMORY – CARLOS PRIETO DEL CAMPO Names of the women murdered between 2010 and 2014. ARCHIVES OF THE COMMONS: KNOWLEDGE COMMONS.net (Femicide) is a web portal that puts the spotlight on gender violence in Spain.

the Museo Reina Sofía’s main lines this is due to its process of creation of work with regards to archives of the commons are: and because of the possibilities it offers (1) to continue to explore the nature of archives of the to interested parties. and management of the have played a crucial role in history but have been archives of the commons. lent times of huge technological innovations. ARCHIVES OF THE COMMONS: KNOWLEDGE COMMONS. ing as many agents as possible in the discussions. actively involv- Given that collective memory is a means of build. in order to gather and produce documen- and citizens. defined. (2) to define working meth- defeated as political actors with the capacity to orga. and implemented collection of materials that can be used in different in the specific conditions in which the struggle for forums and with the different agents that the project the meaning of the past and the present is being comes in contact with or that it sets up collaborations played out today. and During the next two years. models. the archive of social movements becomes key cally and sociologically define what an “archives of to the invention of the future in terms of collective the commons” is in the present and what it could action and of the activation of social energies. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – CARLOS PRIETO DEL CAMPO – 103 . collectives. the museum aims major changes in the political subjectivity of social to achieve the following objectives: (1) to theoreti- actors. and the possible forms of operation and collective memory of social movements is essential organisation. the archive of social movements – which statutes. through the museum. commons. In 2016-2017. social. groups. ing social domination in the imaginary and symbolic The idea is to bring about broad public debate on the spheres. or working relationships with. INFORMATION. from the point of view of organisation. ods and sequences of objectives that will ensure that nise the dominant institutionality and its production the activities organised around this subject – based and conservation – must operate under a different on ongoing public engagement – will generate a solid logic: one that is created. tation and analyses that can encourage and begin a public debate on this new modality. and An archive of the commons is a device political organisation. AND MEMORY – CARLOS PRIETO DEL CAMPO for debating possible lines of action that seek to Hypothesis 4 invent alternative forms of institutional. of the historical-political sense of the present. In these socioeconomically turbu. This become. financing. and other models for human for the reconstruction of memory and relationality and coexistence.

(7) the definition of employ- in order to produce a series of “products” that could ment sustainability models for the persons who work initially be as follows: (1) the conceptual design of directly with archives of the commons. (5) the sharing of management the right to collective memory. (4) the sation in the worlds of art. dynamism and accessibil. and the social objectives of vate agents and with public institutions. definition of models of financing and sustainability for The programme of activities that the Museo archives of the commons that guarantee their conti- Reina Sofía will organise will thus be oriented nuity and ensure their high quality and social impact towards an accumulative. and sustain- the institutional model of the archive of the commons able models for financing. work-in-progress method through general access. creation of training protocols for people who directly with the resulting impact on the modes of creating manage archives of the commons. so that they have to deal with media. ARCHIVES OF THE COMMONS: KNOWLEDGE COMMONS. legal statutes for archives of the commons and the nition of a model or models of statutes for archives study of the possible implications of their existence of the commons. access. artworks. and operation. (9) ity in accordance with the hypotheses and premises the definition of the possible legal status of archives explored in the research process so as to contribute of the commons as an agency that is recognised and L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – CARLOS PRIETO DEL CAMPO – 104 . in order to this kind of “institution of the commons” in conserv. (2) the defi. and the economy. (6) the impermeable to their voices. (3) the social needs that this kind of archive meets in the a debate on the archive’s forms of relations with pri- current social context. co-financing. as well as possible models of legal guarantee their stability. regulation that guarantee their common nature. culture. cultural. and to its conserva. and (3) to explore tools for this purpose. academic. explore the possibilities of creating a new regime of ing. (8) the creation of aesthetic and socio-cultural artefacts. mons statute of this type of institutionality. of subaltern groups and subjects who ality of the archives of the commons. and modes of operation that can within institutions. INFORMATION. and expanding a democratic public organisation and operation that explores the com- sphere in times of social crisis and crisis of financiali. can be used and shared by archives that work along tutional realities that have been and are increasingly these lines of organisation and operation. or involving as a device for managing documents. and public and private organisations. tools that can contribute to creating this institution- tion and study. and of educational and recreating collective memory. and insti. recreating. AND MEMORY – CARLOS PRIETO DEL CAMPO conservation. (2) to specify to the new social institutionality of the commons.

