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CHAPTER -1

INTRODUCTION
Talwandi Sabo Power Limited (TSPL) was incorporated as an SPV by Punjab State
Electricity Board (PSEB) with the purpose of constructing a 1980 (3x660) MW thermal
power plant at Village Banawala, Mansa-Talwandi Sabo Road, District Mansa, Punjab,
India. Sterlite Energy Limited (a Vedanta group company) was selected as the developer
of the project based on the Tariff Based Competitive Bidding Process (Case-2) on BOO
basis for supply of 100% power to Punjab State Electricity Board (PSEB) for 25 years as
per the guidelines of Government of India. Power Purchase Agreement and other related
agreements were signed between TSPL and PSEB on September 1, 2008, and the
ownership of Talwandi Sabo Power Limited was transferred to Sterlite Energy Limited
(Now Vedanta Limited) on that date. Vedanta Resources plc (“Vedanta”) is a London
Stock Exchange listed FTSE 100 diversified metals and mining major with revenues in
excess of USD 12.9 billion. The group produces Aluminium, Copper, Zinc, Lead, Iron
ore and commercial energy. Vedanta has operations in India, Zambia and Australia and a
strong organic growth pipeline of projects. With an empowered talent pool of over
87,000 people, comprising over 25,000 direct employees and 59,500 contractors globally,
Vedanta places strong emphasis on partnering with all its stakeholders based on core
values of entrepreneurship, excellence, trust, inclusiveness and growth.
TSPL is one of the first few Supercritical plants being constructed in the country. The
Supercritical technologies are environment friendly and energy efficient technologies

This plant has been constructed in 3 stages as given below:

Stage 1: Unit -1 660M.W.

Stage 2: Unit-2 660M.W.

Stage 3: Unit-3 660M.W.

Total Generation Capacity 1980 M.W.

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TALWANDI SABO POWER LIMITED, is a company incorporated under the
Companies Act 1956 and having its registered office at Village Banwala, Distt. Mansa,
Punjab (hereinafter referred to as the “Owner” which expression shall unless repugnant
to the subject or the context thereof mean and include its successors and permitted
assigns), owning a 1980 MW (3 x 660 MW) power station known as Talwandi Sabo
Power Limited at Village Banwala, Distt. Mansa, Punjab (“Plant”, as further defined
herein), and Talwandi Sabo Power Limited (TSPL) a subsidiary of Vedanta Resources
Limited, was incorporated as an SPV by Punjab State Electricity Board (PSEB) with the
purpose of constructing a 1980 MW (3x660) Super critical thermal power plant at Village
Banawala, Mansa-Talwandi Sabo Road, District Mansa, Punjab, India. The project is
based on the Tariff Based Competitive Bidding Process (Case-2) on BOO basis for
supply of 100% power to Punjab State Electricity Board (PSEB) for 25 years as per the
guidelines of Government of India. Power Purchase Agreement is signed with PSEB and
Linkage Coal is available. The station is fully commissioned and operational since
Sep’2017. The EPC contractor was M/s. SEPCO-I, China. Total engineering, supply,
erection, testing and commissioning of the power plant were in the scope of the EPC
contractor. Plant is connected through Railways. Facilities such as Railway Package, Ash
handling (Wet Ash beyond bottom Ash), Raw-water reservoir, Zero Discharge system,
Ash Dyke was constructed by owner. TSPL had employed M/s DCPL as technical
consultant for the whole power plant.

The O&M Operator is required to provide services, commencing from the takeover of
Plant for a period of at least 5 years (can be extended on mutual agreement for further
two years). It is required that the successful Bidder depute its staff and technicians in
each of the disciplines (Mechanical, Electrical, C&I and BOP and Main plant Operation,
CHP, Railways, Environment management facilities etc including local operation etc.,)
along with the Plant Manager is deputed at site from the date of takeover for fulfilling the
requirements of TSPL Plant operation requirements as per PPA

The salient features of the 3x660 MW super Critical Power Plant are as below:
1 Primary Fuel Non-coking Coal
2 Source of Coal Domestic Coal

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(MCL/CIL), Imported
(as & when required)
3 Start-up Fuel LDO / HFO/HSD
4 Water Source From Punjab Canal
Network through Jagga
Canal which is almost 5
KM from plant
5 Pulverizing System Ball and tube mill
6 Boiler Super Critical,
Pulverised fuel, Natural
circulation with
superheater and
Reheater
7 Steam Turbine Three cylinder, with
Reheat and regenerative
cycle & Nozzle and
throttle governed
turbine

The power from the TSPL is to be supplied 100% to PSPCL as per PPA already existing.

As mentioned in this document Contractors are required to adhere to the instructions and
guidelines. Any queries on the document should be received within one (1) week of
receipt of the document. Bidders may visit the site at their convenience, if not done
already. This document is issued to only those Bidders who fulfill the following criteria: -

* Relevant experience of complete O&M of Coal fired Thermal Power Station of similar
capacity.
* Agency must have capability to operate plants in India.

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* The financial capability of the agency :- Minimum Annual Turnover>100 Cr (last three
FY)
* Bidders having long term interest in carrying out such type of work in India.
* Bidders should have capability & experience of Plant & performance engineering
experience of large size units

TSPL reserves the right to accept or reject any or all of the proposals without assigning
any reason whatsoever. Issue of the document doesn’t qualify the bidder for
consideration of bid by the Owner.
All the three units & power 25th Aug 2016
station is already
commissioned. Station COD
had already been performed
and accepted by PSPCL on
8th September 2016.
Unit 1 COD Date
Unit 2 COD Date 05th July 2014
Unit 3 COD Date 25th Nov 2015
Station COD Date 08th Sept 2016

1.1 Personal protective equipment (PPE)


It refers to protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garments or equipment
designed to protect the wearer's body from injury or infection. The hazards addressed by
protective equipment include physical, electrical, heat, chemicals, biohazards,
and airborne particulate matter. Protective equipment may be worn for job-
related occupational safety and healthpurposes, as well as for sports and
other recreational activities. "Protective clothing" is applied to traditional categories of
clothing, and "protective gear" applies to items such as pads, guards, shields, or masks,
and others.

