You are on page 1of 81

I.E.S.

Nº 28

"Olga Cossettini"

CURSO INTRODUCTORIO OBLIGATORIO


Profesorado de Inglés

2018
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

Materials design

Selection and Organization of Material

Part 1: English Sessions


Prof. Nardone, Magalí
Prof. Neirotti, Alejandrina
Prof. Premoli, Florencia

Part 2: Academic Areas

Grammar
Prof. Del Greco, Verónica
Prof. Lavagna, Ana María
Prof. Sánchez, Lilia

Language
Prof. Aramburu, Soledad
Prof. Tobler, Elina
Prof. Viale, Florencia

Phonology
Prof. Racelis, Marcela

Social Studies
Prof. Mestre, Claudia

2
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

Contents

Part 1: English Sessions

Unit 1 -------------------------------------------------------------- pages 4-12

Unit 2 -------------------------------------------------------------- pages 13-14

Unit 3 -------------------------------------------------------------- pages 15-23

Unit 4 -------------------------------------------------------------- pages 24-26

Unit 5 -------------------------------------------------------------- pages 27-33

Unit 6 -------------------------------------------------------------- pages 34-40

Unit 7 -------------------------------------------------------------- pages 41-45

Unit 8 -------------------------------------------------------------- pages 46-49

Bibliography ------------------------------------------------------ page 50

Part 2: Academic Areas

English Grammar …………………………………………...........… pages 51-60

English Phonology …………………………………………............ pages 61-64

English Language ……….…………………………………............ pages 65-69

Social Studies .………………………………………………............. pages 70-81

3
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

Part 1: English Sessions

UNIT 1 – LIFESTYLES
1. READING COMPREHENSION

1.1 Look at photos 1-4. What kind of lifestyle do you think they have? What do you think a typical day is like
for each person? Think about:

a. when they do things like having meals


b. where they go and how they travel
c. who they see
d. what they do to relax
e. how they feel at various times of the day

1.2 You are going to read an article about four people’s daily lives. For questions 1-10, choose from the people
(A-D). The people may be chosen more than once.

Which person

sometimes sleeps in the early afternoon? 1

thinks they ought to do more frequent exercise? 2

says they have their best ideas late in their working day? 3

has to hurry to catch the train to work? 4

does not always get up at the same time every day? 5

dislikes working later than they should do? 6

believes exercise helps them prepare for the day ahead? 7

is now more relaxed at work? 8

chooses not to follow local tradition? 9

enjoys answering questions from customers? 10

4
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

Different lives
A B
University student Jake Harris is in his first For Assistant Sales Manager Julia Anderson,
year. ‘Assuming I don’t oversleep, which can each day begins at 6.30 a.m. with a quick
happen, I’m out of bed by 7.45. If there’s shower, a few minutes to get ready, and then a
time, I have some tea and toast, then set off. I dash to the station to catch the 7.15 into
used to aim for the 8.25 train, but I kept Manhattan. By eight o’clock she’s at her
missing it so nowadays I do the uphill walk workstation. ‘I need to be there then, before
into town, which wakes me up and enables me the salespeople start arriving. I spend the rest
to plan what I’m going to do in the morning of the morning in meetings and dealing with
and afternoon. From nine till one it’s lessons client queries, which for me is one of the most
and a group activity, with a quick break at interesting, challenging and worthwhile
eleven to grab something to keep me going till aspects of the job. Then it’s out for a quick
lunch. The afternoon is similar to the morning, lunch- my first meal of the day- and back to
really. After that I sometimes head for the work at 1 p.m., followed by more of the same
gym, but not as often as I should. Once I get up to 5 p.m. That’s how things are here: you
home I work for a few hours and later- if I’m have to keep to a tight schedule. At first I
not feeling too exhausted- I go out with found working here pretty stressful, but I’m
friends. I’ve met some fascinating people here! used to it now and it doesn’t bother me’

C D
Website Designer Oliver McShane works at Anita Ramos is a Tourist Guide who works
home, and, unsurprisingly, is a late riser: mornings and evenings. ‘It’s just too hot to
‘rolling out of bed’, as he puts it, ‘at 9 a.m.’ walk around the city in the afternoon’, she
Switching on his laptop, his first task is to says, ‘so I spend it at home. It’s the custom
answer any early-morning emails, and then he here to have a sleep after lunch, but I haven’t
carries on from where he left off the previous got time for that. In any case, I’m not tired
evening. ‘If I have a creative peak’, he says, then because I don’t get up particularly early.
‘that’s when it is, and it takes me a while to When I do, I usually skip breakfast, though
get going again the next day. Whenever I’ve sometimes I have cereal or something. Then
stayed up working very late, I make up for it it’s off to the office before heading downtown
by having a 20-minute-lie-down after lunch. to wherever I’m meeting the first group. I take
Then when I wake up, I feel refreshed and four or five groups out before lunch and I’m
ready for another long working session. supposed to finish around 2 p.m., though
Occasionally I pack my laptop and sit in a café there always seems to be someone in the last
for a while, although I can get distracted from group who asks lots of questions, which can
work if I run into someone I know’. be a bit irritating if I end up doing unpaid
overtime. It also means I risk missing the 2.15
train home’.

5
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

2. USE OF ENGLISH

1. I started writing this composition hours ago and it’s still not right. FOR

I ___________________________________hours and it’s still not right.

2. Do you have any plans for next Wednesday evening? DOING

What _____________________________next Wednesday evening?

3. Tom has the annoying habit of biting his nails. ALWAYS

Tom _____________________________ his nails. It’s really annoying.

4. During my visit to London, I took hundreds of photos. WHILE


I took hundreds of photos ____________________________ London.

5. I didn’t notice that my passport was missing until I reached the immigration desk. LOST
When I reached the immigration desk, I noticed that ____________________________ my passport.

6. Paolo is no longer as frightened of spiders as in the past. USED


Paolo ____________________________ frightened of spiders than he is now.

7. I haven’t spoken to him since the weekend. LAST


I ____________________________ the weekend.

8. We’ve arranged to meet Jim and Beth at the café at 4.15. ARE

We ___________________________________ Jim and Beth at the café at 4.15.

9. Quiet! The film will start in a few seconds. ABOUT

Quiet! The film ________________________________ start.

10. All my work will be finished by the time you arrive. I

By the time you arrive, ________________________________ all my work.

6
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

3. LISTENING
3.1 Discuss

Imagine that you had a dream where you were standing on the edge
of a precipice. What sort of dream would it be for you?

a. an exciting one
b. a nightmare
c. an interesting one, which you might try to interpret.

What do you think your answer says about your attitude to risk?

3.2. Listen to six people answering the question Are you a risk taker? How many of the speakers consider
themselves risk takers?

3.3. Listen again and complete with the correct number of the speaker.

WHO…?
says that some activities are enjoyable because they are a bit risky

thinks that his/her attitude to risk is different from what it was before

thinks that taking risks means losing control

had to pay some money because of his/her risky behaviour

worries about his/her personal safety

does something which most people think of as a very risky, but which he/she says is not

3.4. Listen again for more detail and answer these questions:

a. What examples of risks do the speakers say they would take, or have taken?
b. What things wouldn’t they do?
c. Do you identify with any of the speakers? Why?

4. SPEAKING

4.1. Work with a partner.

A interviews B with the questions in the circles. For each circle, write R if you think that in that area B is
prepared to take risks. Then B interviews A with the questions in the squares.

7
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

SPORTS AND APPEARANCE


ACTIVITIES
Have you ever done
Have you ever done any something dramatically
dangerous sports or different to your
activities? Did you enjoy appearance, e.g. had a
them? Would you do very different hairstyle or
them again? hair colour, a tattoo, or a
Would you do a
piercing? How did you feel
parachute jump
immediately afterwards?
or a bungee jump
Did you regret it later?
for charity?

ON THE ROAD

HEALTH Do you normally cross


the road at a traffic
light or zebra crossing,
Do you have any bad habits
or just anywhere?
that you know are not good
for your health? Have you
ever tried to give up the
Do you cycle in
habits? Do you worry about
your town or city?
them?
How safe do you
feel?
Do you walk by
yourself late at night
or get late night taxis?

SHOPPING
Do you drive a car or
Do you ever buy
ride a motorbike? Do
things online? Have
you ever go really fast
you ever had a bad
and break the speed
experience?
limit?
Do you buy clothes
online? Are there
any kinds of clothes
you wouldn’t buy
RELATIONSHIPS
online?
Do you think you
Would you ever buy a would go out with…?
second-hand car or a. sb from another
bike on e-Bay (or a country
similar website)? b. sb you had met
online
8
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

TRAVEL WORK AND STUDY


Do you normally
Do you think you
take out insurance
would go out with
when you travel?
someone who was
Would you take a job much older (or
Have you ever (with a two-year much younger)
travelled somewhere contract) in an English- than you?
without having speaking country, e.g.
booked somewhere to the US or the UK?
stay in advance?

If you are travelling Have you ever cheated in an


somewhere, do you exam? Were you worried
normally get to the about getting caught?
station or airport with Would you ever cheat in a
plenty of time or at the very important exam?
last minute?

Would you go on
Do you normally start
holiday abroad on
revising for an exam
your own?
in good time or do
you leave it until the
last minute?

2.2 Look at what you have written in the circles/squares. What do your partner’s answers suggest about
his/her lifestyle? Does he/she agree?

9
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

5. WRITING

The topic sentence

The topic of a paragraph is usually introduced in a sentence; this sentence is called the topic sentence. However,
the topic sentence can do more than introduce the subject of the paragraph. A good topic sentence also serves
to state an idea or an attitude about the topic. This idea or attitude about the topic is called the controlling idea.

The topic sentence can be developed by means of:

 specific details (to provide some information or explanation about the controlling idea).

 examples (to make the controlling idea clearer and more convincing).

 illustrations and anecdotes (extended examples).

5.1 Read the following text and say which arguments have been presented in each paragraph.

5.2 Identify the topic sentences and say whether they clearly summarise the content of each paragraph. How
has each topic sentence been supported?

‘Greater freedom does not necessarily lead to greater happiness’ Discuss.

Over the years, mankind has recognised the need for personal and social freedom, and this is perhaps one of the
most important social advancements ever made. However, whether it has led to increased personal happiness is
highly debatable; many people would argue that greater freedom has led to increased social disorder and
personal dissatisfaction.

Firstly, it is true that people are now more at liberty to choose how to live their lives. For example, in the
western world at least, the choice of where to live, what career to pursue and which religion to follow has never
been greater. On the other hand it could be argued that this increased freedom can lead people to take things
for granted and expect too much from life. As an example of this, the greater choice of material goods available
has resulted in people growing bored with their possessions.

Secondly, social and moral attitudes have become less rigid. This has allowed for a greater variety of lifestyles in
human relations. This is illustrated by the fact that pupils and teachers now treat each other as equals; parent-
child relationships are now much more relaxed. Nevertheless, some people believe that this increase in freedom
has resulted in the escalation of social problems. They argue that the current lack of discipline has given rise to a
breakdown in the traditional family and the decay in educational standards as well as the rise in juvenile
delinquency.

To conclude, there is evidence both to support and refute the view that greater freedom does not necessarily
lead to greater happiness. On the one hand, people have more opportunities to raise their standard of living. On
the other hand, although people may be free, they are not necessarily happier.

10
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

5.3 Choose the supporting sentence (1-6) which follows each of the topic sentences (a-f) in the way given in
brackets.

1. Being a rock star is not always easy. (example)

2. There are many advantages to living in a foreign country. (explanation)

3. Most teenagers, nowadays, find it difficult to concentrate for long periods of time. (reason)

4. Tobacco companies argue that since their products are legally sold, they have the right to communicate
information about them, in other words, advertising. (Additional information)

5. Exercise should be an important part of everyone’s weekly routine. (opinion)

6. As technology advances humans are becoming redundant. (result)

a. In my view this would help all of us to become happier in life.

b. They also argue that their advertisements are not intended to cause people to start smoking, but to cause
smokers to switch brands.

c. Firstly, it gives you the opportunity to experience an entirely different way of life, which can be a valuable
form of education. Secondly, …

d. This means that within a couple of years there will be a rise in unemployment rates.

e. This is mainly because of the heavy use of technology which urges them to keep checking their mobile phones
for new messages.

f. For instance, they are all the time travelling all over the world giving concerts.

5.4 WRITING AN ESSAY


5.4.1. Read the following task.
Your teacher has asked you to write an essay on the following statement: ‘Children spend too much time
watching television.’
Write an essay of 120 - 180 words.

11
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

5.4.2 Read the model answer and write a topic sentence for paragraph 2 and supporting ideas for paragraph
3.

Nowadays many homes have more than one television, and some
children even have a TV in their bedrooms. It is not surprising,
then, that statistics show that watching television is the most
popular leisure activity for the majority of children.

