You are on page 1of 27

DEVELOPMENT OF A COIN OPERATED WITH THREE-DOF SOLAR

TRACKER CHARGING STATION

A Constraints Defense

Submitted to
The Faculty of the Electrical Engineering Department
University of Mindanao

In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering

Submitted by

Diaz, Archer June C.

Salvaña, Edgar Jade A.

Violon, Mark Joseph T.

June 2018
II. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

This research study has the goal to develop an enhanced coin operated

solar charging station that is built in a rain-protected housing.

Specifically, it intent to achieve the following particular objectives:

1. To design and construct its main components namely:

a. An Azimuthal solar tracker device

b. A program code for the arcade coin acceptor

c. Switching mechanism for the coin acceptor

d. A circuitry of charge controller and solar battery

2. To conduct functional test for:

a. Azimuthal-axis solar tracker

b. The program code for the arcade coin acceptor

c. Switching mechanism for the coin acceptor and charging time

d. Filtering the voltage spike deployed by the solar battery


C.Applicable constraints

1. Economic

A tedious and careful use of resources for a research may be the

key in choosing the best design for the research (Economical, 2016). This

section will discuss different several costs like labor, material handling, energy

cost, and project implementation cost that will help the proponents decide

what design to be pursued from a financial perspective. This shows the

comparative model and breakdown of life cycle cost in between of design 1

which is Electric Linear Actuator and design 2 Gear Motor. According to

Pump school. (2007)., this formula can be used for compute the life cycle cost.

LCC= Cic + Cin + Ce + Co + Cm + Cs + Cenv+ Cd


Equation 1.1. Computation at Appendix B
Whereas:
LCC = life cycle cost
Cic = initial costs, purchase price
Cin = installation and commissioning costs
Ce = energy costs
Co = operating costs
Cm = maintenance and repair costs
Cs = downtime costs (loss of production)
Cenv = environmental costs
Cd = decommissioning/disposal costs

Table 1.2 Life Cycle Cost


Economics Design 1 Design 2

Life Cycle Cost Total Php 6457.7628 Php 7773.28

Standards for Economic

Cheap Production. ISO 20121:2012 Event Sustainability Management

Systems-is a management system standard that has been designed to help

organizations in the events of industry, businesses, and other entities improve

the sustainability of their event related activities, products and service.

Another is the ISO 10006:2003 Quality Management Systems-Guidelines

for Quality Management in Projects- is a standard that ensures the

satisfaction of both organizations and customers when it comes to

tailoring the necessitate guidance of particular projects and devices.

Positive Impact on Rural Sectors. ISO 2021:2012 Event Sustainability

Management Systems- this has a crucial process approach when it comes to

balancing economic activity, environmental responsibility, and social progress.

A development that meets the needs the need of the present without

compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own need.

Low Operation Costs and Maintenance. ISO 2021:2012 Event Sustainability

Management Systems- Consistent and predictable results are most likely to be

achieved when more effective and efficient activities are understood and

managed as interrelated processes that functions as a coherent system,

including: Enhanced ability to focus effort on key processes and opportunities


for improvement; Consistent and predictable outcomes through a system

aligned process, and; Optimize performance through effective process

management, efficient use of resources and reduced cross functional barriers.

2. Sustainability

The second constraint is the sustainability of the device.

Sustainability is the ability to be maintained at a certain level. The Linear

Actuator or the design A will undergo such conditions that requires

sustainability to withstand in countering weights and reaction with respect to

Geared Motor which is the design B that are being used. According to

Michael A. Lacasse, D. J. (1999)., This formula can be use to solve the

sustainability for both Design A (linear actuator ) and the Design B ( geared

motor ).

I. Life Span

Life Span of the design pertains to its length of functionality without failing

within 5 years. According to HodaRohani, A. K. (2013). This formula can

be used to solve the life span. This formula can be used to solve the life

span for both Design A (linear actuator) and the Design B (geared motor).

Also according to Slocum, Alexander A.K. (2011) load life equation can be

used in getting linear actuator life span.

