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1. PLINT 15 TO 18
2. TIE 18 TO 20
3. FLOO 12 TO 15
4. GRID 20 TO 30

1. Beam sections should be designed for:

a. Moment values at the column face & (not the value at centre line
as per analysis)
b. Shear values at distance of d from the column face. (not the
value at centre line as per analysis)
c. Moment redistribution is allowed for static loads only.
d. For beams spanning between the columns about the weak axis,
the moments at the end support shall be reduced more and
distributed and the span moments shall be increased accordingly
to account for the above reduction.
e. Moment distribution shall be done in such a way that 15% of the
support moments shall be added to the span moment without
the support moments getting reduced.
f. The section within the span shall be designed for the increased
span moment which will account for the concentrated & isolated
loading that may act within one span.
g. Moment redistribution is not allowed if
1. moment co-efficient taken from code table
2. designed for earthquake forces and for lateral loads.
2. At least 1/3 of the +ve moment reinforcement in SIMPLE
SUPPORTS & ¼ the +ve moment reinforcement in CONTINUOUS
MEMBERS shall extend along the same face of the member into
the support, to a length equal to Ld/3. (Ld-development length)
3. Use higher grade of concrete if most of the beams are doubly
reinforced. Also when Mu/bd^2 goes above 6.0.
4. Try to design a minimum width for beams so that the all beam
reinforcement passes through the columns. This is for the reason
that any reinforcement outside the column will be ineffective in
resisting compression.
5. Restrict the spacing of stirrups to 8”(200mm) or ¾ of effective
depth whichever is less.(for static loads)
6. Whenever possible try to use T-beam or L-beam concept so as to
avoid compression reinforcement.
7. Use a min. of 0.2% for compression reinforcement to aid in
controlling the deflection, creep and other long term deflections.
8. Bars of Secondary beam shall rest on the bars of the Primary
beam if the beams are of the same depth. The kinking of bars
shall be shown clearly on the drawing.
9. Length of curtailment shall be checked with the required
development length.
10. Keep the higher diameter bars away from the N.A(i.e. layer
nearest to the tension face) so that max. lever arm will be
11. Hanger bars shall be provided on the main beam whenever
heavy secondary beam rests on the main beam.(Try to avoid the
hanger bar if secondary beam has less depth than the main
beam, as there are enough cushions available).
12. The detailing for the secondary beam shall be done so that
it does not induce any TORSION on the main beam.
13. For cantilever beams reinforcement at the support shall be
given a little more and the development length shall be given
25% more.
14. As a short cut, bending moment for a beam (partially
continuous or fully continuous) can be assumed as wl^2/10 and
the same reinforcement can be detailed at span and support.
This thumb rule should not be applied for simply supported

1. One- way simply supported slab 30
2. One-way continuous slabs 35
3. Two-way simply supported slabs 38 for L/B=1.5
35 for L/B>1.5
4. Teo-way continuous slabs 40 for L/B=1.5
38 for L/B>1.5
1. Whenever the slab thickness is 150mm, the bar diameter shall
be 10mm for normal spacing.(It can be 8mm at very closely
2. Slab thickness can be 10mm,110mm,120mm,125mm,150mm,
3. The maximum spacing of Main bar shall not exceed 200mm(8”)
and the distribution bars @ 250mm(10”).
4. If the roof slab is supported by load bearing wall(without any
frames) a bed block of 150/200mm shall be provided along the
length of supports which will aid in resisting the lateral forces.
5. If the roof is of sheet(AC/GI) supported by load bearing wall
(without any frames) a bed block of 150/200mm shall be
provided along the length of supports except at the eaves. The
bed block is provided to keep the sheets in position from WIND.
6. For the roof slab provide a min. of 0.24% of slab cross sectional
area reinforcement to take care of the temperature and other
weathering agent and for the ponding of rain water etc since it is
exposed to outside the building enclosure.