The purpose of personal protective equipment is to reduce employee exposure to hazards


when engineering controls and administrative controls are not feasible or effective to
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reduce these risks to acceptable levels. PPE is needed when there are hazards present.
PPE has the serious limitation that it does not eliminate the hazard at source and may
result in employees being exposed to the hazard if the equipment fails.[1]

Any item of PPE imposes a barrier between the wearer/user and the working
environment. This can create additional strains on the wearer; impair their ability to carry
out their work and create significant levels of discomfort. Any of these can discourage
wearers from using PPE correctly, therefore placing them at risk of injury, ill-health or,
under extreme circumstances, death. Good ergonomic design can help to minimise these
barriers and can therefore help to ensure safe and healthy working conditions through the
correct use of PPE.

Practices of occupational safety and health can use hazard controls and interventions to
mitigate workplace hazards, which pose a threat to the safety and quality of life of
workers. The hierarchy of hazard controls provides a policy framework which ranks the
types of hazard controls in terms of absolute risk reduction. At the top of the hierarchy
are elimination and substitution, which remove the hazard entirely or replace the hazard
with a safer alternative. If elimination or substitution measures cannot apply, engineering
controls and administrative controls, which seek to design safer mechanisms and coach
safer human behavior, are implemented. Personal protective equipment ranks last on the
hierarchy of controls, as the workers are regularly exposed to the hazard, with a barrier of
protection. The hierarchy of controls is important in acknowledging that, while personal
protective equipment has tremendous utility, it is not the desired mechanism of control in
terms of worker safety.

1.2 Eye protection


Each day, about 2000 US workers have a job-related eye injury that requires medical
attention.Eye injuries can happen through a variety of means. Most eye injuries occur
when solid particles such as metal slivers, wood chips, sand or cement chips get into the
eye. Smaller particles in smokes and larger particles such as broken glass also account for
particulate matter-causing eye injuries. Blunt force trauma can occur to the eye when
excessive force comes into contact with the eye. Chemical burns, biological agents, and

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thermal agents, from sources such as welding torches and UV light, also contribute to
occupational eye injury.

While the required eye protection varies by occupation, the safety provided can be
generalized. Safety glasses provide protection from external debris, and should provide
side protection via a wrap-around design or side shields.

 Goggles provide better protection than safety glasses, and are effective in preventing
eye injury from chemical splashes, impact, dusty environments and welding. Goggles
with high air flow should be used to prevent fogging.
 Face shields provide additional protection and are worn over the standard eyewear;
they also provide protection from impact, chemical, and blood-borne hazards.
 Full-facepiece respirators are considered the best form of eye protection when
respiratory protection is needed as well, but may be less effective against potential
impact hazards to the eye.
 Eye protection for welding is shaded to different degrees, depending on the specific
operation.

1.3 Hearing protection


Industrial noise is often overlooked as an occupational hazard, as it is not visible to the
eye. Overall, about 22 million workers in the United States are exposed to potentially
damaging noise levels each year. Occupational hearing loss accounted for 14% of all
occupational illnesses in 2007, with about 23,000 cases significant enough to cause
permanent hearing impairment. About 82% of occupational hearing loss cases occurred
to workers in the manufacturing sector. The Occupational Safety and Health
Administration establishes occupational noise exposure standards. NIOSH recommends
that worker exposures to noise be reduced to a level equivalent to 85 dBA for eight hours
to reduce occupational noise-induced hearing loss.

PPE for hearing protection consists of earplugs and earmuffs. Workers who are regularly
exposed to noise levels above the NIOSH recommendation should be furnished hearing
protection by the employers, as they are a low-cost intervention.

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1.4 Plant
(a) the electric power generating facility that is being constructed in TSPL, Mansa,
Punjab India consisting of, among other things, three Units, each to be constructed with a
Rated Capacity (as defined in the EPC Contract) of 660 MW and in accordance with (i)
the plant specifications described in Schedule and (b) without reducing or derogating
from clause (a) or (c), all associated equipment, land, the Site, buildings, engineering and
design documents, other energy producing equipment and all auxiliary equipment,
Railway, Coal handling, fuel handling and storage infrastructures, water supply and
treatment facilities, ash disposal facilities and all other equipment installed or to be
installed within the Plant boundary & Associated facilities like water intake system &
Railway terminal points as mentioned in battery limits pursuant to obligations contained
in the Plant Agreements, and (c) without reducing or derogating from (a) or (b), means,
with respect to the delivery of Services by the Operator and the scope of the
responsibilities and obligations of the Operator hereunder, the items described in (a) and
(b), including without limitation the Units, the Switchyard (as defined in and to the extent
a responsibility of the Owner), are not constructed under and pursuant to the EPC
Contracts.

1.5 Plant Agreements


It means the O&M Agreement, the Coal Supply Agreements, the EPC Contracts, the
Land Lease Agreement, Secondary Fuel Supply and Transportation Agreements, and the
other contracts or subcontracts of the Owner relating to the construction, operation,
overhaul, maintenance and repair of the Plant or the Services, contracts for the removal,
transportation and disposal of waste or ash from the Site, as such agreements exist on the
date hereof and, except for this Agreement, have been delivered by the Owner to the
Operator and as such agreements may be amended or modified after the date hereof,
where such amendments or modifications have been made available to the Operator in
writing.

1.6 Plant Operating Period

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It means the period of time commencing on the takeover of the Plant by the O&M
Contractor and continuing until the end of the fifth (5th) Contract Year thereafter or until
the Contract is terminated / extended as per the provisions of the Contract.

Prudent Utility Practices


It means the exercise of that degree of skill, diligence, prudence, foresight, and
operating/maintenance practice generally followed internationally by highly qualified,
prudent professionals in any of the following businesses as the context may require:

a. the loading, unloading, handling and storage of Coal or Secondary Fuel and
b. the private electric power generation industry with respect to the design, engineering,
construction, testing, metering, repair, operation and maintenance of electric generating,
transmission and distribution facilities, including in the procurement of spare parts, spare
equipment and spare components in relation thereto; which in any such case should have
been expected to accomplish the desired result at the lowest reasonable cost, consistent
with licensing and regulatory considerations, environmental considerations, reliability,
safety and expedition. Prudent Utility Practices is not intended to be limited to the
optimum practice, method or act, to the exclusion of all others, but rather to be a
spectrum of possible practices, methods or acts employed by owners and operators of
facilities similar in size and operational characteristics to the Plant.

“Rated Capacity”

It means the generating capacity of the Plant which shall be 1980 MW or 660 MW for
one Unit and subject to adjustment in accordance with the EPC Performance Test results.

Representative

It means, for each Party, a Person designated by notice in writing to the other Party.

