Voltage Quality Improvement Using DVR

Abstract:The problem of voltage sags and Swells and its severe impact on sensitive loads is well known. To solve this problem, custom power devices are used. One of those devices is the Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR), which is one of the most efficient and effective modern custom power devices used in power distribution networks. This paper described DVR principles and voltage correction methods for balanced and/or unbalanced voltage sags and swells in a distribution system. Simulation results were presented to illustrate and understand the performances of DVR under voltage sags/swells conditions. The results obtained by simulation using MATLAB confirmed the effectiveness of this device in compensating voltage sags and swells with very fast response (relative to voltage sag/swell time).

1.Introduction
Power quality has a significant influence on high-technology equipments related to communication, advanced control, automation, precise manufacturing technique and on-line service. For example, voltage sag can have a bad influence on the products of semiconductor fabrication with considerable financial losses. Power quality problems include transients, sags, interruptions and other distortions to the sinusoidal waveform. One of the most important power quality issues is voltage sag that is a sudden short duration reduction in voltage magnitude between 10 and 90% compared to nominal voltage. Voltage sag is deemed as a momentary decrease in the rms voltage, with duration ranging from half a cycle up to one minute. Deep voltage sags, even of relatively short duration, can have significant costs because of the proliferation of voltage-sensitive computer-based and variable speed drive loads. The fraction of load that is sensitive to low voltage is expected to grow rapidly in the coming decades.

Studies have shown that transmission faults, while relatively rare, can cause widespread sags that may constitute a major source of process interruptions for very long distances from the faulted point. Distribution faults are considerably more common but the resulting sags are more limited in geographic extent. The majority of voltage sags are within 40%of the nominal voltage. Therefore, by designing drives and other critical loads capable of riding through sags with magnitude of up to 40%, interruption of processes can be reduced significantly. The DVR can correct sags resulting from faults in either the transmission or the distribution system.

Faults at either the transmission or distribution level may cause voltage sag or swell in the entire system or a large part of it. Also, under heavy load conditions, a significant voltage drop may occur in the system. Voltage sags can occur at any instant of time, with amplitudes ranging from 10 – 90% and a duration lasting for half a cycle to one minute. Further, they could be either balanced or unbalanced, depending on the type of fault and they could have unpredictable magnitudes, depending on factors such as distance from the fault and the transformer connections. Voltage swell, on the other hand, is defined as a sudden increasing of supply voltage up 110% to 180% in RMS voltage at the network fundamental frequency with duration from 10 ms to 1 minute. Voltage swells are not as important as voltage sags because they are less common in distribution systems. Voltage sag and swell can cause sensitive equipment (such as found in semiconductor or chemical plants) to fail, or shutdown, as well as create a large current unbalance that could blow fuses or trip breakers. These effects can be very expensive for the customer, ranging from minor quality variations to production downtime and equipment damage. There are many different methods to mitigate voltage sags and swells, but the use of a custom Power device is considered to be the most efficient method. The concept of custom Power was introduced by N.G. Hingorani in 1995. Like Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) for transmission systems, the term custom power pertains to the use of power electronics controllers in a distribution system, especially, to deal with various power quality problems. Just as FACTS improves the power transfer capabilities and stability margins, custom power makes sure customers get pre-specified quality and reliability of supply. This pre-specified quality may contain a combination of specifications of the following:

