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ADVENGMAT

Vol. 18 – No. 11
November, 2016

Strategically architected elastomeric materials

CONTENTS
CONTENTS
constrained near critical points yield extreme
impact energy absorption for structures in
which they are embedded. This image includes
high-speed video stills of drop experiments con-
ducted to quantify the impact energy attenua-
tion provided by specimens for the shells into
which the specimens are inserted. Architected
and strategically constrained specimens (bot-
tom row) more greatly suppress impact energy
than the bulk material itself (top row). Further
details can be found in the article by Ryan
Harne and co-workers on page 1871.

Review

Three Decades of Auxetic materials possess an interest-
ing property of negative Poisson’s ratio.
Auxetics Research –
By virtue of this negative Poisson’s ratio,
Materials with Negative several other mechanical properties can be
Poisson’s Ratio: A Review enhanced. This review presents briefly the
current state of the art and progress in the
K. K. Saxena,* R. Das, E. P. Calius auxetics research made in the past three
decades. The review attractively covers
Adv. Eng. Mater. 2016, 18, 1847–1870 most of the aspects of auxetic materials
such as classification, structure, proper-
ties, applications, design, and modeling.

Communications

Resilience to Impact by Strategically architected elastomeric
materials constrained near critical points
Extreme Energy Absorption yield extreme impact energy absorption
in Lightweight Material for structures in which they are embed-
Inclusions Constrained ded. The concepts and model elastomer
Near a Critical Point architecture devised here motivate ideas
for reusable protective structures and
J. Bishop, Q. Dai, Y. Song, R. L. Harne* shock-resilient systems.

Adv. Eng. Mater. 2016, 18, 1871–1876

Tailoring Toughness and The high strength of ceramic materials
scatters with the distribution of natural
Mechanical Reliability by
defects and design limits are often far be-
Controlled Defects: Nature- yond experimentally determined values.
Inspired Composite Lami- This issue can be resolved by controlled
nates of Laser-Perforated defect generation in laminates, leading to
composites that are as strong as monolithic
Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia ceramics but significantly more reliable
and damage tolerant.
S. Behr, A. Köllner, G. A. Schneider*

Adv. Eng. Mater. 2016, 18, 1877–1883

ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATERIALS 2016, 18, No. 11 © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim http://www.aem-journal.com 1843

Eng. The relationship between input Nanotube Buckypaper current and composite temperature is Hybrid Composites explored. R.* R. No Fabrication wetting (contact angles <90⬚) occurs at testing conditions. E. for Metal Matrix Composite fied in terms of the contact angle. the eutectic compounds precipitat. Singer time. Mater. 11 . TiB2) Borides by Commercial are investigated at typical aluminum Aluminum Alloys – A Basis casting temperatures and are quanti. B4C. J. AlB2 the contact angle decreases over N. Nowak. MgB2. 18. Cui* ing along grain boundaries. Liang fabricate multifunctional composite. Mater. G. Alloys tered at 950 and 975 ⬚C can obtain the ultra-fine micro-structure and avoid W. 2016. Hao. A. Influence of Structural Defects distributed both randomly and in clusters. Volume18 Volume 16(2016) (2014)No. The composite electrical conductivity decreased about 30% for an 8% fraction of defects.aem-journal. 2016. No. The composite electrical conductivity with different G. Eng. Eng. Ploetz. KGaA. 18. The influence of CNT defects. Eng. 1906–1912 1844 http://www. CaB6. Tapia. F. No. Seidel. fractions of CNT defects and orienta. 18. Adv. 1884–1888 Full Papers Fe–Ni–P ternary alloys are fabricated Preparation and Properties of using core–shell structured Fe–Ni–P composite powder at lower sinter- High Strength Fe–Ni–P Ternary ing temperature. German. 18. F. Fully cured samples show low void content and good storage Using Electrical Current modulus. Olevsky. 2016. Jiang. R. G. Wei. R. Mater. Chai. The specimens sin. Lohmueller. 1889–1896 beneficial to the mechanical properties of alloys. A. In situ curing is demon- strated as energy saving technique to N. Wettability of Low Weight CONTENTS uid aluminum on solid boron com- pounds (AlB2. Adv.com © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. D. Results illustrate that this micro-structure is Adv. Hybrid composite including carbon In Situ Curing and Out- nanotube sheets and carbon fiber prepregs is in situ cured by applying of-Autoclave of Interply electrical current to carbon nanotube Carbon Fiber/Carbon layers. Carbon Nanotubes and Their tigated considering covalent bonds Polymer Composites as electrical resistors. Park. Sobczak. X. Avilés* tions are modeled through the com- posite cylinder and Mori–Tanaka’s Adv. 1897–1905 methods. Domínguez-Rodríguez. 2016. G. but for B4C and S. A. Weinheim ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATERIALS 2016.11 6 Isothermal wetting kinetics of liq. A.* R. Nguyen. Mater. M. on the electrical conductivity on the Electrical Properties of of CNT/polymer composites is inves. 18.