Scheduled Maintenance

It means such scheduled and pre-agreed maintenance as may be authorised in the relevant
Annual Operating Plan.

1.7 Coal Handling Plant

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Preventive, predictive and break down maintenance of Unloading station/wagon tripler,
stacker declaimer, coal feeders/ conveyors/chutes/dust extraction, dust suppression
system/fans fasteners/ducting/bag dust collectors/gear boxes/coal crushers/automatic coal
sampling equipment / coal lab equipment etc., taking trial run of the above system to the
satisfaction. Belt vulcanizing etc. will be in the scope of contractor.
1.8Esp
Periodical inspection of ESP internals whenever required and necessary ,repairs of
collecting electrodes, discharge electrodes, its rapping mechanism,
gearboxes/hoppers/chutes/scrapper conveyor rotary air lock valves and bottom hopper
fluidizing system and root blowers etc., and taking trial of the above machinery and plant
to the satisfaction.
Preventive and break down maintenance of Bag filter, solenoid valve, bag replacement,
cleaning of bags, Control system, PLC logic setting and maintenance, Electrical system
and mechanical system.

1.9 DM Plant
Overhauling of pumps, valves/ lubrication/ replacement of leader/ nozzles/valves
/gaskets/ pipes/ arresting leakage of water, providing assistance to transfer the
resins/sand/activated carbon for replacement or for internal inspection, repairs of
acid/alkali storage tanks/pipe lines/valves/pumps/supports and chemical dosing system to
boiler and providing assistance for acid / alkali unloading etc., and circulating water
treatment.

Circulating Water Pump House And Cooling Towers


Overhauling of pumps/fan/gear box/lubrication of machinery/replacement of
fills/repairing of PVC fittings/ repairing of precast concrete supports/ fasteners/drift
eliminator/doors/valves/headers/nozzles/flanges repair and overhauling of chemical
dosing system to C.W. system. Overhauling of pumps / gear boxes etc. of C.W by pass
treatment (side stream filters) etc.

1.10 Turbine and Auxiliaries


Repairs and overhauling of turbine & its auxiliary equipment, pumps, oil
centrifuge/lubrication system/oil coolers/ball cleaning system/condenser

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/fasteners/arresting leakage in the piping replacement of valves and piping etc. During
operation of turbo-generator any deviations of parameter like vibration, HP/LP
differential expansion, axial shift, top/bottom casing temp etc. needs correction has to be
taken up by O&M operator which may need alignment, balancing, lifting of HP/LP
casing, reworking of insulation, and generator rotor thread in, thread out etc.
The contractor shall arrange for specialized services as & when required for turbine
balancing, Experts visit during turbine overhauling and On-line leak sealing /valve
internal machining

Fire Fighting System


Checking of healthiness of all detection, alarm and fire quenching system at an interval of
7 days and rectification of the same if not in order.

Online Sealing
On-line leak sealing Steam and water etc., (Identification of exact leakage by removing
insulation, scaffolding & preparatory jobs to carry out the work.)

System configuration and Main equipment Functions:


1. Main Steam supply station:
The main steam supply station consists of high temperature and high-pressure main steam
emergency stop valves, electro hydraulic operated control valves, bypass valve and
measuring and control instruments.

2. Auxiliary steam system:


The auxiliary steam system provides steam for the following services during various
plant operating modes:
a. Unit’s warm-up steam during start-up
b. Turbine gland sealing system
c. SCAPH
d. Oil handling plant
e. Aux steam for other units
f. HVAC system

3. Gland Steam condenser and Gland steam exhauster

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Gland steam condenser is a heat exchanger which is used to condense the shaft end steam
leak-off and valve steam (air) leak-off for the recovery of working medium and heat. One
of the cooling medium of the gland steam condenser is feed water, therefore during the
unit normal operation; feed water will go through gland steam condenser.

4. HP/ LP bypass system

HP/LP bypass systems are in series & having maximum capacity 60% of BMCR. HP
bypass system is connected in between main steam pipe line to CRH line. HP de-
superheating water comes from BFP discharge. LP bypass system connects HRH line to
condenser. LP de-superheating water comes from CEP discharge. This system is suitable
for constant pressure operation & slip pressure operation of the unit. It is used for
development the steam parameters during cold startup & avoid re-heater starvation.

Air Evacuation system


The condenser air evacuation system will perform two basic functions; To initially
evacuate steam space volume of the main condenser and ancillary piping and equipment
to reduce the pressure therein to required starting levels (hogging mode);To remove non-
condensable gases collected in the condenser air removal zone (holding mode) during
normal operating models.
Three 50% capacity mechanical rotary vacuum pumps will be provided, two pumps work
together under normal operation condition, three pumps work together to shorten the
startup time during start up period. Rating capacity of vacuum pumps is 60kg/h (dry air).
Motor operated vacuum breaker valves will be sized and furnished for installation on
condenser shells in accordance with turbine manufacturer recommendations.

Turbo generator oil system


The oil system in steam turbine units are used for followings:
* Supply lubricating oil to all bearings and turning gears
* Generator seal oil system
* Turbine & BFPT governing system
The oil system of steam turbine units mainly consists of the lubricating oil system, the
shaft jacking oil system & oil filtration system. The lubricating oil system consists of

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main oil tank (75m3), main oil pump, and oil injector. AC lubricating oil pump, DC
emergency oil pump, overflow valve, oil cooler, switching valve, exhausting unit,
ultrasonic oil level Detector and other instruments for measurement and control system.

Feed water system


* Feed water system will deliver feed water from deaerator to boiler. During this process
feed water is heated to improve cycle efficiency utilizing turbine extraction steam in HP
feed water heater.
* The system is equipped with three sets of (3x50%) boiler feed water pump (2 nos.
TDBFP + 1 MDBFP) for each unit.
* Each pump is furnished with one booster pump
* The motor driven feed water pump has hydraulic coupling.
* The system consists of a single string of three (3) HP Feed water heaters piped in series.
The feed water heaters are horizontal, surface condensing. Heater having group bypass
system (out of service from the system when any one of 3 HP heaters is out of service).
* All BFP provided with its minimum recirculation valve returning to the deaerator
respectively.

