Rotodynamic lecture

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Rotodynamic lecture

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Book (s):

Applied Thermodynamics by TD Eastop and A McConkey, 5th Ed.

(Ch. 11)

Rotodynamic Machinery

o the transfer of energy between the fluid and the rotor is continuous and

o the change of Angular Momentum of the fluid causes, or is the result of, a torque on the rotor

Turbines and Compressors used in Steam

Plant and Gas Turbine Plant

Liquids or Incompressible Gases is not dealt

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

Impulse Turbine:

o Takes a high-pressure, high-enthalpy fluid

o Expands it in a Fixed Nozzle

o Steam coming out through a fixed nozzle at a very high

velocity strikes the Blades fixed on the periphery of a Rotor

o Blades change the direction of steam flow without changing

its pressure

o Force due to change of momentum (by changing direction

of steam flow) causes the rotation of the turbine shaft

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

Pressure and velocity variations along the stage in nozzle ring

and moving blade ring

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

Fluid flows through the wheel at a fixed mean radius, then the change of Linear Momentum tangential to the

wheel gives a Tangential Force that causes the wheel to rotate

Assume Initially that the fluid is able to enter and leave the wheel

passages in the Tangential Direction with an Absolute Velocity at

Inlet, Cai, and an Absolute Velocity at Exit, Cae

velocity in +ve x-direction = ṁ ( — Cae — Cai)

F = ṁ (Cai + Cae) from left to right

F = 2ṁCa

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

When Blade moving with velocity Cb, and Jet with velocity Cai

o If Cb > Cai Steam Jet cannot impinge on the blade

o If Cb < Cai Steam Jet impinges on the blade with a relative

velocity of Cai – Cb ,

o If Blade Friction is negligible Jet leaves the relative velocity of

- (Cae – Cb) where Cai = Cae = Ca - (Cae – Cb)

o The change in the velocity of the jet is:

- (Ca – Cb) – ( Ca – Cb ) = -2 ( Ca – Cb)

o Force on the jet is: F = - 2 (ṁ) ( Ca – Cb)

o Repulsive Force on the Blade in positive x- direction is: F = 2 (ṁ) ( Ca – Cb)

o Torque acting on the wheel is: T = F . R = 2 R (ṁ) ( Ca – Cb) R : radius of the wheel

Cb is the Blade Tangential Speed = 2πNR

Mechanical Engineering Dept. HITEC Univ. 6

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

For blades to receive steam from a series of nozzles, steam is usually

delivered to the wheel at an angle αi

Selection of the angle αi is one of compromise

o increase in αi reduces the value of the useful component, Cai cos αi

o increases the value of the Axial or Flow Component, Cai sin αi

Due to Linear Velocity of moving blade Cb the steam stream actually glides

over the moving blade with Relative Velocity Cri and Blade Angle βi at inlet

o This velocity Cri is actually the result of two velocity vectors Cai and Cb

Steam stream leaves the moving blade with Relative Velocity Cre and Blade

Angle βe at exit

If the steam is to enter and leave the blades smoothly without shock, then βi, is

the angle of the blades at inlet, and βe the angle of the blades at exit

For a perfectly smooth and frictionless blade Cri = Cre, as there is no expansion

of steam in moving blade (blades are symmetrical and passage between two

consecutive moving blades is of constant area type from inlet to exit)

Mechanical Engineering Dept. HITEC Univ. 7

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

Velocity Triangle at Inlet

the Velocity Triangle

Cb the Triangles can be combined

Velocity Triangle

at Exit

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

If the blade is symmetrical then βi = βe

if the friction effects of the blade on the steam are zero, then Cre = Cri

Actually there always exist some friction over the blade so the relative velocity at outlet will be smaller than

the relative velocity at inlet, i.e. Cre < Cri

o This reduction in Relative Velocity is quantified by parameter Blade Velocity Coefficient, k

2.1

Velocities of Flow across the blade at inlet and exit = Cfi , Cfe i.e., EB and DC, respectively

change in velocity in the Axial Direction

and an associated Axial Thrust

o horizontal components of the Absolute

Velocities at inlet and exit, respectively

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

From Newton‟s Second Law the Tangential Force acting on the jet is:

