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10.1 Introduction

Large hydro-electric generating stations at remote feasible sites are being planned. Transmission at
EHV/UHV level may be required providing for heavy transmission ties for bulk loads transfer from remote
generating stations. Special considerations are involved in designing such substation for selection of single
line diagram, switching schemes and busbar arrangements, electrical clearances to be adopted and layout of
equipment in the switchyard. Shielding of control cables and other special problems in the design of
EHV/UHV substations are also briefly outlined. The discussion covers the step-up substation at generating
stations, step-down stations at load ends as well as switching stations sometimes necessary for paralleling
long EHV/UHV lines. Discussions are made with special reference to EHV substations of Beas Project.

10.2 Switching Schemes for EHV Substations

10.2.1 Types of Substations

EHV substations may be sub-divided into three types (Figure 10.1) as given below:

i) Step-up substation at generation end

ii) Transformer substation at load ends of the system
iii) Switching substations located along the lines to parallel them.

10.2.2 Criteria for the selection

Major considerations for the selection of a suitable switching scheme for an EHV and UHV sub-station
are given below:

i) The scheme should fit in the planning criteria used to design the connected transmission system. System
should be stable if a permanent fault occurs on a line. It is, therefore, important to limit as much as possible
the system un-stability caused by outage of line, transformer or generators due to sub-station faults.
ii) Repair or maintenance of the equipment should be possible without interruption of power supply.
iii) Expansion of sub-station should be easily possible.
iv) Large clearances are required at EHV and UHV level. Therefore in order to obtain lower structures and
facilitate maintenance it is also important to design sub-stations, preferably with not more than two levels
of bus bar.
v) Practical site consideration at a particular location e.g. lack of adequate flat area for layout of equipment in
the sub-station may also sometimes influence the choice of layout. The switching schemes suitable for each
type of sub-station are discussed below.

Based on paper by Author in 44th Annual Research Session of Central Board of Irrigation & Power (1975)

Step-up Substations: Step-up substations at generation ends may have unit connected transformers or else
EHV transformers may be used to step-up the power from bus-bars at lower voltage in the switchyards of
generating stations. The later type of substation is similar to the transformer step-down substation at load
ends and will be discussed along with that type.

For generating units connected directly to their step-up transformers, discussions are made with special
reference to Dehar Power Plant of Beas Project where six units each of 165 MW are being installed and 4
units will be directly connected to their step-up 420 kV transformers. The other two units are connected to
245 kV system through unit connected transformer. An interlinking transformer 245/420 kV was proposed.
Main single line diagram is shown in figure 10.8.






Figure 10.1: Types of Substation

Figure 10.2 to Figure 10.5 show the single line diagram, plan views and elevation (one circuit only) for four
different schemes which were considered for this substation for 420 kV portion:

i) A double bus single breaker scheme as shown in Figure 10.2 (scheme 1).
ii) A single bus (sectionalized) with two generating units and one outgoing transmission line
connected to each bus section as shown in figure 10.3 (scheme 2).
iii) A double bus one and a half breaker scheme, figure 10.4 (scheme 3).

iv) Incoming lines from generator transformers, connected to two 420 kV buses by single breakers.
The outgoing lines connected by two breakers to both the buses. The scheme corresponds to a
single sectionalized bus for incoming lines and a two bus two breaker scheme for outgoing lines,
figure 10.5 (scheme 4).
v) Other schemes ring bus and double bus double breaker schemes were not considered due to lack of
space and costs.

10.2.3 Discussion for Selection of Bus Scheme for Dehar Step-up Substation

Forced Outage of Generator-Transformer Unit: In all the schemes capacity equal to one unit is lost when a
generator transformer unit is forced out.

Bus Section Fault :Generating capacity to the extent of four units (660 MW) may be forced out under
certain conditions in case of a fault on 420 kV bus under scheme (1) Figure 10.2. Outage of this large bulk
of power amounting to about 22 percent of the maximum demand (3000 MW approximately) at that time
may cause frequency dips which may trip generating units, loads and inter-regional tie lines by the
operation of under frequency relays if installed and may upset system stability and was, therefore, not
considered desirable.

In schemes (2) Figure 10.3 and (4) Figure10.5 maximum power forced out will be to the extent of 2 units
(330 MW) while in case of scheme (3) Figure 10.4 circuit breaker connected with the bus will trip but
normally no outage of generating capacity will be caused.