Weinheim http://www. Lavernia* age behavior. Epishin* Adv.9 MPam1/2. Jia. Sintering Aid The TiB2 ceramic powder blended with 5 wt% metallic glass sintering aid C.aem-journal. P. F.and sized from the highly exothermic mixtures Binary Silicides by the of MoO3. 18. Ma. Alymov. Skachkova. 1930–1935 Tough TiB2-Based Ceramic The authors report on the formation of toughened TiB2-based ceramic composites Composites Using Metallic using metallic glass powder as sintering Glass Powder as the aid fabricated by spark plasma sintering. Miloserdov.Volume 16 18 (2014) 6 (2016) No. J. M. 1913–1920 12 times higher than Cr15. Tang.* Y. 11 Preparation and Interface Ceramic particle preforms are synthe- CONTENTS sized by vacuum sintering reaction Investigation of Fe/Al2O3P between Al2O3 particles and Ni–Ti com- Composite Activated by Ni plex powders. 1921–1929 Synthesis of Molybdenum Mono. The preforms sintered by S. Improved Properties of The carbon nanotubes/fluoridated hy- droxyapatite (CNTs/FHA) composite is Carbon Nanotube. and antibacterial prop- Antibacterial Activity erties as compared with pure HA materials. 18. 2016. Mater. Huan. 2016. L. The fabricated TiB2-based ceramic composites have high fracture Adv. Mater. Chen. Nolze. 18. R. A. Yang. Y. Eng. exhibits an interesting sigmoidal shrink- F. Eng. 18.and binary silicides Mo–Nb–Si with different ratios of Nb/Mo are synthe- and Niobium Mono.* Y. Mater. 2016. G. 2016. Fu. Y. E. 1936–1943 toughness of 9. and mechanical properties. Bai. Mater. The results pro- vide a novel pathway for fabrication of high-performance ceramic composites. Eng. No. KGaA. L.-L. Si. N. The composite shows improved Chemical Stability. nology. Gao. fabricated by an in situ chemical synthesis Fluorhydroxyapatite method and spark plasma sintering tech- Biocomposite: Mechanical. and the three-body abrasive wear resistance of composite is over Adv. Bai.-L. Nb2O5. M. Then the Cr15 matrix com- and Ti posite is fabricated by infiltration cast- ing process. Zheng Adv. in vitro bioactivity. Al2O3 and Ni–Ti have high compressive Q. ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATERIALS 2016. Yukhvid. Eng. and Al by the method Method of SHS-Metallurgy of SHS-metallurgy. chemical stability.com 1845 . Z. Y. X. V. Gorshkov. V. 11 © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.-B. 18. Yao.* W. Y. Zheng strength. Li.

Maeder Adv. Ni2 Si. Mechanical Properties of The brazing temperature and hold. Y. K. 2016.5Ni (wt%) foil as brazing filler. 1967–1973 1846 http://www. Eng.aem-journal. Volume18 Volume 16(2016) (2014)No. K. higher creep deformation compared M.* K. 18. Koller. A.* X. Pradeilles. G. Kishore Babu. AE activity during heating (up to 1473 and 1632 K) Means and cooling stages is recorded. 18. and Ni31Si12 are formed in M. 1944–1951 is beneficial to the oxidation resistance. Liu. J. Y. Ma. 2D–SiCf/SiC and Hastelloy N ing time have a great influence on the Joints Using 82. Mater. to unmilled samples.* A.5 vol% nanoparticles. and AlMg5 pow- and Impression Creep ders milled with 0.5 vol% of Al2O3 Properties of AlMg5–0. Zhou. Zhou. F.5Au–17. Lu Adv. Eng. For base Different Zones of Linear metal. P. absorption of more oxygen due Friction Welded Ti2AlNb Alloy to higher amount of ␣2 phase leads to the thickest oxidation scale. Gao.com © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. while the X. sintered via spark plasma sintering Thermomechanical Behavior method are investigated. Weinheim ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATERIALS 2016. Eng. Chotard* Adv. Mechanical.5Au– 17. N. AlOgab. X. 1952–1957 This study reports the creep behav. ior of hot pressed unmilled AlMg5. Dosi. Kozak. K. Oxidation Behavior of Three CONTENTS ferent zones of linear friction welded Ti2AlNb alloy is studied. 2016.* brazed seams. 11 . Mater. W. T.* T. Ultrasound of Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC Ceramics pulse echography permitted to follow Elaborated by Spark Plasma the evolution of Young’s modulus up Sintering Using Ultrasonic to 1623 K. 18. along with the formation of AlNbO4 phase after long exposure in air. Huai. H. Xia. The nanocomposite Al2O3 Nanocomposites AlMg5–0. Li. Yang. Talari. Mater. Q. Mater. Q. Additionally.11 6 The oxidation behavior of three dif. Leparoux. Wu preferential formation of Al2O3 for joint Adv. Eng. 18. milled AlMg5.5Al2O3 shows superior room temperature tensile properties and M. the oxidation behavior of the three zones has become similar. No. R. 18. X. No. Antou. X. Nanocrystalline graphite.* N.5Ni microstructure and shear strength of Brazing Filler the joints.* H. Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC. 2016. 1958–1966 SiCf/SiC composites are joined to Microstructural Evolution and Hastelloy N alloys using 82. 2016. The thermomechanical properties of Characterization of two MAX Phases. Kallip. Chen. Xie. However. Microstructure. E. KGaA.

No. a non-dimensional provisional U. or everyday engineering structures including aircraft.[13.and service-related head been induced in composite matter using ferroelectric[16] and injuries[1] has directed significant effort to develop new temperature[17. Left unabated. J. resilient protective structures.DOI: 10. Dai. Bishop.com 1871 . H. acknowledges support from the transverse beam deflection w. respecting University (OSU). impact energy can result in extraordinary virtue of phase transformation phenomena and the associ- harm to engineered systems and the delicate objects contained ated hysteretic damping effects.[12. L. Q.[3. “trap. mechanical metamaterials incorporating two. The concepts articulated here may find broad application for reusable.4] bring the ideas from composite matter closer to practical These motivations have fueled research communities for embodiments by virtue of innovative designs and decades. consider an example E-mail: harne. 11 © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. Quanqi Dai.1002/adem. D. Harne. automo. and civil infrastructure. elastomeric. which ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATERIALS 2016. Using the principle. showing that macroscopic stiffness material systems for helmets with unprecedented impact and damping are controllable across orders of magnitude mitigation capabilities[2] that may serve as models for a wider with respect to the bulk composite properties in absence class of energy-absorbing materials. to name a few. balance of high damping and high stiffness.[20–24] Such metamaterials and cargo. Y. L.S. a material architecture and constraint mechanism are studied that exemplify the theory.3@osu. Weinheim wileyonlinelibrary. in agreement with the prior developments in [*] Dr. Recent attention on sports.18] tuning. the use of negative stiffness has been negative stiffness and phase transformations indeed demon- postulated to engender significant energy absorption by strate significant energy dissipation. Yu Song and Ryan L. The are not the preferred tools to leverage for extreme energy Ohio State University.[12–15] Such transitions have therein. A negative stiffness.201600501 COMMUNICATION Resilience to Impact by Extreme Energy Absorption in Lightweight Material Inclusions Constrained Near a Critical Point** By Justin Bishop. USA dissipation. Harne* This work investigates a model design for lightweight.[25] For described in this report. Song studies on two-phase matter. Guided by a computational model and analysis. including for impact absorption.or multi-state biles.edu from structural mechanics. 18. patent (62/302. particularly to devise materials with the ideal implementations. Yet. The inclusions are sustained near a critical point where damping is theoretically increased without bound. the lowest. and better promote structural integrity. (Supporting Information is available variation in the compressive force. architected material inclusions that cultivate significant impact energy dissipation in structures. R. The fundamental generalized [**] R. numerous specimens are fabricated and experimentation verifies that engineered material inclusions constrained nearer to critical points most effectively suppress structural dynamics following impact. linear online from Wiley Online Library or from the author).[5–11] Among the These more practical metamaterial concepts that exploit investigations. Columbus. p / P. A compressive force P along the beam axis. eigenfrequency vn vanishes at the critical point p ¼ 1.” enough to withstand unexpected blast or impact loading or rectify vibration and wave energy via topological without compromising the safety and integrity of occupants transitions among stable equilibria. To exemplify this reasoning.19] the transitions themselves Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.19] Designs for architected. Beyond head injuries. minimize transmitted impulsive force. KGaA. Q.405) has been filed on ideas parameter p is proportional to this force. acknowledges start-up funds from the Department of coordinate of (bending) motion for a simply supported beam Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at The Ohio State is denoted w. Ohio 43210. is introduced by applying a OSU College of Engineering Honors Research Scholarship. Figure 1a. must be resilient transformations have also been presented to absorb. of tuning.