low phase unbalance, no power interruptions, low flicker at the load voltage, low harmonic distortion in load voltage, magnitude and duration of overvoltages and undervoltages within specified limits, acceptance of fluctuations, and poor factor loads without significant effect on the terminal voltage. Each of Custom Power devices has its own benefits and limitations. Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is one of the most effective type of these devices. There are numerous reasons why the DVR is preferred over the others. A few of these reasons are presented as follows. The SVC pre-dates the DVR, but the DVR is still preferred because the SVC has no ability to control active power flow. Another reason is that the DVR costs less compared to the UPS. Other reasons include that the DVR has a higher energy capacity and lower costs compared to the SMES device. Furthermore, the DVR is smaller in size and costs less compared to the DSTATCOM. Based on these reasons, it is no surprise that the DVR is widely considered as an effective custom power device in mitigating voltage sags. In addition to voltage sags and swells compensation, DVR can also added other features such as harmonics and Power Factor correction. Compared to the other devices, the DVR is clearly considered to be one of the best economic solutions for its size and capabilities. This paper Introduced Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) and its operating principle. Then, analyses of the voltage correction methods were presented. At the end, simulation results using MATLAB were illustrated and discussed.

1.1 What Are Voltage Sags?
Electronic devices function properly as long as the voltage (or driving force) of the electricity feeding the device stays within a consistent range. There are several types of voltage fluctuations that can cause problems, including surges and spikes, sags, harmonic distortions, and momentary disruptions. (For definitions of these terms, see the “Power Quality Glossary” sidebar, next page.) A voltage sag is not a complete interruption of power; it is a temporary drop below 90 percent of the nominal voltage level. Most voltage sags do not go below 50 percent of the nominal voltage, and they normally last from 3 to 10 cycles—or 50 to 170 milliseconds.

You should also look into possible internal causes. which can lead to very expensive downtime when voltage sags occur.Voltage sags are probably the most significant power quality (PQ) problem facing industrial customers today. the following definitions are adequate for most discussions. In the course of normal utility operations.2 Power Quality Glossary: Although specialists use complex equations for precise descriptions and analysis. A storm passing through an area can result in dozens of major and minor PQ variations. If your facility is having frequent voltage sag problems. Other common causes of external voltage sags are ice storms. Whether or not a voltage sag causes a problem will depend on the magnitude and duration of the sag and on the sensitivity of your equipment. controller power supplies. For example. Much of this equipment is used in applications that are critical to an overall process. Storms are the most common cause of external sags and momentary interruptions in most areas of the U. you should consider taking charge of the problem and working toward a costeffective solution for your facility. consider how PQ would be affected by a lightning strike on or near a power line or by wind sending tree limbs into power lines. a good place to start is with your utility. programmable logic controllers. Harmonic distortion: Continuous or sporadic distortions of the 60hertz (Hz) voltage sine waveform.S. There are two sources of voltage sags: external (on the utility’s lines up to your facility) and internal (within your facility). robotics. 1. and the start-up of large loads at neighboring facilities. Many types of electronic equipment are sensitive to voltage sags. animals (particularly squirrels). Ask about the utility’s statistics regarding performance in your area. motor starter contactors. including sags. including variable speed drive controls. Internal causes of voltage sags can include starting major loads and grounding or wiring problems. Utilities continuously strive to provide the most reliable and consistent electric power possible. however. But whether the causes are mainly external or internal. and control relays. many things can cause voltage sags. and they can be a significant problem for large commercial customers as well. usually caused by microprocessorbased .

or regional electrical events. Can be produced by utility and customer equipment operations. wet insulators. deterioration of power factor–correction capacitors. heating and air-conditioning equipment. Corrected by automated utility switching. nearby lightning strikes. area. falling tree limbs on power lines. causing computer crashes or equipment lock-ups. including arc welders. Spike: A very brief (nanoseconds to milliseconds) change in voltage ranging from tens to thousands of volts. caused by a nearby short circuit due to something like animals. Harmonics can also be transmitted from an energy user down the block. lighting ballasts. Sag: A short-term decrease in voltage lasting anywhere from milliseconds up to a few seconds. such as .loads in the building such as computer power supplies. or neutral conductors. and nearby radio and TV transmitters. usually caused by the utility switching operations to isolate a nearby electrical problem. momentary: A very short loss of utility power that lasts up to 2 seconds. decreased motor performance. Interruption. Surge: A short-term increase in voltage. fuses. compressors. These can cause telecommunications or computer interference. Long-term outage: A loss of utility power lasting more than 2 minutes due to major local. and copy machines— or nearby short circuits on the utility system. and electronic adjustable speed drives. temporary: A loss of utility power lasting from 2 seconds to 2 minutes. or erratic operation of breakers. Noise: Sporadic voltage changes consisting of frequencies higher than the normal 60-Hz power frequency due to any number of causes. overheating in motors. transformers. They are due either to customer equipment operation. Sags starve a machine of the electricity it needs to function. and even static discharges. loose wiring. Interruption. Usually caused by equipment start-up—such as elevators. lasting up to a few seconds. or accidents. and relays.

