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Theory of Viviane

Theory of Viviane

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McKeesport, McKeesport, PA 15132

Viviani’s Theorem, discovered over 300 years ago, states that inside an equilateral

triangle, the sum of the perpendicular distances from a point P to the three sides is in-

dependent of the position of P (and so equals the altitude of the triangle). Incidentally,

the person for whom this theorem is named is Vicenzo Viviani (1622–1703), a pupil

of both Galileo and Torricelli.

The theorem can easily be proved: Let s and h be the side length and the altitude

of the equilateral triangle ABC, let P be any point inside the triangle, and let d1 , d2 ,

and d3 be the three distances from P to the sides of the triangle. Since ABC is made

up of PAB, PBC, and PCA, it follows that 12 sh = 12 sd1 + 12 sd2 + 12 sd3 , and so

d1 + d2 + d3 = h, which proves the theorem.

Samelson [1] gave a different proof, one that uses vectors, something we will return

to shortly. This motivated us to consider the following question: Does the converse of

Viviani’s Theorem also hold? That is, if the sum of the distances from a point inside a

triangle to the three sides is constant, must the triangle be equilateral? An affirmative

answer can be obtained just by considering different points near one vertex of the

triangle. However, by using vectors (in the style of Samelson), we can get a stronger

result.

Theorem 1. If, inside ABC, there is a circular region R for which the sum of the

distances from a point P in R to the three sides of the triangle is independent of the

position of P, then ABC is equilateral.

P′

d2′ d1′

→

w d1

θ

d2 P →

→ u1

u2

→

u3 d3′

d3

A B

Proof. Let P be a point in R, and let u1 , u2 , and u3 be the unit vectors from P

perpendicular to the sides of the triangle (see figure). Our goal is to show that the

angle between any two of these vectors is 120◦ , from which it will follow that each

angle of the triangle is 60◦ .

To this end, we first show that the sum of these vectors, u = u1 + u2 + u3 , is 0.

Suppose not. From our hypothesis, it follows that there is a point P in R so that

−−→ −−→

P P is parallel to u. Let w denote the vector P P , and let θ be the angle between

u1 and w.

Further, let d1 , d2 , and d3 be the distances from P to the sides of ABC,

and let d1 , d2 , and d3 be the corresponding distances from P . Note that by hypothesis

d1 + d2 + d3 = d1 + d2 + d3 .

390

c THE MATHEMATICAL ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA

On the one hand,

d1 − d1

cos θ = ,

|w|

while on the other hand,

u1 · w

cos θ =

|w|

(since u1 is a unit vector). Hence, u1 · w = d1 − d1 ; and by symmetry, u2 · w

= d2 − d2

and u3 · w = d3 − d3 . It follows from a little algebra that u · w = 0, and since these

two vectors are parallel, it must be that | u | = 0, a contradiction.

From this it follows that, for i = 1, 2, and 3, ui · u1 + u2 + u3 = 0. It is now

straightforward to show that u1 · u2 = u2 · u3 = u3 · u1 = − 12 . Consequently, the angle

between any pair of these vectors is 2π 3

, and so ABC must be equilateral.

We note that while the areas method used in the first proof of Viviani’s Theorem ap-

parently cannot be used to establish the converse, it can be used to extend the theorem

to all regular polygons.

Theorem 2. The sum of the distances from any point P inside a regular polygon to

the sides of the polygon is independent of the location of P.

The converse of this more general result only holds for triangles however. For ex-

ample, it is not hard to show that the sum of the distances from any point inside a

parallelogram to the sides is independent of the location of that point. In fact, a good

student should be able to use the vector method to prove the following result:

point P to the four sides is independent of the location of P if and only if the quadri-

lateral is a parallelogram.

Theorem 4. The sum of the distances from any point P inside a regular polyhedron

to the sides of the polyhedron is independent of the location of P.

We note that the converse of this result does not hold, even for tetrahedra (this can

easily be shown using the vector method).

Note. This work was part of an undergraduate research project under the supervi-

sion of the first author, and was done while the second author was a sophomore. She

is beginning graduate study in computer engineering at Penn State this fall.

Acknowledgment. The authors would like to thank the Editor for his assistance with the presentation of our

article.

References

1. H. Samelson, Proof Without Words: Viviani’s Theorem with Vectors, Math Mag. 76 (2003) 225.

VOL. 37, NO. 5, NOVEMBER 2006 THE COLLEGE MATHEMATICS JOURNAL 391

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