___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
Children need time to relax after school, and most children’s
programmes are certainly very entertaining. Furthermore, some
television programmes, especially documentaries and news
programmes, are educational and informative, and can contribute to
a child’s education.

Having said that, many children’s programmes are of poor quality,


and children learn nothing from them. _____________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

To sum up, I believe that parents should limit the amount of time
that children spend in front of the television to one or two hours
a day. Otherwise, we run the risk of creating generations of
unhealthy and ill-educated young adults.

12
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

UNIT 2 – HEALTH
1. DISCUSS THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS
 Some people believe we should just enjoy ourselves and not worry about our health. What do you
think?
 Do you think health care should be freely available to everybody?
 At what age do you think schools should start educating children about healthy living?
 Do you think our attitudes to healthy living change as we get older?
 Do you think it’s good for our health to take regular holidays?
 Some people say that laughter is sometimes the best form of medicine. How far do you agree?

2. LISTENING

You are going to listen to five people talking about a visit to their family doctor. For speakers 1-5, choose from
the list (A-H) what each speaker says about their visit. Use the letters only once. There are three extra letters
which you do not need to use.

A I wasn’t given enough attention by the doctor at first. SPEAKER 1 ___

B I was told by the doctor that I needed to relax.


SPEAKER 2 ___
C I was irritated by what the doctor said.

D I wish I hadn’t gone to the doctor at all. SPEAKER 3 ___

E I felt better after the visit.


SPEAKER 4 ___
F I asked for a specialist to deal with my problem.

G I agreed with the doctor’s diagnosis. SPEAKER 5 ___

H I arrived late for my doctor’s appointment.

13
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

3. WRITING

3.1. Look at the following task.

In your English class, you have been talking about whether modern lifestyles are healthy or not.

Now your English teacher has asked you to write an essay.

Essay question

Modern lifestyles can seriously endanger our health. Do you agree?

3.2. Work in pairs. Look at the following ideas which may be included in the essay. Discuss and note down three
healthy/unhealthy aspects for each discussion point.

 The environment and health  free-time activities


 diet  technology
 work activities

3.3. Read the model answer below and check if any of your ideas are mentioned.

It seems strange that although we know a lot about how to live healthily, many people continue to do things
which may be harmful to their health.

There are many parts of our lifestyles which enable us to live healthily. For instance, we all know the importance
of eating a balanced diet and taking regular exercise. Moreover, in rich countries we have easy access to good-
quality fresh food and suitable sports facilities, so it should be easy to adopt healthy living habits.

However, there are things which prevent people from having a healthy lifestyle. For example, industry and
traffic have led to serious environmental pollution. What is more, we spend a lot of time sitting down, and this
often means we have less time for activities which keep us fit. For example, there are many people who spend
many hours sitting in front of computers working, studying, or playing computer games. In addition, many
people do not eat the right sort of food.

3.4. Read the concluding paragraphs and decide which one is most suitable for the essay in exercise 2.2. Why?

A.
All in all, I believe that we have to find ways of living which are as healthy as possible. Also, I think people should
try to drive more carefully.

B.
In conclusion, I would agree with the statement because although we have plenty of opportunities to follow a
healthy lifestyle, in practice we often choose a less healthy alternative.

C.
To summarise, modern lifestyles have good and bad aspects, but the lifestyle we choose depends on us.
However, often our health depends on factors which we cannot control.

14
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

UNIT 3 – THE ENVIRONMENT

1. SPEAKING

1.1 Answer these questions

Which of the following occur in your


country?
droughts floods avalanches
Have you ever experienced any of these?
hurricanes earthquakes tornados
What was it like?
What are the worst weather conditions you volcanic eruptions
have had to endure? How did you feel?
Why do you think natural disasters occur?

2. READING COMPREHENSION

2.1. The following film posters show natural disaster films. Look at them and discuss these questions.

Have you seen any of these films?


If so, did you enjoy it/them? Why/ why not?
If not, do you think you would enjoy any of them? Why/ Why not?

2.2 You are going to read an article about natural disaster films. For questions 1-10 choose from the films (A-
E). The films may be chosen more than once.

What a disaster!
James Borja reviews five natural disaster movies from his DVD collection

A Dante’s Peak (1997)


I read the novel, which is based on the script, before watching the film
itself. But it was the positive opinions I’d seen online, rather than the
book, that persuaded me to buy the DVD. And I was not disappointed.
The plot of Dante’s Peak, starring Pierce Brosnan and Linda Hamilton, is
built around a spectacular volcanic eruption, which brings disaster to a
small town in the Cascade Mountains in North America. But what
impressed me most about this film was the quality of the lead
performances, rather than the volcano and all the visual effects. For once, I really cared about the fate of
the main characters. I even wanted their dog to survive!

15
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

B Twister ( 1996)
Helen Hunt and Bill Paxton star as meteorologists who put their lives at risk by
chasing tornados, or ‘twisters’, in order to try out a new piece of technology. If you
watch this film hoping for a complex storyline, you’ll be disappointed. It’s obvious
from the start who will fall victim to a twister, and there are no surprises in the
central love story, either. What makes this movie are the special effects. The
tornadoes are frighteningly realistic and, unlike in numerous other films of this
genre which slowly build up to a dramatic climax, they appear from the very
beginning. Watch out for the flying cow and airborne petrol tanker: if they’d made
this film in 3D, cinema audiences would have run for the exit at the sight of them.

C The Perfect Storm (2000)


I couldn’t put the novel down when I was reading it, and the film
adaptation gripped me in the same way. First there’s the gradual build-
up as the film explores the relationships of the crew being put together
by Captain Billy Tyne (George Clooney) for one final fishing trip in the
season. Then comes the suspense as three storm fronts, including a
hurricane, move together while the boat is at sea, eventually colliding to
create a ‘perfect storm’. The special effects are so well done, my first impression was that I was watching
a real storm. And if I hadn’t seen the special features on the DVD afterwards, I’d probably still think they
hadn’t employed any visual tricks.

D Earthquake (1974)
If you can put up with the fact that the Sensurround effect, which made cinema
seats shake in the seventies, cannot be recreated on the DVD in your lounge,
then this all-star classic still has plenty to offer. Computer Generated Imagery
(CGI) was yet to be developed, but the special effects are still impressive,
creating a number of unforgettable, if slightly disagreeable moments. Deaths are
frequent and this is not a cosy family film to put your feet up with on a Sunday
afternoon. And the final scene might not be what you’re expecting. It certainly
didn’t turn out the way I thought it would.

E The Day After Tomorrow (2004)


If you combined all the extreme weather scenes of every natural disaster movie
ever made, you would end up with something like this film. It has everything:
hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, tidal waves, blizzards and even giant hailstones,
all caused by global warming. Pure fantasy, of course, but it’s all good fun, and
as long as you see it as that and don’t look for any deeper message, you should
enjoy the film. I always find it works better for me if I watch it during a storm or
when it’s snowing outside. It adds a touch of realism to the experience!

16
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

I found the film just as absorbing as the book.


1
The level of the acting was the main reason I enjoyed this film.
2
The plot is predictable.
3
The ending of the film may come as a surprise.
4
I had read good reviews of the film before I saw it.
5
I initially thought that no special effects had been used in the film.
6
I enjoy seeing this film in certain weather conditions
7
The structure of the film differs from that of many other disaster movies.
8
The film should not be taken too seriously.
9
There are several scenes which are both memorable and rather
unpleasant. 10

2.3. Here are some phrases related to natural disasters, weather and climate. Match a word from the list (a-j)
with a word which collocates (1-9)

A) torrential 1. defences

B) high 2. freezing

C) ice 3. forecast

D) sea 4. cap

E) below 5.rain

F) long-range 6. tide

G) ozone 7. wave

H) heat 8. footprint

I) carbon 9. layer

2.4. Complete this blog with some of the collocations from exercise 2.

It may be the start of spring here, but no one seems to have told the weather! We’ve just had a severe
storm which even ripped roofs from houses. What’s more, there has been 1._____________________
which has caused flood alerts to be issued from some areas. This makes you really believe what they say
about the 2. _____________________ melting- floods seem to have been in the news a lot more over the
last year or so. Coastal areas have been prone to flooding too- this spring, 3. _____________________
have been at record levels in the Severn estuary. This means 4. _____________________ have been

17
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

breached and waves have rolled into some village centres. As if all this wasn’t enough, night temperatures
have been 5.___________________ all week, leaving gardeners stuck as to what they should do with their
spring plants.

3. USE OF ENGLISH – CONDITIONALS

3.1. These are sentences taken from the reading about natural disaster films. Read them and try to remember
the full sentence. Complete them and then check with the text.

1. It…………………………………………… if I watch it during a storm.

2. If you watch this film hoping for a complex storyline, you…………………………………...........................

3. If you combined all the extreme weather scenes of every natural disaster movie ever made, you
………………………………………………

4. If they …………………………………………………, cinema audiences would have run for the exit at the sight of them.

5. If I …………………………………………. on the DVD afterwards, I’d probably still think they hadn’t employed any
visual tricks.

3.2. Identify the different type of conditionals and complete the chart with the examples from the
previous exercise.

………………… A possible situation in the future and its likely result. example

Conditional

………………… An imaginary situation in the past, with speculation about example


its effect on past events or situations.
Conditional

……………….. A situation in which one event always occurs as the result example
of another.
Conditional

………………... An imaginary situation in the past, with speculation about example


its effects in the present.
Conditional

……………….. A present or past/future situation which the speaker example


considers to be unlikely or impossible.
Conditional

18
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

3.3. Match the sentence beginnings (1-10) with the endings (a-j).

1. If you go to Sydney,
2. If the red light is flashing on the camera,
3. If you could change your career,
4. If only you’d got here earlier,
5. If I were you,
6. If the red light had been flashing on my camera,
7. Should these symptoms persist,
8. Unless we get up at 5 am
9. Let’s take the underground,
10. Provided you’ve got a map,

a) I would have changed the batteries.


b) change the batteries.
c) otherwise we’ll get stuck in traffic.
d) I’d buy the biggest suitcase.
e) you would have seen the most amazing thing.
f) we’ll get stuck in traffic.
g) you’ll love the harbour and the Opera House.
h) you shouldn’t get lost.
i) go and see your doctor.
j) what would you do?

3.4. Complete the sentence with the correct conditional.

1. If the weather ________________ (stay) good next weekend, we ________________ (probably/go) away
somewhere.

2. Why didn’t you phone us? If I ________________ (know) you were coming, I ________________ (could/
prepare) something special to eat.

3. I ________________ (not/do) a bungee jump even if you ________________ (pay) me a million pounds, so
stop trying to persuade me.

4. I thought this might happen. If you ________________ (take) my advice, you ________________ (not/be) in
this mess now.

5. Stop being naughty! I ________________ (send) you to bed early unless you ________________ (start)
behaving yourself right now!

6. It was very kind of you. I don’t know what I ________________ (do) yesterday if you ________________
(not/help) me.

7. My printer’s getting old now, but it ________________ (usually/ work) all right if you ________________
(feed) the paper in manually.

19
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

8. I ________________ (go) to the cinema more often if I ________________ (have) the time, but unfortunately
it’s just not possible.

9. Only if we ________________ (start) recycling, we ________________ (solve) the problem of waste.

10. As long as the rain ________________ (continue), we ________________ (not play)

3.5. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word
given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given.

1. It’s a good thing I spoke to you or I would have forgotten her birthday.
IF

I would have forgotten her birthday ____________________________ to you.

2. I only wrote the letter because my mother made me do it.


HAVE

If my mother hadn’t made me do it, ____________________________ the letter.

3. I will help you only if you tidy your room.


NOT

I will ____________________________ tidy your room.

4. You can borrow it, but you must return it to me next week.
LONG

You can borrow it ____________________________ it back to me next week.

5. The sea isn’t calm enough for us to be able to go out in the boat today.
SO

If the sea wasn’t ____________________________ able to go out in the boat today.

6. He is afraid of heights, so he won't come climbing.


WERE

If he ____________________________, he would come climbing.

7. Unless you make some serious mistakes, I’m sure you’ll do well in the interview.

PROVIDED

I’m sure you’ll do well in the interview, ______________________________ any serious mistakes.

20
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

8. No matter how hard you work, you’ll never earn much money as a lawyer.
EVEN
You’ll never earn much money as a lawyer, ______________________________ really hard.

9. He is very rich today because he bought shares in an oil company.


BE
If he hadn’t bought shares in an oil company, he ____________________________ today.

10. Bring your sun lotion because a heat wave is possible.


CASE
Bring your sun lotion ____________________________ a heat wave.

4. LISTENING COMPREHENSION

4.1. Listen to a radio programme about Mick Davidson, an animal rights activist, and
decide whether a-c are true or false.

a. Davidson was involved in an attack on a research laboratory last night.

b. Davidson is a member of an organization called the Animal Defence Group.

c. Davidson supports peaceful forms of protest but is against ‘direct action’.