generating debates and lines of consensus on the issues underlying the institu- tional creation and definition of the archives of the commons. INFORMATION. The products resulting from these research dynamics will operate in the public sphere as arte- facts and discourses. AND MEMORY – CARLOS PRIETO DEL CAMPO supported by public institutions with a view to pro- moting the creation of a new public sphere that leads to innovative processes of democratic and social incorporation. ARCHIVES OF THE COMMONS: KNOWLEDGE COMMONS. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – CARLOS PRIETO DEL CAMPO – 105 . and (10) the analysis of new intellec- tual property models that may be useful for allowing general access to the material contained within the archives of the commons.

DECOLONISING ARCHIVES BIOGRAPHIES .

Paulo Biennial. IFFR. Beirut Art Center Prague. private ear and Filipa César’s films and projects have been focused currently a fellow at the Vera List Center for Art and on the specters of resistance in Portugal’s geo- Politics at the New School. Since 2011. Paris. Manifesta Journal and Cabinet Magazine. DocLisboa. César has been recently were part the No More Forgotten Lives cam.-23. Tensta konsthall. researching the origins of cinema in Guinea-Bissau. 43. Modern London. 20. developing the col- artist’s forensic audio investigations are conducted lective project Luta ca caba inda (the struggle is not as part of his research for Forensic Architecture over yet). Abu Hamdan’s writing can be found in Forensis. The Architecture of Public Truth. Serralves Museum. Tape Echo  (2013) at 59. Manifesta 8. Berlin. Berlin. MACBA Barcelona. DECOLONISING ARCHIVES Lawrence Abu Hamdan Filipa César Lawrence Abu Hamdan is an artist. M HKA Antwerp. Berlinale. and Taipei Biennial (2012). Berlin. Whitechapel Gallery London. Kurzfilmtage Oberhausen. Stockholm. Utrecht. Selected Film Festivals include Kunsthalle St Gallen (2015). She was a participant of the research proj- at Goldsmiths College London where he is also a ects Living Archive (2011-13) and Visionary Archive PhD candidate. Berlin. São Additionally his works have been exhibited and per. Porto. Paris. The its imaginaries and potencies. Futura. SAAVY Contemporary. and 46. Curtas Vila do Beirut in Cairo and Van Abbemuseum.Institute for Film and at Portikus Frankfurt (2016). Selected exhibitions: 8. The Freedom Of Speech Itself (2012) at Showroom. 29. Haus der Kulturen der formed at venues such as Shanghai Biennial (2014). Rotterdam. Jeu de Paume. 9. Welt. Conde. London. The Whole Truth (2012) at Casco. His audio political past. paign for Defence For Children International. Khiasma. Istanbul Biennial. Tate NBK. questioning mechanisms of history investigations have been submitted as evidence in production and spanning spaces for performing the UK Asylum and Immigration Tribunal and most experimental knowledge. New York. Berlin. Kunstwerke. Eindhoven. Forum Expanded. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – DECOLONISING ARCHIVES – 107 . ‫( هيقت‬taqiyya) at Video Art. Sternberg Press (2014). His solo exhibitions include Earshot (2013-15) at the Arsenal .