Condensate system
* There are two condensate extraction pumps (CEP) whose suction is taken from
Hotwell. After the condensate pumps, the condensate delivered to the Deaerator storage
tank through a gland steam condenser (GSC) and four LP Heaters. During this process
the condensate will be heated by turbine extraction steam in low pressure heaters &
deaerator.
* The system incorporates two nos. (2x100%) constant speed electric motor driven
vertical centrifugal type condensate extraction pumps (1 operation + 1 standby).
* The system combined with four surface LP heaters and one integrative deaerator, Each
LP heater will be furnished with its own bypass. In case of tube leakage, the relevant

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heater will be switched off.- No.7 and No.8 LP heater is furnished with the common
bypass.
* A set of control valves adopted on main condensate piping to adjust Deaerator water
level. Steam is drawn to deaerator from No 4 extraction in normal condition & from
auxiliary steam in start-up condition.
* The pumps furnished with a minimum recirculation line installed from the downstream
of the gland steam condenser and returning to the main condenser.

Heater drains & vents system


Function
The heater drain and vent system will provide the following functions:
* Draining and recovering condensated extraction steam from feed water heaters.
* Venting non-condensable gases from feed water heaters.
* Providing supplemental feed water heating by cascading drains from higher pressure to
lower pressure heaters
* Providing turbine water induction protection (include emergency drain system).

Cooling water system


Cooling water system is divided into two systems:
* Closed Cycle Cooling Water system (CCCW)
* Open Cycle Cooling Water system (OCCW)
CCCW system uses demineralized water as working medium. Because of this corrosion
of the cooling equipments decreases & heat exchange efficiency increases. It avoids the
jamming of flow path thereby increasing reliability & reducing the maintenance time.
Two (2x100%) CCCW pumps & two (2x100%) water-water heat exchangers are
installed in CCCW system.
OCCW system takes water from CW pump outlet pipe, which is filtered by electrical
strainer followed by an increase in pressure by pressure pumps. After cooling the
equipments the return line is connected to the CW return pipe system.

Cooling water system is divided into two systems:


* Closed Cycle Cooling Water system (CCCW)

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* Open Cycle Cooling Water system (OCCW)
CCCW system uses demineralized water as working medium. Because of this corrosion
of the cooling equipments decreases & heat exchange efficiency increases. It avoids the
jamming of flow path thereby increasing reliability & reducing the maintenance time.
Two (2x100%) CCCW pumps & two (2x100%) water-water heat exchangers are
installed in CCCW system.
OCCW system takes water from CW pump outlet pipe, which is filtered by electrical
strainer followed by an increase in pressure by pressure pumps. After cooling the
equipments the return line is connected to the CW return pipe system.

CW water system in main power house:


The CW water system in main power building will transport CW to condenser which
coming from CW supply header through CW pump, in order to take away residual heat
carried by exhaust steam of turbine or turbine driving pump or other flows, and
condensate them to water..
The CW system in main power building is designed to work when water temperature is at
design temperature and turbine works under VWO condition, at that time condenser
receives most steam condensate and other flows, and its back pressure arrives at rating
average pressure 10.2kpa.
The cooling tower outlet temperature is 35.4℃ under TMCR condition.
The CW adopts cooling tower system. One Dn3200 water supply header will be derived
from cycle water pump house, separated into two Dn2400 branch pipes aside colonnade
A. Water fist go into the LP condenser, then go through inter-connecting pipe of
condenser into the HP condenser. Two Dn2400 water return branch pipes will be derived
out the turbine hall. After incorporating into one pipe, they will be derived to cycle
cooling tower. The motor-operated butterfly valve will be installed in both cycle water
supply and return pipe rolling shutter.
In order to keep the condenser pipes clean & free from suspended solids a set of rubber
ball cleaning equipment is installed. Each set is composed of ball collector, rubber ball
recirculating pump, ball screen & pipes, valves & process control device. During
operation this system can be intermittently or continuously put into operation to keep the
pipes clean.

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Air compressor:

There are total 02 compressor house, 01 is for ash handling system and 01 is for Main
plant instruments & service air requirement -
Instrument air Compressor
No of Compressors: 5 numbers screw compressors
Capacity of Compressors: 30nm3/min, P=0.80mpa
Drier Type: Regenerative type
Capacity and number of driers: 50nm3/min and 4 numbers
Ash Compressors
No of Compressors: 17numbers screw compressors
Capacity of Compressors: 60nm3/min, P=0.80mpa
Drier Type: Regenerative type and refrigerant type
Capacity and number of driers: 4Regenerative type of 50nm3/min and 11 nos refrigerant
type of 90nm3/min
The function of compressed air system is to supply all kind of compressed air for
different purpose:
* The control & instrumentation air,

* Service air &

* Pneumatic fly ash conveying compressed air

Each set consists of for all three units:


Three control & instrumentation air receivers (V=30 m3)
12 fly ash conveying/ service air receivers (V=50 m3)

Details of Main Equipment


Conveyor System
* The belt conveyors completed with drive mechanism, belt pulleys, idlers, Belt Cleaning
devices, take-up, backstops, stringers and supports, Skirt Boards and safe guards etc.
* Safety devices provided to allow safe operation of plant and conveyors including
alarms, trip switches, interlocks, emergency pull chord switches along the length of all
conveyors etc.

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* Enclosed galleries are provided for proper ventilation & illumination. The Galleries
provided with windows and translucent sheet for lighting.
* Underground tunnels equipped with proper ventilating equipment.
* The coal conveyors and coal transfer plant have a complete interlock system to ensure
smooth operation.

Screening & Crushing Equipment


* Four(4) Roller screens and four(4) Ring hammer crushers are installed in crusher

house. Two(2) Roller screens and two(2)Ring hammer crushers are installed under

C3A. Others are installed under C3B. One(1)electric driven splitter is installed under

C3 A. The coal can be separate uniform double streams and drop into two (2) Roller

screens. C3B is the same as the C3A.


* The design capacity of Roller screen is 1250t/h. The size of coal inputted will be ≤

350mm,The size of coal under screen will be≤30mm.

* The design capacity of Ring hammer crusher is 1250t/h. The size of coal inputted will

be≤350mm, The size of coal output will be≤30mm.

* On line temperature and vibrating monitor and ZSS are installed for crushers and it
could be hooked up to centralized vibration analysis system.

Stacker & Reclaimer


* There are two bucket wheel stacker cum reclaimers in coal stockyard. Design Capacity

stacking 2500t/h, reclaiming:2500 t/h, boom length:35m.

* Stacker/reclaimer equipped with spray nozzle for dust suppression.