This geometric constraint yields a concepts. the inherent viscous dissipation of radially Figure 1b and c and see Supporting Information. 18.4] and by its valuable characterization of urations. the damping approaches.[26] Analogous phenomena to this capitalize on a passive. (b) Material inclusion without constraint. Weinheim ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATERIALS 2016. COMMUNICATION Fig. we investigate this hypothesis by probing a eigenfrequency of the inclusion vanishes in the ideal case. architected elastomer material inclusion. diffusion.[23] and active removed p ¼ 0 or when the beam is post-buckled p > 1. amplified in consequence to the critical point constraint gies for design and implementation of such inclusions. geometric constraint applied to an example in mechanics are elsewhere observed in ecology.30–32] are candidate methods for imperfections and system asymmetries reduce the maximum sustaining material systems near phase transitions. and conclusions. finance. “critical slowing down”[27. 11 . constraint. we provided by the shell. Concepts and material design methods. Guided by arrayed beam bending is the baseline damping capacity that is computational and analytical models that illuminate strate. We growth of damping. and torsional and radial motions of the elastomeric core provide architected material inclusion that is constrained on the verge the lumped mass displacements to bend the beams under this of buckling when embedded within a structural system. such inclusions. (e) FE model results of lowest eigenfrequency sensitivity to parameter change. No. radially arrayed beam geometry./Resilience to Impact by Extreme Energy Absorption. such that the lowest linear In this report. This inclusion architecture was recently investigated by the straints on the effectiveness of suppressing impact energy and authors in a different context of vibroacoustic wave trapping transmitted impulse to the structure within which the and attenuation within poroelastic media that served as hosts to architected material inclusion is embedded and constrained.[20–24] The following paragraphs describe our for values of p near to the critical point p  1. respectively. the black bars are 10 mm. our exami- where b and m are. Thus. (d) Inclusion design parameters considered in FE model. for the radially arrayed beams.[33] In contrast dynamics.[34] By virtue of the “hidden” degree-of-freedom The focus on impact energy dissipation capability in this (i. the solid curve amplitude-dependence of contemporary nonlinear systems plotted in Figure 1a presents this dependence when normal. a constrained inclusion).com © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. Figure 1b and c. In (e) inset photographs.. here a cylindrical structure to-be-dampened the most effective strategy by which to leverage phase constrains the radially arrayed beams of the elastomer transitions in architected material systems for extreme inclusion by virtue of the fact that the inclusion outer damping properties is not to trigger post-buckling behaviors diameter Do is slightly greater than the inner diameter Di of like the recent elastomeric and mechanical metamaterial the cylindrical shell. The model realization of a lightly damped.[2] In addition. Building from such reasoning. the inherent material viscous nation of linear-like damping properties aims to challenge the damping and the mass associated with the generalized potential for critical point constraints to facilitate robust coordinate w. findings. By virtue of this definition. elastomeric.aem-journal.e. the damping ratio z impact energy absorption that may be free from the increases without bound at the critical point. The physiology. 1.28] which is indicative of enhanced outlined in the dashed line in Figure 1b and c. while multi-field tuning[16. (f) Analytical prediction of time for a structure to return to rest after being acted upon by an initial energy for various inclusions having different load parameters p. applications[3. (a) Illustration of critical point in an axially compressed beam resulting in unbounded damping ratio.(p  1) and post-buckled (p > 1) beam config. . experimentally characterize the roles of critical point con. ratio z is orders of magnitude greater than when the force is Compressive stress. J. The unshaded area denotes post-buckled inclusions while the horizon between shaded and unshaded areas is the range of parameters promoting the critical point: the effective condition that p ¼ 1. separates pre. and other sciences as reported by a rotationally symmetric. . considered to promote exceptional energy damping and ized against the damping ratio without the force z0 . and (c) under constraint within the cylindrical structure. with the FE model geometry shown at the left. Bishop et al.[29] geometric constraint. the poroelastic metamaterials study is motivated by its prime importance in numerous exhibited large vibration and wave damping particularly in 1872 http://www. The damping ratio is determined by z ¼ b=ð2m vn Þ broadband damping performance.17. In general. we hypothesize that to the prior work. is inspired “damping” effects acting on the ordinary time scale of by recent work on post-buckled metamaterials.[20–24] but is instead a strategy to sustain the strategic compressive stress near the critical point of buckling engineered materials at the critical point itself. KGaA.