2. or to utility activities. reduction of transients in voltage and fault current limitations. . DVR can also added other features such as: line voltage harmonics compensation. Transient: A sudden momentary change in voltage. The DVR was first installed in 1996. In addition to voltage sags and swells compensation.air conditioners or motors switching on and off. a Voltage Source Converter (VSC). It is normally installed in a distribution system between the supply and the critical load feeder. Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) A Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is a series connected solid state device that injects voltage into the system in order to regulate the load side voltage. and a Control and Protection system as shown in Figure 1. Usually due to undersized wiring at the facility but can also be caused by overloaded utility circuits and result in brownouts. Its primary function is to rapidly boost up the load-side voltage in the event of a disturbance in order to avoid any power disruption to that load. The general configuration of the DVR consists of an Injection / Booster transformer. Also called a spike. There are various circuit topologies and control schemes that can be used to implement a DVR. such as capacitor switching. a Harmonic filter. Undervoltage: A decrease in voltage lasting longer than a few seconds.

2 Harmonic Filter The main task of harmonic filter is to keep the harmonic voltage content generated by the voltage source converters to the permissible level .1 Injection / Booster Transformer The Injection / Booster transformer is a specially designed transformer that attempts to limit the coupling of noise and transient energy from the primary side to the secondary side. the Injection / Booster transformer serves the purpose of isolating the load from the system (VSC and control mechanism). Its main tasks are: connects the DVR to the distribution network via the HV-windings and transforms and couples the injected compensating voltages generated by the voltage source converters to the incoming supply voltage. 2.Fig. It is one unit three phase construction. In addition. 1 DVR series connected topology 2.

3 Voltage Source Converter A VSC is a power electronic system consists of a storage device and switching devices.3. In the DVR application. It was first introduced in the early 1980s and has become a popular device because of its superior characteristics. which can generate a sinusoidal voltage at any required frequency. a sag on only one phase may cause a distortion in the injected current waveforms on the other phases.e. The limitations are that the increasing on-resistance with increasing voltage limits the device to applications with just a few hundred volts. as the capacitor is shared between the three phases. The size of this capacitor has to be increased if needed to provide voltage support in unbalanced conditions.It has a small rating approximately 2% of the load MVA. A widely used method is the two level or multilevel three-phase converter which shares a dc capacitor between all phases. The IGBT is considered to be a newer device compared to the MOSFET and GTO. eliminate high frequency switching harmonics). It is capable of working beyond the 20 kHz frequency. The GTO is best suited for high voltage applications. The disadvantages of the GTO are that GTO based devices are not able to meet the dynamic requirements of a DVR.. Gate Turn-Off thyristors (GTO). Also. 2. particularly when operating in balanced conditions. The GTO is a latching device that can be turned off by a negative pulse of current to its gate. 2. The MOSFET requires a high on-resistance and has fast switching times. Each type has its own benefits and drawbacks. Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT).1 Switching Devices There are four main types of switching devices: Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFET). and phase angle. and Integrated Gate Commutated Thyristors (IGCT). magnitude. the VSC is used to temporarily replace the supply voltage or to generate the part of the supply voltage which is missing.(i. Numerous circuit topologies are available for the VSC. . The purpose of this capacitor is mainly to absorb harmonic ripple and hence it has a relatively small energy storage requirement.