Figure 10.2: 420 kV Double Bus Single Breaker Scheme Substation Layout
(Source: CBIP Paper by Author)

Figure 10.3: 420 kV Single Bus Single Breaker Scheme Substation Layout
(Source: CBIP Paper by Author)

Figure 10.4: 400 kV One and a Half Breaker Scheme Substation Layout
(Source: CBIP Paper by Author)

Figure 10.5: 420 kV Two Bus Two Breaker Scheme for outgoing Feeder and Single Breaker for Incoming
Two Generators
(Source: CBIP Paper by Author)

Transmission Line Outages: No power generating capacity is required to be shut down in case of a fault on 245 kV
line (245 kV Bus) while in case of fault on 420 kV feeder (during the first stage of operation) power generation to
the extent of about one unit may have to be shut down so as to achieve stability.

In case of a bus section or circuit breaker fault there is a forced outage of 420 kV transmission line under schemes
(1) Figure 10.2 and scheme (2) Figure 10.3. It is possible to re-energise the line through bus coupler in case of
scheme (1) but not so in scheme (2) Figure 10.3.

In scheme (2) figure 10.3, for carrying out maintenance of the 420 kV feeder breaker, the transmission line has to be
forced out.

In scheme (3) figure 10.4 when one of the generators is shut down, the advantage of second breaker for 420 kV line
is lost as only one breaker will be controlling the transmission line.

In scheme (4) figure 10.5 under first stage of operation when a 420 kV line is out due to line fault, power generation
to the extent of one unit (165 MW) is automatically switched off and gives stability to the system even in case of
limited rotating reserve available.

In view of the above discussions, scheme (1) figure 10.2 and (2) figure 10.3 were found to be unsuitable to our
requirements and were left out from further considerations.

Other Considerations for Adopting Scheme (4) (figure 10.5)

a) Requirement of space for switchyard under scheme (4) figure 10.5 will be much less than that for scheme (3)
figure 10.4.
b) Requirement of control cables for relaying and inter-locking will be less for scheme (4) figure 10.5.
c) Switching operations for isolating a breaker or a bus section for maintenance in case of a fault are less under
scheme (4) figure 10.5.
d) Two levels of busbars are possible in a substation of this type by placing circuit breakers outside the busbars
(figure 10.5).
e) Number of breakers required for scheme (4) figure 10.5 are less as compared to scheme (3) figure 10.4.

Transformer Substations: For transformer substations at the generating end or the load end, a single breaker double
bus, a double breaker double bus (figure 10.6), a one and a half breaker (figure 10.4) or a ring bus (figure 10.7)
schemes can be considered.

However, only later three schemes generally meet the service continuity criteria.

Figure 10.6: 400 kV Double Bus Double Breaker Scheme Substation Layout
(Source: CBIP Paper by Author)

Figure 10.7: 420 kV Ring Bus Scheme Substation Layout

(Source: CBIP Paper by Author)

Ring bus scheme requires only one breaker per circuit and is most economical. It is quite common in
Canada and has been utilized in a slightly modified from for EHV/UHV system of Hydro-Quebec and that
of Peace River Systems in USA. In simple ring bus scheme provision of protection becomes more
complicated if number of circuits increase to more than six and its scope gets, therefore restricted. From the
point of view of future expansion of the sub-station, one and a half breaker scheme and double breaker
scheme is more suitable. Former requires lesser number of breakers and isolators and has been

Figure 10.8: Main Single Line Diagram (Dehar Power Plant) (As Designed)proposed for the ultimate
stage of receiving end transformers substation at Panipat. Initially, i.e. till more than 6 bays are required in
the substation, layout shall be that for one and a half breaker scheme but shall be operated in ring bus with
omission of some breakers and isolators and jumper connections of two circuits to the bus bars.

Single line diagram for Dehar Hydro Power Station is at Figure 10.8.

10.2.4 Switching Station

For a switching station all single line diagrams (sophisticated or otherwise) with only one busbar for
paralleling two or more lines figure 10.3 must be rejected because a fault on this bus or on any equipment
connected to it would put more than one line out of service.

Neither ring-bus nor one-and –a half breaker scheme meet the criteria for a switching station, because a
fault on one circuit breaker can cause two lines to be lost.

For a sub-station with incoming and outgoing lines, the double –breaker scheme (Figure 10.6) is the only
one that ensures the service continuity required by the criteria.

To construct this kind of substation with only two levels of busbras, the circuit breakers are placed outside
the busbars.

10.2.5 Single Line Diagram of a typical receiving end 420 kV Substation with shunt reactor installation is at
Figure 10.9.

10.3 Electrical Clearances for Installing EHV/UHV Equipment In Field

Space requirements and layout of electrical equipment in switchyard depends upon various types of air
clearances required to be provided for laying the equipment of different rated voltages. Following basic
clearances govern the sub-station design.