our corresponding analysis of a simplified two-dimensional system verifies that impact energy is most effectively suppressed in a structure that contains an inclusion constrained at the critical point p ¼ 1 such that the inclusion natural frequency vanishes. see Supporting Information. restitution (COR ¼ vo =vi . additional evidence that elimination of restoring forces relatively amplifies the dissipative influences on the system thick impact plate measures the transmitted impulse received dynamics. the open-to-closed angle ratio a=b and the diameter ratio Do =Di of the symmetric unit cell are key non-dimensional parameters by which the inclusions are tuned near to the critical point where the lowest eigenfrequency becomes zero. here we first utilize the previously developed. This is elastomer and a (d) material inclusion. 18. Figure 2a presents the mens. with vo and vi being outgoing and To first evaluate the damping performance of the incoming speeds. No. 2. A force transducer below the elastomer reduces COR to approximately 60% of the shell ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATERIALS 2016. Figure 1e.J. which can give rise to buckling evident by inclusion rotation. Indeed.(p < 1) or post-buckled (p > 1) inclusions. and shell with material inclusion constrained in the vicinity of the critical point.aem-journal. Evidence of impact energy attenuation from drop experiments. The analytical model predicts. shell with bulk elastomer. ./Resilience to Impact by Extreme Energy Absorption. the critical point p ¼ 1 is the horizon between shaded and unshaded areas. since they exhibit the smallest values of fundamental eigenfrequency according to the FE model results. suppression. A laser sensor of impact events. . 11 © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. Focusing strictly and more closely in this report at the broadband damping enhancement provided to the shell structural dynamics by the constrained inclusion itself. We report on results obtained using the representative cases shown as the data markers in the contour. and COR data from the drop experiments. For this inclusion topology.[34] We fabricate and prepare inclusions across the design space shown in the contour plot of Figure 1e (and see Video File 1). (b) Representative time series for the three specimens returns to rest in several orders-of-magnitude less time than when dropped from 471 [mm] and video snap-shots for specimens with (c) bulk either pre. From the new FE model results shown in Figure 1e. uncovering a substantially larger design space for critical point constraints than that identified in the previous work. (points) and standard deviations (bars) of measurements for drop tests taken for the the structure with an inclusion nearest the critical point (p  1) cylindrical shell. that following an initial impulsive energy input. The aim of our experimental efforts is to assess Hunt and Crossley[35] observed that the coefficient of the efficacy of such seemingly simple theory. Bishop et al. Large a=b produces slender radially arrayed beams. KGaA. as depicted by the FE model geometry in Figure 1d. COMMUNICATION resonance frequency bands associated with the poroelastic media stiffness and the mass and geometry of the inclusion and shell. Weinheim http://www. According to our hypothesis the inclusions labeled B and D will be those with the greatest energy dissipation capabilities. the introduction of bulk and outgoing specimen speeds.[33. The high mean COR for the aluminum shell measures specimen displacement in a sufficiently long time is evidence of its low damping and inherent inability to absorb duration around impact to accurately determine incoming impact energy.34] shown for specimens E and F. seen Fig. The FE model assesses the parametric influences that tailor the lowest eigenfrequency and cause it to vanish at the ideal critical point. (a) Means in Figure 1f. represent larger energy absorption. The inset photographs of Figure 1e exemplify the influences of change in the non-dimensional parameters.com 1873 . additional model details are given in the Supporting Information. respectively) could serve as a useful proxy architected material inclusions when compared to baselines. plane strain finite element (FE) model[34] of the architected elastomer inclusion to derive new insights. for impact energy attenuation. Comparatively. providing a potent means for impact energy by the cylindrical structure. where smaller COR values we conduct drop experiments using cylindrical shell speci. see the insets of Video File 2 provide representative displacement time series Figure 2a and b and Supporting Information. while Figure 2b–d and specimens with architected inclusions. shell specimens filled with bulk elastomer.

specimen E. E. B. mitigating impact energy to protect structures relative performance is predicted according to the basis of and delicate contents therein requires that impulsive achieving maximal energy dissipation for inclusions nearest forces/stresses transmitted to the bodies are minimized. the acceleration imparted to the shell by the impact force is approximately 70% less for the specimens that utilize the material inclusions compared to the shell on its own. The inset photographs force for the cylindrical shell itself and with the bulk of Figure 1e show the specimens and how the post-buckled elastomer. The specimen utilizing bulk elastomer results in peak impact forces approximately 150% greater than the rest of cases considered. KGaA. post-buckled. The collective also 33% less massive than the bulk elastomer. but the diameter this range. Thus. energy because the mean COR values are.e.2] to the point of buckling. exhibits the material design concept near the phase transition is more most significant suppression of impact energy by virtue of the robust to changing input energy amplitudes (i. Enhanced impact energy attenuation by material inclusion design near the architected inclusions undergo smaller impact forces. the structural specimens with Fig. COR values are provided for each specimen at the top of the respective sub-figure. Additional experimentation on a broader range of specimens 1874 http://www. E. Moreover. the COR does not significantly specimens with material inclusions that cover the parameter increase for the range of drop heights examined.76%) across the five heights from which property) in accordance with the principle and theory the specimens are dropped. Consequently. B. As revealed by our disadvantage that the net specimen mass is doubled. Summarizing the findings. although it is 121% of the mean mass of the specimens that possess constrained material inclusions.2% compared to the inclusion D constrained nearest to embedded. respectively. which is in agreement with the premise upon dance with the analytical prediction given in Figure 1f.. in- critical point. In measurements. sustained nearest to the critical point. and for (b) specimen group D.com © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. 11 . . which. and C. which this research bases its motivation to achieve the most To assess the efficacy of the hypothesis grounding our effective attenuation of impact energy. a linear-like smallest mean COR (8. Second. Within statistical measures. J. the increased energy dissipation is insufficient to inhibit all rebound.1%) and specimen C (mean COR 9. the relevant metric possess inclusions on the verge of buckling. Such Finally. the architected material inclusion reduces inclusions E and F are inferior at suppressing the impact the COR to approximately 20% or less of the shell baseline. alongside measurements for (a) specimen group A. less than.[20–22] the damping capability realized by our specimen B. This verifies that strategic constraint near a the structural dynamics upon impact than the less buckled critical point can introduce considerable damping. Bishop et al. Figure 2c. rotation of the inclusion is evident by the increase in a=b from COMMUNICATION baseline. and more rapid elimination of the diameter ratio and for specimens (b) D. the architected material inclusions all result in similar peak impulsive forces according to the height at which the specimens are dropped.[1. respectively. this compares to specimen A underlying the phenomenon./Resilience to Impact by Extreme Energy Absorption. COR measurements are shown for specimens (a) A. The overall mean structural dynamics via the constraint near the critical point. Figure 3b. E. (mean COR 10. In Figure 3b. although space shown in Figure 1e are presented in Figure 3. the specimens with post-buckled striking contrast. we compare the COR minimizing this stress also promotes reusability of a measurements for specimens D. and to minimize is the impact force measured beneath the impact still further post-buckled. These impulsive forces are compara- ble to those measured for the shell itself. Weinheim ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATERIALS 2016. by change of the angle ratio a=b plate. the material inclusion is the critical point with mean COR 7.73%). . protective structure. and then exacerbated from E to F. C that vary creased energy attenuation.87%. 3. Yet. Figure 4 presents the measurements of peak impact with nearly identical diameter ratios.aem-journal. considering approach. F that vary angle ratio.8 times across A. respectively. Specimens the impulsive energy increases by more than 5. as a function of the drop height. with less evidence first verifies that the critical point is the origin of mass the material inclusion absorbs substantially greater extreme impact energy absorption.2 thus preserving the integrity of the structure into which it is and 12. No. In our investigation. Importantly. 18. and C have the same angle ratio a=b. Means (points) and standard deviations (bars) are shown. and F. Figure 2d. B. and beyond phase transitions associated with triggering required that required to achieve the critical point. very near. This indicates that the bulk elastomer does not provide the same extent of impulsive force suppression per mass that the material inclusions empower by virtue of the strategic architecture and constraint. 10. When compared to metamaterials that exploit ratios Do =Di are. Figure 3a shows that thresholds. while the bulk elastomer has the D to E. and F. the results energy and preserves the structure from excessive rebound demonstrate that specimen F is less effective at damping (see Video File 2). despite the fact that the specimens with constrained inclusions are approximately 70% more massive than the shell alone. in accor. the measurements from drop experiments using both specimen groups.