In essence. making them ideal for short (up to several seconds) pulses of power.4 Control and Protection system The control mechanism of the general configuration typically consists of Digital Signal Processing (DSP) boards. However. Batteries and Ultracapacitors are the most common types of energy storage devices. The software on the DSP board . An interesting alternative to batteries is the use of ultracapacitors. In fact. Batteries are the common choice and can be highly effective if a high voltage battery configuration is used. Because of the highly sophisticated converter design with IGCTs. 2.2 Storage Devices The purpose is to supply the necessary energy to the VSC via a dc link for the generation of injected voltages. Ultracapacitors have a specific energy density less than that of a battery. these ultracapacitors have a short charge time and much longer lifetime. which have a wider voltage range than batteries and can be directly paralleled across the input bus. unlike batteries. it is a three terminal controllable switch that combines the fast switching times of the MOSFET with the high voltage capabilities of the GTO. The result of this combination is a medium speed controllable switch capable of supporting the medium power range.3. This high voltage string of batteries can be placed across the regulated dc bus with little or no additional circuitry. However. The IGCT is a recent compact device with enhanced performance and reliability that allows building VSC with very large power ratings. 2. so as to act like a battery. which can be quite costly. but a specific power greater than a battery. batteries in general have a short lifetime and often require some type of battery management system. Certain ultracapacitors (unsyrnmetrical electrochemical) can hold charge over extended periods of time. the capacity of the stored energy directly determines the duration of the sag which can be mitigating by the DVR. the DVR can compensate dips which are beyond the capability of the past DVRs using conventional devices.

Basic Principle of DVR: To quantify voltage sag in radial distribution system. the Fourier Transform still remains the most common type. Voltage sag is mostly unbalanced and accompanied by phase angle jump.provides the controls such as detection and correction. can be used on the assumption that the fault current is much larger than the load current during faults. The point of common coupling (PCC) is the point from which both the fault and the load are fed. Filters are commonly used for these purposes. The most common types of filter algorithm are the Fourier Transform (FT) and the Wavelet Transform (WT). Although. thus securing an uninterrupted energy flow to the customer’s plant. 1. Differential current protection of the transformer. All protective functions of the DVR should be implemented in the software. Depending on the particular fault condition. a direct feedforward-type control architecture should be applied in the control concept of the DVR. the fast control and protection may switch the DVR into bypass if it becomes inoperable. or short circuit current on the customer load side are only two examples of many protection functions possibility. the voltage divider model. With this concept a fast response time (approximately 1ms) can be achieved to compensate voltage sags. . shown in Fig. To maximize dynamic performance.

From Fig. The rating (in terms of energy storage capabilities) of the capacitor bank is dependent upon system factors such as the rating of the load that protects . To enable the development of real power an energy storage device must be used. The design of the DVR allows real and reactive power to be either supplied or absorbed when operating. the DVR replenishes the energy expended from the healthy system. then the DVR can correct it using only reactive power generated internally. the voltage at the PCC and phase angle jump can be obtained by The DVR is able to compensate the voltage sag especially at sensitive loads by injecting an appropriate voltage through an injection transformer. 2) DC to DC power controller. Once the fault has been corrected and the supply is operating under normal conditions. For correction of larger faults. 4) Three single-phase series injection transformers. currently the DVR design uses a capacitor bank. the DVR may be required to develop real power. Figure 2 shows a block diagram of the DVR power circuit. 3) A three-phase voltage converter. When examining the DVR it can be divided into four component blocks: 1) Energy storage device. If a small fault occurs on the protected system. 1.