(i) Earth clearance i.e. phase to ground clearance.

(ii) Phase clearance i.e. phase to phase clearance.
(iii) Safety clearance i.e. (a) Ground clearance.
(b) Section clearance.

Initial designs of substations are based on the air clearances worked out in accordance with the then recent
CIGRE Study Committee Report which provides a correlation between the insulation levels and the
minimum air clearances to ground and between phases. Tentative clearances for Dehar and Panipat 420 kV
substations were, however, based on the similar test data as available earlier.

For transmission systems of nominal system voltage below 300 kV sub-station clearances is governed only
by lightning impulse over-voltages or BIL of the equipments and bus bars. For transmission system of 300
kV and above, sub-station clearances is mainly governed by internal over voltage i.e. switching impulse
over-voltage and dynamic




4x245kV 420kV SIDE

420kV AUX. BUS



245kV AUX. BUS

245kV SIDE


Figure 10.9: Single Line Diagram of a Typical 420 kV Substation

(Source: CBIP Manual on Sub-station)

over voltage. In order to reduce clearances and equipment insulation, internal overvoltage including
switching impulse over voltages, have to be limited by using one or two step preinsertion resistors, single
pole reclosing, synchronous closing of breakers, shunt reactors etc (Figure 10.9). The ratio of controlled
switching impulse over voltages to the peak value of highest phase to ground system voltage varies from
2.5 in EHV system to 1.5 in UHV system.

IEC publication 71 defines insulation levels for highest voltages for equipment of 300 kV and above as a
combination of two components. The rated switching impulse withstands voltages and the rated lightning
impulse withstands voltage.

Accordingly the minimum clearances shall be the higher of the following and the section clearance will
then be based on it.

i) Minimum clearance from the consideration of the lightning insulation levels to be

adopted for the sub-station equipment.
ii) Minimum clearance computed from switching surge requirements.

10.3.1 Minimum Phase to Ground Clearances

Clearances are discussed with special reference to 420 kV, based on the data available at the time of design.
For higher voltage i.e. 525 kV and 765 kV level substation similar considerations can be applied based on
the data available at the time of design.

Insulation Levels and Withstand phase to ground Air Clearances

Standard insulation levels for the highest voltage of 420 kV and above as per IS: 2165-1977 and IEC
recommendation are given in Table 10.1. In this voltage range the performance of insulation and ground
clearances are based on phase to phase switching impulse unless specifically required otherwise. Phase to
ground clearance for switching over-voltages in EHV range may be estimated using the following formula.

d 0.6 =
500 K (1 − 1.3σ )

Where, d is the clearance in meters Uw is the switching impulse withstand voltage in kV, K is the gap factor
characterizing the shape of electrodes and σ is the standard deviation equal to 0.6 for switching impulse

For the types of electrodes existing in sub-station design it is possible to associate a value of phase-to-
ground air clearance to each value of rated switching or lightning impulse withstand voltage. the requisite
phase to ground clearance for switching and lightning impulse over voltages can be determined using the
above formulae and graphs given in the CIGRE Committee report. It is seen that impulse withstand voltage
of an air gap depends also on the shape of the electrodes and has been designated as gap factor K in the
committee report. The gap factor ‘K’ depends upon electrodes configuration and is influenced by
geometrical dimensions of the gap, including the grounded surroundings configuration are given in table

10.3.2 Minimum Phase to Ground Clearances for various Insulation Levels

Sub-stations show mainly three types of phase to ground clearances.

i) Distances between conductors and beam.

ii) Distances between live parts of apparatus and beams.
iii) Distance between conductor and ground.

The electrode configuration found for the first type of clearances is clearly identified, and can be regarded
as being of the “conductor structure”, type, associated with a value of about 1.30 for the gap factor k. As
regards the second type of air clearances, it is very difficult to identify a precise electrode configuration and
the value of K is varying between 1.10 and 1.30. Gap factor k=1.10 is characteristic for a configuration
similar to rod-structure, e.g. open disconnecting switches near structures. Gap factor k=1.30 corresponds to
the conductor-structure configuration, e.g. closed disconnecting switches near structures.

As regards the third type of air clearances, “conductor-ground” configurations, normally the clearances are
sufficiently high because bus-bar conductors are supported by metal supports and post insulators. In every
case, this configuration is covered by the gap factor 1.10.

Table 10.3 gives the correlation between the various combinations of insulation levels shown in Table 10.1
and corresponding to k-=1.10 and 1.30 the minimum air clearances which are the highest values for each
combination, calculated either for the switching or lightning impulse level. This table does not take into
account the possibility/ electrodes getting closer together e.g. because of short circuit or wind.