Exp. shown in [16] C. 246. Neurol. via [9] C. C. T. Arruda. This results in the opportunity that Struct. Andreassen. In applications where impact energy must be rapidly absorbed by a resilient structure to prevent harm to delicate cargo and ensure long-term structural integrity.[20] Contrasting such approach. Solids 2015. Bertoldi. Mech. 2004. J. Wojnar. energy may be undesirably returned to the system. Yeom. R. impact energy is not linearly scalable to ever-increasing 113. Vehicle of the drop height. M. 58. Int. Kochmann. N. ACS Nano 2014. Southfield. 2013. McShane. R. Neverthe. J. Lakes. S. Sain. Cheung. 2830. 2015. P. In summary. A FE model guidance to select appropriate inclusion material 2004. J. M. B. 52.[25] the [13] D. and F. M. Mater. Fileta. J. D. 055502. 1322. M. our premise. P. the contribution of dissipative forces is maximized simulta. Compos. Meza. J. E. 620. 36. 63. Stone. Science 2014. “snap-back” events. M. Sigmund. Mankame. J. Rev. Raney. A. concept described here is extremely repeatable (see Video [14] W. Mahmood. Phys. and architected topology that promote the required con. Impact force from drop experiments. Pingle. Solids Struct. Sci. 341. 35./Resilience to Impact by Extreme Energy Absorption. new conclusions regarding the [5] M. transformations in metamaterial systems. Science straints and grant the needed energy dissipation.. and the shell with bulk elastomer to measurements for specimens (a) A. M. 105. 98. Impact Eng. 162912. 228. Mertz. ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATERIALS 2016. R. J. deformation to the shell. 98. J. . 30. T. 1342. Shoultz. Kochmann. W. Lakes. our ideal O. B. Greer. using the design approach established here. J. 136 [mm] to 5. 50. American Iron and Steel Institute. 2014. Eng. G. Comparison of specimens with shell alone [3] P. Our results draw important. B. D. 4. J. Lakes. N. A. B. S. 2012. Meaud. 11 © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. Wismans. Supplementary Information).aem-journal. we conclude that deploying a material on the verge of a critical transition provides the most effective and expedited elimina- tion of energy. transformations[20] and key roles of initial conditions. C. A. as a function H. T. Solids and release of energy. Lewis. COMMUNICATION attenuation of impact energy for the structures in which such inclusions are applied. Drugan. V. 175503. J. KGaA. Mater. Wang. K. Mech. is identifying promising approaches to leverage phase G. N. J. D. J. S. Kang. Zavattieri. 2015. Res. I. 2016 Manuscript Received: July 12. Kotov. Johnson. Fang. As shown by our model specimens. In addition. Mater. E. M. Wang. van Hecke. and C. 51. J. Kochmann. Jaglinski. 2007. our approach to elastomeric material [21] D. Figure 1f and Supporting Information. [11] K. File 2). 41. Y. . D. A. Restrepo. B. C. S. and the results are consistent with [20] S. Hulbert. J. N. Waas. Lett. Int. Extreme architecture and constraint achieves significant and rapid Mech. 315.8 [m] (see Video File 3) that do not cause plastic 4101. Chou. M. On the other hand. Nature 2001. we have conducted drop experiments beginning from [19] F. A. Kochmann. R. the concept is easy to manufacture and assemble. H. A. B. systems as means to cultivate extreme impact energy 1283. King. 1995. D. Xue. 2016 Manuscript Revised: August 11. Article first published online: August 29. E. Hulbert. and (b). S. Science 2013. S. D. M. Sain. Lett. Crashworthiness and Occupant Protection. Int. S. unlike the sensitivities of activating phase 410. Phys.[20–24] the imple. 85. J. Brodt. Fleck. M. A. Fritzen. C. H. Candido.J. 2016 [1] V. Bersie. B. D. Int. Ludwigson. Park. 1219. 370. M. Our analysis anticipates that the rapid suppression of [15] B. S. J. 2014. 8. 2007. 1823. 4. Coulais. E. 2014. less. 565. Adv. Arruda. H. 27. C. energy inputs for the ideally constrained inclusions. J. Thouless. Jensen. material inclusions exhibit purely resistive impedance since [10] L. Solids 2014. [2] T. S. [18] T. Phys. D. mentation of a phase transition necessarily requires storage [8] J. S. S. Phys. Shan. Appl. Smith. Andreasen. one may use the [17] Y. Khalil. D. Rahimzadeh. Du Bois. A. M. No. Solids Struct. le Graverend. E. S. Commun. The idea is clearly extensible to other inclusion designs and structural implementations. J. Although recent research [7] J. Phys. W. i. Mech. Hart. 4296.com 1875 . Lett. R. 2013. Deshpande. Lett. Hutchinson. 345. neously as restoring forces are minimized. Ma. C. 3468. 2014. Rev. use of critical points of transition in engineered material [6] Z. Fig. Waas. Weinheim http://www. 18. Lakes. Stewart. F. Gershenfeld. Michigan 2004. Means (points) and standard deviations (bars) are shown. D. Meaud. Wang. and constraint configurations corroborates such findings (see [4] G. A. absorption for resilient structures.e. Z. F. T. Lee. R. Bishop et al. Das.[26] [12] R. L. 49. 29. Florijn.

