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ISSN: 2454-7875
VOLUME 3, ISSUE 8, Aug. -2017
A CLASSICAL REVIEW ON ADVANCED DIGITAL IMAGE WATERMARKING
TECHNIQUES
BAISA L. GUNJAL
Department of Information Technology, Amrutvahini College of Engineering, Sangamner, District Ahmednagar,
Maharashtra, India, hello_baisa@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT: Image copyright communication for digital rights


The world has become a global village in management (DRM) and protection strongly demands it.
digital era due to advances in internet and Multimedia Message Service (MMS) are commonly used to
communication technology. Presently, creation, copy send images through mobile phones where security is
and transmission of image data via internet and required. Central Bureau Investigations (CBI) and other
mobile phone are very common practices. The access, crime investigation agencies need to transmit either grey
sharing, replication and manipulation of medical scale or color criminal images to distant officesvia internet
images have become daily needs. Image data or cell phones. Such image data demands high safety and
distributed can be copied repeatedly without errors confidentiality. ‘Secured Voting System’ is heart of
putting the rights of owners at risk. Even though democratic countries worldwide. E-voting systems are
encrypted for distribution, images can be unprotected better options for Electronic Voting Machines (EVM) for
after decryption. Deployment of information and implementation of free and fair voting system which is also
communication technology infrastructure is bringing cost effective as it saves extra financial burden caused
revolution to health industry. Consequently, economy system of a given country.Biometric based
worldwide e-health technology and associated watermarking techniques can be efficiently used for e-
standards demand strong security of medical image voting systems used in parliament, president and
data. Digital image data security is achieved by municipal elections. Biometric based watermarking
different ways.Digital image watermarking provides techniques can be efficiently used for e-voting systems
copyright protection and authentication by hiding used in parliamentary, presidential or municipal. Distance
ownership information in image data. This paper education is growing rapidly nationwide or worldwide.
presents motivation along with vast number of Due to shortage of highly qualified skillful human
application area of digital image watermarking. The resources in rural and backward areas intelligent
paper mainly focuses on classical review of variety of technologies for distant learning with student-teacher
advanced image watermarking techniques. The paper interaction is required with secured transmission of image
recommends transform domain image watermarking data. Here, digital image watermarking can provide
for strong provision of imperceptibility, robustness solution.
and security. This study also draws some significant Many Android based application in mobile phones are
conclusions based on classical review of advanced written using Java Programming language. Since mobile
image watermarking techniques. phones are capable of running Java programs, even simple
KEYWORDS: Watermarking, PSNR, Fingerprinting, program can extract hidden messages from innocent
MMS, Shift-variant, EVM, Compression. images. Hence, watermarking techniques are equally used
for all types of mobile based image data security. Secured
I. INTRODUCTION: image databases required by health insurance companies
Digital image watermarking protects the rights of their and car insurance companies during decision making
owners in variety of ways including copyright process of accidental cases and allowances of damaged
identification, user identification or fingerprinting (FP), vehicles. The banking services including multinational
authenticity determination, automated monitoring and companies require for maintaining secure image databases
copyright protection. Digital fingerprinting is used to trace and their transmission, secured passport IDs require
out unauthorized user and identify the copyright violator. secured authentication for customer-image data during
This is achieved by embedding a fingerprint in each copy transmission to and from central administrative offices.
to be distributed so that authorized user can be The generalized approaches and analysis used for image
identified.With advances in communication technology and data can be easily applied for other media such as audios
due to widespread use of internet and mobile phones, and videos .
image data security is essentially required in many In telemedicine for number healthcare applications like
applications areas [1][2]. teleradiology, telepathy, telecare, telesurgery,
teleneurology medical images needproper safetyand

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NOVATEUR PUBLICATIONS
International Journal of Research Publications in Engineering and Technology [IJRPET]
ISSN: 2454-7875
VOLUME 3, ISSUE 8, Aug. -2017
confidentiality because patient diagnosis by specialists is between original watermark and extracted watermark. i.e.
based on information containedin medicalimages. Many ‘correlation factor’.
times patient who is criticallyill or seriously injured in
accident need to be treated locally by effective and secured C. CAPACITY:
communicationof EPR (Electronic Patient Report) data It is measure of number of bits those can be embedded
between remote hospitals and distant specialty hospitals. in a cover image. A good quality watermarking technique
Clinical Decision Support System (CDCS) extract should have maximum embedding capacity. Transparency
knowledge from electronic medical records (EMR) and and robustness to image processing conflict with each
provide input to the doctors those do exact diagnosis. The other under high payload scenario. The high capacity
transmission of medical images from remote hospitals to watermark embedding can be achieved by compromising
specialist hospital located at distant geographical locations either perceptual quality or robustness of watermarking
is common practice now a day. Sensitive medical images technique. Thus, it is the fundamental problem to achieve
need ‘a priori’ and ‘a posteriori’protection. Hence,secure, suitable tradeoff between fidelity and robustness.