Minimum values of phase to earth clearances as per IS 3716-1978 based on switching impulse withstand is
given in table 10.3. These values may be used for first approximation.

Table – 10.1
Highest Base for Rated switching Ratio between Rated lightning
voltage for pu values impulse lightning and impulse withstand
equipment withstand switching impulse voltage (peak)
Um 2 voltage (peak) withstand voltages
kV kV p.u. kV 1.11 kV
1.24 1050
950 1175
420 343 1.12

3.06 1050 1.24

2.45 1.36

525 429
2.74 1175

765 625 2.08



Electrode Configurations K
Rod Plane 1.00
Rod-Structure (Under) 1.05
Conductor Plane 1.15
Conductor Window 1.25
Conductor Strcuture (Under) 1.30
Rod-rod (h-3 m, under) 1.30
Conductor struicture (over and laterally) 1.35
Rod-rod ( h – 6m, under) 1.30
Conductor-rope 1.40
Conductor crossarm end 1.65
Conductor – rod (h = 3m; under) 1.65
Conductor – rod (h = 6m; under) 1.90
Conductor rod (over) 1.90


Insulation Level Minimum phase-to-Ground Air

Clearance (m)
Rated Switching Rated lightning impulse withstand K=1.30 K=1.10
Impulse withstand voltage (kV)
voltage (kV)
1050 1300 2.55 3.36
1050 1425 2.60 3.36
1175 1300 3.07 4.06
1175 1425 3.07 4.06
1175 1550 3.07 4.06
1300 1425 3.64 4.80

10.3.3 Phase-to-Ground Clearances for Dehar Sub-station

Lightning impulse level of 1425 kV with a corresponding basic switching impulse level of 1175 for power
transformers for Dehar 420 kV E.H.V. system was proposed for first stage installations. Lightning
insulation level for circuit breakers and other apparatus connected to the bus bars with the b us bars
themselves was proposed for Beas Project as for insulation class about 10% higher i.e. 1550 kV. Minimum
phase to ground air clearances for Beas Project sub-stations for initial designs based upon test data
previously available and according to procedure outlined is given in table 10.4.

Table 10.4

Clearance in meters Adopted

calculated as per
latest data (Meters)
(a) Minimum Phase to Ground Clearance

(i) Conductors and Beams 3.07 3.50

(ii) Line parts of apparatus and beams.
(iii) Conductor and ground 3.07 3.50 or
to 4.06 more
4.06 9.0

(b) Minimum Phase to Phase Clearance 3.90 4.7

(ii) Minimum Rigid Bars Spacing 5.2 6.07
(iii) Minimum strain Bus bars spacing 5.9 6.7
(iv) Phase to Phase Spacing for - 5.5 to 7.0
(v) Minimum spacing between 2 sets of - 7.00
bus bars


Safety clearance consists of ground clearance and section clearance. The ground clearance is the minimum
clearance from any point on or about the permanent equipment where a man may be required to stand
(measured from the position of feet) to the nearest part not at earth potential of an insulator supporting a
line conductor and the same was taken as 2.59 m, which is the dimension for a tall man with arms
outstretched below the conductor.
The section clearance is the minimum clearance from any point on or about the permanent equipment
where a man may be required to stand (measured from the position of feet) to the nearest unscreened live
conductor in air. The section clearance for 420 kV systems was determined as 6 m by adding 2.5 m to
minimum phase-to-ground clearance of 3.5 m.

10.4.1 Height of bus bars above ground within sub-station premises

The minimum conductor clearance from ground was obtained by adding ground clearance, earth clearance
(2.59 meters height of a tall man with outstretched hands) and height of bus bar supporting clamps on the
post insulator. In consideration to it, minimum height of bus bar was proposed to be 7.0 meters, which may
be raised to 9.5 meters to correspond to the terminal height of 420 kV circuit breakers (Air blast circuit
breakers). SF6 breakers are now used.

10.4.2 Conductor clearance from roadways within sub-station premises

Minimum clearance between over-head conductors and roadways within sub-station premises was
computed to be as “Ground Clearance plus 6.25 meters. This dimension provides for a truck with a man
standing on its top 4.05 + 6.25 meters = 10.30 meters.


10.5.1 Insulation levels

Phase to phase faults cause severe system disturbances and are, therefore, least desirable. As such phase
spacing adopted should be such as to cause flashover to ground instead of phase-to-phase. For this purpose
distance between phases is made to exceed that to ground to the extent that flashover can occur only to
ground. The distance between systems e.g. between two bays are not only determined by their electrical
strength the but also by necessity to carry out maintenance work.