4.2. Listen again and for questions 1-10, complete the sentences.

1. Animal rights protesters destroyed expensive ____________________ at a research laboratory.

2. Davidson believes that using animals in experiments is a ____________________

3. Firms need a lot of ____________________ to set up experiments.

4. Davidson hasn’t got any shoes that are made of ____________________

5. Newspapers publish ____________________ that Mick Davidson has written.

6. Davidson damaged ____________________ in a shop in London.

7. In one illegal action, Davidson removed video ____________________ from a laboratory, which halted the
research.

8. In the attack on a laboratory, Davidson and his ADG colleagues took thirty ____________________ away with
them.

21
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

9. Davidson doesn’t support the use of ____________________ except against property.

10. The ADG has apologized to people that they have ____________________ without meaning to.

5. SPEAKING
5.1. Imagine that you belong to an environmental group and you want to inform people of the environmental
issues below. First, complete the graph with words and expressions from the useful language box below.

Household waste Dirty streets

_recycled paper__ What can ordinary people _dog mess_____

______________ do to help solve these ______________

______________ issues? ______________

Traffic pollution Climate change River and sea pollution

carbon monoxide _rising sea levels _toxic effluent_

______________ ______________ ______________

______________ ______________ ______________

USEFUL LANGUAGE
bottle bank oil slick biofuel cars cigarette butts dropping litter plastic containers

dumping waste exhaust fumes global warming greenhouse effect

5.2. Talk to your partner about what ordinary people can do to help solve these issues.

5.3. Now decide which two issues ordinary people can do most to help solve.

22
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

6. WRITING

6.1. Read the following introductions carefully and choose the one you think is best written.

6.2. Read the topic sentences and complete the paragraphs with appropriate supporting ideas.

How could our future world become a better place to live in?

It cannot be denied that over the last few decades the number of problems facing our
planet has been gradually increasing. Food scarcity, pollution and limited resources
are some of the most pressing concerns. Yet, the truth is that there are certain feasible
solutions. For this reason, I believe that life in the future could improve in several
ways.

There are many problems facing our planet. Some of them are food, contamination
and sources of energy. But people are continually trying to find solutions. For this
reason I believe that life in the future could improve in several ways.

In the first place, new methods of producing food can be developed.


__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

Secondly, there will be new and exciting means of transport.


__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

Finally, in the future people will definitely be less dependent on traditional sources of
energy.____________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________

In conclusion we should look after nature and use it wisely, not destroy it. If we all act responsibly and
care about our world, life in the future will be better and greener.

23
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

UNIT 4– EDUCATION
1. SPEAKING

Here are some different ways of improving your English outside the classroom. How good are these things at
helping you to improve your English?

 Watching English films.


 Having English e-friends.
 Learning lists of vocabulary.
 Reading English books and magazines.
 Going on holiday to England.
 Listening to English or American music.

2. LISTENING

2.1. Listen to Mandy, a student, talking about her experience of a school exchange. Tick () the things she
mentions.

1. The information you need before you go. 5. Some bad experiences.
2. The organisation of the exchange. 6. The benefits of going on an exchange.
3. How students are matched. 7. Some differences students might notice.
4. What to take with you.

2.2. Listen again and complete the sentences.

1. The students Mandy is talking to may go to _________________on an exchange visit.


2. Mandy’s exchange visit took place last______________________.
3. The students need to discuss the exchange with their ___________________.
4. Both Mandy and her exchange student enjoy ___________________.
5. In England, Mandy’s exchange student went to ____________________with her every day.
6. Mandy was surprised that the school day finished at ____________________.
7. On her exchange visit Mandy found that at school the students didn’t often change_______________.
8. When she had some free time, Mandy went to some __________________.
9. In Mandy’s opinion, students who go on exchange visits become more _____________________.
10. Regarding food and drink, Mandy is sure that the ______________________ will be a lot different in the
country the students are going to.

24
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

3. SPEAKING
 If you could go on an exchange programme to any country, where would you go? Why?
 Imagine that an exchange student is coming to stay with you for two weeks. What do you think she /he
would find interesting about your city/country? What trips would you organise for the student so that
he/she could learn about the culture of your country?

4. WRITING

In your English class you have been talking about different school subjects. Now your teacher has asked
you to write an essay giving reasons for your point of view.
Subjects such as drama and music are just
as important as maths and languages. Do you agree?

4.1 Read the following plan:

Paragraph 1: an introduction, possibly a statement about the current situation ________


Paragraph 2: one or more arguments for or against the statement, possibly with an example from
your own knowledge or experience ___________
Paragraph 3: one or more contrasting arguments, possibly with an example from your own
knowledge or experience __________
Paragraph 4: a conclusion, your opinion of the statement _________

4.2. Now read the following paragraphs and complete the paragraph plan.

A) TO SUM UP, IT IS CLEARLY NECESSARY FOR EVERYONE TO STUDY ACADEMIC SUBJECTS BUT, AT THE SAME
TIME, CREATIVE SUBJECTS ARE OFTEN IGNORED BY SCHOOLS. THEY DESERVE A MORE SIGNIFICANT ROLE
IN CHILDREN’S EDUCATION.

B) THIS IS AN INTERESTING QUESTION WHICH MANY PEOPLE HOLD STRONG OPINIONS ABOUT. IN MOST
SCHOOLS IN MY COUNTRY, STUDENTS HAVE FAR MORE LESSONS IN SUBJECTS LIKE MATHS AND
LANGUAGES THAN CREATIVE SUBJECTS SUCH AS DRAMA AND MUSIC. FURTHERMORE, MANY STUDENTS
STUDY NO CREATIVE SUBJECTS AFTER THE AGE OF 15.

C) HOWEVER, OTHERS FEEL THAT WITHOUT MUSIC AND DRAMA, STUDENTS MAY NEVER GET TO EXPRESS
THEIR CREATIVE SIDES. THEY MIGHT NEVER DISCOVER THEIR TALENT FOR SINGING, PLAYING MUSICAL
INSTRUMENTS OR ACTING. MANY OF THE HIGHEST ACADEMIC ACHIEVERS HAVE A CREATIVE SIDE. FOR
INSTANCE, EINSTEIN LOVED MUSIC AS MUCH AS HE LOVED PHYSICS.

25
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

D) MOST PEOPLE AGREE THAT ACADEMIC SUBJECTS ARE IMPORTANT. ALMOST EVERYONE WILL NEED
MATHS AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE SKILLS IN THEIR FUTURE WORKING LIFE. IN CONTRAST, FEW PEOPLE
WILL BE LUCKY OR TALENTED ENOUGH TO ERAN A LIVING AS A PROFESSIONAL MUSICIAN OR AN ACTOR.

Which of the highlighted expressions in the essay introduces:


a. A general opinion?
b. An additional idea?
c. A different idea?
d. An example?
e. The conclusion?

4.3. Read the following essay questions, choose one and write it.

 Schools should teach practical skills, such as managing money and applying for jobs,
as well as academic subjects. Do you agree?

 Do schools prepare young people for their future working lives?

 There are several areas where young people can learn from older generations. Do
you agree?

26
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

UNIT 5 – THE MEDIA


1. READING COMPREHENSION You are going to read an article about advertising published in a magazine
for teenagers. For questions 1-6, choose the correct answer, A, B, C or D.

THE TRICKS OF THE TRADE Read how advertisers tempt you to spend, spend, spend!

Do you ever wish you owned the latest trainers or the latest people use social networking to spread the word about
brand of smartphone? Have you ever seen an ad in a fashion music, clothes and other products.
magazine and wished you looked more like the model? Do And if that is not enough, advertisers hook teens by
you ever rush to get the product advertised on TV and then persuading them to stay loyal to a particular brand or
regret buying it? If the answer to these questions is ‘yes’, designer label. Companies like Nike create an image for their
you are a prime target for advertisers. And you're not alone. brand name; that famous Nike tick ensures we notice when
Marketing companies know just how to tempt us to spend sports stars are wearing their products, for example. Fast
money. But why are they so keen to target teens? food, toy and clothing companies begin instilling this loyalty
Teenagers, it appears, are top consumers. You in kids from a very early age, in the hope they’ll stay loyal to
probably get more pocket money than your parents or the brand for the rest of their lives.
grandparents did and you are allowed to decide how to Clever? Yes, but perhaps the most devious way
spend it. Even if you don't have cash, you probably know advertisers work on impressionable teenagers is by
how to pester your parents into buying items they might not exploiting their anxieties. Your teenage years can be a
buy out of choice. Nagging your parents until they get so difficult time. ‘Tell me about it!’ I hear you shout. You may
desperate that they give in is one successful strategy, and feel anxious about how you look. Some boys wish they were
making them feel guilty about neglecting you because they more muscular; girls sometimes wish they had a different
work is another! Advertisers understand all this. They are body shape. If looks don't bother you, you may worry about
watching you very carefully. being accepted into a group of friends. And we all know
You may not realize this, but the steps advertisers about peer pressure! Hands up anyone who's never wished
take to discover what makes you tick are truly amazing. they had a similar bike or watch or pair of trainers to the rest
They send out teams of researchers to video teenagers in of the gang. Who hasn’t wished their parents would buy
their homes. They spend hours and hours filming, desperate them something just because their best mate has one?
to discover that missing ‘something’ a teen might need Advertisers know all about these wishes and fears and they
which could be their next big ‘must-have’ item. They follow exploit them without mercy.
teens to their bedrooms and look inside their wardrobes. So can you protect yourself from the worst types of
They interview them about their behaviour, possessions, advertising? You can, but only if you use your common
artwork, online activities and even their dreams! The sense. Analyse the words used in an ad – if they say ‘may’,
answers are then analysed so that the marketers know ‘can’ and ‘might’ instead of ‘will’, it's quite likely the product
which products to manufacture and how to promote them. will not live up to its promise. Remember that photos of
And there's another strategy about these days. models you see in advertisements have probably been
Worried that teens may be bombarded with so much airbrushed, so they appear much more perfect than they
advertising that they ignore it, marketers have started ‘buzz’, really are. And remember that advertisers are trying to
or ‘street’ marketing. They search out the coolest kids in an exploit your weaknesses. Work at developing a positive self-
area - the trendsetters- and give them a product for free, image and learn to be your own person - then nobody can
which they are encouraged to use or to wear. This gives it a persuade you to do anything different from what you want
cool status or a ‘buzz’ so other teens wish they could have it, to do.
too. This strategy is perfect for the Internet, where young
27
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

1. What does the phrase prime target refer to in line 6?


a. A person who has a lot of money to spend.
b. A person who is hard to impress.
c. A person considered good at advertising.
d. A person that advertisers are trying very hard to reach.

2. According to the writer, researchers video teenagers at home because


a. It helps them advertise certain times.
b. They need to find cool teenagers.
c. They want ideas for their next products.
d. They’re interested in their families.

3. What does the phrase what makes you tick mean in line 21?
a. The kind of things that make you happy.
b. What makes you think and behave as you do.
c. Which kinds of clothes you prefer.
d. How you prefer to spend your spare time.

4. According to the writer, advertisers have started searching out trendsetters because
a. They make products look fashionable.
b. They are cheap to employ.
c. They shop on the internet.
d. They have plenty of money.

5. According to the writer, advertisers treat teenagers unfairly because


a. They make teenagers feel confused.
b. They make teenagers more impressionable.
c. They take advantage of teenagers’ worries.
d. They tell lies about their products.

6. According to the writer, if you want to stop advertisers from influencing you too much, you should
a. Stop looking at advertisements.
b. Learn to think for yourself.
c. Concentrate on your education.
d. Use your imagination.

1.2. Find words and phrases in the article that mean the following:
1. The most modern (p.1)
2. Annoy someone by asking them many times to do something (p.2)
3. Continually asking someone for something in an annoying way (p.2)
4. Using tricks or lies to get what you want (p.6)
5. Turn out to be as good as some people said it was (p.7)

28
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

2. LISTENING COMPREHENSION
You will hear people talking in eight different situations. For questions 1-8, choose the best answer (A,
B or C).
1. You hear people talking about listening to a news programme on the radio. What does she find most
interesting?
a. Local news stories
b. Foreign news stories
c. The people who read the news

2. You hear someone being interviewed about his reading habits. On the way to work, which part of the
newspaper does he look at first?
a. The headlines
b. The financial news
c. The sports news

3. You hear someone talking about the magazines she reads. What are her favourite kinds of stories about?
a. The homes of people who are rich and famous
b. Famous people’s babies
c. Future episodes of certain television serials

4. You hear a teenager talking about what he watches on television. What does he say about himself?
a. He is a typical teenager.
b. He is good at sports.
c. He prefers to be active.