Tangential Velocity of the steam relative to the blade at Exit is:

Change in velocity in tangential direction:

driving thrust on the wheel: Cfi

2.2

Mechanical Engineering Dept. HITEC Univ. 10

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

⇒

Rate at which work is done on the wheel is given by the product of the Driving Force and the Blade Velocity:

Cfe Cfi

BC = Change in Absolute Velocity of jet

ṁ × BC = Resultant Force on the Jet

ṁ × CB = Reactive Force on the Wheel

Mechanical Engineering Dept. HITEC Univ. 11

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

ṁ × CB = Reactive Force on the Wheel

FB = DE = ∆CW and ṁ × FB is the Tangential Driving Force

ṁ × CF Axial Component of the Driving Force Axial Thrust

on the wheel

o It must be taken up by the bearings in which the shaft is

mounted

and hi Maximum Velocity of the steam impinging on the

blades is:

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

Energy Supplied to the Blades is the Kinetic Energy of the jet:

Blading Efficiency or Diagram Efficiency:

⇒ 2.3

Cfi

symmetrical (i.e. βi = βe)

⇒

⇒ Rate of doing work per unit mass:

Mechanical 2.4

Engineering Dept. HITEC Univ. 13

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

The Simple Impulse Turbine is called the De Laval Turbine, since it was invented by Dr Gustaf de Laval and

patented by him in 1888

Cfe

Cfi

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

Problem

The velocity of steam leaving the nozzles of an impulse turbine is 900 m/s and the nozzle angle is 20°. The

blade velocity is 300 m/s and the blade velocity coefficient is 0.7. Calculate for a mass flow of 1 kg/s, and

Symmetrical Blading:

(i) the blade inlet angle

(ii) the driving force on the wheel

(iii) the axial thrust

(iv) the diagram power

(v) the diagram efficiency

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

Problem

In a single stage simple impulse turbine the steam flows at rate of 5 kg/s. It has rotor of 1.2 m

diameter running at 3000 rpm. Nozzle angle is 18°, blade speed ratio is 0.4, velocity coefficient

is 0.9, outlet angle of blade is 3° less than inlet angle. Determine blade angles and power

developed.

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

Optimum Operating Conditions from the Blade Velocity Diagrams

Rate of doing work on the blade wheel per unit mass flow rate of steam is:

2.4

For a given steam velocity Cai and a given blade velocity Cb, the rate of doing work is a Maximum when:

o Axial-flow Component is essential to allow the steam to reach the blades properly and to clear the

blades on leaving

o Flow Velocity maintains the flow across the stage smaller flow velocity requires larger steam flow

passage area for the same mass flow of steam

o Small value of angle αi will yield Larger Blade Surface Area resulting into Larger Surface Friction Loss

o A selection of αi must be made based on these Conflicting Requirements usual values of of αi lie

between 15° and 30°

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

Optimum Operating Conditions from the Blade Velocity Diagrams –contd --

2.5

For a fixed value of αi the Optimum Blade Speed Ratio for Maximum Diagram Efficiency can be obtained

by differentiating Eq. (2.5) and putting the result equal to zero:

⇒ 2.6

⇒ 2.7

⇒ Rate of doing work per unit mass corresponding to the Maximum Diagram Efficiency, by substituting

2Cb = Cai Cosαi from Eq. (2.6) in Eq. (2.4):

2.8

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

Optimum Operating Conditions from the Blade Velocity Diagrams –contd --

variation in ηd with Cb/Cai Single-stage Impulse Steam Turbine is used only as a small power

machine, i.e., where small output at very high speed is required

Steam velocities may be as high as 1070 m/s, and for αi = 20° the

Optimum Blade Speed Ratio would be about 0.47

o giving the Maximum Blade Speed as 500 m/s

This value of velocity used in small machines would give high

speeds of rotation of the order of 30,000 rev/min

o Smaller-diameter rotors mean a more economic construction, but

high rotational speeds mean high stresses

o Blade Velocity must be limited for mechanical reasons of strength

and operating speed

o From these considerations and inspection of the velocity

diagrams it is evident that the steam leaves the blade wheel

with a high velocity

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

Optimum Operating Conditions from the Blade Velocity Diagrams –contd --

o The Leaving Velocity in the velocity diagram is Cae, and the leaving

variation in ηd with Cb/Cai loss is given by Cae2/2

velocity must be accepted in order to take the steam to the condenser

Cfe Cfi

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

Methods of Reducing Rotor Speed (Compounding of Turbines)

