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Journal of English Education and Development

Volume 1, No. 2, March 2018 ISSN 2597-713X (print)

ISSN 2597-7148 (online)

Using Chronological Order Method to Improve Writing Ability of the Third Year
Students of SMA Negeri I Pangsid Kabupaten Sidenreng Rappang


Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kesehatan Muhammadiyah Sidrap

Address. Jl. Syarif Al Qadri., Pangkajene Sidrap Regency,
South Sulawesi,Indonesia
Telp. +6282333555989 E-mail:

Abstract: The objective of the research was to find out whether or not using chronological order was
able to improve writing ability of the students of SMA Negeri 1 Pangkajene Sidrap. This study
employed pre-experiment method, using the third year students of SMA Negeri 1 Pangsid kabupaten
Sidenreng Rappang in Academic year 2011/2012. Total number of population was 192 students on six
classes one of them were taken as sample by using cluster random sampling technique; class IPA 1
consisting 32 students. The instrument used in this research was to chronological order. The research
used an experimental design one class was given pre-test, treatment and post-test design. The
population was the third students of SMA Negeri 1 Pangsid kabupaten Sidenreng Rappang in
academic year 2011/2012. The sample of this research was third year of SMA Negeri 1 Pangsid
Kabupaten Sidenreng Rappang there were 32 students. The technique of sampling was cluster random
sampling, and the data was analyzed into percentage, mean score analyzes and the of the research
shows that teaching writing by using chronological order can increase the writing ability of the third
year students of SMA Negeri 1 Pangsid Kabupaten Sidenreng Rappang in which the result of t-test (
5.743) is higher than t-table (2.042) with df( N-1) =32-1=31 in the level of significance ( 0.05) =
2.042. It means that using chronological order method in teaching writing is able to improve writing
ability of the third year students of SMA Negeri 1 Pangsid Kabupaten Sidenreng Rappang.