5. You hear someone talking about the internet. What does he say he is surprised about?
a. The fact that people continue to buy newspapers
b. The amount of background information you can find
c. How quickly you can find out what’s happening

6. You hear two people talking about television. What is the main topic of their conversation?
a. a particular film they saw
b. the quality of TV programmes
c. the choice of TV channels

7. You hear a woman talking about research into early childhood education. She thinks the findings
a. are surprising.
b. are quite basic.
c. will have serious consequences

8. You hear a man and a woman talking about their plans. What do they agree to do?
a. ask the decorator to come earlier
b. speak to the decorator on the phone
c. arrange to see the decorator next week

29
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

3. USE OF ENGLISH – REPORTED SPEECH


3.2. Read these reported statements. What words did the original speakers actually use in each case?
a. My dad said the information was almost always out of date.
b. One of my friends said she’d once spent five hours looking for information.
c. I said I’d send him the article the following day.
d. They say they’re losing sales because people like me aren’t buying CDs any more.

3.3. Answer these questions about the reported statements from 3.1.
a. What often happens to verb tenses in reported speech – for example in sentences b and c?
b. How is sentence d grammatically different from the other three sentences? How does this
affect the meaning?

3.4. REPORTED QUESTIONS - Read these examples. What other changes, in addition to verb tense changes, do
we need to make when we report questions?
a. ‘Have you got the CD in stock?’  Mike asked if they had the CD in stock.
b. ‘When did you order the new CD?’  My friend asked me when I had ordered the new CD.

3.5. When do we use IF in reported questions? What other word could we use instead of if in A above?
3.6. Report the following questions
a. ‘Do you have an email address?’ the girl asked him.
b. ‘How long have you been interested in jazz?’ Nick asked me.
c. ‘Which of your old school friends did you contact, Sharon?’ Rachel asked.
d. ‘Would you like to contact people you were at primary school with?’ Julie asked Tim.
e. ‘Will you take me to the station?’ Ali asked his father.

3.7. TIME REFERENCES - The sentence below can be reported in two ways. What is the difference in meaning
between sentence A and sentence B?
‘I’ll see you tomorrow,’ Lizzie told Ben.
a) Lizzie told Ben she would see him the next day.
b) Lizzie told Ben she would see him tomorrow.

3.8. How could we change the following time references in reported speech?

Last week next month now three days ago today tomorrow tonight yesterday

3.9. What other references may change when we report speech? Look at these examples.
a. Do you think this meat is all right? Terry asked his wife.
Terry asked his wife if she thought the meat was all right.
b. ‘Shall we eat here?’ Carol asked Denise.
Carol asked Denise if they should eat there.
3.10. Report these sentences, making all necessary changes.
a. ‘Does this work have to be finished today, Mr Hunt?’ Marsha asked.
b. ‘Were there any phone calls for me yesterday?’ asked Mr Gilbert.
c. ‘This car was stolen two weeks ago,’ the police officer informed Ian.

30
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

d. ‘I wrote to her last week, and I phoned this morning,’ Dorothy said.
e. ‘I’ve arranged to meet them after lunch tomorrow,‘ Matthew said.

3.11. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word
given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given.
1. ‘Can you speak Spanish, John?’ asked Marie.
ASKED
Marie ___________________________________________ ____________speak Spanish.
2. ‘Would you like to come to my party next Saturday?’ Delia told Peter.
THE
Delia invited Peter to __________________________________________ Saturday.
3. ‘Did you buy a bandage, Tom?’ asked Graham.
HAD
Graham asked Tom ___________________________________________ a bandage.
4. ‘How often do you go to the gym?’ she asked me.
I
She asked ___________________________________________________ to the gym
5. ‘Your postcard arrived yesterday,’ she told him.
ARRIVED
She said his ___________________________________________________ day.

4. SPEAKING

The Press

national newspapers free papers sports papers

local papers comics academic journals

Books

novels non-fiction, e.g. Self-help books

classics shorts stories

textbooks manuals

Online

Web pages academic or work-related websites

Blogs new websites

Chat forums song lyrics


31
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

General Reading

Which of the above do you read? How often?

Do you ever read any of them in English?

Do you read anything specifically to improve your English?

Do you prefer reading on paper or on screen?

Do you read books for pleasure?

YES Would you read more if you had more time?

Did you use to read more when you were younger?


What was the last book you read? When did you stop? Did you have a favourite
children’s book?
Why did you choose to read it?
What do you do to pass the time when you are
What are you reading at the moment? travelling?
Do you have a favourite author or authors?

What’s the best book you’ve read recently?

Reading and listening

Do you ever...

listen to a song and read the lyrics at the same


time?

watch films or TV in English with English subtitles?

read books and listen to them on audio at the same


time, e.g. Graded Readers?

No
32
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

5. WRITING

In your English class you have been talking about young people’s interest in local, national or
international news. Now your English teacher has asked you to write an essay.

Write an essay (in 140 – 190 words) giving reasons for your point of view.

Is it important to follow national and international events in the news?

33
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

UNIT 6 - WORKING LIFE


1. READING COMPREHENSION

You are going to read an article about a phenomenon called ‘weisure’. For questions 1-6, choose the
answer (A, B, C or D) which you think fits best according to the text.

Welcome to the ‘weisure’ culture


The line dividing work and leisure time is blurring before our eyes, says one expert, and a
phenomenon called ‘weisure time’ is being created. Many people haven’t already given up the
nine-to-five working day for the twenty-four seven life of weisure will probably do so soon,
according to sociologist Dalton Conley, who coined the term. According to Conley, it is no
longer clear what is work and what is fun in an office, at home or out in the street, and it is
becoming increasingly difficult to say whether activities and social spaces are more connected
to work or play. These worlds that were once very distinct are now merging.

Conley uses the 1950s as a point of reference. ‘Back then, there were certain rules,’ he says,
‘such as “don’t do business with friends”, and “keep work and leisure separate”. That has
completely changed.’ However, there are limits: the merging of work and leisure does not
mean, for example, that bankers are working on complex financial matters during their
children’s parties. But it does mean that more and more people are using smartphones and
other new technology to contact business colleagues while they are with their families or to
chat with Facebook friends during an office meeting.

So, what happened and why do people want to mix work and play? First of all, according to
Conley, there’s more work and less play that there was in the past. ‘For the first time in
history, the higher up the economic ladder you go, the more likely you are to have an
extremely long working week,’ he says. Busy people often want to save time by being involved
in business and pleasure simultaneously. Obviously, many opportunities for that are offered in
the internet.

At the same time, Conley says, people are more willing to let work invade their leisure time
because, for many, work has become fun. Conley refers to professionals who get more
enjoyment out of work as ‘the creative class’ because their work involves ideas, perhaps
helping create a new software product or an advertising campaign. This makes their job
interesting and fun; they enjoy their work and so choose to spend much of their time working.
Conley points out that it is no coincidence that weisure has been growing with the popularity
of personal computers. Many professionals have the more boring parts of their jobs done by
computers, making many of their jobs more interesting.

Weisure has been fed by social networking sites, where ‘friends’ may actually be business
partners and colleagues. ‘Social networking is a strange activity,’ Conley says. ‘It’s fun, but also
34
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

an essential part of our knowledge-based society.’ Networking sites give us many ways of
doing business and having fun.

Although there are clear benefits, what is disturbing is the idea that we will be changed by
weisure. ‘We are losing our so-called private life,’ Conley says. ‘There’s less time to relax if
we’re always mixing work and leisure.’ But if you’re thinking that a backlash may be around
the corner for the weisure concept, you’re right. In fact, according to Conley, it has already
begun. It is evident in the rise of alternative social movements involving people ‘who live in a
more environmentally conscious way,’ he says. But, he believes that unless we are sent back
to the Stone Age by a natural disaster of some kind, there’s no turning back the clock on the
spread of weisure.

1. What does Dalton Conley expect to happen in the future?


a. More people will give up working regular hours.
b. More people will enjoy their jobs.
c. More people will combine work and enjoyment.
d. More people will work from home.

2. What does Dalton Conley say about the 1950s?


a. There were well-known codes of behaviour.
b. People were not certain about rules at work.
c. People did not enjoy their jobs.
d. It was acceptable for people to be friends with business partners.

3. How have working partners changes in recent times?


a. More people are working at home.
b. People need to work more for economic reasons.
c. There are more rich people than there were.
d. Some people are having to work longer hours than in the past.

4. Who, according to Conley, belongs to the ‘creative class’?


a. People whose job it is to make things
b. People who find their work satisfying
c. People who use computers at work
d. People who promote social networking sites

5. What is Conley referring to by using the word ‘backlash’ in line 49?


a. The fact that people are losing their private lives
35
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

b. Social problems caused by politicians and bankers


c. The response to the mixing of work and leisure
d. The idea that weisure is changing the way people live

6. How does Conley see the future of weisure?


a. More people will turn against the idea.
b. He believes the situation will remain as it is now.
c. We will return to a more traditional approach to work.
d. More people will adopt this way of life.

2. USE OF ENGLISH
2.1. Read these sentences (1-11) which have all been said by workers in different situations.
Then, answer the questions below.

1. …When I was working for that company far too much emphasis was placed on what we could and
couldn’t do…

2. …We had to wear our jacket and tie at all times…

3. …They didn’t let us eat in the office…

4. … We have to hand in a report at the end of the month…

5….we can have some snacks at the shop but we can’t have lunch…

6. …David doesn’t have to wear a suit at work…

7. … We are not allowed to wear a nose stud to work…

8. …her boss made her do the job again…

9. …Yesterday we didn’t have to stay at work late. Luckily we finished early…

10. As a lawyer I don’t need to be convinced of their importance…

11. …my boss is always telling me what I must and mustn’t do at work…

Which underlined verb phrases talk about:

 What is/was permitted?


 What isn’t/ wasn’t permitted?
 Necessity and/or obligation in the present or past?
 A lack of necessity and/or obligation in the present or past?

2.2. For sentences 1-10 decide which answer A, B or C best fits each space.

1. You ___________ take an umbrella; it’s not going to rain.

36
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

A) mustn’t B) can’t C) don’t need

2. The best thing about my job is that I__________ to get up early. I don’t start until 10 a.m.

A) needn’t B) don’t have to C) am not supposed

3. A ‘Non-uniform Day’ is a day when we’re ____________ to wear ’normal clothes’ to school if we
want.

A) let B) made C) allowed

4. Where have you been? You were ____________ to be here half an hour ago!

A) allowed B) supposed C) had

5. The rules are very clear. You know you ____________ wear jewellery to school.

A) mustn’t B) don’t have to C) don’t need to

6. I ____________ to stay at my friend’s house last night.

A) may B) could C) was allowed

7. You ___________ wear your seatbelt during the whole flight.

A) don’t have to B) mustn’t C) can’t

8. The teacher ____________him go to the toilet because he wasn’t feeling well.

A) make B) let C) allowed

9. When we were at school we ____________ wear a horrible uniform.

A) had to B) ought to C) could

10. She ___________ to take any money because her friend was going to pay.

A) needn’t have to B) had to C) didn’t need to

2.3. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the
word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words including the
word given.

37
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

1. It’s possible that this kind of snake is poisonous. COULD

This snake _________________________________the poisonous kinds.

2. If I don’t find a job soon, I won’t be able to pay the bills. HAVE

I need to pay the bills so ____________________________________ a job soon.

3. When I was young I wasn’t allowed to watch much TV. LET

When I was young my parents ______________________________________much TV.

4. She had to wash up before she could go out. MADE

She ______________________________________wash up before she could go out.

5. I’m never allowed to do what I want . CAN

I ______________________________________what I want.

6. Why can’t we go to the party? ALLOWED

Why ______________________________________go to the party?

7. There’s no need for you to hand the homework in until next week. NEED

You ______________________________________ in the homework until next week.

8. Do you know what the homework is? SUPPOSED

Do you know what we _______________________________________ for homework?

9. We weren’t obliged to attend all the classes because some of them were optional. HAVE

We ___________________________________ all the classes because some of them were optional.

10. We knew we had to arrive by nine. NECESSARY

We knew that _________________________________by nine.

38
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

3. LISTENING
3.1. What do you think you should or shouldn’t do when you have a job interview?

In a job interview…

DO DON’T
Get a good night’s sleep before talk too much

3.2. Listen to part of a radio programme in which a manager talks about interviewing job
applicants. Does she mention your ideas?
3.3. Listen again and choose the correct answer A, B or C.

1. What does Jenny say about job interviews?

a. She has applied for many different sorts of jobs herself.


b. She doesn’t interview all the new staff for her club.
c. She enjoys interviewing job applicants.

2. Jenny thinks clothes are important in an interview because they show

a. a lot about the person’s attitude.


b. how fashion-conscious the person is.
c. how much the person needs the job.

3. Jenny finds it surprising that some people wear

a. badly-fitting suits.
b. dirty footwear.
c. outfits that don’t match.

4. What is Jenny’s opinion of body art?

a. She thinks body art is offensive to most of the public.


b. She thinks body art is acceptable in some jobs.
c. She doesn’t personally like body art.

39
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

5. Jenny feels that a good interviewee needs to be

a. curious.
b. knowledgeable.
c. well-prepared.