Lightning surge stresses between phases will normally not be higher than the lightning surge stresses to
ground. Therefore, minimum phase to phase spacing are governed by switching impulse withstand voltage.

Owing to the fact that phase-to-phase over-voltage peak is subjected to considerable variations, depending
upon the following:

(i) The waves shape (time to crest) of the phase-to ground switching over voltages having opposite
polarity on adjacent phases.
(ii) The ratio and time delay between these two components.

It is possible to determine a ratio P between the maximum overvoltage between phases and the maximum
overvoltage to ground only by means of TNA or field measurements.

The theoretical maximum value of P is equal to 2, provided that the two-phase-ground components have
opposite polarity and synchronous peak values equal to maximum overvoltage to ground. In practice,
however, P will be lower because these conditions are not fulfilled. According to a number of TNA and
field measurements the control of the over voltages to ground increases the ratio P; the higher the control,
the higher the value of P,

The ratio P = 1.66 to 1.7 of the rated switching impulse withstand voltage to ground between 1050 and
1175 kV was chosen as this generally leads to conservative values of the clearance. With this factor P and
according to the standardized IEC values for the impulse levels, the switching impulse withstand voltage
between phases start-over characteristics of ring-ring and rod-rod gaps is shown in table 10.5, for 420 kV
voltage system.

Table 10.5

Rated Ratio between Switching 50% switching Minimum phase-to-

Switching phase-to-phase and impulse voltage impulse flashover phase air clearance (m)
impulse phase-to-ground between phases voltage between ring-rod-ring rod.
withstand switching impulse (kV) phases (kV)
voltage to withstand voltage ring-ring rod-rod
1050 1.71 1800 1952 3.40 4.20
1175 1.66 1950 2115 3.90 4.75
1300 1.73 2250 2440 5.20 6.20

10.5.2 Phase to Phase Air Clearances

In sub-stations mainly three types of phase to phase air clearances may be present depending upon
electrode configuration:

(i) Clearances between conductors

(ii) Clearances between conductor and apparatus
(iii) Clearances between poles of apparatus

The first type of air clearances is found between the phases of line entrances and bus-bars. Occasionally,
the conductor electrode may be sub substantially modified by hardware. The second type includes the
“conductor-disconnecting switch” air clearances; the third type comprises the “between breaker-poles”,
“between disconnecting switch poles” and “between poles of current transformer” kind of air clearance and
clearances “between line-traps”. In general, the second and third type of air clearances presents electrodes
configurations that are difficult to define.

The rod-rod gap can be assumed to be representative for the practical geometrical conditions in the lower
voltage, range, whilst the ring-ring gap with a given geometrical dimensions may be considered to be
typical for the higher voltage range and be used for first type of air clearance.
Many of the second and third type air clearances (clearances between the poles of apparatus i.e.
disconnecting switches, breakers, etc.) might be considered proper to the apparatus, just as in the case of
phase-to-ground air insulations, even when the apparatus is essentially single phase. The minimum
clearance between phases, assuring a given insulation level, should, in this case, be specified by the
manufacturer and checked by a type test. It is, therefore unnecessary to fix the minimum air clearances
between the poles of apparatus which have the most widely varied electrode configurations.

Table 10.6 gives the recommended minimum clearances between phases for rod-rod and ring-ring
configuration in 420 kV in .E.H.V. range.

Corona shield ring was assumed to have a diameter of 630 mm. Strain bus spacing were obtained by adding
0.7 meters to the spacing for rigid bus as per American practice. Other spacing adopted is shown in figure


CBI & P manual Entitled “substation layout” stipulates that air clearances for 420 kV and higher voltage
switching over voltages are the governing factor.

For determination of phase-to-ground air clearance, the “rod-structure” configuration is the worst electrode
configuration normally encountered in practice; the “conductor-structure” configuration covers a large
range of normally used configuration. But the necessary inter-phase clearance is more related to the “rod-
conductor” and “conductor-conductor” configuration. The unsymmetrical “rod-conductor” configuration is
the worst configuration normally encountered in service. The “conductor-conductor” configuration covers
all symmetrical configurations with similar electrode shapes on the two phases.
The phase to earth clearances is the higher value of the clearances determined for the rod structure
configuration for the standard lightning impulse and for the standard switching impulse withstands
voltages. The phase to phase clearance is the higher value of the clearances determined for the rod structure
configuration for the standard lightning impulse and for the standard switching impulse withstands