C. R. R. V. Des. F. Q. Wiebe.aem-journal. Bertoldi. Carpenter./Resilience to Impact by Extreme Energy Absorption. No. J. van Nes.1016/j. Song. Int. Whitesides. . 1. van Nes. 6. 1876 http://www. J. R. J. M. 21. 113. C. W. Phys. Soc. F. R. D.com © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. 2016. Weaver. E. Appl. [31] K. Rietkerk. R. Mech. van de Leemput. Science 2012. N. M. 78. T. M.eml. R. W. Held. 021402. 2013. Bascompte. G. Wu. L. [27] M. Bishop et al. [29] S. Mullin. doi: 10. Cambridge University Press. E. S. A. A. Brovkin. R. Levin. Harne. J. Chen. L. Funct. 2016. C.017 [28] M. Lett. E. Mech. E. K. 2014. [34] R. 56–57. M. S. N. Adv. van de Koppel. Scheffer. Vandermeer. Scheffer. R. Rev. 371. Han. Qu. [35] K.05. Tipton. . Solids Struct. Haberman. 4935. S. 244501. Vibration of Axially Loaded Structures. 24. Nature 2009. Y. Klatt. Brock. Bertoldi. Wang. Lett. Rev. S. Jin. Daraio. Mater. 18. KGaA. 2016. C. Extreme Mech. P. Schaeffer. [23] R. J. Harne. 193. 2016. Dai. [24] N. Chong. Z. 138. C. Wang. 469. A 2013. Kovar. R. A [25] L. J. Shan. Ruzzene. H. Bertoldi. 338. I. 344. K. Bascompte. Rapid Prototyping J. M. J. Sugihara. G. H. Proc. 461. Kang. J. Weinheim ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATERIALS 2016. Shian. T. 53. 2014. 20130111. 11 . 116. 014301. K. [32] M. J.2016. S. S. Pascual. 2015. S. M. H. Lett. M. C. Singh. Arrieta. Trans. V. Cambridge 2007. V. Wang. [33] P. W. Nadkarni. Dakos. COMMUNICATION [22] D. Crossley. Hunt. Seepersad. Kochmann. M. Phys. Lett. Carpenter. F. Brock. Casadei. [26] L. K. V. 20120426. Yang. 440. [30] D. A. 42. Lenton. D. E. 2015. Virgin. Correa. Dakos. H. Martinez. Extreme Mech. L. Z. H. Soc. Cortes. Virgin. T. 1975. Philos. Shan. Suo.

the primary shell and inclusion dynamic responses may be modeled as a two degree-of-freedom (DOF) system. Submitted to Supporting Information for Adv. is associated with large 1 . here referred to as the "inclusion response". and Ryan L. DOI: 10. according to a primary generalized coordinate of motion x . Yu Song. k3 are the linear and nonlinear stiffnesses of the material inclusion. and b2 is the inherent viscous damping constant associated with the response v . the nonlinear stiffness k3 is associated with large displacements from an equilibrium and. The effective mass m2 is likewise determined for the fundamental oscillation response v of the material inclusion.201600501 Title: Resilience to Impact by Extreme Energy Absorption in Lightweight Material Inclusions Constrained near a Critical Point Authors: Justin Bishop. Mater. The nonlinear stiffness k3 must be accounted for because as the linear stiffness vanishes. here referred to as the "structure response". Thus. k2  0 . finite applied force would induce infinite inclusion response v in the absence of other restoring potentials. The terms k 2 . Harne* 1.1002/adem. The effective mass m1 is associated with the fundamental mass of the shell. Analytical model formulation and results By a modal analysis or Galerkin approach.. Quanqi Dai. respectively. The linear stiffness k 2 is adjusted by virtue of the significance of inclusion compression within the shell. and schematically visualized using the lumped-parameter constituents shown in Figure S1. The primary stiffness and viscous damping of the shell are k1 and b1 . in the general framework of the material inclusions considered here.

  1t . 12  k1 / m1 .   k3 / k1 (4) we nondimensionalize the equations (1) and (2) to yield x   1 x  x   f  2v   f 2 1  p  v   f 2  v3  0 (5) v  1    f  2v  1    f 2 1  p  v  1    f 2  v3   1 x  x  0 (6) 2 .  / t  1   /    1   ' . 22  k2 / m2 . Figure S1. Schematic of two DOF system with tunable stiffness k 2 associated with constraints.  1  b1 / m11 .  2  b2 / m22 (3)   m2 / m1 . The governing equations of motion for the system shown in Figure S1 are derived using Newton's second law of motion m1 x  b1 x  k1 x  k2 1  p  v  k3v3  0 (1) m2  v  x   b2v  k2 1  p  v  k3v3  0 (2) where the load parameter p is proportional to the constraint that opposes the inherent linear stiffness k 2 of the inclusion and results in buckling [25]. Submitted to bending of the radially-arrayed beams while the linear stiffness of the material inclusion k 2 is associated with the primary beam bending generalized coordinate [25]. Upon introducing the terms f  2 / 1 .