6. When answering questions, Jenny thinks interviewees should

a. always tell the truth.


b. explain things fully and comprehensively.
c. focus on the main point.

7. Jenny advises against

a. appearing to be too keen.


b. sucking sweets to hide bad breath.
c. having a cigarette while you are waiting.

4. SPEAKING
4.1. Work with a partner. Work takes up a large part of people’s lives. What would be most
important to you in choosing a satisfying job? Put the following aspects of work in order of
importance to you, from 1 (most important) to 6 (least important). Add other ideas of your
own if you wish. Think about what you want to say and make some notes if you want.
 Salary
 Responsibility
 Being part of a team
 Working environment
 Opportunity to help people
 Opportunity to be creative
 Other(s)

4.2. Discuss the following questions with your partner.


 Which jobs are popular in your country nowadays?
 When do you prefer to work or study- in the morning, afternoon or evening?
 Which is more important in any job: qualifications, personality or practical experience?
 Which type of jobs should be more highly-valued and paid?
 Do you think it’s better to do one job all your life or change jobs frequently?
 Should there be a compulsory retirement age or should people be allowed to work as long as
they like?
 Some people say that it doesn’t matter what job you do – the most important thing is to enjoy
doing it. What do you think?

40
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

UNIT 7 – GOING PLACES

1. SPEAKING – Discuss the following questions


o What kinds of holiday appeal to you most?
o What type of holiday did you use to enjoy when you were a child?
o If you could travel to one country in the world where would you go?
o How do you think people can benefit from travelling to other countries?
o Some people say that going away on holiday is a waste of money. What’s your
opinion?

2. LISTENING COMPREHENSION

You will hear a woman called Olivia Rees talking on a travel programme about a place called
Shangri-La. For questions 1-7 choose the best answer (A, B or C)

1. Why does Olivia say the novel Lost Horizon was so popular in the 1930s?

A. People needed to escape from reality.


B. People believed Shangri-La was a real place.
C. People were interested in finding out about the Tibet.

2. How did the travellers in Lost Horizon get to Shangri-La?

A. Guides took them there.


B. Their plane crashed there.
C. They found it using an old map.

3. What was special about the people of Shangri-La?

A. They were very wise.


B. They lived a very long time.
C. They could speak every language.

4. What does Olivia say about the author, James Hilton?

A. He became Buddhist.
B. He only made one trip to Tibet.
C. He got his ideas from books and magazines.

41
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

5. Olivia says the similarities between the stories of Shambhala and Shangri-La show that Hilton

A. was interested in Tibetan culture.


B. believed such a society could really exist.
C. was unable to think of original ideas.

6. What information is given about the country of Zhongdian?

A. It was originally called Shangri-La.


B. It has a large number of monasteries.
C. It has found a new source of income.

7. Olivia says people who visit modern-day Shangri-La may be

A. shocked
B. confused
C. disappointed

3. USE OF ENGLISH - Phrasal verbs


3.1. Match these phrasal verbs with their definitions

See off - to leave to go somewhere often for a break or holiday.

Look forward - to be excited about something that is going to happen.

Go back - to go to the place that someone is leaving from to say goodbye to them

Look around - when an aircraft leaves and begins to fly

Take off - to register at a hotel or airport.

Get away - to look at what is near you, in your area.

Check in -to return

3.2. Complete this text with phrasal verbs from the previous exercise.

We like to _____________ to somewhere warm every year (we spend most of the year
_________________ to it)! This year we decided on the Greek Island of Kos. My brother gave us a lift
to the airport and ______ us_______. After saying goodbye to him we boarded the plane and
____________. As soon as we arrived at the hotel we _______________ and took our luggage to our
room. Because it was still early we decided to _____________ the town. We were very impressed with
Kos. We enjoyed ourselves so much that time flew by and before we knew it, it was time to
__________ home.

42
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

3.3. Complete the text with a phrasal verb from the box

Drop off (x2) - Check in - Check out - Pick up - Set out - Take off - Get in – Get away –

Get on – Speed up – Look around – Hurry up - Go back - Look forward

Summer break in the USA

The day I left for the USA my family (1)___ me___. We had breakfast at the airport but we had to
(2)___ so that I wouldn't miss my flight. It was a teary goodbye, but I was (3)___ to new experiences in
the USA. After I (4)___ the plane I made myself comfortable and sent a few last minute goodbye text
messages. I thought of how much I wanted this holiday and that I just needed to (5)___ from it all. A
short while later the pilot announced that all electronics were to be switched off, for we were
preparing to (6)___. As the plane was (7)___ on the runway I sat back and took pleasure in brute force
and strength of the momentum the plane was creating to lift itself up from the ground.

When our plane (8)___ at JFK Airport in New York there was already a taxi waiting to (9)___ me ___.
The taxi (10)___ me ___ at the Holiday Inn where I would meet up with my friends. After I (11)___ to
the hotel we all went to Time Square, where we (12)___ for the rest of the day. The next day we got
up in the early hours of the morning and did some sightseeing. That night we were exhausted and
went to bed early. The next morning we (13) ___ after breakfast, rented a car and (14)___ on a cross-
country road trip. It would be another 3 months before I would (15)___ home.

4. READING
Read the following text and complete the gaps with the missing sentences.

Just because I’ve been on holiday doesn’t mean


I have to be happy
‘Holiday hangover’, ‘back-to-work blues’, ‘post-travel depression’- it’s a well-known condition,
and I’m suffering from it.

My cat. My tortoise. My friends. My bed. The list reads the same very time, but I still write it. I
write it on the last day of every holiday, to convince myself that going home isn’t so bad. Then
I feel utterly miserable. There are plenty of things I’m not great at- driving, maths, returning
library books on time- but the thing I’m worst at is coming back to work after a holiday.

It’s an extreme case of being selfishly miserable. To have had a lovely sunshine break and
then return to the office, where everyone has been working hard without restaurant lunches or
morning swims, with a face like thunder is terribly bad manner. 1___________ Given the
number of names for it- ‘holiday hangover’, ‘back-to-work blue’, ‘post-travel depression’- it’s a
well-known condition.
43
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

In a recent survey conducted by a travel website, 82 per cent of the 1,254 people asked
experienced post-holiday misery. 2 _________.Probably just before they logged on to a job
vacancy website or started fantasising about retraining for work in the countryside.

Even if you manage to avoid end-of-holiday panic, and you feel refreshed, relaxed and ready
to face the world of work, you’re guaranteed to walk into stress, conflict and injustice.
3_________ Or the surprise departmental reorganization that took place while you were away.

Still, it could be worse. Over three-quarters of people questioned said that their holiday
depression lasted for a month-. 4_________ Perhaps they should have saved their cash and
not bothered going.

After years of practice, I’ve come up with a few things that help. A bit. The first is the list
mentioned above. 5_________.Unlike some people I know, I can’t just roll off an international
flight and roll in to the office. The third is concentrating on getting through the first day back at
work without running away, making a grand plan for a new life or spending (too much) time on
my own tearfully looking at my holiday photos saying to myself: ‘I can’t believe this is my life’.

I feel sorry for my poor colleagues having to look at my long face today, but at least by having
my break now I’m getting my bad mood in early. 6_________Then I can support them in their
hour (month?) of need. I might even lend them one of my pets.

A By September, on the other hand, when the schools go back and the main summer-
holiday season is over, I’ll be back to normal.

B The most content, with both their home and working life, appear to be those who
stay at home all summer.

C For instance, that highly important task you left with a colleague that’s been ignored
and later caused your email inbox to turn toxic.

D At least, though, I’m not the only fed-up wage slave to feel like this.

E The next one is making sure I have a day off everything between getting home and
going to work.

F Also, over two-thirds of them answered the next question, ‘Are you usually glad to
be home after a holiday abroad?’ with a- presumably unhappy- sounding- ‘No’.

G Longer by at least a fortnight, I’d guess, than the holiday they’d taken.

44
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

5. SPEAKING / WRITING
5.1. In pairs, discuss whether you agree or disagree with the following statements .

A. You can have a wide variety of experiences within your own country.

B. It’s more important to help the economy of countries poorer than your own
country.

C. It’s impossible to travel abroad without damaging the environment.

D. You should learn about different regions of your own country before you learn
about other countries.

E. Travelling abroad makes you a better language learner.

F. Staying in your own country is always cheaper than going abroad.

5.2. Read the task below.

In your English class you have been talking about the advantages and disadvantages of taking
holidays in your own country rather than abroad.

Now your English teacher has asked you to write an essay. Write an essay using all the notes and
give reasons for your point of view.

Essay question

‘Is it better to go on holiday in your own country or abroad?’


Notes

 Read
5.3. Impact
theon the environment
following phrases A-J and decide in which paragraph of your essay you might be
 able
Helping the economy
to use each of the phrases.
 Your ownconsidered….
a. All things idea
b. Having said that, …
c. In addition, …
d. In conclusion, I’d say that ….
e. Generally speaking, ….
f. On balance, I think….
g. First and foremost, ….
h. On the other hand, …
i. However, …
j. To begin with, it’s worth acknowledging that…

5.4. Now write your essay (140-190 words) using the phrases in ex. 4.3. and the ideas you
discussed in exercise 4.1

45
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

UNIT 8 - CRIME AND PUNISHMENT


1. READING
You are going to read part of an interview where different people give their views on crime and the
law. For questions 1-15, choose from the people (A-F). The people may be chosen more than once.

WHICH PERSON
1. does a job for free?
2. mentions the heartache of losing items you’re emotionally attached to?
3. helps people to reject a life of crime?
4. was embarrassed about going to court?
5. took on their job in order to contribute to society more?
6. works with a large number of different organisations?
7. doesn’t think that crime has increased recently?
8. hadn’t been aware how much a particular crime can affect people?
9. was angry about an intrusion into their personal life?
10. believes there are times when prison is unavoidable for some crimes?
11. wishes they could meet more ordinary people while working?
12. mentions the satisfaction they get from the work they do?
13. didn’t believe that it was fair to be prosecuted for something?
14. would like to spend less time working at their desk?
15. mentions that a criminal had been caught many times before?

A) John - Police officer


I have been in the service for nearly 30 years. Lots of people think that crime is much worse nowadays
than it was in the past. It's not actually true. What has changed is the types of crime. Now, it's
antisocial behaviour that's on the rise, while serious violent crime is down. Police work itself has
changed a lot too. We don't have as much contact with the local community and I think that is one of
the reasons people don't have as much faith in the force as they used to. But government cuts mean
we don't have the time to go out on the beat. Another problem is that I spend more time writing up
reports than I do on actual policework. It can be very frustrating.

B) Alison- Magistrate
In England and Wales magistrates deal with about 95% of all criminal cases. Scotland has a slightly
different legal system to the rest of the UK, though. Anyone can volunteer to become a magistrate, but
you do have to be able to show that you are of good character and have sound judgement. We don't
get paid for doing it either, but we do get our expenses paid. I decided to become a magistrate to give
something back to the community. I have to deal with a lot of different cases and some of them can be
quite disturbing. I recently imprisoned a man who had robbed and beaten an elderly couple. Although
I try to avoid giving harsh sentences, sometimes it really is the only option, especially when violence is
involved.

C) Cindy - Crime victim


It's very upsetting when you walk into your home after it's been burgled. First of all, there's the mess.
Everything is pulled out of drawers and cupboards and thrown on the floor. Then there’s the distress
when you find out what precious items have been taken. It's the sentimental value of personal items
that's important, not their price tag. But perhaps worst of all is the anger you feel at having your home
invaded by a stranger. I was lucky that the person who burgled my house was caught and I got most of
my stolen property back. Most burglars are never caught. The man who burgled my house was a
repeat offender and he had only just got out of prison a couple of days before he burgled my home.
46
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

D) Dylan - Juvenile offender


I was caught, along with a couple of friends, doing graffiti on the side of a building. We were charged
with criminal damage and I got a fine from the youth court. It was an awful experience going to court. I
felt really ashamed. Mainly because my parents were really upset about it. At first I was angry about
being taken to court because I didn't think that what we had done was criminal. It was art. But my dad
took me to meet some people who had had their property damaged by graffiti and I realized that it can
upset people and it costs them money to clean it up. I still think graffiti is art but I only do it now when
I have permission.

E) Mark - Probation officer


I have various duties to perform as a probation officer including supervising people who have been let
out of prison early on parole. It's my job to try and help them fit back into the community, find work
and become useful, law-abiding citizens. I work with a lot of different people such as the police, social
services and many charities. I have a very heavy workload as I have to deal with thousands of cases
and each one is different. The work is very rewarding when you see someone turn their life around
and you know you helped them do it. But it can be depressing sometimes, too, especially if someone
reoffends and you have to send them back to prison.

4. USE OF ENGLISH – PASSIVE VOICE


2.1. Read the newspaper article about mobile phone crime and underline all the examples of
passive voice. Then think of the active version for each.

THEFT OF MOBILES ON THE INCREASE.

