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A.BEAMS:

OVERALL DEPTH OF

BEAMS:

SL. MEMB SPAN/OVE

NO ER RALL

DEPTH

RATIO

1. PLINT 15 TO 18

H

BEAM

2. TIE 18 TO 20

BEAM

3. FLOO 12 TO 15

R

BEAM

S

4. GRID 20 TO 30

BEAM

S

a. Moment values at the column face & (not the value at centre line

as per analysis)

b. Shear values at distance of d from the column face. (not the

value at centre line as per analysis)

c. Moment redistribution is allowed for static loads only.

d. For beams spanning between the columns about the weak axis,

the moments at the end support shall be reduced more and

distributed and the span moments shall be increased accordingly

to account for the above reduction.

e. Moment distribution shall be done in such a way that 15% of the

support moments shall be added to the span moment without

the support moments getting reduced.

f. The section within the span shall be designed for the increased

span moment which will account for the concentrated & isolated

loading that may act within one span.

g. Moment redistribution is not allowed if

1. moment co-efficient taken from code table

2. designed for earthquake forces and for lateral loads.

2. At least 1/3 of the +ve moment reinforcement in SIMPLE

SUPPORTS & ¼ the +ve moment reinforcement in CONTINUOUS

MEMBERS shall extend along the same face of the member into

the support, to a length equal to Ld/3. (Ld-development length)

3. Use higher grade of concrete if most of the beams are doubly

reinforced. Also when Mu/bd^2 goes above 6.0.

4. Try to design a minimum width for beams so that the all beam

reinforcement passes through the columns. This is for the reason

that any reinforcement outside the column will be ineffective in

resisting compression.

5. Restrict the spacing of stirrups to 8”(200mm) or ¾ of effective

depth whichever is less.(for static loads)

6. Whenever possible try to use T-beam or L-beam concept so as to

avoid compression reinforcement.

7. Use a min. of 0.2% for compression reinforcement to aid in

controlling the deflection, creep and other long term deflections.

8. Bars of Secondary beam shall rest on the bars of the Primary

beam if the beams are of the same depth. The kinking of bars

shall be shown clearly on the drawing.

9. Length of curtailment shall be checked with the required

development length.

10. Keep the higher diameter bars away from the N.A(i.e. layer

nearest to the tension face) so that max. lever arm will be

available.

11. Hanger bars shall be provided on the main beam whenever

heavy secondary beam rests on the main beam.(Try to avoid the

hanger bar if secondary beam has less depth than the main

beam, as there are enough cushions available).

12. The detailing for the secondary beam shall be done so that

it does not induce any TORSION on the main beam.

13. For cantilever beams reinforcement at the support shall be

given a little more and the development length shall be given

25% more.

14. As a short cut, bending moment for a beam (partially

continuous or fully continuous) can be assumed as wl^2/10 and

the same reinforcement can be detailed at span and support.

This thumb rule should not be applied for simply supported

beams.

B:SLAB

EFFECTIVE DEPTH:

Sl.n SLAB SPAN/EFFE.DEPTH

o

1. One- way simply supported slab 30

2. One-way continuous slabs 35

3. Two-way simply supported slabs 38 for L/B=1.5

35 for L/B>1.5

4. Teo-way continuous slabs 40 for L/B=1.5

38 for L/B>1.5

1. Whenever the slab thickness is 150mm, the bar diameter shall

be 10mm for normal spacing.(It can be 8mm at very closely

spaced).

2. Slab thickness can be 10mm,110mm,120mm,125mm,150mm,

etc.

3. The maximum spacing of Main bar shall not exceed 200mm(8”)

and the distribution bars @ 250mm(10”).

4. If the roof slab is supported by load bearing wall(without any

frames) a bed block of 150/200mm shall be provided along the

length of supports which will aid in resisting the lateral forces.

5. If the roof is of sheet(AC/GI) supported by load bearing wall

(without any frames) a bed block of 150/200mm shall be

provided along the length of supports except at the eaves. The

bed block is provided to keep the sheets in position from WIND.

6. For the roof slab provide a min. of 0.24% of slab cross sectional

area reinforcement to take care of the temperature and other

weathering agent and for the ponding of rain water etc since it is

exposed to outside the building enclosure.

COLUMN:

1. Section should be designed for the column moment values at the

beam face.

2. Use higher grade of concrete when the axial load is predominant.

3. Go for a higher section properties when the moment is

predominant.

4. Restrict the maximum % of reinforcement to 3.

5. Detail the reinforcement in column in such a way that it gets

maximum lever arm for the axis about which the column

moment acts.

6. Position of lap shall be clearly mentioned in the drawing

according to the change in reinforcement. Whenever there is a

change in reinforcement at a junction, lap shall be provided to

that side of the junction where the reinforcement is less.