and was director of the Weimar. Teaching experience and guest professor- she was in charge of the Publications Department ships at several universities (Kassel. In 2012 she moved “sonicity” in techno-mathematical media. Time Machines (forthcoming 2016). MECAD thesis on historicism and museology. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – DECOLONISING ARCHIVES – 108 . the technical and symbolic infrastructures of national (Contemporary Art Museum of Barcelona). Leipzig. the Arts Libris book fair (Barcelona) and the documenta archive.D. and (partially) classical archaeology. where memory. Chronopoetics ing and disseminating the museum’s documentary (forthcoming 2016). Paderborn). at the Institute of Musicology and Media Studies. Berlin. She has recently advised the Lafuente Archive (Santander). MACBA. artist publications. as well as an advisor and graphic ways. working as a professor of Art History at menting the writing of media time in non-historio- the University of Hamburg. an independent author in relation to art archives. Other publications in Study and Documentation Centre between 2007 and English: Digital Memory and the Archive (2013). Bochum. DECOLONISING ARCHIVES Mela Dávila Freire Wolfgang Ernst Mela Dávila Freire serves since January 2016 as the Wolfgang Ernst. between 2000 and 2005. Studied history. She has performed a number of roles in contemporary Humboldt-University. Sonic 2012. Ph. experi- to Hamburg. bibliographic publications and other related areas. Latin art institutions. which spans a library and an archive of based and time-critical media processes. putting in place innovative formulas for manag. Contemporary Art (Santiago de Compostela). Full professor for Media Theories Director of Public Activities of Museo Reina Sofía. which include the Galician Centre of philology. implicit contemporary artistic practices. habilitation on / Media Centre d’Art i Disseny (Sabadell). Cologne. Current research fields: time- collection. for which she compiled an update project.

Stockholm and SALT. and LinkedIn. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – DECOLONISING ARCHIVES – 109 . Crystal. As a governmen- granddaughter of Marka and Richard Bullock. the tory at Charles University in Prague. DECOLONISING ARCHIVES Crystal Fraser Rado Ištok Crystal Fraser is a PhD Candidate in the Department Rado Ištok is currently completing the programme of History and Classics at the University of Alberta in in Curating Art at Stockholm University. As an intern he worked for Tensta konsthall. and gender and sexualities. is tal scholar he conducted research at the University of Gwichya Gwich’in and originally from Inuvik and Tree Copenhagen (2012-2013) and in 2014 he participated River. posing provocative self-organised art education as well as racialised questions about colonialism. through A Bold Vision. critical race theory.edu. Apichaya Wanthiang. Summer Academy of Fine Arts supported by the Erste on academia. He previously studied art his- and is a former SSHRC doctoral fellow. His collab- Canada. and structures of inequalities in higher education. in a curatorial course at The Salzburg International You can find Crystal on Twitter at @crystalfraser. Istanbul (2015). Northwest Territories. Foundation through the tranzit network. Her research considers the everyday lived orative graduation project (2015) with Yvonique experiences of northern Indigenous people and the Wellen consisted of a strand of events concen- Indian Residential School system during the second trated around the issues of decolonising knowledge. half of the twentieth century. where research for the current publi- cation was initiated and generously encouraged. she was declared a included artists Grada Kilomba. Dmitry Vilensky and national leader and visionary. In 2014.

She is also an independent Programme) of MACBA (Barcelona) and other univer. she had written: La Chira (2003) and Árboles (2006). and how they have been between art and politics in Latin America since the affected by the 2008 crisis and non-state public 1960s. Her research is specialised in the crossroads welfare state institutions. of the Red Conceptualismos del Sur. She also teaches at the Programa de like Ferrocarril Clandestino and the Asociación Estudios Independientes (Independent Studies Sin Papeles de Madrid. Leandro Katz de los Comunes”. and cross-border networks courses. El Siluetazo (2008). she coordinated the exhibitions Desire Rises from Collapse (2011) and Losing the Human Form (2012). She is currently part of Ganemos Madrid and Ahora Traiciones (2007). where she cur. As a curator. researcher of CONICET and Marisa Pérez Colina is a political scientist and politi- professor in Universidad de Buenos Aires. As a play- wright. laboration: Del Di Tella a Tucumán Arde (2000. Amongst her publications. Madrid. since its founda- tion in 2007. researcher on the impact of neo-liberal policies on sities. Precarias a la Deriva and the Agencia de Asuntos rently lectures on graduate and postgraduate Precarios Todas aCien. institution models and institutions of the common. She cal activist with ties to collective projects and expe- received a BA in Literature and a PhD in Arts from riences such as the feminist research-action space the Universidad de Buenos Aires. Roberto Jacoby. and works as a coordinator in the “Fundación El deseo nace del derrumbe (2011). She is an active member. (2013) and Vanguardia y revolución (2014). alone or in col. 2008). both at the Museo Reina Sofía (Madrid). DECOLONISING ARCHIVES Ana Longoni  Marisa Pérez Colina Ana Longoni is a writer. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – DECOLONISING ARCHIVES – 110 .