Magnetic Separator and metal detectors


* Four(4) Belt-type magnetic separators for belt width 1400mm will be installed

above the head pulleys of C1.

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* Two(2) Hang-type magnetic separators for belt width 1600mm will be installed in

the middle of C3 and C12 separately, total four(4).

* Two(2) Metal detectors for belt width 1600mm will be installed in the middle of C3

and C12 separately, total four (4).

* magnetic separator: 1100 Gauss at 400 mm distance in hot running conditions。

Coal sampling system


* Two(2)sampling devices will be installed in No.1 sampling house and No.2
sampling house at the middle of C3 and C12 conveyor gallery separately, total four (4).

Coal sampling system will be automatic type。.

Belt Scales
* Two(2)belt scales will be installed at the middle of C3 and C12 separately, total four
(4).
* Motional circle chains will be installed as calibration device for belt scale, total four
(4).

* Belt scale range:20% to 120% of design capacity requirement with 100% overload
protection.

* Belt scale accuracy:±0.5% throughout the range。

Coal Dust Control


* The dust control system consists of the dust suppression system and dust collection
system. The water nozzle type dust suppression system is provided for the
unloading/transfer points and coal stock pile.
* The dust collection system is provided for the transfer towers, crusher house and coal
bunker.

Auxiliary Equipment
* Auxiliary system such as ventilation, dust removal, firefighting, lighting and
communication are provided.

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* The hoisting equipments in the system such as Crane, Electric Hoist are installed
suitably at: 1. Transfer Tower 2. Crusher House 3 Bunker bay and 4. Bulldozer garage

Control and Instrumentation


Automation level and CCR layout
* Automation level of units will meet requirement of auto startup/shutdown of function
class. In accordance with technical process system, automation systems will be divided
into some independent sub-systems, i.e. control sub-group and driver control.
* Automation systems of power plant will be composed of Distributed Control System
(DCS) and control system of auxiliary systems. Design principle is control function
decentralization and information centralized management.
* Startup/shutdown of unit, supervision of running state and handling abnormal condition
and urgency accident etc. in CCR will be realized with the help of minimum number of
local operators. Provision to be kept in the unit control desk for PA (public address)
System / EPBAX system operator console, detailed description refers to 17 of 373-

F2491C-D-01。

* Supervision and control of unit will be composed of DCS and other thermodynamic

control systems, DCS is the main part. In CCR operator stations with LCD and keyboard
/ mouse will be the main control and monitoring interface. The system will be governed
by the operating system running in a real time mode. It will be Microsoft Windows 2000/
Window XP based system.
* When serious failure of DCS is happened (for example loss of power, communication
interrupt, all operator stations fault, important controller fault etc.), the unit can be auto
shut down. And can shut down safely under the rule of “fail-safety” through the several
hardwired emergent pushbuttons that mounted on the operator console in order to protect
person and equipment. These pushbuttons must be hardwired and independent from the
DCS.

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VIEW OF TALWANDI SABO POWER PLANT

Talwandi power plant


Fig 1.1
Land measuring approx. 2200 acres is required for the project ,
For disposal of ash tank very near to power station is acquired which the ash in slurry
form is disposed off through ash and slurry disposal plants .
Coal Dust Control
* The dust control system consists of the dust suppression system and dust collection
system. The water nozzle type dust suppression system is provided for the
unloading/transfer points and coal stock pile.
* The dust collection system is provided for the transfer towers, crusher house and coal
bunker.

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CHAPTER-2
COAL HANDLING PLANT
It can be called the heart of thermal power plant because it providedthe fuel for
combustion in boiler. The coal is brought to the TSPL through rails there arefour tracks
in all for transportation of coal through rails. Everyday 7 to 8 trains of coal are unloaded
at TSPL. Each train consists of 58 wagonsand each wagons consists of 60 tones of coal.
The approximate per day consumption atTSPL is about 35000 tones. The coal is firstly
unloaded from wagon by wagontriplers then crushed by crushers and magnetic pulley and
pulverized to be transformed to the boiler. The whole transportation of coal is through
conveyor belt operated by 3 Inductionmotor.

Coal Handling Plant process


Fig 2.1
The coal handling plant can broadly be divided into three sections :-

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1) Wagon Unloading System.
2) Crushing System.
3) Conveying System.

2.1 Wagon Unloading System:-

Wagon Tripler:-

It unloads the coal from wagon to hopper. The hopper, which ismade of Iron , is in the
form of net so that coal pieces of only equal to and less than 200mm. size pass through it.
The bigger ones are broken by the workers with the help ofhammers. From the hopper
coal pieces fall on the vibrator. It is a mechanical systemhaving two rollers each at its
ends.The rollers roll with the help of a rope moving on pulley operated by a slip ring
induction motor with specification:

Wagon tripler
Fig 2.2
Wagon Tripler
Rated Output. : 71 KW.
Rated Voltage. : 415 V.
Rated Current. : 14.22 Amp.
Rated Speed. : 975 rpm.

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No. of phases. : 3
Frequency. : 50 Hz.
The four rollers place themselves respectively behind the first and the last pair of wheels
of the wagon. When the motor operates the rollers roll in forward direction moving the
wagon towards the “Wagon Table”. On the Wagon table a limit is specified in which
wagon to be has kept otherwise the triple would not be achieved.

2.2 Crushing System:-


Crusher House:-
It consists of crushers which are used to crush the coal to 20 mm.size. There are mainly
two type of crushers working in TSPL:-
Primary Crushers i.e. i) Rail crushers or ii) Rotary breaker.
Secondary Crushers. i.e. Ring granulators.

Primary Crushers:
Primary crushers are provided in only CHP stage 3 system, which breaking of coal in
CHO Stage 1 & Stage 2 system is done at wagon tripler hopper jail up to the size (-) 250
mm.

Secondary Crusher:-
Basically there are four ways to reduce material size : impact attrition , Shearing and
Compression. Most of the crushers employ a combination of three crushing
methods.Ring granulators crush by compressing accompanied by impact and
shearing.The unique feature of this granulator is the minimum power required for
tone for this type of material to be crushed compared to that of other type of
crushers.