Keyword: Teaching Writing, Chronological Order, Writing performance

1. Introduction
Vol. 1 No. 2 March 2018 EDUVELOP
Journal of English Education and Development
Universitas Sulawesi Barat
English become important tools in the engaged in the activity, it can be helpful to
word. The evidence is that in every part of have a specific action that is done by all
international relationship, it is the only one students in the event a mistake is made. For
language which is used to the delegation all example, the teacher teaches the entire
over the word. Moreover, those we could group of students an “error”, “activity” such
not communicate in English will get behind as turning around and clapping three times
or out of date country or person. So by before beginning the exercise again or
being able to used English, we can easily putting hands out, heads down and calling
associate with foreigners, and it will be out a nonsense syllable such as “moo” can
easy to build friendship among societies of create this change of focus.
various nations. In our country, English has Writing is one of the four skills that must be
been thought since elementary school. mastered because it is way to communicate
Event it has become one of the subjects that one another, although it is form writing.
is examined to the students in national Writing is ability to express idea, feeling
examination since junior high school. So, it and experience, but most student find some
is plays important role to decide whether difficult in writing form. An anonymous
the students pass or fail in examination. stated that the one of the biggest problem in
Moreover, those who want to get post students writing is that students writers
graduate education should get the often fail to prove their points. They fail
maximum TOEFL score, So that English as because they do not support their points
a very important subject for the students to with concrete detail. Writing chronological
develop and the students are expected to order that students can improve their
have good ability in English. In learning writing. Some roles need attention as
foreign language especially English, there grammatical sentence, punctuation, and
are four language skill which should be mechanic. We often make mistakes in
mastered by the students. They are writing. They occurs because there are
listening, reading, speaking and many kinds of writing, writing a letter that
writingpractice. A few adjustments will be is referent from writing a composition; they
added during the exercise as needed, and a have roles that are different from each
mistake response will be used. other, letter composition are the park of
writing. Writing is very exciting with
Some students, particularly those who have writing we can enjoy some story book,
been brought up in teacher-based learning newspaper, magazine, on still other.
environments have difficulty with the after Although some techniques and approaches
math of making mistakes (Brown, 1994) have been applied in teaching writing. The
and are therefore reluctant to do the using of chronological order method as a
exercise for fear or failure. To eliminate the prewriting technique is never used by
focus on the error, to maintain the rhythm teacher. Therefore, the researcher
of the exercise, and to keep the students
Vol. 1 No. 2 March 2018 EDUVELOP
Journal of English Education and Development
Universitas Sulawesi Barat
introduces chronological order as one graphic symbol as speech is more than
method in teaching writing. The researcher the production of sound.
assumes that teaching writing trough b. Henry Guntur, writing is a language
chronological order method is good to skills who use for communications
improve writing ability of the students. indirect, and is not face to face with
people another.
2. Review Of Related Literature
According an Hogue, good writing more
Awaluddin in his research of the students than just using correct grammar. It is also
SMP Negeri 1 Duampanua Kabupaten means thinking , planning, checking, and
Pinrang found that using spider web revising. From the definition above, we can
technique able to improve writing ability. It say that writing is the production of graphic
was proved by improvement of the students symbols that have to be arranged according
mean score were the mean score in pre-test to the certain compensation, ideas, feeling
is 46,34 while the post-test score is 79,4. and opinions to be read not only by the
writer but also by another.
Syawal in his research of students
Madrasah Aliyah Negeri (MAN) 1 Baraka A. Writing process
found that using cronological order method
as a source material in teaching writing can Pre-writing. Writing, particularly academic
stimulate the students to do writing well. writing, it is no easy. It takes study and
practice to developed this skill. For both
Syahril in his research of SMP N 9 native speaker and new leaner of English, it
Parepare found that the using unforgettable is in fortune to note that writing is a
experiences motivated the students to write process, not a “produce” this means that
stories in writing form. When they tell their piece of writing, weather it is compotation
unforgettable story through time of for your English class or a Hemingway
accordance, they will meet emotional, short story, is never complete; the is, it is
cognitive and psychological demands ways possible to review and revise, and
review and revise again.
3. Writing Concept
Writing is one the four skills in language In the palling stage, your organized the
activity. With writing we can express our ideas you generated brainstorming. The
opinion or our feeling. There are some most efficient way to do this is to make and
definitions of writing mentioned by some outline.
a. Byrne stated that writing is clearly Writing and revising draftt. This stage in
much more than the production of the writing process after brainstorming and
outline, this to write and revise several