L10 = ( Weight maximum / Actual weight )^3 x (1 x 10 ^ 6) revolution


% Life Span= (Linear Actuator Life Span / 5 years) x 100%

Equation 1.2 Computation (Appendix B)

Table 1.3 Life span

Sub- Constraint Design A Design B

Life Span 80.40% 80.4%

III. Total Sustainability

The overall percentage sustainability of the design.This

formula can be used to solve the Total sustainability for both Design A ( linear

actuator ) and the Design B ( geared motor ).

% Sustainability= (Summation of Percentage/ No. of

Parameters)

Equation 1.4 Computation (Appendix B)


Table 1.5 Sustainability

Constraint Design A Design B

% Sustainability 89.875% 85.2%

Standards for Sustainability

Longer life span

ISO 14621-1:2003 Space systems – Electrical, electronic and

electromechanical (EEE) parts

a. Focus on utilizing technologies with lowest life cycle cost and maximum

longevity.

ISO 281

ISO 2021:2012 Event Sustainability Management Systems

Sustainable development is about integrating the goals of a high

quality of life, health and prosperity with social justice and maintaining the

earth’s capacity to support life in all its diversity. These social, economic and

environmental goals are interdependent and mutually reinforcing. Sustainable

development can be treated as a way of expressing the broader expectations of

society as a whole.
Device is durable

IEEE Std 1656-2010 The guide provides the end user with test

recommendations to ensure that these products will not compromise the

dielectric performance of the supporting structure, will not cause premature

failure due to normal environmental conditions, and will minimize the

possibility of a momentary or permanent outage to the electrical system in the

event of wildfire interaction

3. Manufacturability

The availability of the components and materials, as well as the repair and

maintenance materials used in the project should be within the reach of local

market (Manufacturability, 2016). With the self-interest to develop this

project, the specialized components can be purchased through local electrical

and mechanical shops, and through international ordering. The proponents

decided to use the following sub-constraints to compare which design has the

better manufacturability.This shows the manufacturability between design 1

which is Electric Linear Actuator and design 2 Gear Motor. According to

Raaz, N.A. (2014)., this formula can be used to solve the manufacturability

between the two motors.

I. Time Span

Time span refers to the length of consumed time in purchasing and

ordering either local or online required materials to be used for design


fabrication.According toRaaz, N. A. (2014). this formula can be used to

solve the life span for both Design A (linear actuator) and the Design B (geared

motor).

Table 1.6 Time Span

Sub-constraints Design A Design B

% Time Span 14.29% 5.26%

% Time Span = [(ETS - ATS) / (ATS)] x 100%

Equation 1.5 Computation (Appendix B)

whereas:

ETS= Expected Time Span in days

ATS= Actual Time Span in days

II. Availability

Availability refers to the characteristic of a resource that is committable,

operable, or usable upon demand to perform its designated or required

function. According to . Paul Barringer, P. (1997)., This formula can be used

to obtain the availability of the motors.this formula can be used to solve the

time span for both Design A (linear actuator) and the Design B (geared motor).
% Availability = [ Purchase Time / ( Purchase Time + Order Time ) ] x

100%

Equation 1.6 Computations (Appendix B)

Sub-constraints Design A Design B

% Availability 100% 100%

Table 1.7 Availability

whereas:

PT= Purchased Time Span in days

OT= Ordered Time Span in days

III. Minimal Material

Material minimality pertains to which design has the less materials

being used in fabricating the design model. According to Raaz, N. A. (2014).

This formula can be used to obtain the material minimality of the materials.this

formula can be used to solve the life span for both Design A (linear actuator)

and the Design B (geared motor).


% Material Minimality= (Number of Planned Materials-Number of Used

Materials/Number of Used Materials) x 100%

Equation 1.7 Computation (Appendix B)

Table 1.8 Minimal Material

Sub-constraints Design A Design B

% Minimal Material 33.33% 12.25 %

VI. Total Manufacturability

The overall percentage manufacturability of the designs. According to

Raaz, N. A. (2014)., This formula can be used to obtain the total

manufacturability.