7. Provide laps at midheight of column to minimize the damage due

to moments(Seismic forces).

8. Avoid KICKER concrete to fix column form work since it is the

weakest link due to weak and non compacted part.

FOOTING:

1. Never assume the soil bearing capacity and at least have one

trial pit to get the real site Bearing capacity value.

2. Check the Factor of Safety used by the Geotechnical engineer for

finding the SBC.

3. SBC can be increased depending on the N-value and type of

footing that is going to be designed. Vide IS-1893-2000(part-I).

4. Provide always PLINTH BEAMS resting on natural ground in

orthogonal directions connecting all columns which will help in

many respect like reducing the differential settlement of

foundations, reducing the moments on footings etc.

5. Always assume a hinged end support for column footing for

analysis unless it is supported by raft and on pile cap.

The Common assumption of full fixity at the column base may

only be valid for columns supported on RIGID RAFT foundations or

on individual foundation pads supported by

short stiff piles or by foundation walls in Basement. Foundation

pads supported on deformable soil may have considerable

rotational flexibility, resulting in column forces in the

bottom storey quite different from those resulting from the

assumption of a rigid base. The consequences can be unexpected

column HINGES at the top of lower storey

columns under seismic lateral forces. In such cases the column

base should be modeled by a rotational springs. (Ref:page 164-

Seismic design of Reinforced concrete and

Masonry buildings by T.Paulay & M.J.N.Priestley.)

Also refer the Reinforced concrete Designer’s Handbook by

Reynold where it is clearly mention about the column base support.

R.C.C.WALLS:

be as follows:

A. Vertical reinforcement:

a) 0.0012 of cross sectional area for deformed bars

not larger than 16mm in diameter and with

characteristic strength 415 N/mm^2 or greater.

b) 0.0015 of cross sectional area for other types of

bars.

c) 0.0012 of cross sectional area for welded fabric not

larger than 16mm in diameter.

Maximum horizontal spacing for the vertical

reinforcement shall neither exceed three times the

wall thickness nor 450mm.

B. Horizontal reinforcement.

a) 0.0020 of cross sectional area for deformed bars

not larger than 16mm in diameter and with

characteristic strength 415 N/mm^2 or greater.

b) 0.0025 of cross sectional area for other types of

bars.

c) 0.0020 of cross sectional area for welded fabric not

larger than 16mm in diameter.

Maximum vertical l spacing for the vertical

reinforcement shall neither exceed three times the

wall thickness nor 450mm.

NOTE: The minimum reinforcement may not always be

sufficient to provide adequate resistance to effects of

shrinkage and temperature.

2. The He/t for a RCC wall shall not exceed 30 as per IS:456=2000,

where He is the effective height of the wall and t is the thickness of the

RC wall. He for a braced wall will be :

a) 0.75 H, if the rotations are restrained at the ends by

floors where h is the height of the wall.

b) 1.0h .

MISCELLANEOUS:

Ref: (Principle of structures by Ariel Hanaor).

1. TRUSS:

The Depth to span ratio for a truss is h/L=10. Beyond a certain

optimal value, increase in structural depth increases weight. The same

principle applies to trusses. An optimal

depth/span ratio for a planar truss is approximately 1/10.

Although forces in the CHORDS decrease with increasing depth, forces

in the WEB are practically UNCHANGED and

increasing the depth increases the lengths of these members.

Approximately half the web members are in COMPRESSION and

increasing their lengths reduces their efficiency

due to the increased susceptibility to BUCKLING.

3. VIERENDEEL GIRDER:

The compression on top chord or tension in the bottom chord for

a UDL loading is C=T= qL^2/8h where q is the udl and h is the

depth.

4. CABLE:

load is termed as Cable.

4.ARCH:

Let us now invert the shape of a cable under a given load, that is

the sag at any point is turned into a rise. The point is now above

the chord joining the end points by the

same amount it was previously below it. A structure built

according to the funicular shape in COMPRESSION is termed as

an ARCH.

The optional rise to span ratio for an arch is in the range of 1/6-

1/4. The depth to span ratio of an arch is usually in the range of

1/40 -1/70.

5. FOLDED PLATE:

The typical depth /span ratio is in the range from 1/15 to 1/10.

6. FLATE PLATE:

A typical depth of a solid FLAT PLATE is 1/22 -1/18 of the

effective span.

1/25 of the lesser effective span.

Typical depth of flat plate ribbed slabs are in the range of 1/20-

1/17 of the lesser effective span.

9. DOMES:

from base to crown. Depth to span ratio range from as low as 1/8

for shallow domes to ½ for deep domes.

A depth /span ratio of 1/5-1/4 is a common value which is near

optimal for many applications.

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