robust and high capacity watermarking techniques is
demand of healthcare industry. A medical image contains D. SECURITY:
Region of Interest (ROI) and Region of Non Interest It is the ability of preserving owner’s rightful
(RONI). ROI is sensitive region of medical image using information. The watermarking technique should be
which doctors do exact diagnosis and decide treatment complex enough to break. It measures resistance of
according. So, ROI should not be disturbed while watermark in case attacker attempts to various image like
embedding watermark. Hence, ROI based watermarking of rotation, scaling, noise addition, noise filtering, resizing,
digital images need to be handled carefully. cropping, collision attacks, compression. Robustness
depends on different factor such as watermark hiding
II. IMAGE QUALITY METRICS: capacity, strength and visibility. It is measured in terms of
Imperceptibility, robustness, payload and security are correlation between original watermark and extracted
four attributes those determine quality of image watermark. i.e. ‘correlation factor’.
watermarking scheme.
III. CLASSICAL REVIEW:
A. IMPERCEPTIBILITY OR PERCEPTUAL The numbers of watermarking techniques have been
TRANSPARENCY: proposed by researchers for grey scale, color and medical
The imperceptibility is also called as perceptual images. According to embedding domain watermarking
transparency or fidelity. Addition of watermark in a cover techniques are categorized as spatial domain and
image is as good as addition of noise to it. Hence, the transform domain.
imperceptibility of watermarked image is degraded during
watermark embedding process. Imperceptibility of the A. SPATIAL DOMAIN TECHNIQUES:
watermarked image is measured in term of various Least Significant Bit (LSB) based techniques are
attributes like difference based measures such as Peak examples of spatial domain techniques which are less
signal to noise ratio(PSNR) which is determined in terms secured, having low watermark information hiding
of mean square error(MSE). MSE, PSNR are pixel difference capacity, results less perceptual quality of watermarked
based measures which compute the distortion between image and can be detected easily. Mohammed, Ghassan N
two images based on their pixel wise difference. Better et al.[2] proposed Dual Intermediate Significant Bit (DISB)
PSNR shows better quality of watermarked image. model to achieve robustness against possible attacks as
well as perceptual quality of the watermarked images.The
B. ROBUSTNESS: two bits are embedded into all pixels of the cover image
Watermark must be capable for survival against both and other six bits are altered such that they will directly
intentional and unintentional attacks. Robustness is assimilate the original pixel. The resultant watermarked
detecting reliability of given watermarking technique in image quality is improved with compared with LSB after
presence of channel noise or intentional attacks. It embedding two bits.In transform domain techniques,
measures immunity of watermark against attempts to watermark is inserted into transformed coefficients of
various image modification and manipulation like noise image. It gives better watermark information hiding
addition, noise filtering, rotation, scaling, collision attacks, capacity and also provides better robustness against
resizing, cropping, compression. Robustness depends on watermarking attacks. The frequency domain methods are
various factor like watermark information hiding capacity, widely applied compared to spatial domain methods.
visibility and strength. It is measured in terms of similarity

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International Journal of Research Publications in Engineering and Technology [IJRPET]
ISSN: 2454-7875
VOLUME 3, ISSUE 8, Aug. -2017
B. VISIBLE WATERMARKING TECHNIQUES: F. COLOR TRANSFORMATION BASED TECHNIQUES:
Tsung-Yuan Liu et al.[3] presented lossless visible Soo-Chang Pei et al.[12] presented reversible color
watermarking method of cover image. This method transformsfor red-green-blue(RGB) and KarhunenLoeve
embeds 440x330 size watermarks with 88,424 average (KLA), RGB-IV1V2, RGB-XYZ, RGB-UVW, RGB-YIQ,
nontransparent pixels and average capacity of 33.7% of RGB-DCT, RGB-YCbCr, RGB-YUV, RcGcBc and RGB-RsGsBs
watermark coverage. But visible watermarking schemes with reduced implementation complexity.
are used only for limited application areas. A perceptually tuned method for color images is presented
by Chun-Hsien Chou et al. [13] hiding watermark into 3
C. BLIND WATERMARKING TECHNIQUES: color channels and host image without resulting
A blind watermarking techniques do not require cover perceivable distortion. The method is based on CIEDE 200
image during extraction process. Md. Iqbal H. Sarker et color difference equation and Just Noticeable Difference
al.[4] presented Hadamard transform and best first search (JND) model. Paulo ViniciusKoerich Borges et al.[14]
based blind watermarking technique to achieve robustness proposed transparent color modulation for text data
against compression, rotation, cropping, noise addition and hiding using print scan(PS) channel model. DWT based
noise filtering attacks. Jiasong Wu et al.[5], also presented color image watermarking in YCbCr color space is
watermarking technique for Sliding Window based presented by Shang-Lin Hsieh et al.[15] and YIQ color
Sequency-Ordered Complex Hadamard Transform. The space technique is presented by Guangmin Sun et al.[16].