Development of steam turbines lead to Compounding whereby speed of rotation is reduced and at the

same time full available energy is utilized

Compounding of Turbines: by making use of more than one set of nozzles and rotors, in a series, keyed to

the shaft so that either the Steam Pressure or the Jet Velocity is absorbed by the turbine in stages

The high rotational speed of the turbine can be reduced by the following methods of Compounding:

o Velocity Compounding (The Curtis Turbine)

o Pressure Compounding (The Rateau Turbine)

o Pressure-Velocity Compounding

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

Pressure Compounding (The RateauTurbine)

It consists of a number of fixed nozzles, incorporated

between the rings of moving blades

pressure drop is done in a number of Stages Each stage

consists of a set of nozzles and a ring of moving blades

Steam from the boiler passes through the first set of nozzles

and expands partially velocity is absorbed when it passes

over the first set of moving blades

It is further passed to the second set of fixed nozzles where it

is partially expanded again and through the second set of

moving blades where the velocity of steam is almost absorbed

This process is repeated till steam leaves at Condenser

Pressure

By reducing the pressure in stages, velocity of steam entering

the moving blades is considerably reduced Hence the

speed of the rotor is reduced

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

Pressure Compounding (The RateauTurbine)

stage from the next

turbine's casing, act as seals between stages

diaphragms is constant, but there is a pressure drop

across each diaphragm as required by the nozzles

• since there is pressure drop in the nozzles, it has

to be made air-tight

• They are bigger and bulkier in size

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

Velocity Compounding (The Curtis Turbine)

all the expansion takes place in a single set of nozzles, and the steam then

passes through a series of blades attached to a single wheel or rotor

Since Blades move in the same direction it is necessary to change the

direction of the steam between one set of moving blades and the next

o For this purpose a stationary ring of blades is fitted between each pair of

moving blades

Kinetic Energy of the jet is utilized in the Multiple Stages

inlet velocity to the Fixed Blades is the Absolute Exit Velocity from the first

row of moving blades:

⇒ 2.9

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

Velocity Compounding (The Curtis Turbine) – contd --

Velocity diagrams for a two-row velocity-compounded impulse turbine

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

Velocity Compounding (The Curtis Turbine) – contd --

If moving and stationary blades are symmetrical and the relative velocities are

unchanged on passing over a blade Diagram Efficiency is a Maximum when:

by following the same procedure as

2.10

used for single-row impulse turbine

Maximum Diagram Efficiency is then:

2.11

2.12

⇒ Refer to Eq. (2.8): Compared to single stage, the enthalpy drop used in the

Two-row Stage is four times that of the single-row stage

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

Velocity Compounding (The Curtis Turbine) – contd --

Diagram Efficiency against Blade Speed Diagram Efficiency against Blade Speed Ratio for a

Ratio for a Single Stage Impulse Turbine Two-row velocity-compounded impulse turbine

can be generalized for „n‟ number of moving blade

rows:

i.e., for 3 rows:

shall be:

shall be 1/8 th of the total work

⇒ In a 4-row stage, work from last row

shall be 1/16 th of the total work

Mechanical Engineering Dept. HITEC Univ. 27

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

Velocity Compounding (The Curtis Turbine) – contd --

wheels show Maximum Stage Efficiencies of approximately

0.8, 0.67 and 0.52 respectively, at Cb/Cai of 0.46, 0.23, 0.13

number of rows of blades

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

Velocity Compounding (The Curtis Turbine) – contd --

ADVANTAGES

The arrangement has less number of stages compared to pressure compounding and hence less

initial cost

It requires less space

The fall of pressure in the nozzle is considerable, so the turbine itself need not work in high pressure

surroundings and the turbine housing need not be very strong

DISADVANTAGES

More friction losses due to very high velocity in the nozzles

Power developed in the later rows is only fraction of first row. Still all the stages require same

space, material and cost.