The core element in DVR design is the three-phase voltage converter. The output voltage wave shapes are generated by pulse-width modulated switching. Therefore. and phase advance .The DVR rating (per phase). the energy storage system within the DVR has to be used to aid voltage correction.The bridge outputs on the secondary are filtered before being applied to the injection transformer. The primary side (connected into the line) must be sized to carry the full line current. DVR could maintain load voltage unchanged ideally during any kind of faults. it is necessary to minimize energy injection from DVR.and the duration and depth of anticipated sags. DVR cannot restore the load voltage constantly when the voltage across the DC link has gone down and stored energy has run out eventually during deep voltage sag with long duration. However.The primary voltage rating is the maximum voltage the DVR can inject into the line for a given application. The DVR connects in series with the distribution line through an injection transformer. IGBTs) to convert DC to AC and back again during operation. There are several methods how to inject DVR mitigating voltage to distribution system: pre-sag compensation. is the maximum injection voltage times the primary current. actually three single-phase transformers. This inverter utilizes solid-state power electronics (insulated gate bipolar transistors. in-phase compensation. If the capability of energy storage of DVR were infinite. the stored energy in DVR is limited practically by the limit of DC link capacity of DVR. The bridges are independently controllable to allow each phase to be compensated separately. When voltage sag reaches a value below the limit for correction using zero energy. the power electronics are fed from the capacitor bank via a DC-DC voltage conversion circuit. When correcting large sag (using real power). active power or energy should be injected from DVR to distribution system. When DVR restores large voltage disturbances. The ideal restoration is to make load voltages unchanged. Namely.

because the individual converter legs are triggered such as to establish a short-circuit path for the transformer connection. There are three different methods for DVR voltage correction which are presented below. The DVR will be most of the time in this mode. The DVR has two modes of operation which are: standby mode and boost mode. the control strategy depends on the type of load characteristics. 4. only the comparatively low conduction losses of the semiconductors in this current loop contribute to the losses. the line breaker does not trip. the booster transformer’s low voltage winding is shorted through the converter. The momentary amplitudes of the three injected phase voltages are controlled such as to eliminate any detrimental effects of a bus fault to the load voltage VL. The DVR works independently of the type of fault or any event that happens in the system. the zero sequence part of a disturbance will not pass through the step down transformer which has infinite impedance for this component). Operating Principle of DVR The basic function of the DVR is to inject a dynamically controlled voltage VDVR generated by a forced commutated converter in series to the bus voltage by means of a booster transformer.e. the DVR is injecting a compensation voltage through the booster transformer due to a detection of a supply voltage disturbance. No switching of semiconductors occurs in this mode of operation. Therefore. In boost mode (VDVR>0). This means that any differential voltages caused by disturbances in the ac feeder will be compensated by an equivalent voltage generated by the converter and injected on the medium voltage level through the booster transformer.3. provided that the whole system remains connected to the supply grid. i. different load conditions and different types of voltage sag. Some loads are very sensitive to phase angle jump and others are tolerant to it. a more economical design can be achieved by only compensating the positive and negative sequence components of the voltage disturbance seen at the input of the DVR (because for a typical distribution bus configuration. For most practical cases. DVR Voltage correction Methods The possibility of compensating voltage sag can be limited by a number of factors including finite DVR power rating. . Therefore. In standby mode (VDVR=0).

2 Single-phase vector diagram of the PDC method. . the frozen angle is used to restore the previous balanced load voltages by using the Park transform. when the fault occurs.  VL  VDVR  Vs θ DVR θS θL  IL Fig. The lack of the negative sequence detection in this method leads to the phase-oscillation in the case of singleline faults. Then.1 Pre-Dip Compensation (PDC) The PDC method tracks the supply voltage continuously and compensates load voltage during fault to pre-fault condition. In this method.4. 2 shows the single-phase vector diagram of this method. This method is achieved by using a fault detector to freeze the output from the Phase Locked Loop (PLL) circuit. but the injected active power cannot be controlled and it is determined by external conditions such as the type of faults and load conditions. the load voltage can be restored ideally. Fig.