technique is proved faster than only FFT or the sliding DFT
based methods. Feature based classification technique for G. REVERSIBLE WATERMARKING TECHNIQUES:
blind Steganalysis technique is proposed by Wen-Nung Lie Reversible watermarking is special data hiding
et al.[6]. Here, two statistical properties in the spatial and technique where watermark with original image are
DCT domains are proposed blindly to determine the completely recovered. Such techniques are used in
presence of hidden messages in image. The neural applications like medical and military where media do not
classifier based on two extracted features namely gradient allow any loss. Hao-Tang Chan et al.[17] presented
energy and statistical variance of the Laplacian parameters reversible fragile transform domain method based on
are proposed to achieve blind steganography. digital hologram. Here the reversibility is achieved using
FabrizioGuerrini et al.[7] presented blind watermarking Hadamard transform. A. Umamageswari et al.[18]
scheme based on quantization index modulation(QIM). The proposed reversible watermarking technique in
scheme is robust against tone mapping operators. This compression domain. Lingling An et al.[19] presented
scheme is specifically presented for High dynamic range robust reversible watermarking(RRW) using wavelet
(HDR) images which allow accurate rendering of wide domain statistical histogram shifting and
range of luminance values. clustering(WSQH-SC) pixel wise masking to balance
robustness and invisibility.
D. SPREAD SPECTRUM BASED TECHNIQUES: Ioan-CatalinDragoi et al.[20] presented local prediction
Fan Zhang et al.[8] presented spread spectrum based watermarking technique with four horizontal and
watermarking scheme based on perceptual quality metrics. vertical grouping of four pixels. Sunil Lee et al.[21]
This method is proposed as an optimization to search proposed reversible watermarking method using integer
watermark to minimize distortion of watermarked image to integer wavelet transform. The mean squared distortion
and maximize correlation between watermark and spread between original and watermarked images with given
spectrum carrier with fast implementation. Spread payload is minimized by adaptively embedding watermark
Spectrum Watermarking Scheme is presented by Minoru in a cover image.
Kuribayashi et al.[9] for fingerprint application.
H. HISTOGRAM BASED TECHNIQUES:
E. QUANTIZATION BASED TECHNIQUES: Histogram based schemes are also presented for
Mohsen Zareian et al.[10] proposed modulation based reversible watermarking. PasunuriNagarju et al.[22]
quantization watermarking with adaptively selected presented histogram bin shifting based reversible
quantization step size. This method found robust for watermarking for grey scale images. In range of pixels of 0-
AWGN attack, JPEG attack, filtering attack, salt-pepper 255, from histogram, zero point (pixel value with
noise attack and rotation attack. Quantization based frequency zero) and peak point (pixel value with frequency
watermarking is also presented by Xiangui Kang et al.[11] maximum) are effectively shifted for data embedding.
which is robust to JPEG, noise addition, histogram GouenouCoatrieux et al.[23] proposed scheme using
equalization, color reduction and Gamma correction dynamic histogram shifting which dynamically uses local
attacks. specificities of local contents.

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International Journal of Research Publications in Engineering and Technology [IJRPET]
ISSN: 2454-7875
VOLUME 3, ISSUE 8, Aug. -2017
I. E-HEALTH CARE BASED MEDICAL WATERMARKING watermarking scheme consistent with our Human Visual
TECHNIQUES: System. This scheme embeds watermark into all
E-health technology and related telemedicine (luminance and chrominance) components of color images.
applications including telepathy, telecare, teleradiology, The logic is based on fact that addition and subtraction of
telesurgery and teleneurology demand high confidentiality two colors produce other colors.