2.3 Construction & Operation:-


Secondary crushers are ring type granulators crushing at the rate of 550 TPH, 750 TPH
for input size of 250 mm. and output size of 20 mm. The crusher is coupled with motor
and gearbox by fluid coupling..Main parts of granulator like break plates, cages ,
crushing rings and other internal partsare made of tough manganese (Mn) steel.The rotor
consists of four rows of crushing rings each set having 20 Nos. of toothed rings and 18
Nos. of plain rings. In CHP Stage 1 & 2 having 64 Nos. of ring hammers. These rows are

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hung on a pair of suspension shaft mounted on rotor discs. Crushers of this type employ
the centrifugal force of swingingrings stroking the coal to produce the crushing action.
The coal is admitted at the top and the rings stroke the coal downward. The coal
discharges through grating at the bottom.

2.4 Conveying System:-


Stacker Reclaimer:-
The stacker re-claimer unit can stack the material on to the pipe or reclaim the stack filed
material and fed on to the main line conveyor. While stacking material is being fed from
the main line conveyor via tripler unit and vibrating feeder on the intermediate conveyor
which feds the boom conveyor of the stacker cum reclaimer. During reclaiming the
material dis discharged on to the boom conveyor by the bucket fitted to the bucket wheel
body and boom conveyor feeds the material on the main line conveyor running in the
reverse direction.

Conveyor belt Specification of Stacker / Reclaimer:-


Belt width. : 1400 mm.
Speed. : 2.2 m/second.
Schedule of motor : All 3-Ø induction motors.
Bucket wheel motor : 90 KW.
Boom Conveyor motor : 70 KW.
Intermediate Conveyor Motor : 90 KW.
Boom Housing Motor : 22 KW.
Slewing assembly. : 10 KW.
Travel Motor : 7.5 KW.
Vibrating Feeder. : 2x6 KW.
Total installed power. : 360 KW.

Stacker-reclaimer
A stacker usually operates on a rail-like structure with movable wheels, but the main
operation is performed on a fixed place. Stackers are used to stack into different patterns,
such as cone stacking and chevron stacking. Stacking in a single cone tends to cause size
segregation, with coarser material moving out towards the base. Raw cone ply stacking

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is when additional cones are added next to the first cone. Chevron stacking is when the
stacker Stacker-reclaimer travels along the length of the stockpile adding layer upon
layer of material.
Luffing:
This is vertical movement (that is, up & down)by hydraulic cylinders .
Travelling: The stacker moves on a rail track. All the controls are in the controller's cabin
which is above the boom conveyor. The new stackers can be controlled remotely.
Slewing
This is the movement of the stacker around its central axis (that is, rotary movement).
This allows aligning or placing the stockpile in the required area as per requirement. This
works mostly by swel penion which rotates around a swel base. This type of gear
assembly is called the sun and planet.

Stacker-Reclaimer
Fig 2.3
Operation of Conveyors
Various conveyors are provided for transporting the coal from Track hopper to Bunkers.
The following precautions are to be taken before taking any conveyor into service:
a) There is no oil leakage at gearboxes / fluid couplings and the oil levels are correct.
b) The Discharge and Receiving chutes are free from jamming and choking.
c) The Flap Gates are in correct positions.
d) All inspection doors are in the closed position.

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e) All pull-cords are reset and the EPB is released and ensure that all protections are
healthy.
f) The Alarm Siren is in working order.
g) Communication facility is available.
h) The lighting is adequate.
i) No Permit To Work (Isolation) is pending against that conveyor.
2.5 Metal Detector System

Metal detector system


Fig 2.4

Metal Detectors are used to detect tramp metal pieces from the raw materials coming on
the conveyor belt metal detector are used to prevent damage to the processing machinery
like crushers, cutting machines,cutters, mills, rollers,etc.

Belt Conveyors in Thermal Power Plant:


Belt Conveyors are very suitable means of transporting large quantities of coal over large
distances. Belt Conveyors consists of endless belt made of rubber, canvas or balata

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running over a pair of end drums or pulleys and supported by series of rollers (known as
idlers) provided at regular intervals. The return idlers which support the empty belt are
plain rollers and are space wide apart.The initial cost of this coal carrying system is not
high and power consumption is also low. The belt conveyors are successfully used on
inclination up to 20o to the horizontal. The load carrying capacity of the belt conveyors
may vary from 50 to 100 tonnes/hr and it can be easily transferred through 400 meters

Transfer of coal in thermal power plant including carrying of coal from unloading point
to the storage site. It may require one equipment or several depending on the site of the
thermal power plant.

Conveyor belts
Fig 2.5
2.6 Conveyor Protection System
Conveyor as discussed is a very important thing in thermal power plant .So we have to
protect it also from various factors like overspeed, misalignment of belt, overloading of
coal,fire etc so in order to save belt various equipments are being put in the conveyor
belt.
1) Pull Chord
2) Belt sway
3) ZSS(zero speed switch)
4) IR

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Pull chord-
Pull Cord Switch is an emergency switch to stop the belt conveyor instantly when an
accident happens. Since the Pull Cord Switch is so designed that it should be installed at
the side of belt conveyor and the pull cord should be mounted along conveyor, the switch
can be actuated at any position. According to the Industrial Safety & Health Regulations,
it has been assigned to install the Pull Cord Switch to belt conveyor in Japan.

Pull Chord System


Fig 2.6
Belt Sway-
Belt Sway Switch is a protective switch for detecting the meandering (sway or deviation)
of belt conveyors, and sends out an alarm signal and an emergency stop signal.
Suited to be used for belt breakage prevention and ore falling prevention due to the belt
sway. Widely used in iron and steel, cement and chemical plants, thermal power
plants, etc., since it is essential for safety operation of belt conveyors.

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Belt sway
Fig 2.7
ZSS(zero speed switch )-
Electronic Speed Monitor is used to monitor speed of conveyors, crushers, rolling mills,
agitators, mixers, stirrers, screw conveyors, and other industrial machinery. This device
actuates relay contacts at preset speed. Using these contacts desired control action such as
zero speed protection / under speed protection/ over speed protection can be achieved.

Advantages

 It Senses speed by non - contact way. Hence no moving parts.


 No wear and tears of rollers or misalignment of couplings.
 Easy speed setting.
 Built in initial by - pass time delay arrangement.
 Speed setting possible from 1 RPM to 5000 RPM in optional ranges.
 Totally enclosed sensor, works in presence of dust, dirt water, oil & chemicals.
 Direction sensing and speed monitoring of various locations from single point is
possible.
 Intrinsically Safe Sensors and speed switches with Flameproof Enclosures are
available for use in Hazardous area.

