PIPING CODES

PIPING CODES

:Standard
Standard is the degree of excellence required.

Specification:
Specification is a detailed description of construction, workmanship, materials, etc.

Code of practices :
Code of practices is recommended method of doing something.

Legislation :
Legislation is legal requirement, which is therefore mandatory, unlike a standard, specification or code of practices.

PIPING CODES

Codes usually set forth minimum requirements for
Design of piping systems Materials of piping systems Fabrication of piping systems Erection of piping systems Test of piping systems Inspection of piping systems

PIPING CODES

Compliance to code is generally mandated by regulations imposed by regulatory and enforcement agencies. At times, the insurance carries for facility leaves hardly any choice for the owner but to comply with the requirements of a code or codes to ensure safety of the workers and the general public. Compliance to standards is normally required by the rules of the applicable code or the purchaser’s specification.

Similarly. which are precisely defined in the code. users must become familiar with limits of application of a code or standard before invoking their requirements in design and construction documents of a piping system. Therefore. . the scope of application for each standard is defined in the standard.PIPING CODES Each code has limits on its jurisdiction.

which relate to piping systems and piping components. insurance companies. and other interest groups. government agencies. . are published by various organizations. manufacturers. These organizations have committees made up of representatives from industry associations.PIPING CODES The codes and standards. professional groups.

standards. it is important that the engineers. problems. addenda.PIPING CODES The committees are responsible for maintaining. designers. experience feedback. or revisions of the codes and standards affecting their work. . updating. and other professional and technical personnel stay informed with the latest editions. Therefore. and changes in referenced codes. research. specifications. and revising the codes and standards in view of technological developments. and regulations. The revisions to various codes and standards are published periodically.

and local laws and regulations governing its applicability in addition to the commitments made by the owner and the limitations delineated in the code or standard. which apply to any of the piping elements. the designer must comply with the most restrictive requirements. state provincial. issue. In regard to applicability of a particular edition. addenda. or revision of a code or standard.PIPING CODES While designing a piping system in accordance with a code or a standard. one must be aware of the national. .

B31 published as American tentative standard code for pressure piping. •B31.8 Gas transmission and distribution piping.4 Liquid petroleum transportation piping. Separate codes developed and published as: •B31.PIPING CODES History of pipeline codes: 1925 1926 1935 1951 1955 Need for pressure piping code due to increased oil related activity. After several revisions this became American standard B31. Project B31 initiated at request of ASME.1 with sectin 3 covering oil transportation pipelines. .

IGE TD\1 edition 2 published allowing design pressures up to 100 bar for land pipelines. 1970 1970 1977 1984 British standard CP2010 introduced. IGE TD\1 introduced-a complete gas pipeline code including revised design criteria. Part 2 covered design and construction of steel pipelines land-oil and gas pipelines. IGE 674A introduced-gas pipeline design code based on fracture mechanics. .8 based on research data.PIPING CODES History of pipeline codes: 1963-9 Major revisions to B31.

PIPING CODES History of pipeline codes: 1986 1992 1993 1993 Work commenced on BS 8010 pipelines. IGE TD\1 edition 3 published introducing risk analysis and condition monitoring. .8 steel pipelines for oil and gas. Publication of BS 8010 pipelines part 2-pipelines on land section 2. Publication of BS 8010 pipelines part 3-pipelines subsea.

PIPING CODES Development of pipeline codes: Steel pipeline technology originally developed in the USA.8 high level testing of gas pipelines following construction introduced in USA and UK. Major gas pipeline failures in USA during the 1960's and the failure at Yarm in the UK directed attention to gas pipeline design criteria. . IGE 674 was introduced in 1965 as a gas pipeline code for UK. Up to this time all codes were just a statement of 'Good Practice' mainly relating to construction and installation. Very little on design. The first codes were written by ANSI/ASME as the B31 series for oil and gas. but based on B31.

PIPING CODES Development of pipeline codes: .

PIPING CODES Development of pipeline codes: IGE 674A was published in 1970 after the introduction of natural gas and the existing standards were regarded as inadequate. 2 for Inhabited Zones. 2. Safety Factor 0. 3 for Urban Zones. Pipeline routes were classified by areas R.4 . 1 for Rural or Desert Zones. S & T based on possible failure consequences and maximum operating pressures were restricted to 1000. 3 for Urban Zones with multi floor buildings. 3 & 4.5. Safety Factor 0. 350 & 100 psig. Safety Factor 0. Safety Factor 0.6.8 also updated by introducing four area classifications 1. B31.72.

A 'Good Practice' guide for construction to avoid common operational problems.8. .PIPING CODES Development of pipeline codes: High level hydrostatic testing introduced as a requirement for the periodic revalidation of gas pipelines in the UK. IGE 674B published in 1971 gave provisional recommendations for sleeves (casings). This has never been a requirement in the USA under B31.

. The test pressure was related to the pipe SMYS not the design pressure or working pressure.PIPING CODES Development of pipeline codes: IGE 674C published in 1974 gave specific recommendations for construction and testing of gas pipelines.