% Manufacturability= (Summation of Percentage/ No. of Parameters)

Equation 1.8 Computation (Appendix B)

Table 1.9 Manufacturability

Sub-Constraints Design A Design B


% Manufacturability 49.21% 39.25%

Standards for Manufacturability

Availability of Materials. ASQ/ANSI/ISO 9001:2015 Quality

Management Systems- Needs to demonstrate its ability to consistently provide

products and services that meet customer and applicable statutory and

regulatory requirements and aims to enhance customer satisfaction through the

effective application of the system, including processes for improvement of the

system and the assurance of conformity to customer and applicable regulatory

requirements.

ISO 9001-Clause 7.5.1 Control of Production and Service Provision-

The organization shall plan and carry out production and service provision

under controlled conditions. The availability and use of monitoring and

measuring equipment. Another, is to establish teaming partnerships with key

suppliers to improve delivery and lower cost.

ISO 14621-1:2003 Space Systems-Electrical, Electronic and

Electromechanical (EEE) Parts- It is to eliminate redundant efforts and non-

value added evaluations. Realize significant cost reduction on existing and new

programs. Focus on utilizing technologies with lowest life cycle cost and

maximum longevity.
Easy to Build. ISO 9001-Clause 7.5.1 Control of Production and

Service Provision- The organization shall plan and carry out production and

service provision under controlled conditions: a) the availability of information

that describes the characteristics of the product; b) the availability of work

instructions as necessary; c) the use of suitable equipment, and; d) the

availability and use of monitoring and measuring equipment.

Few Materials are Needed.ISO 2021:2012 Event Sustainability

Management Systems- Consistent and predictable results are most likely to be

achieved when more effective and efficient activities are understood and

managed as interrelated processes that functions as a coherent system,

including: Enhanced ability to focus effort on key processes and opportunities

for improvement; Consistent and predictable outcomes through a system

aligned process, and; Optimize performance through effective process

management, efficient use of resources and reduced cross functional barriers.

Materials are Cheap. ASQ/ANSI/ISO 9001:2015 Quality

Management Systems- It covers the needs to demonstrate its ability to

consistently provide products and services that meet customer and applicable

statutory and regulatory requirements. ISO Economic Benefit of Standards-

“Low cost manufacturing” is a company value driver, standards used in the

production processes that contribute directly to this capability are likely to have

greater impact. Similarly, if “innovative, superior-quality products” is a


company value driver, standards used in engineering that contribute to this goal

are presumed to have higher impact, and so on.

Result and Discussion

The computation will be found at the appendix B

Table 1.5 Intensity of Importance

Intensity of
Importance Definition Explanation

1 Equal Importance Two activities contribute equally to


the objective
2 Moderate Experience and judgement slightly
importance favor one activity over another
3 Strong importance Experience and judgement strongly
favor one activity over another
4 Very strong An activity is favored very strongly
importance over another; its dominance
demonstrated in practice
5 Extreme importance The evidence favoring one activity
over another is of the highest
possible order of affirmation

Table 1.6 Results

Realistic Level of Importance Design A Design B


Constrain
Economic 5 4.165 4.0285
Sustainability 5 4.494 4.26
Manufacturability 5 2.1825 1.9625
Total 15 10.8415 10.251

Cost Benefit Analysis


The researchers used the cost benefit analysis in order to assess the

strengths and weaknesses of each design. Achieving the best benefits while

maintaining the quality and minimizing the cost of the design is best approach

through the use of this analysis. Also, the cost benefit analysis will help in

determining which device is worthwhile. The proponents conduct canvassing

of the required materials to be used to know the current prices in the market

and in the online store. The present worth method is used in analyzing the cost

and benefit of the compared designs. This method is used to compare the two

designs and evaluate which design has the best advantage that will meet the

desired output. The computations will be found in Appendix B.

Thus, the data results show that Design A is better than Design B for the

cost on making the overall device.

Appendix A

Cost Benefit Analysis

Costing

The expenses in constructing the coin operated solar charging station are

shown in Table 1.7 and 1.8.

