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Excerpt from “The Inalienable Rights of Man” from The Second Treatise
on Civil Government
John Locke (1632-1704)

The state of nature has a law of nature to govern it, which obliges everyone, and
reason, which is that law, teaches all mankind who will but consult it that, being all equal
and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or possessions . . .
And that all men may be restrained from invading others’ rights and from doing hurt
to on another, and the law of nature be observed, which willeth the peace and preservation
of all mankind, the execution of the law of nature is in that state put into every man’s hand,
whereby everyone has a right to punish the transgressors of that law to such a degree as
may hinder its violation.
Though the earth and all inferior creatures be common to all men, yet every man has
a property in his own person; this nobody has any right to but himself. The labor of his
body and the work of his hands we may say are properly his. Whatsoever, then, he removes
out of the state that nature hath provided and left it in, he hath mixed his labor with and
joined to it something that is his own, and thereby makes it his property . . . For this labor
being the unquestionable property of the laborer, no man but he can have a right to what
that is one joined to, at least where there is enough, and as good left in common for others.
Men, being, as has been said, by nature all free, equal, and independent, no one can
be put out of his estate and subjected to the political power of others without his own
consent, which is done by agreeing with the other men to join and unite into a community
for their comfortable, safe and peaceable living one amongst another in a secure enjoyment
of their properties, and a greater security against any that are not of it.
The great end of men’s entering into society being the enjoyment of their properties
in peace and safety, and the great instrument and means of that being the laws established
in that society: the first and fundamental positive law of all commonwealths is the
establishing of legislative power . . .

Though the legislative . . . be the supreme power in every commonwealth, yet . . . it is

not, nor can possibly, be, absolutely arbitrary over the lives and fortunes of the people. For
it being but the joint power of every member of the society given up to that person,or
assembly, which is the legislator, it can be no more than those persons had in a state of
nature before they entered into society, and gave it up to the community.
The supreme power cannot take from any man any part of his property without his
own consent . . .
First, [men] are to govern by . . . established laws, not to be varied in particular
cases, but to have one rule for rich and poor, for the favorite at the court and the
countryman at plow.
Secondly, these laws also ought to be designed for no other end than the good of the
Thirdly, they must not raises taxes on the property of the people without the
consent of the people.
[Governments are dissolved] when . . . a single person or prince sets up his own
arbitrary will in place of the laws which are the will of society . . . there is . . . another way
whereby government are dissolved, and that is when the legislative . . . act contrary to their
trust . . .
Whenever the legislators endeavor to take away and destroy the property of the
people, or to reduce them to slavery under arbitrary power, they put themselves into a
state of war with the people, who are thereupon absolved from any further obedience . . . .