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IR-
The UV/IR Detector and Linear Heat Detection Cable each represent a fire zone in a
particular fire protection zone on the conveyor belt, hence Zone 1 is the UV/IR detector
and Zone 2 is the Linear Heat Detection Cable. Both of these devices are connected to the
fire control panel of which a 2 zone panel will be suitable. The devices are all joined with
the fire panel through steal wired armored cable which has a fire resistance of 30 minutes.
We then also install a Combination Strobe/Sounder near the panel that is installed at the
specific zone, this device serves as a warning to personnel in the area should a fire break
out. Each fire control panel has a potential free contact which activates on the detection
of fire on Zone 1 or Zone 2. This is the contact that we use to trigger the water
suppression system by converting the potential free contact into a 24VDC switch.
If smouldering coal or glowing embers are loaded onto a conveyor it is probable that
these will be transferred to a crusher, silo or bunker. At such places hot coal may ignite
combustible dust accumulations that then leads to a full scale fire incident. This results in
loss of critical equipment, loss of production, loss of property and human lives. With the
additional adverse effect this would have on the environment.

IR

Fig 2.8

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CHAPTER-3
TG AREA
The turbine generator consists of a series of steam turbines interconnected to each other
and a generator on a common shaft. There is usually a high-pressure turbine at one end,
followed by an intermediate-pressure turbine, and finally one, two, or three low-pressure
turbines, and the generator. As steam moves through the system and loses pressure and
thermal energy, it expands in volume, requiring increasing diameter and longer blades at
each succeeding stage to extract the remaining energy. The entire rotating mass may be
over 200 metric tons and 100 feet (30 m) long. It is so heavy that it must be kept turning
slowly even when shut down (at 3rpm) so that the shaft will not bow even slightly and
become unbalanced. This is so important that it is one of only six functions of blackout
emergency power batteries on site. (The other five being emergency
lighting, communication, station alarms, generator hydrogen seal system, and turbo
generator lube oil.)

For a typical late 20th-century power plant, superheated steam from the boiler is
delivered through 14–16-inch (360–410 mm) diameter piping at 2,400 psi (17 MPa;
160 atm) and 1,000 °F (540 °C) to the high-pressure turbine, where it falls in pressure to
600 psi (4.1 MPa; 41 atm) and to 600 °F (320 °C) in temperature through the stage. It
exits via 24–26-inch (610–660 mm) diameter cold reheat lines and passes back into the
boiler, where the steam is reheated in special reheat pendant tubes back to 1,000 °F
(540 °C). The hot reheat steam is conducted to the intermediate pressure turbine, where it
falls in both temperature and pressure and exits directly to the long-bladed low-pressure
turbines and finally exits to the condenser.

The generator, 30 feet (9 m) long and 12 feet (3.7 m) in diameter, contains a


stationary stator and a spinning rotor, each containing miles of heavy copper conductor—
no permanent magnets here. In operation it generates up to 21,000 amperes at
24,000 volts AC (504 MWe) as it spins at either 3,000 or 3,600rpm, synchronized to
the power grid. The rotor spins in a sealed chamber cooled with hydrogen gas, selected
because it has the highest known heat transfer coefficient of any gas and for its
low viscosity, which reduces windage losses. This system requires special handling

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during startup, with air in the chamber first displaced by carbon dioxide before filling
with hydrogen. This ensures that a highly explosive hydrogen–oxygen environment is not
created.

The power grid frequency is 60 Hz across North America and 50 Hz


in Europe, Oceania, Asia (Korea and parts of Japan are notable exceptions) and parts
of Africa. The desired frequency affects the design of large turbines, since they are highly
optimized for one particular speed. The electricity flows to a distribution yard
where transformers increase the voltage for transmission to its destination. The steam
turbine-driven generators have auxiliary systems enabling them to work satisfactorily and
safely. The steam turbine generator, being rotating equipment, generally has a heavy,
large-diameter shaft. The shaft therefore requires not only supports but also has to be kept
in position while running. To minimize the frictional resistance to the rotation, the shaft
has a number of bearings. The bearing shells, in which the shaft rotates, are lined with a
low-friction material like Babbitt metal. Oil lubrication is provided to further reduce the
friction between shaft and bearing surface and to limit the heat generated.

TG FLOW

Fig 3.1

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OVERVIEW PROCESS DIAGRAM OF TG AREA
Fig 3.2

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3.3 Steam turbine
A steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses
it to do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft. Its modern manifestation was
invented by Sir Charles Parsons in 1884.

Because the turbine generates rotary motion, it is particularly suited to be used to drive
an electrical generator – about 90% of all electricity generation in the United States
(1996) is by use of steam turbines.The steam turbine is a form of heat engine that derives
much of its improvement in thermodynamic efficiency from the use of multiple stages in
the expansion of the steam, which results in a closer approach to the ideal reversible
expansion process.

STEAM TURBINE
Fig 3.3

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CHAPTER-4
WATER TREATMENT PLANT
The principle problem in high pressure boiler is to control corrosion and steam quality.
Internal corrosion costs power station crores of rupees in repair without strict control
impurities in steam also form deposit over turbine blades and nozzles. The impurities
present in water are as follows :-
1) Un-dissolved and suspended solid materials.
2) Dissolved slats and minerals.
3) Dissolved gases
4) Other minerals ( oil, acid etc.).
5). a) Turbidity & Sediment.
b) Silica.
c) Micro Biological.
d) Sodium & Potassium Salt.
e) Dissolved Sales Minerals.
6). a) O2gas.
b) CO2 gas.

4.1 D.M. PLANT:-


In this plant process water is fed from all these dissolved salts. Equipment for
demineralization cum softening plant is supplied and erected by M/s.Wanson (India) Ld.,
Pune. This plant consists of two streams each stream with activated carbon filter, weak
acid , cation exchanger and mixed bed exchanger. The filter water to DM plant through
250 dia. header from where a heater top off has been taken to softening plant. Two
filtered water booster pumps are provided on filtered water line for meeting the pressure
requirement in DM Plant. Sodium Sulphate solution of required strength is dosed into
different filtered water by mean of dosing pump to neutralize chlorine prior to activated
carbon filter. When water passed an activated carbon filter will remove residual chlorine
from water. Provision is made for back washing the activated carbon filter. When
pressure drop across filter exceeds a prescribed limit from the activated carbon filter the
works acid cation unit. The deception water the weak base anion exchanger unit water

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then enters de-gasified unit where free CO2 is scrubbed out of water by upward counter
flow of low pr. air flow through degasified lower and degassed water is pumped to strong
base exchanger ( anion exchanger). Arrangement for dosing ammonia solution into de-
mineralized water after mixed bed unit has been provided p+1 correction before water is
taken in de-condensate transfer pump the DM water to unit condensor as make up.