A nationwide crackdown on mobile phone crime in Britain is being carried out by police. A
police spokesperson said it was believed that 50% of all street crime involved the theft of a
mobile phone. Over 200 mobile phones an hour are thought to have been stolen in Britain last
year. Many of them are exported by gangs to Europe, Asia and Africa. Stolen phones can be
blocked by the phone networks for use in Britain, but SIM cards can sometimes be replaced by
thieves to make phones usable abroad. An international database has been set up by the
phone companies to try to make all stolen handsets useless, whatever their destination. In
future, the details of all stolen handsets will be shown on this database so that the phones can
be blocked internationally as well as within Britain.

2.2. Complete these extracts from radio reports using the correct verbs in the passive form.
HOLD CATCH ARREST DISCOVER

‘A man 1) _________________ by police last night after he 2)__________________ shoplifting


in a local store. Several thousand pounds’ worth of jewellery 3) ________________ in his
pockets. He 4)____________________ in police custody until he appears in court tomorrow.’

47
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

CONVICT FINE FIND STOP

‘Carl Hancock a retired doctor 5)_______________ £3,000 after 6)______________ of drunken


driving. His car 7) _______________ by police officers on the motorway and he 8)
_________________ to have 150 milligrammes of alcohol in his blood, almost twice the legal
limit.’

2.3.OPEN CLOZE For questions 1-8, read the text below and think of the word which best
fits each gap. Use only ONE word in each gap.

House-sitters

Nowadays, 0) __THERE__ are far too many stories of homeowners you have been away on
holiday and come home to find that their house has been broken 1) _________.
Unfortunately, simply locking the doors and cancelling the newspapers is 2) __________
enough to keep out burglars.
A much better way to prevent your home from 3)__________ burgled is to employ a
professional house-sitter, either through an agency 4) __________ by placing an
advertisement in a magazine. House-sitters are paid a daily rate 5) __________ around
£20, including a food allowance, to live in a house while the owners are away. An extra
charge is made if the house-sitter is required to 6) ____________ care of one or more
pets.
Agencies, which charge a considerable fee for their services, accept full responsibility
7)___________ anything which might go wrong. House-sitters are therefore chosen very
carefully; as 8)___________ as the usual interview and personal references, inquiries are
made about any previous criminal convictions.

48
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

3. LISTENING COMPREHENSION
3.1. You will hear part of a documentary about CYBER-BULLYING. Which of these things do
you think the people in the documentary will talk about?
4. The experiences of someone who has been bullied.
5. The reasons people use this form of bullying.
6. An explanation of what this type of bullying involves.
7. How to avoid this type of bullying.
8. How to stop this type of bullying.

3.2. Listen again and choose the correct answer.


1. Rachel believes that many people today
A. Are well informed about cyber-bullying.
B. Have experienced bullying at school.
C. Do not report being bullied.
2. Cyber-bullying is particularly damaging because
A. It is difficult to escape from.
B. It is hard to explain to people.
C. It can destroy relationships.
3. The comments of cyber-bullies sometimes focus on people’s
A. Lack of money.
B. Appearance.
C. Level of intelligence.
4. People become cyber-bullies because they
A. Enjoy seeing the effect on their victims.
B. Want to be famous
C. Are not restricted in what they can say.
5. What does Richard say about cyber-bullies?
A. They don’t always know their victims.
B. They get information from schools records.
C. They have their own websites.
6. What does Rachel advise victims of cyber-bullying to do?
A. Try to identify the bullies.
B. Report incidences of cyber-bullying to the authorities.
C. Reply to the posts in an unemotional way.
7. How does Rachel think cyber-bullying might be prevented in the future?
A. By increased control over what happens online.
B. By waiting until the bullies get fed up.
C. By advising people to look after their computer codes and passwords.

49
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bell, Jan; Gower, Roger. First Expert Coursebook. Pearson Education Limited, 2014
Barraclough, Carolyn; Roderick, Megan. Gold Experience B1+ Pre-first for Schools. Pearson
2015
Brook-Hart, Guy. Complete First for Schools. Cambridge University Press, 2014.

Davis, Paul; Falla, Tim. Cambridge English First Result Student’s Book. Oxford University
Press, 2014.
Davis, Paul; Falla, Tim. Cambridge English First Result Workbook. Oxford University Press,
2014.
Edwards, Lynda; Stephens, Mary. Gold Experience B2 First for Schools. Pearson, 2014.
Haines, Simon; Stewart, Barbara. Cambridge English First Masterclass student’s book. Oxford
University
Press, 2014.
Haines, Simon; Stewart, Barbara. Cambridge English First Masterclass workbook pack. Oxford
University
Press, 2014.
Kay, Sue; Jones, Vaughan. Inside Out Upper Intermediate Student’s Book. Macmillan
Education, 2001.
Norris, Roy. Ready for First. Macmillan, 2013.
Norris, Roy. Ready for First Workbook. Macmillan, 2013.
Styring, James; Tims, Nicholas. Prepare! Student’s Book Level 7. Cambridge University Press
2015
Vince, Michael. Advanced Language Practice with key. Macmillan Education, 2003.
http://www.englishaula.com/en/listening-part-4-exercise-exam-2-fce-cambridge-first-
certificate-english.html

50
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

Part 2: Academic Areas


English Grammar
Before this class read Chapters 1 and 2 from Kroeger, Paul 2005 Analyzing Grammar: An
Introduction - Cambridge University Press

Introduction:

Students of English, especially those who are training to be teachers, need firmly based
knowledge of the ways English sentences are organized to construct meaning. The systematic
study of the major constructions of English should make students aware of the range of
grammatical options available to them and of the special syntactic and semantic
characteristics of the language. This has always been the field studied by Grammar.

TASK 1
Look for definitions of Grammar in an English dictionary:

http://www.ldoceonline.com/

To discuss in class

Language analysis:

Grammarians examine a language to find out what kind of units speakers are organizing into
utterances; they try to work out how these units are combined and/or structured and how
these units correspond to the basic meaning -content- of the utterances .

Grammarians consider the relations of the different kinds of units to each other and seek to
determine the general grammatical principles that govern the structures and processes of the
language, structures and processes that enable language to be produced and understood.

Grammar thus deals with forms and meanings and the ways they are interconnected. We may
say that the major components of grammar are:

Syntax: The grammatical principles, units and relations involved in sentence structure.

51
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

Lexicon: The set of individual words, suffixes and prefixes (cf. Morphology).

Semantics: The meanings associated with the lexicon of a language and with the units
and relations in sentence structure.

The components necessarily interact. The


grammatical principles determine the kinds
of units the language has, the order in
which these units can be arranged and the
kind of functions they can have. From the
Lexicon come the actual words, suffixes
and prefixes that fit into the slots provided
by the Syntax while the semantic
component determines the range of
interpretations associated with each
lexically filled syntactic structure.

TASK 2

Which sentences are correct and which are ill-formed?

Tom died.
Tom died the old man.
Tom killed the old man.
A stroke killed the old man.
A thief assassinated a dental technician last night.
A terrorist assassinated Rabin last year.
The children quarrelled.
The cupboard quarrelled.
The critic enjoyed the show.
The turnips enjoyed the show.
"Everything's going to be all right. You'll see". Jenny looked undoubtful.
Can you identify which component is the problem?
However, sentences do not occur in a vacuum: the ways our real world knowledge and beliefs
affect language use and structure are explained in the discipline known as Pragmatics.
Pragmatics deals with the meaning of linguistic expressions when uttered within particular
types of situations.

Grammar, Meaning and Pragmatics.

Speakers of a language associate meaning with its form. The core meaning of a sentence is
usually referred to as the propositional content, which is the most literal dimension of
language. It depends crucially on the interaction of syntax, lexicon and semantics.

e.g. Tom Smith has finished his thesis.


52
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

Propositional Content

Semantics, the study of meaning, includes both the study of meaning within a single word
(word internal semantics) and the study of the meaning relationships that a word or phrase
has with other parts of a sentence (external semantics). But meaning has other dimensions
too.

TASK 3:

What does “he” refer to in the following sentences?:

1- The inspector refused the arrested man’s request because he had suspected an escape
attempt.

2- The inspector refused the arrested man’s request because he had made an escape attempt.

TASK 4:

Here is another example:

Your desk is a mess.

Said by a mother to a teenager son , is this simply a piece of information? Which is the propositional
content of the sentence? Which is the communicative force (Pragmatic meaning) of the utterance?
How is the latter obtained?

Compare these two situations. Are the propositional contents of the underlined sentences the same?
And the pragmatic meanings?

A: Let’s go for a walk A: Bye Mom. I’m going to the office.

B: It’s raining. B: It’s raining.

Speakers of a language use their non-linguistic knowledge to make inferences. The examples
above show us that propositional content is not enough to communicate. Situational factors
are important and this kind of study is part of Pragmatics rather than Grammar.

Important as situational factors are they are not the core subject matter of grammatical study
in the way propositional content is. Propositional content arises fairly directly from the
syntactic and lexical features of a sentence. This will be our main object of study in the
subject: English Grammar.

Nevertheless, where necessary, we will introduce Pragmatics in our study of formal rules. Our
theoretical treatment will be eclectic since we will draw on different linguistic approaches
(Traditional Grammar, Case Grammar, Pragmatics, etc.) since the overriding concern is
comprehensiveness rather than theoretical purity.

53
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

The units of analysis in Grammar

Scale of rank

free

The morpheme prefix derivational only

bound

inflexional

suffix

derivational

INFLEXION (OR ACCIDENCE) AND DERIVATION (OR WORD FORMATION):

INFLEXION is a change made in the form of a word to express its relation to other words in the
sentence. The set of inflections (or declensions or conjugations or endings) that a word may
take is called a paradigm (or model of formation). In English,

a) plural number

1) the NOUN paradigm involves:

b) genitive case

a) third person singular (present indefinite tense)

b) the past tense

2) the VERB paradigm involves c) the “ing” form (gerund and present participle)

d) the past participle

54
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

a) the comparative degree

3) the ADJECTIVE paradigm involves

b) the superlative degree

a) comparative

4) the ADVERB paradigm involves

b) superlative

a) person (first, second and third)

b) number (singular and plural)

5) the PRONOUN paradigm involves c) case (nominative, objective and genitive)

d) gender

NOUN VERB ADJECTIVE ADVERB PRONOUN


boy show small fast (case)
boys shows smaller faster Nom.: I
boy’s showed smallest fastest Obj.: me
boys’ showing Gen.:my/mine
shown
Gender:He/She/It

TASK 5

Which of the following are inflected. Can you identify the type of inflection?

whom book biological


varieties addressee addressee’s
hers whose classifying
believes bigger Charles’
obvious eaten closed
somebody marriage friendly

DERIVATION is the formation of new words from the existing words (roots, bases or stems).

55
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

Examples:

nouns ------------- adjectives season ----------- seasonal


verbs -------------- nouns sing -------------- singer
verbs -------------- adjectives accept ----------- acceptable
adjectives -------- adverbs slow ------------- slowly
adjectives -------- verbs tight -------------- tighten
noun -------------- verb bed --------------- embed
verb -------------- adjective sleep ------------- asleep
...and so on.

TASK 6

Identify suffixes and prefixes

unacceptable unacceptability lioness


waitress autobiography biochemistry

content (open classes)

The word reciprocally exclusive

function (closed classes)

reciprocally defining

WORD CLASSES OR PARTS OF SPEECH: content words and function words:

CONTENT WORDS (or form words, or full words) are the nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs.
They make up “open classes” and cannot be listed exhaustively because they are very many in
number. Items belong to a class in that they have the same grammatical properties and
structural possibilities as other members of the class (that is, as other nouns, or verbs, or
adjectives, or adverbs respectively), but the class is “open” in the sense that it is indefinitely
extendable; new items are constantly being created.

56
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

FUNCTION WORDS (or structure words) are the prepositions, auxiliaries, conjunctions,
pronouns, articles and demonstratives (and interjections). They make up “closed classes” or
“closed system” items. That is, the sets of items are closed in the sense that they cannot
normally be extended by creation of additional members.

The items are said to constitute a “system” in


being: a) reciprocally exclusive: the decision to
use one item in a given structure excludes the
possibility of using any other (thus one may
have the book or a book, but not * a the
book)
b) reciprocally defining: it is less easy to
state the meaning of any individual item than to
define it in relation to the rest of the system.
This may be clearer with a non-linguistic
analogy. If we are told that a student came third
in an examination, the “meaning” that we
attach to “third” in a set of four is a very
different meaning from “third” in a set of thirty.
Function words are so called because they have little or no meaning of their own (Nelson
Francis).

Their meaning tends to be closely bound up with that of the construction of which they are a
part.

TASK 7

Identify function words and content words in the following passage:

Sir Walter Raleigh did not die in the Tower of London, but he was a prisoner there for a long
time, from 1603 to 1616. Sir Walter was a favourite of Queen Elizabeth I ; he was a brave sailor, and
one of the most famous men of the Elizabethan Age. But Elizabeth died in 1603, and the new King,
James I , did not like Raleigh. He sent him to the Tower as a prisoner.