The CBI & P recommended values of clearance for substation up to 800 kV is as follows:

Table 10.6
Highest Lightning Switching Minimum Clearances$ Safety
System impulse Impulse clearances
Voltage voltage (kVp) Voltage (kVp) (mm)
Between phase & Between
earth (mm) phase (mm)
420 1425 1050 (Ph-E) 3400* - 6400
1575 (Ph-Ph) - 4200**
800 2100 1550 (Ph-E) 6400* 9400** 10300
2550 (Ph-Ph)
* Based on Rod-structure air gap.
** Based on Rod-Conductor air gap.
$ This value of air clearances are the minimum values dictated consideration and do not include any
addition for construction tolerances, effect of short circuits, wind effects and safety of personnel,

Layout of equipment for various types of single line diagram is shown in figure 10.2 to figure 10.7. Due to
practical considerations of space etc. the layout tentatively proposed for Dehar Sub-station is shown in
Figure 10.5. The layout of equipment at Panipat was proposed for one and a half breaker scheme.


In the control cables and the secondary wiring passing through E.H.V. Sub-station dangerous high voltages
are liable to be induced by opening and closing of E.H.V disconnects which may be especially dangerous
for static/numerical relays. Accordingly such cables are required to be properly shielded. One of the power
utility of U.S.A is using unarmoured cables and provides shielding by running heavy grounded conductor at
the top of each cable trench. The portion of control cables in air (outside trenches) is, however shielded by
armouring. Magnetic armouring has been used by C.E.G.B. in U.K. and is being adopted on Beas Project
on the advice of supplier of protective equipment although effectiveness’ of magnetic armouring is reduced
under short circuit conditions and may be examined in due course by site measurements.


1. Thapar, OD,: “Stability EHV system” CBI & P Annual Reasearch Session, Publication No. 121,
pp. 22-31,June 1973.
2. R. Prourget “Selecting a single line Diagram” Hydro Quebec Symposium Extra High Voltage and
Ultra High Voltage. October 1973.
3. R.H. Hill and J.C. Stevens “B.C. Hydro E.H.V. Transmissions System Design and construction
Line and Station”. Maintoba E.H.V. Symposium September, 1966.
4. L. Paris, A. Taschini, K.H. Schneider and K.H. Weck “Phase-to-Ground and Phase-to-Phase Air
Clearances in Sub-stations” CIGRE No. 29, 1973l; PP 29.45.
5. A.I.E.E. Committee Report “Interim Report-Minimum Electrical Clearances based on Switching
Surge Requirements” AIEE Vol. PAS 1963 PP.
6. I.E.E.E. Committee Report “Second Interim Report-Minimum Electrical Clearances Sub-station
based on May 1965, PP 415-417.
7. I.E.C. Publication 71 – “Insulation Coordination Chapters I & II” 5th Edition.
8. Thapar, OD, and Saksena, RB,: “Equipment Insulation Coordination in Developing 400 kV EHV
System” 1974 Issues of Power Engineer.
9. Thapar, OD and Saksena, RB,: “Relaying for 400 kV EHV System” Proceeding CBI & P Annual
Reasearch Session, Publication No. 116.
10. Howard, J. Sutton: “Transients Induced in Control Cables Located in EHV Substation.” IEEE,
PAS-89, July-August 1970.
11. Stanlay, H. Horowitz and Harold, T. Seeley: “Relaying the AEP 765 System.” IEEE, PAS July
12. Central Board of Irrigation & Power – “Manual on Substations Pub. 299-2006

Appendix 1.1
List of Indian Standards, Guides, Codes etc. required for Reference
IS: 5 Colour for ready mix paints
IS: 13155 Method of test for carbon type (PNA) Analysis of Mineral oils by Infrared (1991)
IS: 375 Marking & arrangement of swgr. bushbars main connections and auxiliary Wiring.
IS: 1367 Hot dip galvanized cooling on threaded fasteners.
IS: 2147 Degree of protection provided by enclosures for low voltage switchgear And control gear.
IS: 3347 Dimensions of porcelain transformer bushings for use in lightly polluted Atmospheres
IS: 3637 Gas operated relays
IS: 3639 Fitting & accessories for Power Transformers
IS: 6272 Industrial cooling fans
IS: 6600 Guide for loading of oil immersed transformers
IS: 8603 Dimensions for porcelain transformer bushing for use in heavily
Polluted atmosphere (36 kV class). Dimensions for oil filled porcelain transformer
bushings for use in medium polluted atmospheres.
IS: 9434 Guide for sampling and analysis of free and dissolved gas in oil filled Atmosphere.