Graduated from the Complutense University of Madrid. He has par- Ecuadorian government. sented in institutions such as the National Museum. DECOLONISING ARCHIVES Carlos Prieto del Campo Karol Radziszewski Activist in European social movements. He is pub- in accounting and public sector auditing after having lisher and editor-in-chief of DIK Fagazine and founder worked as a civil servant for the Spanish Ministry of of the Queer Archives Institute. Vienna. His work has been pre- New Left Review since 2000. held different management posts in Spain’s public New York. editorial board of L'Internationale Online. Wroclaw sector and was dean of the Quito Institute of Higher Contemporary Museum. Amstelveen. He is Director of the Study ticipated in several international biennales includ- Centre at Museo Reina Sofía and is a member of the ing PERFORMA 13. and has been editor of the Spanish version of social and gender references. Carlos Karol Radziszewski (b. filmmaker and curator. historical. Warsaw. 7th Göteborg Biennial. Gothenburg. Wrocław. culture. His multidisciplinary Economy and Finance between 1989 and 2010. New Museum. Kunsthalle Wien. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – DECOLONISING ARCHIVES – 111 . ing project Cuestiones de antagonismo (1999–2012) Museum of Modern Art. 1980) is a multidisciplinary Prieto del Campo has a PhD in Philosophy from the artist. Museum of Contemporary National Studies (2013–2014) and an adviser to the Art in Krakow and Muzeum Sztuki in Lodz. as well as his archive-based methodol- also an independent editor and activist in the field of ogy. religious. crosses multiple cultural. and is an expert Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw in 2004. New York. director of the publish. He has Art. He is research. Cobra Museum. Zacheta National Gallery of and Prácticas constituyentes since 2013. 4th Prague Biennial and 15th WRO Media Art Biennale.

Schnapp is the founder/faculty director tive bringing together a set of researchers and art. and data collections. The Library Beyond the Book (Harvard tics. With a team composed of scholars. tional modes of practice. and filmmakers. which proposes to establish itself as a recent books include The Electric Information Age platform for common thought and action dealing Book (with Adam Michaels [Princeton Architectural with contemporary relations between art and poli. on the and Arte y disidencia política : Memorias del Taller 4 web. work.  of a set of ‘conceptual practices’ that took place in Digging through dark abundance of media. and Digital Humanities. rial. DECOLONISING ARCHIVES Red Conceptualismos del Sur Jeffrey T. Since its foun. His most and Europe. and artistic investigation. University Press 2014). metaLAB embraces the pro- dation. mate- Latin America since the early 1960s. LAB projects manifest as experiments in publication. ing on the organisation and constitution of some of writers. developers. making. meta- the most important artists’ archives in South America. Jeffrey T. By combining tradi- Rojo (2015). The latest publications include Desinventario (2015) pedagogy. of metaLAB (at) Harvard and faculty co-director of ists scattered around various parts of Latin America the Berkman Center for Internet and Society. designers. It was founded in 2007 by a group of research. Press 2012]). the network has been involved in a long-term cessual artifacts buried within the lives of digital and reflection on the uses and politics of archives. an ers concerned with the need to intervene politically essay on cultural heritage issues published in Italian in the neutralisation processes of critical potential in the Meet the Media Guru series. and curation showcased in print. metaLAB research infuses scholarship with the spirit of hacking. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – DECOLONISING ARCHIVES – 112 . and in exhibited spaces. Schnapp Red Conceptualismos del Sur is a collective initia. physical objects.