5% Strain 100% .PIPING CODES Development of pipeline codes: UTS YS Elastic Failure Plastic SMYS Stress 0.

8. . Maximum allowable stress levels for each area classification specified in B31.8 and the new edition 2 of IGE/TD/1. but no periodic revalidation required in B31. Operating stress level in pipeline steel shown to be the important parameter not pressure. On-line inspection replaces high level testing for pipeline revalidation in TD/1. but further divergence occurs between the two codes.PIPING CODES Development of pipeline codes: Work on fracture mechanics in high pressure pipelines continued in USA and UK.

75 0. Risk assessment introduced in TD/1 but not B31.80 0.90 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Corroded area mm 6 Proportion of wall thickness .PIPING CODES Development of pipeline codes: More work on fracture mechanics leads to better OLI defect assessment criteria as well as risk assessment criteria for pipeline design.8. 40 mm 80 60 40 20 0.85 0.

IGE /TD/1 is incorporated in BS8010 and the same principles have been extended to other substances besides natural gas.PIPING CODES Development of pipeline codes: BS8010 introduced with the objective of producing a standard. which reflected the best international practice in the design of steel pipelines for oil and gas. BS8010 is the foundation of the new European pipeline code which is currently being prepared. .

PIPING CODES What are the key differences between Oil/Liquid Codes and Gas Codes? .

PIPING CODES The key differences: Oil & Liquid product lines No account of population Density along the route. Gas lines Account taken of population density along the route. Maximum design factor 72% SMYS.8 Maximum design factor can be as low as 30% SMYS. Higher standard of inspection. No proximity distances From buildings. Proximity distances in some codes some codes but not B31. Lower standard of Inspection. .

distinction BS8010 Design factor calculated on minimum wall thickness tolerance. .PIPING CODES The key differences: :Key differences between Oil codes ANSI \ ASME B31. Other wise no between products. Products \ substances are categorized some requiring more stringent designs. Minimum depth of cover 3ft but 4ft for LPG liquid and ammonia lines.4 Design factor calculated on nominal wall thickness tolerance. Minimum depth of cover 900mm for all substances.

4 Design factor calculated on nominal wall thickness tolerance.PIPING CODES The key differences: :Key differences between Gas codes ANSI \ ASME B31. Minimum depth of cover varies with location and ground type. Population density is determined by the number of buildings. . BS8010\IGE TD\1 Design factor calculated on minimum wall thickness tolerance. Population density is determined by the number of persons. Minimum depth of cover 900mm for all substances in all locations.

Test pressure based on operating pressure or design pressure. of 0. 0.3 to max.72 ( can be higher if risk analysis show it is safe).8 BS8010\IGE TD\1 Proximity distances based on heat radiation levels. .4 No proximity distances From buildings. of 0.4 and max. Test pressure based on SMYS ie the material properties not pressure. Allocation of design factor based on scaling between min. Allocation of design factor based on fracture mechanics min.PIPING CODES The key differences: :Key differences between Gas codes ANSI \ ASME B31. 0.

4 Prescriptive-on risk analysis. BS8010\IGE TD\1 Risk analysis based code. .PIPING CODES The key differences: :Key differences between Gas codes ANSI \ ASME B31.

PIPING CODES The key differences: :Primary standards AMERICA National ANSI Professional AP ASME ASTM NACE EUROPE European EN National BS DIN etc. Professional IGE IP etc. .

The user is advised to verify the latest applicable version / edition of the code and / or standard before invoking their requirements for any application. construction. the personnel involved in the engineering design.PIPING CODES The key differences: :Foreign codes and standards The basic principles of piping design and construction may not differ much from one country to another. but the requirements of country specific codes and standards may very substantially. . operation. and maintenance of piping systems must make sure that the requirements of applicable cods and standards are complied with to ensure the safety of the general public and workers associated with the facility. Therefore.

Pipeline construction.Planning & routing . Testing & Certification.Manufacture of materials Testing of materials. .PIPING CODES The key differences: :Relevant activities :Materials .Specification of materials .Mechanical design Corrosion control. :Pipeline design and construction .

semiconductor and cryogenic plants and related processing plants and terminals.PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: The following codes are used for the design. construction and inspection of piping systems in North America. ASME The ASME B31 Piping Codes: B31. chemical. in industrial and institutional plants. B31. per.1 Power Piping Piping typically found in electric power generating stations.3 Process Piping Piping typically found in petroleum refineries. textile. geothermal heating systems and central and district heating and cooling plants. pharmaceutical. .

4 Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids Piping transporting products which are predominately quid between plants and terminals and within terminals. pumping. regulating. and metering stations. B31. ASME The ASME B31 Piping Codes: B31.PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: The following codes are used for the design. construction and inspection of piping systems in North America.5 Refrigeration Piping Piping for refrigerants and secondary coolants. .

regulating and metering stations. gas gathering pipelines.PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: The following codes are used for the design.8 Gas Transportation and Distribution Piping Systems Piping transporting products which are predominately gas between sources and terminals including compressor. ASME The ASME B31 Piping Codes: B31. construction and inspection of piping systems in North America. .

commercial and public buildings and in multi-unit residences which does not require the range of sizes.9 Building Services Piping Piping typically found in industrial. pressures and temperatures covered in B311.1 B31. construction and inspection of piping systems in North America. institutional. pumping and regulating stations. ASME The ASME B31 Piping Codes: B31. .11 Slurry Transportation Piping Systems Piping transporting aqueous slurries between plants and terminals within terminals.PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: The following codes are used for the design.

PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: ASME B16 Dimensional Codes The ASME B16 Piping Component Standards: Piping component standard developed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers or the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) ASME B36 Piping Component Standards: B36. .10 Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe.19 Stainless Steel Pipe. B36.

1 Horizontal.2 Vertical In-line Centrifugal Pumps B133. Carbon dioxide.PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: Other ASME or ANSI: B73. Halon. B73. End Suction Centrifugal Pumps.2 Basic Gas Turbine NEPA Codes National Electrical Protection Association Piping covering fire protection systems using water. . Dry chemical and wet chemicals. Foam.

. The MSS standards are directed at general industrial applications. The pipeline industry makes extensive use of these piping component and quality acceptance standards.NFPA Codes National Fire Code / National Fire Protection Association. NFPA 99 Health Care Facilities Piping for medical and laboratory gas systems.PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: NFC . MSS Standard Practices Piping and related component standards developed by the Manufacturer’s Standardization Society.

forgings and castings used for plate.PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: API The API standards are focused on oil production. Equipment specified to these standards are typically more robust than general industrial applications. . materials and strength considerations. refinery and product distribution services. The ASTM standards are directed to dimensional standards. ASTM There are numerous American Society for Testing and Materials designations cover the specification of wrought materials. fittings. pipe and valves.

8 Pipelines in Steel for Oil and Gas Why was a new code needed? .PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: Introduction to BS 8010 Part 2.

8 Pipelines in Steel for Oil and Gas Not really needed for oil pipelines. LPG. . Hydrogen and Ammonia.PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: Introduction to BS 8010.Part 2. Significant differences existed between the existing BS 2010 and IGE/1 for Methane. Serious anomalies existed in all codes over the treatment of substances such as Ethylene.

PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: Introduction to BS 8010.8 or TD/1.Part 2.8 Pipelines in Steel for Oil and Gas Example: LPG and Ammonia pipelines were usually designed to ANSI/ASME B31.4 even though the Hazards resulting from them are more serious than for Methane. LPG pipeline incidents in the USA represented only about 16% of the accidents but resulted in around 90% of the Fatalities . whereas Methane pipelines were designed to the more stringent B31.

8 Pipelines in Steel for Oil and Gas Objectives of Part 2. Gas. It should have a logical basis for relating the standard of design to the level of Hazard in the event of an accident. Chemicals and ‘Gases from Air’ in one self consistent code. ..8 It should reflect the current best practice.Part 2. Chemicals and ‘Gases from Air’ industries with the best aspects of existing international codes. It should combine the best practices of the Gas. It should combine Oil.PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: Introduction to BS 8010.

. It should not be a design manual.8 Pipelines in Steel for Oil and Gas Objectives of Part 2.PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: Introduction to BS 8010.8 It should be simple and workable.Part 2.

Selection of design factor.Part 2. .8 Key Technical Area Categorisation of substances. Classification of location: Proximity to occupied buildings.8 Pipelines in Steel for Oil and Gas Part 2.PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: Introduction to BS 8010. Population density.

PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: Introduction to BS 8010.8 Pipelines in Steel for Oil and Gas Part 2.2 Oil D Oil products Flammable or Toxic gases at STP Toxic liquids but conveyed as liquids or gases C Ammonia 1 Non Flammable gases at STP Butane/Propane/LPG 2 Air 1 Argon 2 3 Chlorine 4 Ethane 5 Ethylene 3 Carbon dioxide 4 Nitrogen 6 Hydrogen 7 Methane 5 Oxygen .Part 2.8 Categorisation of Substances B A Water based substances Flammable or Toxic liquids at STP BS8010 Part 2.

8 Pipelines in Steel for Oil and Gas Part 2. Schools and Shops Class 3 location Central areas of Towns and Cities with High population and .5 Persons /Hectare Class 2 location . multi-story buildings and dense traffic .5 Persons /Hectare .Population Density > 2.8 Classification of Location Class 1 location Population Density < 2.PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: Introduction to BS 8010.Part 2.Extensive developments with Houses.building density.

PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: Introduction to BS 8010. Allowable Stress/Specified Min. Yield Stress Selection .8 Design Factor Definition .Max.Location classification Consistent approach .8 Pipelines in Steel for Oil and Gas Part 2.Substance category .Part 2.

The facility is steam piping in a refinery extending from the boiler to the tank farm.3? 3. What is the difference between a pipe elbow and a bend? 4. the PM advises that piping design will be to B31. What flange specification would you expect to reference for a gas pipeline facility? . A project award has been made. For what fluid service category may a hydrotest be waived per B31.PIPING CODES Codes and Standards: Problem Set: 1.4. What do you do or say and why? 5. Are process plant water lines considered pressure piping systems? 2. At the kick off meeting.

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