IS: 10028 Code of practice for selection, installation and maintenance of trans-
IS: 335 New insulating oils for transformer (Test procedure)
IS:325 Three-phase induction motors
IS:398(Pt-1) Aluminium conductors for overhead transmission purposes; Pt 1- Aluminium stranded

IS: 398(Pt-2) Aluminium conductors for overhead transmission purposes : Pt.2- Aluminium conductors,
galvanized steel reinforced

IS: 398(Pt-5) Aluminium conductors - galvanized steel reinforced for extra high voltage (400 kV and
IS: 692 Paper insulated lead sheathed cables for rated voltage up to and including 33 kV -
IS: 694 PVC insulated cables for working voltages up to and including 1 100 volts.
IS: 731 Porcelain insulators for overhead power lines with a nominal voltage greater than 1000
IS: 802 Use of structural steel in overhead transmission line towers - Code of practices.
IS: 875 (Pt 1-5) Code of practice for design loads (other than earthquake) for buildings and structures
IS:933 Portable chemical fire extinguisher, foam type
IS:934 Portable chemical fire extinguisher, soda acid type
IS: 11 80 Three-phase distribution transformers up to and including 100 kVA, 11 kV, outdoor type
IS: 1248 Direct acting indicating analogue electrical measuring instruments and their accessories
IS: 1255 Code of practice for installation and maintenance of paper insulated power cables (Up to
and including 33 kV)
IS:1554(Pt-1) PVC insulated (heavy duty) electric cables Part-1 , for working voltages up to and
including 11 00 volts

18:1 554 (Pt-2) Specification for PVC insulated (heavy duty) electric cables Part-2, for working voltages
from 3.3 kV up to and including 1 1 kV

IS: 1866 Code of practice for maintenance and supervision of mineral insulating oil in equipment
IS: 2026 Power transformer
IS: 2062 Steel for general structural purposes - Specification
IS: 2099 Bushings for alternating voltages above 1 000 volts
IS: 2121 Conductors and earth wire accessories for overhead power lines
IS: 21 65 Insulation coordination
IS: 2190 Code of practice for selection, Installation and maintenance of portable first-aid fire

IS: 2309 Code of practice for protection of buildings and allied structure against lightning
IS: 2486 Insulator fittings for overhead power lines with nominal voltage greater than 1000V

IS: 2544 Porcelain post insulators for systems with nominal voltages greater than 1000 volts
IS: 2629 Recommended practice for hot-dip galvanizing of iron and steel
IS: 2633 Methods for testing uniformity of coating of zinc coated articles
IS: 2705 Current transformers
IS: 3034 Code of practice for fire safety of industrial building, electrical generating and distributing
IS:3070(Pt.1) Lightning arresters for alternating current systems non-linear resistor type lightning arrester
IS: 3070 (Pt.2) Metal oxide surge arresters without gaps for alternating current systems
IS: 31 51 Earthing transformers
IS: 3156 Voltage transformers
IS: 3716 Application guide for insulation coordination
IS: 4004 Application guide for non-linear resister type surge arresters without series gap for AC

IS: 4146 Application guide for voltage transformers

IS: 4201 Application guide for current transformers
IS: 5082 Wrought aluminium and aluminium alloy bars, rods, tubes and sections for electrical
IS:5216(Pt.1&2) Guide for safety procedures and practices in electrical work
IS: 5547 Application guide for capacitor voltage transformers
IS:5553(Pt.1&2) Shunt reactors
IS: 5561 Specifications for electrical power connectors
IS: 5578 Guide for marking of insulated conductors

IS: 6005 Code of practice for phosphating of iron and steel

IS:8437(Pt.1&2) Guide on effects of currents passing through human body

IS: 9921 Alternating current disconnections (isolators) for voltages above 1000 volt

IS:10028(Pt-1,Pt2&3) Code of practice for selection, installation and maintenance of transformers

15:10118 Code of practice for selection, installation and maintenance of switchgear and control gear

13:10136 Code of practice for selection of disc insulator fittings for highest system voltages of 72.5
kV and above

13:10162 Spacers and spacer dampers for twin horizontal bundle conductors.

15:10561- Application guide for power transformers

IS: 12032 (Pt-2) Graphical symbols used in electro-technology : conductors and connecting device's

IS: 12032(Pt-4) Graphical symbols used in electro-technology : Passive components

IS: 12032(Pt-6) Graphical symbols used in electro-technology : Production and Conversion of electrical

13:1 2032 (Pt-7) Graphical symbols used in electro-technology : Switchgear, control gear and protective

IS: 12360 Voltage bands for electrical installations including preferred voltages and frequency

IS: 12063 Classification of degrees of protection provided by enclosures of electrical equipment

IS: 13134 Guide for selection of Insulators in respect of pollution conditions.