57
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

headed structures

The phrase

non-headed structures

Phrases are called by the name of the word class to which all their most dominant constituent
belongs, e.g. verb phrase

NOUN PHRASES
a dog
dogs
some dogs
the dog with a broken leg
a better story than that
the first man to arrive
The NP consists of a head, which is typically a noun, and of elements which (either obligatorily
or optionally) determine the head and (optionally) modify the head; or complement another
element in the phrase.

VERB PHRASES
has run
has been running
may have been running
The VP consists of a main verb which either stands alone as the entire VP or is preceded by up
to four verbs in auxiliary function.

ADVERB PHRASES
quickly
more carefully
rather fast
carefully enough
The Adv. Ph consists of an adverb as head, optionally preceded and followed by modifying
elements. Sometimes an obligatory or optional complementation is added.

ADJECTIVE PHRASES
so sorry
prompt to act
so sorry to leave
exceedingly beautiful
tall enough
interested in music
sure that he will come
The Adj. Ph consists of an adjective as head, optionally preceded and followed by modifying
elements. Sometimes an obligatory or optional complementation is added.

58
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES
in the kitchen
in the deep of the night
at the refreshment bar
The Prep Ph consists of a preposition followed by a prepositional complement, which is
normally a NP.
TASK 8

Identify the kinds of phrases. If they are headed, underline the head.

1- on the rough cardboard surface


2- the person who discovers a fire
3- prone to accidents
4- young people driving cars
5- rather shyly
6- should have been writing

The clause - The sentence

The clause can be defined as a unit


consisting of at least a NP and
a VP which have the Subject/Predicate
relation between them.
1) The girl / yelled.
NP VP
In this case “clause” and “sentence”
coincide. We may say this is a
sentence consisting of one
clause.

The sentence can be classified into:


Simple
complex (involves subordination)
Multiple
compound (involves co-ordination)

Compare sentence 1) with the following example:

2) ( The girl / yelled ) but ( her mother / smiled ).

NP1 VP1 NP2 VP2

In this case we have:

NP1 + VP1 “but” NP2 + VP2. In fact we have 2 clauses but only 1 sentence.

59
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

Let’s have a look at the third example.

3) When / the girl / yelled, / her mother / smiled.

NP1 VP1 NP2 VP2

Here again there are 2 clauses in one sentence. Which is the difference between 2) and 3)?.
The difference lies in the different type of relationship between the two clauses.

21) The girl yelled. (But) her mother smiled.

31) * When the girl yelled. Her mother smiled.

Can you separate the clauses in sentence 2) . Why?


Can you separate the clauses in sentence 3) . Why not?
You must have realized that * When the girl yelled cannot stand on its own, it depends on (it
is subordinate to) the other clause. The 2 clauses in 2) can work as independent clauses
because the link is a co-ordinator and the clauses are on the same hierarchical level. This is
not so in 3).

TASK 9:

Say which sentences are simple and which are multiple- JUSTIFY YOUR ANSWER

Sir Walter Raleigh did not die in the Tower of London, but he was a prisoner there for a long
time, from 1603 to 1616.

Sir Walter was a favourite of Queen Elizabeth I

He was a brave sailor, and one of the most famous men of the Elizabethan Age.

But Elizabeth died in 1603, and the new King, James I , did not like Raleigh.

He sent him to the Tower as a prisoner.

Bibliography:

Biber, Douglas; S Conrad; G Leech; 2002. Longman Student Grammar of Spoken and Written
English. Essex. Pearson Education Limited.
Celce Murcia Marianne and Diane Larsen Freeman 1999 The Grammar Book An ESL/EFL
Teacher’s Course (2nd. edition). Boston. Heinle and Heinle Publishers
Cowan; Ron 2008. The Teacher’s Grammar of English –A Course Book and Reference Guide
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Kroeger, Paul 2005 Analyzing Grammar: An Introduction - Cambridge University Press

60
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

English Phonology

Phonology is the study of how


Definition: sounds are organized and
used in natural languages.
The phonological system of a language
includes
 an inventory of sounds and their
features, and
 rules which specify how sounds
interact with each other.

Phonology is just one of several aspects of language. It is related to other aspects such
as phonetics, morphology, syntax, and pragmatics.
Here is an illustration that shows the place of phonology in an interacting hierarchy of
levels in linguistics:

Comparison: Phonology and phonetics


Phonetics … Phonology …
Is the basis for Is the basis for further
phonological work in morphology,
analysis. syntax, discourse, and
orthography design.
Analyzes the Analyzes the sound
production of all patterns of a particular
human speech language by
sounds,
regardless of  determining
language. which phonetic
sounds are
significant, and
 explaining how
these sounds
are interpreted
by the native
speaker.

61
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

INTROSPECTING ABOUT YOUR OWN LEARNING

Think about learning English as a foreign language.


1- What pronunciation obstacles have you faced in learning this language? If you have not
achieved a target-like pronunciation, which of the following do you feel help to account for
this? Check the statements that apply.

a) I don’t know where my pronunciation problems lie. I don’t notice them.


b) I know that I transfer sounds from my native language.
c) I can’t hear the difference between some of the target language sounds and my first
language sounds.
d) I can’t produce the difference between some of the sounds in my native language and
similar sounds in the target language.
e) It’s not important for me to improve my pronunciation. People understand me without
trouble.
f) Even though I can produce some of the target language sounds, it takes too much effort or
concentration when I’m speaking.
g) I like my own accent. I don’t want to be like a native speaker or sound like one.
h) Native speakers of the language comment that my foreign accent is “cute” or “charming”. I
don’t have any motivation to change.
i) I haven’t had enough contact with native speakers. My pronunciation would improve if I had
more exposure.
j) There wasn’t enough training or practice in pronunciation when I learned the language.
k) I learned the language too late. Only younger people can acquire a foreign language
without an accent.

Now discuss these factors with another student. Give specific examples for each item that you
checked. To what degree are your experiences the same as your partner’s? To what degree are
they different?

2- For each of the following statements, write the letters that best represent your belief: AT
(ALWAYS TRUE), ST (SOMETIMES TRUE), NT (NEVER TRUE), U (UNSURE). Be
prepared to support your choices during subsequent discussion.

a) Imitating a native-speaker model facilitates the acquisition of a targetlike pronunciation.


b) In order to correctly produce the sounds of English, NonNative Students require a detailed
description of the sound system of English.
c) It is possible to change the pronunciation of a fossilized learner.
d) A student’s first language plays a significant role in his/her phonological acquisition of a
second language.
e) Children acquire nativelike pronunciation of a second language more readily than adults.
f) Some students have a better “ear” for language than others, and are thus more gifted in the
area of pronunciation.
g) Motivation and personality play a larger role in determining success in the area of
pronunciation than aptitude.
h) A learner’s desire to socially integrate into a society may determine his/her level of
accuracy in second language phonology.

62
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

3- Look at the following sentences and work out their pronunciation. What problems did you
encounter?

http://www.learnenglish.de/pronunciation/pronunciationnonsense.html

Your teacher will write the phonemic transcription of the conflictive words. Practice their
pronunciation. Why are they pronounced differently?

63
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

Below is the phonemic chart for the sounds of English:


Phonemic chart

For practice: http://cambridgeenglishonline.com/Phonetics_Focus/ Click on Phonemic Chart

4- Make a list of the symbols that represent the English sounds:

Vowels:

Consonants:

Dipthongs:

5- Work in pairs. Write the following words in the correct place in your list. Pay attention to the
part of the word that is highlighted. Then say the word aloud.
1-pencil 2- bag 3- ticket 4- door 5-key 6- Greece
7- five 8- vocabulary 9- sit 10-lives 11-like 12-man
13- no 14- hot 15- read 16- we 17- yellow 18- three
19- that 20-shoe 21- television 22-choose 23-jeans 24- sing
25- tea 26- is 27-bed 28- hand 29-start 30-not
31-your 32- good 33- do 34- love 35-girl 36-sister
37-day 38-go 39-why 40-down 41- noise 42-beer

Sources:
http://www-01.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsPhonology.htm
http://cambridgeenglishonline.com/Phonetics_Focus/ Click on Phonemic Chart

64
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

English Language
PRE-READING
1. You are going to read the introduction to a very well-known story by Roald Dahl (1916-1990). But
before you do so, let us explore a little about the title.
a) Understanding a foreign language has a great deal to do with understanding how words work,
what they mean and how they are used in real life situations. To discuss this work with a partner
on Appendix 1 (What is in your [Oxford] dictionary?).
b) To make sure you understand the significance of the title, work with your own dictionary now
and check for the words “lamb” and “slaughter.” Jot down in your notebooks any necessary
information about them.
c) The title, however, is made up of what we call in English an IDIOM. What is an idiom? Check for
definitions in your dictionary. Then look for the meaning of the idiom in the title. How much did
your understanding of the words in isolation help work out the meaning of the expression as a
whole?
2. Now read the selected extract and do the activities that follow.

Lamb to the Slaughter

The room was warm and clean, the curtains drawn, the two table lamps alight-hers and the one by the empty chair opposite.
On the sideboard behind her, two tall glasses, soda water, whiskey. Fresh ice cubes in the Thermos bucket.

Mary Maloney was waiting for her husband to come him from work.

Now and again she would glance up at the clock, but without anxiety, merely to please herself with the thought that each
minute gone by made it nearer the time when he would come. There was a slow smiling air about her, and about everything
she did. The drop of a head as she bent over her sewing was curiously tranquil. Her skin -for this was her sixth month with
child-had acquired a wonderful translucent quality, the mouth was soft, and the eyes, with their new placid look, seemed larger
darker than before. When the clock said ten minutes to five, she began to listen, and a few moments later, punctually as
always, she heard the tires on the gravel outside, and the car door slamming, the footsteps passing the window, the key
turning in the lock. She laid aside her sewing, stood up, and went forward to kiss him as he came in.

"Hullo darling," she said.

"Hullo darling," he answered.

She took his coat and hung it in the closer. Then she walked over and made the drinks, a strongish one for him, a weak one for
herself; and soon she was back again in her chair with the sewing, and he in the other, opposite, holding the tall glass with
both hands, rocking it so the ice cubes tinkled against the side.

For her, this was always a blissful time of day. She knew he didn't want to speak much until the first drink was finished, and
she, on her side, was content to sit quietly, enjoying his company after the long hours alone in the house. She loved to
luxuriate in the presence of this man, and to feel-almost as a sunbather feels the sun-that warm male glow that came out of
him to her when they were alone together. She loved him for the way he sat loosely in a chair, for the way he came in a door,
or moved slowly across the room with long strides. She loved intent, far look in his eyes when they rested in her, the funny
shape of the mouth, and especially the way he remained silent about his tiredness, sitting still with himself until the whiskey
had taken some of it away.

"Tired darling?"

"Yes," he said. "I'm tired," And as he spoke, he did an unusual thing. He lifted his glass and drained it in one swallow although
there was still half of it, at least half of it left.. She wasn't really watching him, but she knew what he had done because she
heard the ice cubes falling back against the bottom of the empty glass when he lowered his arm. He paused a moment,
leaning forward in the chair, then he got up and went slowly over to fetch himself another.

"I'll get it!" she cried, jumping up.

65
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

"Sit down," he said.

When he came back, she noticed that the new drink was dark amber with the quantity of whiskey in it.

"Darling, shall I get your slippers?"

"No."

She watched him as he began to sip the dark yellow drink, and she could see little oily swirls in the liquid because it was so
strong.

"I think it's a shame," she said, "that when a policeman gets to be as senior as you, they keep him walking about on his feet all
day long.”

He didn't answer, so she bent her head again and went on with her sewing; bet each time he lifted the drink to his lips, she
heard the ice cubes clinking against the side of the glass.

"Darling," she said. "Would you like me to get you some cheese? I haven't made any supper because it's Thursday."

"No," he said.

"If you're too tired to eat out," she went on, "it's still not too late. There's plenty of meat and stuff in the freezer, and you can
have it right here and not even move out of the chair."

Her eyes waited on him for an answer, a smile, a little nod, but he made no sign.

"Anyway," she went on, "I'll get you some cheese and crackers first."

"I don't want it," he said. She moved uneasily in her chair, the large eyes still watching his face. "But you must eat! I'll fix it
anyway, and then you can have it or not, as you like."

She stood up and placed her sewing on the table by the lamp.

"Sit down," he said. "Just for a minute, sit down."

It wasn't till then that she began to get frightened.

"Go on," he said. "Sit down."

She lowered herself back slowly into the chair, watching him all the time with those large, bewildered eyes. He had finished the
second drink and was staring down into the glass, frowning.

"Listen," he said. "I've got something to tell you." ….