In other word. . this approach requires large amounts of real power to mitigate the voltage sag. 3.2. S DVR = 3I LVDVR = I L VL2 +VS2 − 2VLVS cos (θL −θS ) And the active power of DVR is. which means a large energy storage device.According to fig. PDVR = 3I L (VL cos θL − VS cos θS ) The magnitude and the angle of DVR voltage are: . The IPC method is suitable for minimum voltage or minimum energy operation strategies. the apparent power of DVR is. VDVR = VL2 +VS2 − 2VLVS cos (θL −θS )  V sin θL − VS sin θS θDVR = tan −1  L  V cos θ − V cos θ L S S  L     4.2 In-Phase Compensation (IPC) This is the most straight forward and used method in which the injected DVR voltage is in phase with the supply side voltage regardless of the load current and the pre-fault voltage as shown in Fig.

 V Lpre −dip  VS  V DVR θDVR θS θL  IL  VL Fig. the apparent power of DVR is. S DVR = 3I LVDVR = 3I L (VL − VS ) And the active power of DVR is.3. VDVR =VL −VS θDVR =θS . 3 phasors diagram of the IPC method According to fig. PDVR = 3I LVDVR cos θS = 3I L (VL − VS ) cos θS The magnitude and the angle of the DVR voltage are.

or transition period should be taken while phase angle is moved from pre-fault angle to advance angle. The injection active power is made zero by means of having the injection voltage phasor perpendicular to the load current phasor. On the other hand. as a consequence. Therefore. 5. which is one of the most expensive components in DVR. IPAC method uses only reactive power and unfortunately.Voltage sags and swells are simulated by temporary connection of . the injection voltage magnitude of in-phase advance compensation method is larger than those of pre-dip or in-phase compensation methods and the voltage phase shift can cause voltage waveform discontinuity. Due to the limit of energy storage capacity of DC link. in phase advance compensation method should be adjusted to the load that is tolerant to phase angle jump. not al1 the sags can be mitigated without real power.4. in phase advance compensation method was proposed. the DVR restoration time and performance are confined in these methods. In short. For the sake of controlling injection energy. Simulation In order to show the performance of the DVR in voltage sags and swells mitigation. a simple distribution network is simulated using MATLAB (fig.3 In Phase Advance Compensation (IPAC) Pre-Dip and in-phase compensation method must inject active power to loads to correct voltage disturbance. this method is only suitable for a limited range of sags. the amount of possible injection active power is confined to the stored energy in DC link.1). Reducing energy consumption means that ride-through ability is increased when the energy storage capacity is fixed. However. This method can reduce the consumption of energy stored in DC link by injecting reactive power instead of active power. inaccurate zero crossing and load power swing.

The DVR injected voltage and the load voltage are shown in Figure 5 (b) and (c). Observe that during normal operation. with total voltage sag duration of 200 ms. The supply voltage with one phase voltage dropped down to 50% is shown in Figure 5 (a). It quickly injects necessary voltage components to smooth the load voltage upon detecting voltage sag.f.different impedances at the supply side bus. the DVR is able to produce the required voltage components for different phases rapidly and help to maintain a balanced and constant load voltage at 1. throughout the simulation. the load voltage is kept at 1 p. In order to understand the performance of the DVR under unbalanced conditions.92 p. the DVR is doing nothing. Apart from this. In this simulation the In-Phase Compensation (IPC) method is used. including the voltage sag period. . Figure 4 (a) shows a 50% voltage sag initiated at 100 ms and it is kept until 300 ms. As can be seen from the results.. The load considered in the study is a 5.1 Voltage Sags A case of Three-phase voltage sag is simulated and the results are shown in Figure 4.u. Figure 4 (b) and (c) show the voltage injected by the DVR and the compensated load voltage.00 p. As a result of DVR. 5. lagging. respectively.u. Single-phase voltage sag at supply bus bar is simulated and the results are shown in Figure 5. respectively. A DVR is connected to the system through a series transformer with a capability to insert a maximum voltage of 50% of the phase to ground system voltage. a series filter is also used to remove any high frequency components of power.5 MVA capacity with 0.