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

Problem

The first stage of a turbine is a two-row velocity-compounded impulse wheel. The steam velocity at inlet

is 600 m/s, the mean blade velocity is 120 m/s, and the blade velocity coefficient for all blades is 0.9. The

nozzle angle is 16° and the exit angles for the first row of moving blades, the fixed blades, and the

second row of moving blades, are 18° , 21°, and 35° respectively. Calculate:

(i) the blade inlet angles for each row;

(ii) the driving force for each row of moving blades and the axial thrust on the wheel, for a mass flow rate

of 1 kg/s;

(iii) the diagram power per kilogram per second steam flow, and the diagram efficiency for the wheel;

(iv) the maximum possible diagram efficiency for the given steam inlet velocity and nozzle angle.

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

Pressure-Velocity Compounding

methods are utilized

stages and the velocity obtained in each stage is

also compounded

stage and pressure remains constant during each

stage

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

Pressure-Velocity Compounding

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

Problem

In a simple impulse steam turbine stage steam enters the nozzle at 15 bar, dry saturated with velocity of

150 m/s. Nozzle angle is 20° and steam leaves nozzle at 8 bar and enters into smooth blades. Considering

nozzle efficiency of 0.90 and blades to be equiangular determine the following for Maximum Diagram

Efficiency.

(a) the Blade Angles

(b) the Blading Efficiency

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

Turbine Blade Height

Blade Height is a function of total Annular Area required for the flow of fluid

In the Impulse Turbine the nozzles do not occupy the complete circumference leading into the blade

annulus referred as Partial Admission

Length of the arc covered by the nozzles = n

Nozzle Height = l

⇒ Nozzle Area in the Exit Plane = nl

Volume Flow Rate of Steam:

vi1: specific volume of the steam at the nozzle exit condition

perpendicular to the area nl :

2.13

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

Turbine Blade Height – contd --

Blade Pitch at Exit = p1

Blade Thickness = t1

Effective Width of the channel perpendicular to the

direction of the relative velocity =

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

Turbine Blade Height – contd --

From condition of continuity of mass flow of steam:

2.14

blades, fixed and moving, an expression similar to Eq. (2.14)

can be established

Nozzle Height at exit but

from nozzle passage the blade height is slightly

increased at Entrance

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

Problem

For the nozzles and wheel of previous problem the steam flow is 5 kg/s and the nozzle height

is 25 mm. The specific volume of the steam leaving the nozzles is 0.375 kg/m3. Neglecting the

wall thickness between the nozzles, and assuming that all blades have a pitch of 25 mm and

exit tip thickness of 0.5 mm, calculate:

(i) the length of the nozzle arc;

(ii) the blade height at exit from each row.

Rotodynamic Machinery

Impulse Steam Turbine

Rotodynamic Machinery

Reaction Turbines

Initial Reaction Type: the radial tubes, which are connected to the supply

tube, are free to rotate about a vertical axis

o End of each tube is shaped as a Nozzle and the steam from the

supply tube expands through the nozzles to atmosphere in a

Tangential Direction

increase of momentum is provided by a force on the steam from the

nozzle walls in the direction of the steam flow

o an equal and opposite force acts on the nozzle walls causing the

tubes to spin round in a direction opposite to the steam flow

o De Laval‟s Turbine was an achievement of its time and

showed the possibility of high shaft speeds using steam

but it is now only of Historical Interest

Rotodynamic Machinery

Reaction Turbines

Rotodynamic Machinery

Axial-flow Reaction Turbines

In a Reaction Turbine the pressure drop occurs in both Stationary and Moving

rows contrary to the impulse turbine where the total pressure drop occurs in

stationary nozzles alone

In Reaction Turbine the passage, between two consecutive blades is of

Converging Type

The moving blades of a reaction turbine are not symmetrical and, because they

act partly as nozzles, have a shape similar to that of the fixed blades, although