who are fighting to reduce inequal- ity and apply democracy to all residents of the state. have artist Rumanzi Canon. Andrea Stultiens studied photography on BFA. DECOLONISING ARCHIVES Rona Sela Andrea Stultiens Dr. by various means History In Progress Uganda together with Ugandan of force. Her work focuses on the visual represen. She has curated numerous exhibitions and published many books. In 2011 she initiated the archival platform One of her projects exposes how.  become a large reservoir of knowledge about the Palestinians. Israel looted Palestinian treasurers. catalogues and articles on these topics. control the visual sphere of both Israelis deals with images of Africa in general and Uganda in and Palestinians for ideological/national objectives. She when sequencing and contextualising photographs examines how the Zionist/Israeli systems. as one from a specific cultural historical context for vari- component in a huge mechanism of domination and ous audiences. Since 2007 most of Stultiens’ work conquest. date at Leiden University. Her recent work deals with the develop- ment of Palestinian civil society – among them artists and activists . Her interest is not in the tation of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and their individual image. on human rights issues cal approach towards the tacit narratives that appear and the role of the archive in zones of conflict. Rona Sela is a curator. researcher of visual his. but in the development of a criti- political and social aspects. giving Israel control over their history and culture. particular. L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – DECOLONISING ARCHIVES – 113 . MFA tory and lecturer at Tel Aviv University and Shenkar and MA level in the Netherlands and is a PhD candi- College.

art. architecture. She is currently finishing a PhD at the (Edmonton) in Treaty Six Territory in Alberta. She is a political engagement that have as one of their main tenure-track lecturer in Anthropology at Carleton characteristics. She also Her research focuses on art practices from the twen. DECOLONISING ARCHIVES Mabel Tapia Zoe Todd Mabel Tapia is an independent researcher (Buenos Zoe Todd (Métis) is from Amiskwaciwâskahikan Aires. 2014). Processes of legitimation. decol- (EHESS) and the Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA). onisation and healing in urban contexts. As editor. École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales She writes about Indigeneity. colonialism and tieth century involving the use of archives. Canada and a PhD Candidate in function. studies human-animal relations. Really Useful Knowledge (2014) and Desinventario (2015). L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – DECOLONISING ARCHIVES – 114 . valorisation Social Anthropology at Aberdeen University. She is member and 2015 coordinator of the Red Conceptualismos del Sur platform. she has coordi- nated the following: Losing human form. A seismic image of the ’80s in Latin America (2013 . environmental change in northern Canada. Paris). to the phenomenon of reification within new para- digms in both artistic and socio-economic fields are part of her investigation. the deactivation of the aesthetic University in Ottawa. activism. Canada. She was and visibility of contemporary practices in relation a 2011 Pierre Elliott Trudeau Foundation Scholar.

org PUBLICATION DATE GRAPHIC DESIGN 2016 Project Projects EDITORIAL BOARD LAYOUT Nick Aikens Antoine Bertaudière With the support of the Culture Sara Buraya Boned Programme of European Union Başak Çaka WEBSITE DEVELOPMENT Diana Franssen Systemantics Nav Haq Sònia López GENERAL COORDINATOR November Paynter KASK / School of Arts of Nataša Petrešin-Bachelez University College Ghent Alicia Pinteño Carlos Prieto del Campo PROJECT SUPPORT Steven ten Thije SALT Adela Železnik PROJECT LEADER GUEST CO-EDITOR L’Internationale Rado Ištok MANAGING EDITOR Nataša Petrešin-Bachelez COPY EDITOR OF THE ENGLISH TEXTS IN THE RESEARCH SECTION Caroline Hancock L’INTERNATIONALE ONLINE – DECOLONISING MUSEUMS – 115 .org internationaleonline.Decolonising Archives eBook publication PUBLISHED BY CONTACT L’Internationale Online natasa.internationaleonline.petresin@ www.

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