Vol. 1 No. 2 March 2018 EDUVELOP
Journal of English Education and Development
Universitas Sulawesi Barat
drags until you have produced a final copy function, they make by themselves; and
to hand in. the objective of the application is to use
or apply a structure item learned in the
B. The Component of Writing previous stage to communicate
information or massages. Chronological
There are theree significance component of order in paragraph organized
writing, namely content, organization, chronologically, events and details are
vocabulary, language, use and mechanics. arranged in the order in which they
1) Content. There are four things that can occurred, usually moving from the first and
be measured in connecting with earliest to the last or latest. Not paragraph
content, the composition should contain arranged chronologically tell stories. Some
one central purpose only, should have give directions or explained a process;
unity, and community, and should be others summarize historical events, and
adequately developed. still other report on the steps or action
2) Organization.The purpose of organizing taken by an individual or organization.
material and writing evolves coherence.
In learning and teaching process, teacher
Order of important, general of specific
must master some certain techniques. A
to general, chronological order and
variety of techniques will at least partially
special order of pattern, When writing,
ensure that a maximum of students will be
the learner should arrange the writing
“reach”, The techniques also determine
chronologically. They should present
when the process of transferring knowledge
their ideas based on the order of which
is effective and efficient or not. The
happened from the beginning to the
technique, which will be used, must be
suitable with the material will be taught in
3) Vocabulary. The effective used of word
order to get good result.
will always result good writing both
specific and technical writing, the In this research the writer used the
dictionary is very considerable. chronological order method in teaching
Vocabulary IS one component of English structure. Chronological order is
writing. To express ideas we always used for something as simple as a recipe
deal with vocabulary. and for something as complex as a history
4) Chronological order Concept. book. In academic writing, chronological
Chronological order is one of the order has many uses. One of the primary
easiest methods of organization to ways you might use it is to write a historical
master writing. Chronological order, narrative about the subject of a term paper.
therefore, is a way of organizing the For example, you might review the history
ideas in a paragraph. The objective of of labor unions before you discuss the
generalization is learners better current situation.
remember conclusion about form and
Vol. 1 No. 2 March 2018 EDUVELOP
Journal of English Education and Development
Universitas Sulawesi Barat
This step is the specialization of this There are two variables involved in this
teaching method. For the language, which research namely independent variable and
has just been taught, will be used soon as a dependent variable. Independent variable is
tool of communication for giving and teaching writing through chronological
taking information or message among the order and dependent variable is the student
students in the classroom. However, writing ability of the eleventh year students
chronological order is not just used for of SMA Negeri 1 Pangsid Kabupaten
historical narratives; it is also used in Sidenreng Rappang.
business, science, and engineering to
explain processes and procedure. For Operational Definition of Variable
example, chronological order would be
Chronological order is one of the easiest
used to explain how to make a cake. Such methods of organization to master writing.
paragraphs are called “how to” or “process” Chronological order, therefore, is a way of
paragraphs. organizing the ideas in a paragraph. The
objective of generalization is learners better
4. Method remember conclusion about form and function,
they make by themselves; and the objective of
This chapter covers the deascription of the
the application is to use or apply a structure
method, variables, and the operational
item learned in the previous stage to
definition of items, population, sample and
communicate information or massages. And the
technique of sampling, instrument of the
researcher used cluster random sampling
research, data collecting procedure and
technique to take the sample of the research
technique of data analysis.
from the number of population; the researcher
took Class IPA 1 as a sample in this research
In this research, the researcher applied pre
experiment method by using one class pre-
5. Procedure of Collecting Data
test and post-test. The design is presented
as follows:
The procedure in collecting data was
divided in to three stages they are:
E 01 X 02
a. Pre – Test. Before doing treatment, the
researcher administered a pre-test by
Where : writing and assay.
E = Experimental Class b. Treatment. The treatment would be
O1= The result of the students pre- test conducted four times in this research. In this
X = The treatment by using Chronological treatment, the researcher would apply many
order method techniques in delivering material such as
O2= The result of the students post- test game, stimulating of writing to in teaching
the students. The procedure is giving pre-
writing activities in form chronological
Vol. 1 No. 2 March 2018 EDUVELOP
Journal of English Education and Development
Universitas Sulawesi Barat
order of the narration. After that the 30-27 Excellent to very good:
knowledge, substantive
researcher would apply the second step that through development of
is the main activities by explaining the 26-22 topic, relevant to
chronological order and then the researcher assigned topic.
Good to average: some
gave them material of writing. Time knowledge of subject,
allocation for each meeting is 2 x 45 21-17 adequate range, limited
development of topic,
minutes. That is being played through most relevant to topic,
chronological order. The last steps would be 16-13 but lacks detail.
the post-writing activities by giving review Fair to poor:
and feed beck to the students. nt
knowledge of
subject, little
3. Post Test. This activity intended to find the substance,
ability of the students in writing after giving development
treatment, and the writing achievement in of topic.
learning process of the students. Very poor: doesn’t show
knowledge of subject,
non-substantive, not
6. Technique of Data Analysis pertinent, or not enough
a. Scoring the students answer pre-tests to evaluate.
20-18 Excellent to very good:
and post-tests. The students score are fluent expression, ideas
obtained by dividing the correct clearly stated/supported,
succinct, well organized,
answer, with the total score 17-14 logical sequencing,
maximum of test and multiplying cohesive.
Good to average:
them with a hundred per cent (100%) somewhat choppy.
13-10 Loosely organized but
main ideas stand out.
Limited support, logical
9-7 but incomplete
Fair to poor: non fluent,
ideas confused or
b. Writing Scoring disconnected, lacks
Score logical sequencing and
No. Classification development.
Very poor: doesn’t
1. Very good 86 – 100
communicate, not
2. Good 71 – 85
organized, or not enough
3. Fair 56 – 70 to evaluate.
4. Poor 41 – 55 20-18 Excellent to very good:
5. Very Poor ≤ 40 sophisticated range,
effective word/idiom
17-14 choice and usage, word
form mastery,
Scoring each of the five writing components
Vocab appropriate register.
using the following scoring system ulary Good to average:
13-10 adequate range,
occasional errors of
Classif Score level Criteria word/idiom form,
ication 9-7 choice, usage, meaning