curved in the opposite direction

Reaction Turbine applies the principle of both the pure impulse and the pure

reaction turbine

o Reaction Force is available when the tangential velocity of fluid is increased

and is opposite in reference to the direction of velocity

and Reaction

o Impulse Force is available in the Entrance Half of the blade where jet

impinges causing a force to right

o While in the Exit Half, the leaving jet exerts a Reactive Force on the blade

also acts to the right Mechanical Engineering Dept. HITEC Univ. 41

Rotodynamic Machinery

Axial-flow Reaction Turbines

Each Stage of the Reaction Turbine consists of a fixed row

of blades over the whole of the Circumferential Annulus, and an equal number

of moving blades on a wheel

o Admission of fluid in the reaction turbine takes place over the complete

annulus i.e. Full Admission

The Fixed Blade Channels are of Nozzle Shape and there is a comparatively

small drop in pressure accompanied by an increase in velocity

Fluid then passes over the Moving Blades and, as in the pure impulse turbine,

a force is exerted on the blades by the fluid

There

is a further drop in pressure as the fluid passes through the Nozzle

Shaped Moving Blades increase in the fluid velocity relative to the blades

produced a 7.5 kW steam turbine running at 17000 rev/min in 1884

Rotodynamic Machinery

Axial-flow Reaction Turbines

With a Simple Impulse Type the value of Cre would be AD, but in the Reaction Turbine this velocity is

increased to AC by further expansion of the fluid in the blade channels results in a Reaction Force

Net Change in velocity of the fluid is given by BC and the resultant force on the blades by ṁ (CB)

This force can be resolved into the Tangential and Axial Thrusts, ṁ (CE) and ṁ (EB)

Rotodynamic Machinery

Axial-flow Reaction Turbines

Enthalpy Drop over the Reaction Turbine Stage shows that heat drop occurs in

both fixed blades and moving blades rows

If

Total Enthalpy Drop in stage is equally divided between the stationary and

moving blades then the stage is called 50% Reaction Stage

Degree of Reaction: Ratio of Enthalpy Drop in moving blades row (rotor blades) to

the total enthalpy drop in the stage

o In case of 50% Degree of Reaction

⇒

Mechanical Engineering Dept. HITEC Univ. 44

Rotodynamic Machinery

Axial-flow Reaction Turbines

Turbines having 50% Degree of Reaction are called „Parson‟s Turbine

o It has Symmetrical Blades for moving and stationary blades

i.e. inlet angles of stationary and moving blades are equal and also the exit

angles of stationary (αi) and moving blades (βe) are equal

When the fixed and moving blades are geometrically similar, then the

velocity diagram must be symmetrical

Rotodynamic Machinery

Axial-flow Reaction Turbines

Applying the Steady-flow Energy Equation to the fixed blades:

This assumes that the velocity of the

steam entering the fixed blade is equal

to the absolute velocity of the steam

leaving the previous moving row

o For Moving blades:

⇒

⇒

Rotodynamic Machinery

Axial-flow Reaction Turbines

⇒ Energy Input:

2

⇒ Energy Input

2.15

⇒

Mechanical Engineering Dept. HITEC Univ. 47

Rotodynamic Machinery

Axial-flow Reaction Turbines

2.17

Rotodynamic Machinery

Axial-flow Reaction Turbines

Problem

A stage of a steam turbine with Parsons blading delivers dry saturated steam at 2.7 bar from the

fixed blades at 90 m/s. The mean blade height is 40 mm, and the moving blade exit angle is 20°.

The axial velocity of the steam is three quarters of the blade velocity at the mean radius. Steam is

supplied to the stage at the rate of 9000 kg/h. The effect of the blade tip thickness on the annulus

area can be neglected. Calculate:

(i) the rotational speed of the wheel

(ii) the diagram power

(iii) the diagram efficiency

(iv) the enthalpy drop of the steam in this stage

Rotodynamic Machinery

Axial-flow Reaction Turbines

Optimum Operating Conditions from the Blade Velocity Diagrams

Diagram Efficiency for the 50% Reaction Wheel is:

2.17

Value of Blade Speed Ratio and Power for Maximum Diagram Efficiency:

⇒ 2.18

⇒ 2.19

Rotodynamic Machinery

Axial-flow Reaction Turbines

Optimum Operating Conditions from the Blade Velocity Diagrams – contd--

in the region of the maximum value of Diagram Efficiency

much variation in the Diagram Efficiency from the

maximum value

Rotodynamic Machinery

Axial-flow Reaction Turbines

In Reaction Turbines, Compounding is done similar to that in impulse

turbine for reducing the speed of rotation

moving blades of each stage

It is usual to refer to the two sets of blades as the “Stator Blades” and

the “Rotor Blades”

o equal to the product of the pressure difference and the area of the

annulus in contact with the steam

o For the 50% Reaction Turbine the thrust due to the change in Axial

Velocity is zero

Rotodynamic Machinery

Axial-flow Reaction Turbines

the casing at the Mid-section and allowing it to expand

outwards to each end of the casing, passing over

identical sets of blades

Height at a given wheel for a given total mass flow of

steam

Rotodynamic Machinery

Losses in Turbines

Losses which are of interest thermodynamically are the internal losses incurred as the fluid passes through

the blades

losses may be classified in one of Two Groups:

(i) Friction Losses: indicates friction losses in the nozzles, in the blades, and at the discs which rotate in

the fluid

(ii) Leakage Losses: includes losses at admission to the stages and leakage at glands and seals, and the

residual velocity loss

Losses in Nozzles: deviation in operating state of nozzle occur because of Non-isentropic Expansion

o reasons for non-isentropic expansion may be:

• friction losses between the steam and nozzle wall, viscous friction resistance to flow in the steam

particles, boundary layer formation and separation, heat loss during flow etc.

o This shift from Isentropic Expansion to Non-isentropic Expansion is quantified using „Nozzle Efficiency‟

Rotodynamic Machinery

Losses in Turbines

Losses in Moving Blades:

o Blade friction is taken into account by the Blade Friction Factor termed as “Passage Loss”

o “Boundary Layer Separation” may occur due to sharp deflection of fluid within the blade passage

There is mixing of steam jet leaving nozzles and entering moving blade

Due to the transition of flow from nozzle passage to blade passage there is formation of eddies

and turbulence gets set in

This cause the reduction of kinetic energy delivered to blades called “Wake Losses”

o Impingement Loss: Loss of energy due to Breakage of Flow which occurs due to the impingement of

steam upon the leading edge of moving blade

These losses are less if the flow is Laminar as compared to the Turbulent Flow

o Carry over Loss: Loss of energy also occurs during passage of steam from one stage to other, i.e. rows

This carry over loss is minimum if spacing between consecutive rows is kept small

Rotodynamic Machinery

Losses in Turbines

Losses in Moving Blades –contd--:

Different losses in moving blades are accounted by taking the

o Profile Loss Coefficient (kp) losses due to turbulence, friction, fluid deflection in blade passage,

curvature of blade, and actual exit angle being different from Blade exit angle

o Incidence Loss Coefficient (ki) losses due to turbulence introduced by angle of incidence

o Carry Over Loss Coefficient (kc) losses due to kinetic energy loss during transition of flow between

the rows

⇒ Actual Relative Velocity leaving blade: Cre = kp ki kc Cri

Rotodynamic Machinery

Losses in Turbines

Losses due to Leakage:

o Steam leakage may occur across the turbine shaft and between stages

o leakage loss occurs between one stage and the next through the clearance

space between the diaphragm and the shaft

o Leakage Loss also occurs at the external glands where the turbine shaft passes

through the casing

• At one end the tendency is for high pressure steam to escape into the

atmosphere, and at the Condenser End for air to leak in from the atmosphere

o In Diaphragm and External Glands it is usual to use a

form of Labyrinth Packing

Rotodynamic Machinery

Losses in Turbines

Losses due to Leakage –contd--:

o Leakage across diaphragm occurs in both impulse turbine and reaction turbine stages

o Leakage across tip is not prominent in case of Impulse Turbine as the pressure difference is very small

o Tip leakage is prominent in Reaction Turbine Stages

o Due to this Diaphragm and Tip Leakage effective mass flow rate for doing work gets reduced and is

consequently a loss of energy

o Leakage is accompanied by the increase in

entropy => decrease in availability of work due to

throttling of steam irreversible process

Construction is usually preferred to

the diaphragm and wheel construction

Rotodynamic Machinery

Losses in Turbines

Windage and Disc Friction Losses:

o Windage Loss: when the rotor blades come in contact with near stationary fluid (steam) there

is transfer of energy from blade to steam

• In case of Partial Admission Turbines i.e. generally impulse turbines there is churning of

steam in the region having no active steam in steam turbine

• In case of Full Admission Turbine the region inside turbine having inactive steam is negligible

and so the windage loss is nearly negligible

o Disc Friction Loss: Due to the relative motion, surrounding medium (Steam) always exerts a

resistance to motion of moving object (Rotor)