1S:13118/IEC: 56 Specification for high voltage AC circuits breakers

IS: 13516 Methods of synthetic testing of high voltage AC circuit breakers

IS: 13947 (Pt.1 to 5) LV switchgear and control gear

Appendix 1.2
List of IEC Standards
IEC: 60296 Fluids for electromechanical applications – Unused mineral insulating oils
for transformers and switchgear

IEC-60044-4 Instrument Transformers: Measurement of Partial Discharges

IEC-60051 : (P1 to P9) Recommendations for Direct Acting indicating-analogue electrical

measuring instruments and their accessories.

IEC-60076 (Part 1 to Part 5) Power Transformers

IEC-60076-10 Determination of Transformer and Reactor Sound Levels

I EC-60099-4 25 Metal oxide surge arresters without gaps

IEC-60129 Alternating Current Disconnectors (Isolators) and Earthing switches

IEC-1129 Alternating Current Earthing Switches Induced Current switching

IEC-60137 Insulated bushings for alternating voltages above 1000 V.

IEC-60168 Tests on indoor and outdoor post insulators of ceramic material or glass
for Systems with Nominal Voltages Greater than 1000 V

IEC-60183 Guide to the Selection of High Voltage Cables

IEC-60214 On-Load Tap-Changers

IEC-60233 Tests on Hollow Insulators for use in electrical equipment.

IEC-60255 (Part 1 to part 23) Electrical relays

IEC-60265 (Part 1 & Part 2) High Voltage switches

IEC-60273 Characteristics of indoor and outdoor post insulators for systems with
nominal voltages greater than 1000V

IEC-60289 Reactors

IEC IEC-60297 (Pt to P4) Dimensions of mechanical structures of the 482.6mm (19 inches) series

IEC -60376 Specification and Acceptance of New Sulphur Hexafloride

IEC -60437 Radio Interference Test on High Voltage Insulators

IEC -60507 Artificial Pollution Tests on High Voltage Insulators to be used on AC


IEC -60694 Common Specification for High Voltage Switchgear & Control gear

IEC -6081 5 Guide for the Selection of Insulators in respect of Polluted Conditions

IEC -60865 (P1 & P2) Short Circuit Current - Calculation of effects

IEC - 60354 Loading Guide for Oil - Immersed power transformers

IEC-62271-100 High Voltage Alternating Current Circuit Breakers

IEC -60427 Synthetic Testing of High Voltage alternating current circuit


IEC-61264 Pressurized Hollow Column Insulators

IEC-60358 Coupling capacitors and capacitor dividers

IEC-60481 Coupling Devices for power Line Carrier Systems

IEC-60529 Degree of Protection provided by enclosures

I EC-60353 Line traps for A.C. power systems

IEC-60481 Coupling Devices for power line carrier systems

IEC-60495 Single sideboard power line carrier terminals

I EC-60683 Planning of (single Side-Band) power line carrier systems

IEC-60359 Expression of the performance of electrical & electronic measuring


I EC-60387 Symbols for Alternating-Current Electricity meters

IEC-60447 Man machine interface (MMI) - Actuating principles

IEC-60521 Class 0.5, 1 and 2 alternating current watt hour metres

IEC-60547 Modular plug-in Unit and standard 19-inch rack mounting unit based on
NIM Standard (for electronic nuclear instruments)

IEC-60305 Insulators for overhead lines with nominal voltage above 1000 V-ceramic
or glass insulator units for a.c. systems Characteristics of String Insulator
Units of the cap and pintype

IEC-60372(1984) Locking devices for ball and socket couplings of string insulator units:
dimensions and tests.
IEC-60383 (P1 and P2) Insulators for overhead lines with a nominal voltage above 1000 V.

IEC-60433 Characteristics of string insulator units of the long rod type

IEC-60471 Dimensions of Clevis and tongue couplings of string insulator units

IEC-60227 (P1 to P7) Polyvinyl Chloride insulated cables of rated voltages up to and including

IEC-60228 Conductors of insulated cables

IEC-60230 Impulse tests on cables and their accessories

IEC-60287 (P1 to P3) Calculation of the continuous current rating of cables (100% load factor)

IEC-60304 Standard colours for insulation for low-frequency cables and wires

IEC-60332 (P1 to P3) Tests on electric cables under fire conditions

IEEE: 32 IEEE standard requirement terminology and test procedure for neutral
Grounding device.