The ratio of inclusion to shell mass  is selected based on measurements of the similar trait. v0  . to the shell by an impact from a rigid plane) when the system is originally at rest. x0 . this initial condition set is representative of a sudden impact to the exterior structure (e.g.1 . and  2  0. we focus upon the set  0. Submitted to We investigate equations (5) and (6) for the dependence of the system free response in consequence to various initial values. The nonlinearity strength  is a value less than unity in accordance with prior assessments regarding large deflections of beams [36]. With these 3 . The parameters used for these evaluations are f  4 .02 . the free fall condition is analogous to this approximation. The ratio of frequencies f is set to a value that indicates the lowest eigenfrequency of the unconstrained material inclusion (in plane-strain) is greater than the lowest eigenfrequency of the baseline shell in free oscillation (likewise in plane-strain).   0.5 . To examine the explicit roles of the load parameter p that can introduce the system operation at the critical point p  1 . v0 . in the absence of significant aerodynamic turbulence.0. The loss factor for the shell  1  2 1 is significantly smaller than that of the inclusion  2  2 2 which represents the fact that damping of the primary generalized coordinate of motion for the shell is less than that for the primary radial motion of the inclusion geometry.1 . The free response time is computed to be the time duration required for the initial energy of the system to be reduced to 10 -6 of its starting value.  1  0. x0 . each parameter combination is considered four times with the resulting free response time averaged among the four results. Due to the nonlinearity and possibility that post-buckled p  1 inclusions may induce different time- dependent responses [25]. The equations (5) and (6) are integrated by a fourth-order.  x0 .0  . By the impulse-momentum theorem.   0. adaptive-time-stepping Runge-Kutta algorithm for a given initial velocity x0 and load parameter p combination. Experimentally.

there is a rapid elimination of dynamics for the structure 2 when the load parameter is p  1 when compared to the prolonged oscillations that occur if the parameter is p  0. p  1 . 2. Figure S2 exemplifies time series of the structure response x corresponding to the range of parameter combinations considered. 4 . post-buckled inclusion). 2. and 3 are extraordinary in terms of the energy dissipation capability provided by the variation of near-ness of the inclusion load parameter to the critical point. x  1 . pre-buckled inclusion) or p  1. Submitted to values both damping ratios. The differences among cases 1.75 (case 1. while the effective damping ratio of the inclusion is what grows substantially due to the near-critical point constraint p  1. are sufficiently underdamped. and 3 that excite the structure with 1 2 relatively small initial energy.25 (case 3. Considering cases 1.  1 and  2 .

case 2. The complete system parameters used to compute the responses are f  4 .1 . Considering the cases 4. and 6 that excite the structure with four orders of magnitude greater 1 2 initial energy. one should recall that this simplified model does not take into account alternative failure mechanisms that could become 5 . x  10.1 .02 . Time series (at right) of structure displacement x corresponding to the individual parameter combinations as labeled in the contour (at left).000 . While this indicates that a saturation of the energy dissipation capability may occur for extremely high energy input. 5. although the free response is still less for the case 5 than the cases 4 and 6.   0.  1  0.5 . Submitted to Figure S2. Yet.   0. the structure response for case 5 is not as dramatically suppressed as that which occurs for the smaller energy input example.  2  0. the free response time is the least when the load parameter is at the 2 critical point (case 5).

the outer perimeter of the elastomeric inclusion is compressed in the radial direction normal to the perimeter by the difference between a shell inner diameter Di =16 mm and a range of inclusion outer diameters Do that are used in the course of elastomer molding.2 mm is used. is utilized to assess the parametric influences that tailor the lowest eigenfrequency and cause it to vanish at the critical point. 2. set by Di 6 .g. plastic deformation in a real system. the change in diameter ratio corresponds to change in the lengths of radially- arrayed beams extending from the elastomeric core while the outer constraint diameter. composed in COMSOL Multiphysics.. the nondimensionality of the model. and specimen preparation A finite element (FE) model of the architected material inclusion. e. The FE model geometry is shown at left in Figure 1(d) of the main text and considers the inclusion architecture with seven voids. In this plane strain-based FE model. The diameter ratios Do / Di corresponding to this compression range are shown in the axis of FE model results in Figure 1(e) of the main text. provide the means by which to design a material inclusion for the target structure presuming it to not undergo other failure mechanics in the course of its utilization. protective material systems. the inner elastomeric core has a constant radius of 3. Submitted to evident by way of a four order-of-magnitude change in energy input. equations (5) and (6). In all cases considered. fabrication. Consequently. Material inclusion finite element modeling. Importantly. The FE model is originally developed in the authors' previous work [34] and is employed here to probe a significantly greater parameter space than that considered previously. Putting this in the context of robust. this suggests that material inclusions held near the critical point should be complemented with blast-resistant layers to maximize the effectiveness of an armor across an extreme range of input energies.2 mm while an outer perimeter of the silicone rubber with thickness 1.

In this case. an undamped eigenfrequency analysis evaluates the lowest order eigenfrequencies and how these eigenfrequencies change with respect to variation in the open-to-closed angle ratio  /  and the diameter ratio Do / Di .. remains fixed. for the shell mechanics and/or dynamics. A 3D printer (FlashForge Creator Pro) is employed to print ABS plastic molds that are the negative of the elastomer elements determined from the FE model. Submitted to of the shell dimension. Room-temperature-curing silicone (Smooth-On. the Poisson's ratio is  =0. nor need to account.499. Several samples of a given outer 7 . After meshing the geometry to a fine degree suitably identified via a mesh convergence study. Inc. A nearly-incompressible. By this model composition. there is no explicit accounting.m-3 is the material density. and  =1145 kg.. The samples are cut to 50 mm length. Inc. I1  tr  FT F  is computed from the distortional tensor F   J 1/3I  F where I 1 is the identity matrix. Ease Release 200). The results of Figure 1(e) are computed over a grid of 21 data points in open angle ratio  /  and 41 data points in diameter ratio Do / Di . J  det F is the determinant of the deformation gradient F  x / X found respecting the current x and reference X configurations. and set at room temperature for one week prior to further use. K 0 =130 GPa are 1 1 2 2 2 the initial shear and bulk moduli. hyperelastic material model is used for the silicone elastomer that composes the inclusions which is a model appropriate for this class of silicone materials [29] [34]. The increased resolution of computation is applied for the diameter ratio due to observations that it is highly influential upon attaining critical point conditions for small changes in Do / Di value. Neo- Hookean. Mold Star 15S) is poured into the molds sprayed with a release agent (Smooth-On. The architected materials are removed after the manufacturer's specified curing time has elapsed. respectively. the strain energy density is W  0  I1  3  K0  J  1 where 0 =130 kPa.