(a) (b) .

(c) Fig. (c)-Load voltage (a) . (b)-Injected voltage. 4 Three-phase voltages sag: (a)-Source voltage.

(a) . (c)-Load voltage.(b) (c) Fig. 5 Single-phase voltage sag: (a)-Source voltage. (b)-Injected voltage.

(b)-Injected voltage.(b) (c) Fig. 6 Three-phase voltages swell: (a)-Source voltage. (c)-Load voltage (a) .

(b) (c) Fig. 7 Two-phase voltages swell: (a)-Source voltage. (c)-Load voltage . (b)-Injected voltage.

Similar to the case of voltage sag. Notice the constant and balanced voltage at the load throughout the simulation. The injected voltage that is produced by DVR in order to correct the load voltage and the load voltage are shown in Figure 7 (b) and (c). The performance of the DVR with an unbalanced voltage swell is shown in Figure 7. As can be seen from the results. A control algorithm. is also presented for controlling the HVDVR with perfect reference voltage tracking and effective damping of transient voltage oscillations at the instant of sag compensation.2 Voltage Swells The performance of DVR for a voltage swell condition is investigated. incorporating P+resonant and Posicast compensators. two of the three phases are higher by 25% than the third phase as shown in Figure 7(a). Finally. respectively.5. The injected voltage that is produced by DVR in order to correct the load voltage and the load voltage are shown in Figure 6 (b) and (c). the load voltage is kept at the nominal value with the help of the DVR. the supply voltage swell is generated as shown in Figure 6 (a).Multilevel Dynamic Voltage Restorer: High voltage dynamic voltage restorer (HVDVR) is used in power distribution network to compensate for sags in utility voltages. respectively. allowing the direct connection of the HVDVR to the distribution network without using a bulky and costly series injection transformer. In this case. . including during the unbalanced voltage swell event. Here. 6. the DVR reacts quickly to inject the appropriate voltage component (negative voltage magnitude) to correct the supply voltage. The supply voltage amplitude is increased about 125% of nominal voltage. The proposed HVDVR is implemented using a multilevel inverter topology with isolated dc energy storages.

the DVR can be switched offline [1] or controlled to compensate for any injected harmonic voltages in the utility grid [2]. However. and other disadvantages. or H-bridges. [1] has proposed the series/parallel connection of semiconductor switches. however. During normal operating conditions. which can limit the speed of response of the HVDVR). To overcome these disadvantages. the series voltage Vo is injected through a coupling transformer. Usage of a transformer. This letter now extends the concept to address issues that have not been discussed in [1].simulation results are presented to verify the performance of the proposed multilevel HVDVR. since the other option of series-connecting semiconductor switches usually require the use of complex snubber and gate driver circuitries. as summarized in [1]. depending on the compensation techniques adopted. the DVR is commanded to inject a voltage Vo such that the magnitude of Vl remains essentially constant throughout the sag period. through a coupling transformer. which can be connected directly to the utility grid without a coupling transformer. Fig. Upon the occurrence of voltage sag. to develop high voltage DVR (HVDVR). . whose main functions are to provide voltage boosting and electrical isolation between the phases. Conventionally. the phase of Vl can either be shifted or remain unchanged. Figure shows the series connection of a dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) between the utility source and loads. 1. (Note that only the series connection of H-bridges is considered here. has the disadvantage of making the DVR bulky and costly.

The letter next presents an open-loop control scheme with Posicast compensator [3] incorporated for damping transient voltage oscillations at the instant of voltage injection (an issue which has not been actively investigated for DVR). This feedback path uses the P resonant compensator to force the steady-state voltage error to zero. The Posicast-based open-loop control is subsequently improved by adding a parallel multi-feedbackloop control path to give two-degrees-of-freedom in control tuning. System configuration with dynamic voltage restoration. . The letter begins by analyzing different topological possibilities for implementing the HVDVR with the main aim of designing a reliable custom power conditioner.Fig.