1. Section should be designed for the column moment values at the
beam face.
2. Use higher grade of concrete when the axial load is predominant.
3. Go for a higher section properties when the moment is
4. Restrict the maximum % of reinforcement to 3.
5. Detail the reinforcement in column in such a way that it gets
maximum lever arm for the axis about which the column
moment acts.
6. Position of lap shall be clearly mentioned in the drawing
according to the change in reinforcement. Whenever there is a
change in reinforcement at a junction, lap shall be provided to
that side of the junction where the reinforcement is less.
7. Provide laps at midheight of column to minimize the damage due
to moments(Seismic forces).
8. Avoid KICKER concrete to fix column form work since it is the
weakest link due to weak and non compacted part.
1. Never assume the soil bearing capacity and at least have one
trial pit to get the real site Bearing capacity value.
2. Check the Factor of Safety used by the Geotechnical engineer for
finding the SBC.
3. SBC can be increased depending on the N-value and type of
footing that is going to be designed. Vide IS-1893-2000(part-I).
4. Provide always PLINTH BEAMS resting on natural ground in
orthogonal directions connecting all columns which will help in
many respect like reducing the differential settlement of
foundations, reducing the moments on footings etc.
5. Always assume a hinged end support for column footing for
analysis unless it is supported by raft and on pile cap.
The Common assumption of full fixity at the column base may
only be valid for columns supported on RIGID RAFT foundations or
on individual foundation pads supported by
short stiff piles or by foundation walls in Basement. Foundation
pads supported on deformable soil may have considerable
rotational flexibility, resulting in column forces in the
bottom storey quite different from those resulting from the
assumption of a rigid base. The consequences can be unexpected
column HINGES at the top of lower storey
columns under seismic lateral forces. In such cases the column
base should be modeled by a rotational springs. (Ref:page 164-
Seismic design of Reinforced concrete and
Masonry buildings by T.Paulay & M.J.N.Priestley.)
Also refer the Reinforced concrete Designer’s Handbook by
Reynold where it is clearly mention about the column base support.


1. The minimum reinforcement for the RCC wall subject to BM shall

be as follows:
A. Vertical reinforcement:
a) 0.0012 of cross sectional area for deformed bars
not larger than 16mm in diameter and with
characteristic strength 415 N/mm^2 or greater.
b) 0.0015 of cross sectional area for other types of
c) 0.0012 of cross sectional area for welded fabric not
larger than 16mm in diameter.
Maximum horizontal spacing for the vertical
reinforcement shall neither exceed three times the
wall thickness nor 450mm.
B. Horizontal reinforcement.
a) 0.0020 of cross sectional area for deformed bars
not larger than 16mm in diameter and with
characteristic strength 415 N/mm^2 or greater.
b) 0.0025 of cross sectional area for other types of
c) 0.0020 of cross sectional area for welded fabric not
larger than 16mm in diameter.
Maximum vertical l spacing for the vertical
reinforcement shall neither exceed three times the
wall thickness nor 450mm.
NOTE: The minimum reinforcement may not always be
sufficient to provide adequate resistance to effects of
shrinkage and temperature.
2. The He/t for a RCC wall shall not exceed 30 as per IS:456=2000,
where He is the effective height of the wall and t is the thickness of the
RC wall. He for a braced wall will be :
a) 0.75 H, if the rotations are restrained at the ends by
floors where h is the height of the wall.
b) 1.0h .
Ref: (Principle of structures by Ariel Hanaor).
The Depth to span ratio for a truss is h/L=10. Beyond a certain
optimal value, increase in structural depth increases weight. The same
principle applies to trusses. An optimal
depth/span ratio for a planar truss is approximately 1/10.
Although forces in the CHORDS decrease with increasing depth, forces
in the WEB are practically UNCHANGED and
increasing the depth increases the lengths of these members.
Approximately half the web members are in COMPRESSION and
increasing their lengths reduces their efficiency
due to the increased susceptibility to BUCKLING.


The span to depth ratio=1/8 to 1/10 are typical.

The compression on top chord or tension in the bottom chord for
a UDL loading is C=T= qL^2/8h where q is the udl and h is the


A structure in pure TENSION having the funicular shape of its

load is termed as Cable.

Let us now invert the shape of a cable under a given load, that is
the sag at any point is turned into a rise. The point is now above
the chord joining the end points by the
same amount it was previously below it. A structure built
according to the funicular shape in COMPRESSION is termed as
an ARCH.
The optional rise to span ratio for an arch is in the range of 1/6-
1/4. The depth to span ratio of an arch is usually in the range of
1/40 -1/70.


The typical depth /span ratio is in the range from 1/15 to 1/10.

A typical depth of a solid FLAT PLATE is 1/22 -1/18 of the
effective span.


Supported on continuous stiff supports are in the range of 1/30-

1/25 of the lesser effective span.


Typical depth of flat plate ribbed slabs are in the range of 1/20-
1/17 of the lesser effective span.


The structural depth of DOMES is the full height of the dome

from base to crown. Depth to span ratio range from as low as 1/8
for shallow domes to ½ for deep domes.
A depth /span ratio of 1/5-1/4 is a common value which is near
optimal for many applications.