POST-READING

About the story

1. We will introduce you to some key elements that will prove useful for the analysis of stories.
Go to APPENDIX 2 and work with a partner.

66
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

About the characters

2. At the beginning of the text, how does Dahl describe Mary’s characteristics? What textual
evidence does the author use to describe Mary and her house in order to achieve this effect?

3. Describe Patrick’s characteristics. What textual evidence does the author use to describe him in
order to achieve this effect?

4. At pivotal moments of the text, the author carefully uses language to portray the emotions and
the changing emotions of the characters. Trace the emotions of Mary and Patrick throughout
the text and the language that the author uses to convey these emotions. Look at not only
actions but dialogue as well. (Share with your classmates and teacher)

FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITY

- “I´ve got something to tell you” says Patrick Maloney.

Why are we not told exactly what this “something” is?

Share with a partner what you think Patrick might have said to his wife to make her so shocked. Begin
“I hope you won´t blame me too much, but…”

67
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

Appendix 1

68
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

Appendix 2

69
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

Social Studies
K: geographical facts

http://resources.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/geography/britain.html

T h e Brit ish Isle s

The British Isles rise from a continental shelf, an under water ledge of land extending into the
Atlantic Ocean from northwestern Europe

W h a t i s t h e B r i ti s h I s l e s ?

The British Isles is a geographical term which includes two large islands, Great Britain and
Ireland, and 5,000 small islands, most notably the Isle of Man which has its own parliament and
laws.

Which is the largest British Isles island?

The largest island in the British Isles is Great Britain (England, Wales and Scotland).

T h e B r i ti s h I s l e s a r e o c c u p i e d b y tw o n a t i o n s :

1. United Kingdom - a union of:

 England
 Scotland
 Wales
 Northern Ireland

2. Republic of Ireland

The Irish Sea separates Britain and Ireland.

70
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

Where is Great Britain?

Great Britain is an island lying off the western coast of Europe,


comprising the main territory of the United Kingdom.

W h a t i s G r e a t B r i t a i n?

Great Britain is the official name given to the two kingdoms of


England and Scotland, and the principality of Wales.

Britain is only 35 km from France and is now linked by a tunnel


under the English Channel. The south of Britain is mostly low-
lying land, with hills and agricultural land; the north of England,
Wales and Scotland are mostly covered in moorland and
mountains

Great Britain is made up of:

 England - The capital is London.


 Scotland - The capital is Edinburgh .
 Wales - The capital is Cardiff.

Great Britain is divided into small regions called counties.

Is Great Britain the same as the UK?

No, Great Britain and the United Kingdom refer to different areas.

Great Britain is very often, but incorrectly, used as a synonym for the sovereign state properly known
as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland or the UK for short.

If you look at the full name of the UK, you will see that the UK includes Great Britain AND Northern
Ireland.

Great Britain United Kingdom

71
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

The name Britain goes back to Roman times when they called England and Wales "Britannia" (or
"Britannia Major", to distinguish it from "Britannia Minor", i.e. Brittany in France). The Roman province
of Britannia only covered the areas of modern England and Wales. The area of modern Scotland was
never finally conquered.
Great Britain is a political term which describes the combination of England, Scotland, and Wales, the
three nations which together include all the land on the island. It is also a geographical term referring
to the island on which the greater parts of England, Wales and Scotland are situated.
Where is the UK?
The UK is situated north-west of the European continent between the Atlantic Ocean and the North
Sea. It has a total land area of 244,100 square kilometres, of which nearly 99% is land and the
remainder inland water. From north to south it is about 1,000 kilometres long.

The UK is part of Europe and is a member of the European Union (EU).

W h a t i s t h e o f f i c i a l na m e o f t h e U K ?
The official name of the UK is the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland".
What countries make up the UK?
The name refers to the union of what were once four separate nations: England, Scotland, Wales and
Ireland (though most of Ireland is now independent. Only Northern Ireland is part of the UK now).
T h e U n i t e d K i ng d o m i s m a d e u p o f :
 England - The capital is London.
 Scotland - The capital is Edinburgh.
 Wales - The capital is Cardiff.
 Northern Ireland - The capital is Belfast.

England, Scotland and Wales together form Great Britain.

72
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

Great Britain and Northern Ireland together form the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland" (UK)
W h a t i s t h e c a p i t a l c i t y o f t h e U K?
The capital of the UK is London.
W h y i s t h e w h o l e o f I r e l a n d n o t i n t h e U K?
Before 1922 the UK included Ireland in the definition, but when the Irish Free State ceased to be part
of the Union the title changed to include 'Northern Ireland'.
When was the UK formed (made)?
The United Kingdom (UK) was formed on January 1, 1801 and constitutes the greater part of the
British Isles.
What are people called in the UK?
People in the UK are called British although they have different nationalities.
The Union Flag, popularly known as the Union Jack, symbolizes the union of the countries of the UK. It
is made up of the individual flags of three countries in the Kingdom.

T h e S t o r y o f t h e M a k i n g o f t h e U ni t e d K i ng d o m
The present Union Flag (Union Jack) represented the political union of three kingdoms
 England,
 Scotland and
 Ireland (now only Northern Ireland)

Most of the world assumes that British people are


"English" unless specified otherwise.

This of course is wrong. British people can be Scottish, Welsh, Irish (living in Northern
Ireland) or English. The Scots and the Welsh are proud of their separate identities and tend to
be more forward about referring to themselves as Scottish or Welsh.

Message from one of our visitors


"Hey, I am from Scotland or Great Britain, I like to say that I am British but it seems that if I
do that, some foreigner will automatically assume that I am from England. It really annoys
me because I would like to say I am British, but the majority of the world's population does
not understand, so I find it necessary to revoke my identity and call myself Scottish.... "
Cameron

Interesting Facts

 The English language is a West Germanic language, originating from England.


 Over fifty percent of the English language is derived from Latin
 English is the third most common "first" language (native speakers), with around 402
million people in 2002.

73
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

Wal es
People in Wales speak a completely different language. About 25% of the people there still
speak in their native Celtic tongue called Welsh.
Shwmae? in Welsh means How are you?
Hoffet ti ddiod? means Would you like a drink?

S cotl an d
In some regions of Scotland, Gaelic is used as a first language (particularly in some areas of the
Highlands and the Western Isles). All over Scotland, the accent varies, some words are
different but overall it is not too difficult to understand.

E M B L E M S O F B RI T A I N
Each country in Britain has its own patron saint and floral emblem:
England - St. George and the Rose
The national flower of England is the rose. The flower has been
adopted as England’s emblem since the time of the Wars of the Roses -
civil wars (1455-1485) between the royal house of Lancaster (whose
emblem was a red rose) and the royal house of York (whose emblem
was a white rose).

Scotland - St. Andrew - the Thistle and Scottish Bluebell


The national flower of Scotland is the thistle, a prickly-leaved purple
flower which was first used in the 15th century as a symbol of defence.
The Scottish Bluebell is also seen as the flower of Scotland.

Wales - St. David and the Daffodil


The national flower of Wales is the daffodil, which is traditionally
worn on St. David’s Day. The vegetable called leek is also considered to
be a traditional emblem of Wales. There are many explanations of how
the leek came to be adopted as the national emblem of Wales. One is
that St David advised the Welsh, on the eve of battle with the Saxons,
to wear leeks in their caps to distinguish friend from foe. As
Shakespeare records in Henry V, the Welsh archers wore leeks at the
battle of Agincourt in 1415.
Northern Ireland - St. Patrick and the Shamrock
The national flower of Northern Ireland is the shamrock, a three-
leaved plant similar to clover. An Irish tale tells of how Patrick used the
three-leafed shamrock to explain the Trinity. He used it in his sermons
to represent how the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit could all exist
as separate elements of the same entity. His followers adopted the
custom of wearing a shamrock on his feast day.

74
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

The Royal Coat of Arms carries the symbols representing England, Scotland and Ireland, the
Sovereign's motto and the lion and the unicorn.

http://www.royal.gov.uk/MonarchUK/Symbols/UnionJack.aspx

The Union Flag, or Union Jack, is the national flag of the United Kingdom.

It is so called because it combines the crosses of the three countries united under one Sovereign - the
kingdoms of England and Wales, of Scotland and of Ireland (although since 1921 only Northern Ireland
has been part of the United Kingdom).
The flag consists of three heraldic crosses.

The cross of St George, patron saint of England since the 1270's, is a red
cross on a white ground. After James I succeeded to the throne, it was
combined with the cross of St. Andrew in 1606

The cross saltire of St Andrew, patron saint of Scotland, is a diagonal


white cross on a blue ground.

The cross saltire of St Patrick, patron saint of Ireland, is a diagonal red


cross on a white ground.

This was combined with the previous Union Flag of St George and St Andrew, after the Act of Union of
Ireland with England (and Wales) and Scotland on 1 January 1801, to create the Union Flag that has
been flown ever since.

The Welsh dragon does not appear on the Union Flag. This is Principality of Wales by that
because when the first Union Flag was created in 1606, the time was already united
with England and was no

75
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

longer a separate principality.

The Union Flag was originally a Royal flag. When the present design was made official in 1801, it was
ordered to be flown on all the King's forts and castles, but not elsewhere.

It is today flown above Buckingham Palace, Windsor Castle and Sandringham when The Queen is not in
residence.

The Royal Arms of Scotland (Lion Rampant) is flown at the Palace


of Holyroodhouse and Balmoral when The Queen is not in
residence.

76
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

On news of a Royal death, the Union Flag (or the Royal Arms of Scotland (Lion Rampant) where appropriate,
is flown at half-mast.

The Royal Standard is never flown at half-mast, as the Sovereign never dies (the new monarch immediately
succeeds his or her predecessor).
The Union Flag is flown on Government buildings on days marking the birthdays of members of the Royal
Family, Commonwealth Day, Coronation Day, The Queen's official birthday, Remembrance Day and on the
days of the State Opening and prorogation of Parliament.

The term 'Union Jack' possibly dates from Queen Anne's time (r. 1702-14), but its origin is uncertain.

It may come from the 'jack-et' of the English or Scottish soldiers, or from the name of James I who originated
the first union in 1603.

Another alternative is that the name may be derived from a proclamation by Charles II that the Union Flag
should be flown only by ships of the Royal Navy as a jack, a small flag at the bowsprit; the term 'jack' once
meant small.

77
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

Ireland

President: Michael D. Higgins (2011)

Taoiseach (Prime Minister): Enda


Kenny (2011)

Capital (2009 est.): Dublin, 1.084


million

Geography
Monetary unit: Euro (formerly Irish
pound [punt]) Ireland is situated in the Atlantic Ocean and separated from Great
Britain by the Irish Sea. Half the size of Arkansas, it occupies the
National name: Éire entire island except for the six counties that make up Northern
Ireland. Ireland resembles a basin—a central plain rimmed with
Languages: English, Irish (Gaelic) mountains, except in the Dublin region. The mountains are low,
(both official) with the highest peak, Carrantuohill in County Kerry, rising to 3,415
ft (1,041 m). The principal river is the Shannon, which begins in the
Religions: Roman Catholic 88%,
north-central area, flows south and southwest for about 240 mi
Church of Ireland 3%, other Christian
(386 km), and empties into the Atlantic.
2%, none 4%

Government
National Holiday: Saint Patrick's
Day, March 17 Republic.

Flag

The Irish flag dates from the 1800's and it is reputed to have been designed by Thomas Francis
Meaghar from Waterford. It is based on the French flag and is known as the Tricolour. The Green
represents the country's republican traditions, the Orange the Unionist tradition from Northern
Ireland and the White represents Unity.

https://www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/mapzone/games/puzzle-adventure

78
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

79
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

80
IES Nº28 “Olga Cossettini”
Profesorado de Inglés
Introductory Course 2018

Label the British Isles


Label the British Isles on the map below.

Atlantic Ocean - the body of water in


which the British Isles are located
Belfast - the capital of Northern Ireland
Cardiff - the capital of Wales
Celtic Sea - the sea south of Ireland
Dublin - the capital of Ireland
England - the largest area in the United
Kingdom; it is attached to Scotland and
Wales
Edinburgh - the capital of Scotland
English Channel - the body of water off
southern England which separates it from
France
Hebrides - islands off the northwest coast
of Scotland
Ireland - (the Republic of Ireland) - a
country west of England across the Irish
Sea (not part of the United Kingdom)
Irish Sea - the body of water that
separates England and Ireland
Isle of Man - an island in the Irish Sea
Isle of Wight - an island off the southern
coast of England
London - the capital of England (and the capital of the United Kingdom)
North Sea - the body of water northeast of the British Isles separating it from northwestern Europe
Northern Ireland - a part of the United Kingdom bordering the Republic of Ireland on the northeast
Orkney Islands - islands off the northeast coast of Scotland
Scotland - a part of the United Kingdom bordering England on the north
Shetland Islands - islands far off the northeast coast of Scotland
Wales - a part of the United Kingdom bordering England on the southwest

81