This inverter arrangement is commonly referred to as multilevel inverter in the power conversion literature. Direct connection of multilevel HVDVR to utility grid. Fig. and its overall .1 TOPOLOGY OF MULTILEVEL HVDVR: Fig. 2 shows the single-phase representation of a HVDVR implemented using multiple series-connected H-bridges. All principles presented have been verified in Matlab/Simulink simulation using a cascaded five-level and a binary seven-level inverter. each with its own isolated dc energy storage.hence. 6. enhancing the DVR load voltage regulation performance.2.

cascaded [5]. 2. binary [6].output voltage ‘Vinv’ is given by the sum of voltages Vi ( i=1 to N ) of the H-bridges. it is noted that the output voltage of a hybrid inverter can assume a larger number of dc voltage levels than a cascaded inverter with the same number of series-connected H-bridges. the resultant output ‘Vinv’ of the multilevel inverter can then switch among a greater number of voltage levels. the total number of voltage levels that can be assumed by ‘Vinv’ varies. the output of each H-bridge can assume the three discrete dc voltage levels of +Vdc . giving rise to an improved waveform quality. TABLE I DC CAPACITOR VOLTAGES AND NUMBER OF OUTPUT VOLTAGE LEVELS OF DIFFERENT MULTILEVEL INVERTERS (N = NUMBER OF HBRIDGES) Referring to Table I and Fig. by designing its upper H-bridges to block higher dc voltages (‘kN’ > ‘kn’ > ‘k1’) . Depending on its switching state. 0 V and -Vdc. [7]. Therefore. depending on the dc capacitor potentials used. namely. The dc source potentials needed for implementing these inverters and expressions for their total number of output voltage levels are summarized in TableI. When series-connected. giving rise to four types of multilevel inverters. In addition. quasilinear [7] and tri-nary [7] inverters (the latter three inverters are referred to as hybrid inverters in this letter). the upper H-bridges of a hybrid inverter should be implemented .

the switching frequencies of the H-bridges should vary with the lowest H-bridge (with dc link voltage of ‘K1Vdc’ ) pulse-width modulated at a high switching frequency. as indicated in Fig. integrated gate commutated thyristors (IGCTs)]. hybrid inverters offer the attractive advantage of significantly improving the inverter harmonic performance using the same number of Hbridges as a cascaded inverter. With a greater emphasis on reliability rather than harmonic performance. However. 2. each Hbridge should be switched at a progressively slower switching frequency. and while moving up the inverter phase-leg in Fig. insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs)].using high-voltage thyristor-based power devices [e. . hybrid inverters are less reliable (especially trinary inverter) since a fault in the higher voltage H-bridge will significantly limit the sag compensation ability of the HVDVR and also increase the overall inverter harmonic content. 2 [6]. In addition. the HVDVR studied in this letter is therefore implemented using either a cascaded five-level inverter or a binary sevenlevel inverter with two series-connected H-bridges. Naturally. when considering cases of semiconductor failure.g.g.. while the lower H-bridges should be implemented using fast-switching power devices [e..

DVR is an effective custom power device for voltage sags and swells mitigation. DVR is considered to be an efficient solution due to its relatively low cost and small size.CONCLUSION In this paper an overview of DVR is presented. . The impact of voltage sags on sensitive equipment is severe. also it has a fast dynamic response. The simulation results show clearly the performance of a DVR in mitigating voltage sags and swells. Therefore. The DVR handles both balanced and unbalanced situations without any difficulties and injects the appropriate voltage component to correct rapidly any anomaly in the supply voltage to keep the load voltage balanced and constant at the nominal value.

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