Vol. 1 No. 2 March 2018 EDUVELOP
Journal of English Education and Development
Universitas Sulawesi Barat
not confused or Good to average:
obscured. 3 occasional errors of
Fair to poor: limited spelling, punctuation,
range, frequent errors of capitalization,
word/idiom form, paragraphing but
choice, usage, meaning 2 meaning not obscured.
confused or obscured. Fair to poor: frequent
Very poor: essentially errors of spelling,
translation, little punctuation,
knowledge of English capitalization,
vocabulary, idioms, paragraphing, poor
word form, or not handwriting, meaning
enough to evaluate. confused or obscured.
25-22 Excellent to very good: Very poor: no mastery of
effective complex conventions, dominated
construction, few errors by errors of spelling,
of agreement, tense, punctuation,
21-18 number, word capitalization,
order/function, articles, paragraphing,
pronouns, preposition. handwriting illegible, or
Good to average: not enough to evaluate.
effective but
17-11 construction, minor
8. Discussion
problems in complex
constructions, several Based on findings that presented on data
errors of agreement,
analysis technique at table , we could see that
tense, number, word,
order/function, articles, result of pre-test and post-test were so different.
10-5 pronouns, preposition, In the pre-test none students got very good and
but meaning seldom
Langu obscured.
good score. Classification the students score in
age Fair to poor: major this test were most of the students classified as
use problem in fair 6 (18.75%); 25 (78.125%) students
constructions: frequent classified as poor and 1 (3.125%) students
errors of negation, classified as very poor. In the post-test, most of
agreement, tense,
the students’ score classified as good score. 4
number, word/function,
articles, pronouns, (12.5%); very good, 27 (84.375%) students
propositions and/ or classified as good; 1 (3.125%) students
fragments, deletion,
meaning confused or
classified as fair and none students classified as
obscured. poor and very poor. Based on classification
Very poor: virtually no students’ score at pre-test and post-test above,
mastery of sentence
constructions rules. we could make conclusion that the students’
Dominated by errors, score have improved from pre-test to post-test.
doesn’t communicate, or
We could see their improved on the good score
not enough to evaluate.
and very poor score. Post-test there were 27
5 Excellent to very good: (84. 375%) good score And for very poor score
demonstrates mastery
conventions. Few errors
at pretest, there were 1 (3.125%) of students
Mecha classified at it and at post-test none students got
of spelling, punctuation,
4 capitalization, this score. On pre-test, most of the students
score classified into poor 25 ( 78.125%) and on
Vol. 1 No. 2 March 2018 EDUVELOP
Journal of English Education and Development
Universitas Sulawesi Barat
the post-test most of the students score mean score is (80). In applying the t-test
classified into good score 27( 84.375%). Those formula the researcher found that the t-test
mean that the students’ score was improved and (5.743) it is higher than the value of the t-table
it supported that there were four students got (2.042).
very good score in post – test. The statements
above was supported by the findings on the References
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Vol. 1 No. 2 March 2018 EDUVELOP
Journal of English Education and Development
Universitas Sulawesi Barat
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Vol. 1 No. 2 March 2018 EDUVELOP
Journal of English Education and Development
Universitas Sulawesi Barat