Table 1.7 Expenses for the design A

DESCRIPTION QUANTITY UNIT PRICE AMOUNT


Monocrystalline Solar Panel
1 P4,250.00 P4,250.00
10W

Solar Charge Controller 1 P764.00 P764.00

Deep Cycle 12V Battery 1 P8,350.00 P8,350.00


Linear Actuator 4 P2501 P10,004.00
LDR 4 P15.00 P60.00
Arduino Uno 2 P600.00 P1,200.00
Bearings 4 P50.00 P200
Motor Shield 1 P500.00 P500.00
PV connectors 2 P291.00 P582.00
AC Inverter 1 P5500.00 P5,500.00

Coin Acceptor 4 P799.00 P3,196.00

Miscellaneous --- --- P7,000.00


Total: P 41,606.00

Table 1. 8 Expenses for the design B

DESCRIPTION QUANTITY UNIT PRICE AMOUNT


Monocrystalline Solar
1 P4,250.00 P4,250.00
Panel 10W
Solar Charge Controller 1 P764.00 P764.00

Deep Cycle 12V Battery 1 P8,350.00 P8,350.00

L298N H-Bridge Motor


2 P450.00 P900.00
Driver

LDR 4 P15.00 P60.00

Arduino Uno 2 P600.00 P1200.00

PV connectors 2 P291.00 P582.00


Geared Motor 2 P4700 P9,400.00

Coin Acceptor 4 P799.00 P3,196.00

AC Inverter 1 P4000.00 P4,000.00


Miscellaneous --- --- P7,000 .00
Total: P39,702.00

APPENDIX B

(Realistic Constraints Computation)

I. Realistic Constraints from design A

1. Economic

Energy Cost per Year = (I*E /1000)*hours/day* days*generation charge=

(3*12/1000) (24/day)(365)( 4.8218)= P1520.6028


Operating Cost = (3*12/1000)*hours/day*generation charge=(36*1000)

(24/day)( 4.8218)=P 4.16

LCC = Cic + Cin + Ce + Co + Cm + Cs + Cenv+ Cd

= P 2501 + P 300 + P1520.603+ P 4.16 + P 500 + P 130 + P 2 + P1500

= P 6457.7628

Economic Design 1

Initial Cost P 2 501


(Purchase Price)

Installation and Commissioning Cost P 300


Energy Cost per year P 1520.6028

Operating Cost P 4.16

Maintenance and Repair Cost P 500


Downtime Cost(loss of production) P130

Environmental Costs P2

Decommissioning/Disposal Cost P1500

Total Php 6457.7628

Economics:

LCC / Total Cost

(6457.7628/ 40 000 )100%= 16.14%

100 % - 16.14 % = 83.86 %


0.8386 * 5 = 4.165

2. Sustainability

L10 = ( Weight maximum / Actual weight ) x (1 x 10 ^ 6) revolution

L10 = ( 750 / 28 * 9.81 ) ^3 x ( 1 x 10^6)

L10 = (20356479.59 revolution / 0.3211 rev per sec) x 1/ 15768000

 Life Span

% Life Span = ( Design’s Life Span / 5 years) x 100%

Where:

Design Life Span = 4 years

Standard Linear Actuator Life Span = 5

% Life Span = 4.4 / 5 = 84 %

 Durability

Gears life span = 3.5

% Durability of Gear= (gear / 4years) x 100%

% Durability of Gear= (3.5 / 4years) x 100% = 87.5%

Aluminum Life Span = 4.8

% Durability of Aluminum = ( aluminum rod / 5 years) x 100%


% Durability of Aluminum = ( 4.8 / 5 years) x 100% = 96 %

% Durability = [(Durability of Gear) + (Durability of Aluminum

Rod)] / 2

% Durability = [(87.5) + (96)] / 2 = 91.75

 Sustainability

Sustainability = ( Life Span + Durability ) / 2

= ( 88 + 91.75 ) = 89.875 %

Sub- Constraint Design A

Life Span 88%

Durability 91.75%

% Sustainability 89.875%

0.89875 * 5 = 4.494 %

3. Manufacturability

Sub-Constraints Design A

Time Span 14.29%

Availability 100%

Minimal Material 33.33%

% Manufacturability 49.21%
% Time Span = [(ETS - ATS) / (ATS)] x 100%

ETS= 140 days

ATS=112 days

%Time Span= [ (140days – 112 days) / (112 days) ] x 100%

%Time Span= 25%

% Availability = [ PT / ( PT + OT ) ] x 100%

PT=1 day

OT= 0 day

% Availability = [ 1day / (1 day + 0day) ] x 100%

% Availability =100 %

% Material Minimality= (Number of Planned Materials-Number of

Used Materials/Number of Used Materials) x 100%

Number of Planned Materials=8

Number of Used Materials= 6

% Material Minimality= ( 8 – 6 )/ (6 ) x 100%

% Material Minimality= 33.33 %


%Summation of Percentage = (%Time Span + % Availability + % Material

Minimality) / 3

= (14.29% + 100% + 16.67%)/3

=43.65%

Level of importance = 5(0.4365) = 2.1825%

II. Realistic Constraints from design B

1. Economic

Energy Cost per Year = (EI/1000)*hours/day* days*generation charge=

((5)( 12 )/1000) (24/day)(365)( 4.8218)= P2534.34

Operating Cost = (I2R/1000)*hours/day*generation charge=(5*12)/(1000)

(12/day)(365)( 4.8218)=P 6.94

LCC = Cic + Cin + Ce + Co + Cm + Cs + Cenv+ Cd

= P 2501 + P 300 + P2534.34 + P 6.94 + P 500 + P 130 + P 2 + P1500=

P 7773.2

Economic Design 2

Initial Cost P 2 700.00


(Purchase Price)

Installation and Commissioning Cost P 400


Energy Cost per year P2534.34

Operating Cost P6.94


Maintenance and Repair Cost P500

Downtime Cost P130


(loss of production)

Environmental Costs P2

Decommissioning/ P1500
Disposal Cost

Total Php 7773.28

Economics

LCC / Total Cost

(7773.28 / 40 000 )100%= 19.43 %

100 % - 19.43% = 80.57 %

0.8057 * 5 = 4.0285

2. Sustainability

 Life Span

% Life Span = ( Design’s Life Span / 5 years) x 100%


Where:

Design Life Span = 4.02 years

Standard Linear Actuator Life Span = 5

% Life Span = 4.02/5 = 80.4%

Sub- Constraint Design B

Life Span 80.4 %

Durability 90%

% Sustainability 85.2%

 Durability

Shaft life span = 3.6

% Durability of shaft= (shaft/ 4years) x 100%

% Durability of shaft= (3.6 / 4years) x 100% = 90%

 Sustainability

Sustainability = ( Life Span + Durability ) / 2

= ( 80.4 + 90)/2 = 85.2 %

Sustainability

0.852 * 5 = 4.26 %

3. Manufacturability
% Time Span = [(ETS - ATS) / (ATS)] x 100%

ETS= 140 days

ATS=133 days

%Time Span= [ (140 days – 133 days) / (133 days) ] x 100%

%Time Span= 5.26%

Sub-Constraints Design B

Time Span 5.26%

Availability 100%

Minimal Material 12.5%

% Manufacturability 39.25%

% Availability = [ PT / ( PT + OT ) ] x 100%

PT=1 day

OT= 0 day

% Availability = [ 1day / (1 day + 0day) ] x 100%

% Availability =100 %

% Material Minimality= (Number of Planned Materials-Number of

Used Materials/Number of Used Materials) x 100%

Number of Planned Materials=9


Number of Used Materials= 8

% Material Minimality= ( 9 – 8 / 8 ) x 100%

% Material Minimality= 12.5 %

%Summation of Percentage = (%Time Span + % Availability + % Material

Minimality) / 3

= (5.26% + 100% + 12.5%)/3=39.25%

Level of importance = 5(0.3925) = 1.9625