the laser is pointed at the top edge of the specimen. Experimental methods The following experimental methods are used to generate the measurements processed for Figures 2. Specimens are dropped manually such that they fall on an edge and the laser point tracks the opposing edge of the shell. A second aluminum plate. A force transducer (PCB 208C02) is fixed to an aluminum plate of 13 mm thickness. Thereafter. Specimens are dropped from heights ranging from 135.31. the inclusions are slightly stretched in their axis to laterally contract them.9 [mm] above the surface of the impact plate. Submitted to elastomer diameter Do are produced (ranging from Do  [16. All peak forces measured are well within the dynamic range of the transducer. Figure S3 shows the experimental setup for the impact evaluations. To insert the elastomer elements into the shells to realize the specimens with the architected materials constrained near critical points. such that upon release in the shell the inclusions are under the targeted degree of constraint (see Video File 1).47 mm are cut to 50 mm lengths from a single length of tube (McMaster-Carr 89965K371).45 g. The mean mass of the inclusions is 7. This experimental impact plate setup is recommended by the manufacturer for the smaller class of one-dimensional force transducers. and 4 of the main text and Figure S5. This upper-most plate serves as the impact surface for the specimens to land upon. is mounted to the top of the force transducer.78] mm). 3. 8 . Aluminum shells of inner diameter Di =16. 76 mm by 76 mm by 13 mm.16.00 mm and wall thickness 1. This aluminum plate is bolted to an optical isolation table (Newport Smart Table UT2). 3.9 [mm] to 795. An analog laser displacement sensor (Micro-Epsilon ILD-2300) is directed at the center of the aluminum plate such that as a specimen lands. the specimens with the architected materials constrained near critical points are considered ready for assessment in the experiments.

if the falling shell is sufficiently off-center from the line of the laser then the data is automatically discarded for that impact event. Data collection and processing methods Measurements of impact force and shell displacement are taken at a sampling rate of 131072 Hz using National Instruments data acquisition hardware and the Mathworks MATLAB Data Acquisition Toolbox. Data processing is performed in MATLAB. second-order Butterworth low pass filter is applied to the measurements at 65536 Hz. No plastic deformation to the shells is observed in consequence to these experiments. Experimental setup for impact evaluations. All specimens are dropped at least 40 times from every height. The measurements are processed to identify impact events and ensure that the corresponding displacement data for each impact event is permissible. This data assessment procedure inherently removes all impact events that occur off the axis of the force transducer to ensure the force readings are as ideal as possible. In other words. 4. foam is placed in the vicinity around the impact plate to protect cabling and other sensitive components. Figure S3. Incoming and outgoing shell 9 . A digital. Submitted to Without touching the plate.

10 . It is apparent that specimens with architected material inclusions constrained nearer to the critical point (double-thickness lines) are more effective at impact energy absorption by virtue of the reduced COR in Figure S5(a). with cyan and light blue colors/markers according to the corresponding notation shown in Figure S4. Submitted to velocity respectively are determined from the displacement measurements 20 ms prior and 20 ms following the peak impact forces. Additional experimental results In addition to the specimens with material inclusions reported on in the main text. The mean COR and impact force results and statistics are derived from these measurements. 5. respectively. we also fabricate specimens according to the parameter sets provided in Figure S4. The specimens with material inclusions closest to the critical point have double-thickness lines in the plots. while the peak impact force exerted upon the strategically designed specimens are all similarly small compared to the specimen with bulk elastomer. The peak impact force is the largest force measurement taken during an impact event. a minimum of 19 and a maximum of 53 corresponding measurements of impact force and shell displacement are approved by the data assessment procedures described above. For each case of drop height and specimen as reported in this report. along with the results for the specimens with the bulk elastomer inclusion and the shell itself. The coefficient of restitution (COR) is determined from these associated speeds [35]. The net results from the COR and impact force evaluations are presented in Figure S5(a) and (b).

Figure S5. the material inclusions are compressed into the cylindrical shells using a fine implement (tweezers are shown in the video as one option) that assists to laterally contract the inclusions upon insertion. Inside of the shell. Submitted to Figure S4. the inclusions are repositioned by the 11 . Video files descriptions Video file 1: Once fabricated. Range of experimentally characterized material inclusion designs. Do / Di ) and FE model lowest eigenfrequency prediction. presented according to their respective locations in parameter space (  /  . Experimental measurements of (a) COR and (b) impact force for all specimens examined.

from a height of 430 [mm]. 4. Submitted to implement to ensure that equal fit and compression are achieved inside of the shell. Representative drop experiments are first shown at full-view.03 and  /   0. Figure S2. from a drop height of 5. the specimen with the material inclusion is still substantially suppressed in the rebound response when compared to the other baseline specimens. Once evenly settled within the shell. and S5. This desired condition is easily assessed via observation of the cross-section following insertion: if the cross- section shows signs of rotation along the length then the inclusion is insufficiently settled into the shell and additional repositioning by the implement is required. the specimen is ready to be examined in experiment. Video file 3: One-eighth of real-time speed video (recorded at 240 frames per second) of drop experiments conducted using the same three specimens as in Video file 2. Video file 2: One-eighth of real-time speed video (recorded at 240 frames per second) of drop experiments conducted using the shell specimen (at left). shell specimen with a fill of the bulk elastomer (at middle). 12 . followed by similar representative experiments in close-up-view. The experiments are conducted for illustration purposes to investigate a potential saturation-type phenomenon of energy dissipation as observed in the analytical model. The right-to-left order of videos is associated with the same specimens as in Video file 2. In addition. 3.8 [m]. The specimens land on the impact plate with force transducer mounted beneath. No saturation-type phenomenon is thus observed over the range of impact energies associated with drop heights from 136 [mm] to 5. Despite increasing the drop height by approximately an order-of-magnitude from those considered in the experiments with results presented in Figures 2. and shell specimen and material inclusion with design parameters Do / Di  1. the three specimens do not reveal signs of plastic deformation to the respective shells in consequence to these drops.76 (at right).8 [m]. The specimens land on a solid concrete surface.