4.2 Raw Water System:

Raw water for the plant will be taken from Jagga Canal. Raw water from the Jagga Canal
is delivered to raw water Reservoir through Water conveyance system. Raw water from
the reservoir is taken to inclined plate filter for the pretreatment through the raw water
pump house.

4.3 Pre Treatment:

Raw water treatment system consists of inclined plate filter basin, and gravity filter
,service and portable water basin .The total water requirement for the plant is 5337
cum/hr. Four numbers of Raw water pumps (3W+1S) each with capacity 1779 Cum/hr.
And also provided with four numbers of Service water pumps (3W+1S) each with
capacity 753 Cum/hr. Five numbers of inclined plate filters each with capacity 1340
cum/hr. Three numbers of clarified water basins each with capacity of 4300 cum/hr is
provided which will satisfy the 8 hrs of requirement. Chemicals dosing system consists of
powder plunge equipment, solution preparing tank and dosing pump. Solution
preparation tank can meet the Eight hours requirement. Water for CT make up is going
from CW make-up basin15100m3 capacity. 2000m3 storage basin water will be supplied
to CW make up basin by two CW transfer pump of capacity of 1372-2744 m3/hr, head
19-11 m, motor power 160 KW (one operating and one standby). From 15100m3 CW
make up basin, CW make up supply water to cooling tower basin through three CW make
up pumps of capacity 972-1440 m3/hr, head 19.3-12.3 m, motor power 75 KW (two
operating one standby). The clarified water is fed to 2 nos. gravity filters, each having
capacity Q=50m3/hr. This filtered water is stored in the potable water basin of capacity
100m3, a part of the 4300m3 service water storage tank. The portable water is pumped to
all users after dosing of chlorine for disinfecting purposes. The capacity of each potable
water pump is 50 m3/hr. Service water (SW) for the entire plant is going from service

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water basin through 4 SW pumps (three operating and one standby), each having capacity
of 753 Cum/hr

4.4 Firefighting system


* The fire-fighting system is responsible for protecting the whole power plant. The fire-
fighting system will consist of water fire-fighting system, inert gas firefighting system,
foam protection system, portable fire extinguishers and the fire alarm and detection
system. The hydrant fire-fighting system and the spray fire-fighting system will be
provided separately, and the ring pipe net of them will be provided, too. The water fire-
fighting system will consist of hydrant fire
* Firefighting pumps, spray firefighting pumps, water hydrant system and water spray
system. The foam fire-fighting system will consist of foam proportional mixer & storage
tank, foam generators, foam hydrant, squirt gun and pipe.
* The design and construction of the fire detection and protection equipment will be to
internationally accepted standards and in compliance with the regulations of the Tariff
Advisory Committee and other relevant statutory requirements for the licensing and fire
insurance (with minimum premium) of the complete power stations.
* Firefighting water system is provided with hydrant fire pumps(one motor driven
firefighting pump, one diesel engine driven pump, two motor driven jockey pumps)
,spray fire pumps(one motor driven firefighting pump, one diesel engine driven pump,
two motor driven jockey pumps), each with 100% capacity. The firefighting pump can
be started manually in the firefighting pump house. When the pressure of the firefighting
water pipe network drops down to a specified pressure, the motor driven or diesel engine
driven firefighting pump will start automatically. Two motor-driven jockey pumps will
be furnished to maintain the pressure. If this pump cannot maintain the pressure or loses
power, motor driven pump will automatically started.

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Chapter-5

ASH HANDLING PLANT

This plant can be divided into 3 sub plants as follows:-


1) Fuel and Ash Plant.

2) Air and Gas Plant.

3) Ash Disposal and & Dust Collection Plant.

Ash Handling Plant

Fig 5.1

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5.1 Fuel and ash plant:-
Coal is used as combustion material in TSPL, In order to get an efficient utilization of
coal mills. The Pulverization also increases the overall efficiency and flexibility of
boilers. However for light up and with stand static load , oil burners are also used. Ash
produced as the result of combustion of coal is connected and removed by ash handling
plant. Ash Handling Plant at TSPL consists of specially designed bottom ash and fly ash
in electro static precipitator economizer and air pre-heaters hoppers.

5.2 Air & Gas Plant:-


Air from atmosphere is supplied to combustion chamber of boiler through the action of
forced draft fan. In TSPL there are two FD fans and three ID fans available for draft
system per unit. The air before being supplied to the boiler passes through preheater
where the flue gases heat it. The pre heating of primary air causes improved and
intensified combustion of coal. The flue gases formed due to combustion of coal first
passes round the boiler tubes and then it passes through the super heater and then through
economizer. In re-heater the temperature of the steam (CRH) coming from the HP
turbines heated with increasing the number of steps of re-heater the efficiency of cycle
also increases. In economizer the heat of flue gases raises the temperature of feed water.
Finally the flue gases after passing through the Electro-Static Precipitator is exhausted
through chimney.

5.3 Ash Disposal & Dust Collection Plant:-


TSPL has dry bottom furnace. Ash Handling Plant consists of especially designed bottom
and fly ash system for two path boiler. The system for both units is identical and
following description is applied to both the units the water compounded bottom ash
hopper receives the bottom ash from the furnace from where it is stores and discharged
through the clinker grinder. Two slurry pumps are provided which is common to both
units & used to make slurry and further transportation to ash dyke through pipe line.Dry
free fly ash is collected in two number of 31 fly ash hoppers which are handled by two
independent fly ash system. The ash is removed from fly ash hoppers in dry state is
carried to the collecting equipment where it is mixed with water and resulting slurry
sump is discharged

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5.4 Utilization:-
Utilisation of coal-ash is always practise than its disposal. There are various methods of
utilisation of coal-ash along with established engineering technologies some of them are
mentioned below:
1. Manufacturing of building materials.
2. Making of concrete.
3. Manufacturing of pozzuolana cement.
4. Road construction etc.
In all the above cases financial constraint discourages the entrepreneurs to take up the
work. In view of the environmental impact of disposal, Government may give attractive
subsidy and create marketing facility so that entrepreneurs may come forward to use as
their raw material.

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