• Loss of energy of rotor may go into the steam enveloping it

• Disc friction loss may cause heating of steam surrounding the rotor i.e. a portion of kinetic

energy is transferred from the rotor disc to steam by heating of steam

• Disc friction loss is substantial in case of impulse stages as compared to reaction stages

where it is very small and can be neglected

h

Rotodynamic Machinery

Problem

In a 50 % reaction turbine 6 kg/s steam is admitted at 15 bar dry saturated in the first stage.

Turbine has eight pairs on mean diameter of 50 cm and run at 3000 rpm with mean blade speed to

steam velocity ratio of 0.8. There occurs tip leakage of steam at all rows amounting to 10% of total

and isentropic efficiency of working steam is 85 %. Considering blade outlet angles for both fixed

and moving blades to be 20°, determine the following analytically:

(i) the output power from turbine.

(ii) the pressure of steam leaving turbine,

(iii) the mean blade height.

Rotodynamic Machinery

Rotodynamic Machinery

Overall Efficiency, Stage Efficiency, and Reheat Factor

Overall Efficiency

As a fluid expands through a turbine:

there are Friction Effects between the fluid and the enclosing

boundary surfaces of the nozzles and blade passages

Further losses are produced by Leakage

Both of these are Irreversibilities in the expansion process and

there is a reduction in the useful enthalpy drop

Overall Isentropic Efficiency of a Steam Turbine:

Mechanical Engineering Dept. HITEC Univ. 63

Rotodynamic Machinery

Overall Efficiency, Stage Efficiency, and Reheat Factor

Stage Efficiency and Reheat Factor

Expansion of the fluid through the successive stages of a

reaction turbine can be represented on an h-s Chart

Dotted line joins the points representing the state of the

B/

steam between each stage called the Condition Curve

i refers to any stage from 1 to n

o Isentropic Enthalpy Drop between same pressures: ∆hsi

Stage Efficiency is defined as:

On h–s diagram the shift in state after expansion from B to

B / due to non-ideal operation is referred as Reheating of

steam at constant pressure

For the sake of simplicity this Reheating from B to B / is

considered to be of Constant Pressure Mechanical Engineering Dept. HITEC Univ. 64

Rotodynamic Machinery

Overall Efficiency, Stage Efficiency, and Reheat Factor

Stage Efficiency and Reheat Factor –contd --

o If the state of steam after expansion lies in Wet

Region then that non-isentropic expansion causes

increase in dryness of steam at exit i.e. xB < xB/ B/

o Reheating of steam is accompanied by increase in

Entropy i.e. sB/ > sB

from left to right on the diagram

⇒

each stage:

⇒ ⇒

Mechanical Engineering Dept. HITEC Univ. 65

Rotodynamic Machinery

Overall Efficiency, Stage Efficiency, and Reheat Factor

Stage Efficiency and Reheat Factor –contd --

B/

o Reheat Factor value increases with increase in

number of stages for a given pressure range

o If ηs is reduced Reheat Factor increases for given

pressure range and number of stagesMechanical Engineering Dept. HITEC Univ. 66

Rotodynamic Machinery

Overall Efficiency, Stage Efficiency, and Reheat Factor

(i) Steam at 15 bar and 350°C is expanded through a 50% reaction turbine to a pressure of 0.14 bar. The

stage efficiency is 75% for each stage, and the Reheat Factor is 1.04. The expansion is to be carried out

in 20 stages and the diagram power is required to be 12000kW. Calculate the flow of steam required,

assuming that the stages all develop equal work.

(ii) In the turbine above at one stage the pressure is 1 bar and the steam is dry saturated. The exit angle of

the blades is 20°, and the blade speed ratio is 0.7. If the blade height is one-twelfth of the blade mean

diameter, calculate the value of the mean blade diameter and the rotor speed.

Mechanical Engineering Dept. HITEC Univ. 68

Fundamental Concepts of Thermodynamics

Practice Problems:

Exercise problems: 11.1 to 11.11

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