and safety of Electronic Patient Records (EPR). Medical MatthieuUrvoy et al.[33] developed
image with region of interest (ROI) is need to be treated watermarking technique in Fourier domain which is
carefully because doctors do exact diagnosis based on robust against geometrical distortions. The watermark
information provided by ROI based medical images. Kumar embedding is done within Fourier domain by substitution
M et al.[24] proposed reversible image watermarking of both the magnitude (energy) and the phase
method for medical where both payload and the patient (information). Peng LUO et al.[34] proposed color image
information are encrypted using symmetric key encryption watermarking technique using non sampled contourlet
algorithm. GouenouCoatrieux et al.[25] proposed scheme transform (NSCT) with HVS masking technique to obtain
using non-significant region watermarking with signatures high robustness and transparency. Lihong Cui et al.[35]
extracted from different pixel blocks of interest. This presented multi-wavelet based adaptive scheme based on
method uses set of three signatures are used for Just Perceptual Weighting(JPW) model. This model
confidentiality. DalelBouslimi et al.[26] presented method includes various masking effects of HVS perception by
using joint encryption/watermarking to verify reliability of considering eye sensitivity to change in noise depending
medical images. This method guarantees priori and on spatial frequency, texture and luminance of image sub
posteriori protection of medical images. bands. Chalamala S.R et al. [36] proposed new lightweight
M. Kamran et al.[27] proposed e-health technology related and robust method image watermarking based on
scheme of Electronic Medical Records(EMR) system that is contourlet transform compared its performance with a
processed by Clinical Decision Support System(CDSS). This wavelet transform based method. The fixed size block of
information preserving scheme is robust to insertion, sub band coefficients are obtained using contourlet
deletion and alteration attacks. A novel scheme using transform and watermark bit is embedded into one of the
integration of multiple cryptographic mechanisms and key Eigenvalues of that fixed size block. The authors proved
management scheme is proposed by Chien-Ding Lee et that watermarking techniques using contourlettransfom
al.[28] to track malicious staff members using are more robust than watermarking techniques using
watermarked clue. C. Vinoth Kumar et al.[29] proposed wavelet transform under several attacks but wavelet based
high embedding capacity reversible technique for medical techniques give better perpetual transparency than
images. The cover image is hierarchically divided into contourlet based techniques.
smaller blocks and further histogram shifting mechanism
is applied for data hiding. K. WATERMARKING BASED ON COMPOSITION OF TWO
TRANSFORMS:
J. WATERMARKING USING SPECIAL PROPERTIES OF Some researchers combined spatial properties of
SINGLE TRANSFORM: transforms giving composition of multiple transforms. The
Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is very similar to combined DCT-DWT based technique is proposed by
Human Visual System (HVS). It allows multi-resolution KetaRaval et al.[37]. The composite DWT-DCT based
decomposition of image and exact reconstruction of technique is proposed by Saied AmirgholipourKasmani et
decomposed image. Hence DWT has become researchers al.[38] in which binary watermarked image is embedded in
focus. Roland Kwitt et al.[30] presented DWT based spread selected sub bands of three level transformed of host
spectrum blind watermarking.Discrete Cosine image. Each of DWT sub band is selected and it’s DCT
Transform(DCT) has ‘energy compaction property’. Most of transform of is computed. Finally, Pseudorandom Number
visually significant information of natural images is (PN) sequences of watermark bits are generated and
concentrated in few coefficients of DCT. Spatio-Temporal thosePN sequencesare embedded in coefficients of related
Just Noticeable distortion (JND) based scheme for grey DCT middle frequencies. Singular value decomposition
scale image in DCT domain is presented by Zhenyu Wei et (SVD) gives good stability.Small modifications in singular
al.[31]. This JND based scheme incorporates spatial values do not cause many variations. Hence, some of
contrast sensitivity function (CSF), luminance effect, researchers have combined good properties of DWT and
contrast masking effect and Gamma correction in DCT SVD. Hailiang Shi et al.[39] combined DWT and SVD
domain. Experimental results show that the Spatio- transforms for rotation, scaling and translation(RST)
Temporal JND model is consistent with HVS. Tsz Kin Tsui invariant scheme. The scheme is found robust for variety
et al.[32] presented Fourier transform based color image of RST attacks. Priyanka Singh et al.[40] used combined

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International Journal of Research Publications in Engineering and Technology [IJRPET]
ISSN: 2454-7875
VOLUME 3, ISSUE 8, Aug. -2017
DWT-SVD based technique in YUV and YIQ color spaces. invisible digital watermarking technique using Particle
The technique is tested with cover images of 512x512 Swarm Optimization (PSO) with SVD. Image watermarking
sizefor checking perceptual transparency and robustness. system demands strongly techniques so that underlying
The method demonstrated better performance of Y color system should be unbreakable.
space. Chih-Chin Lai et al. [41] used DWT and SVD
hybridization for achieving robustness against geometric N. WATERMARKING TECHNIQUES USING EFFECTIVE
attacks, noising attacks, denoising attacks, format SCRAMBLING METHODS:
compression attacks and other image processing attacks. Many researchers have used variety of scrambling
Redundant Discrete Wavelet Transform (RDWT) is methods to provide security. Watermark scrambling
variation of DWT to overcome shift-variant limitation of methods are used to convert image into unrecognizable
DWT which occurs due to down sampling process after patterns so that extracted watermark cannot be
each level of filtering that causes significant change in recognized directly. Fibonacci transform, Fibonacci Q
wavelet coefficient. Samira Lagzian et al.[42] presented transform, Arnold transform, modified Arnold transform,
RDWT-SVD based method that embeds data in all LL,LH,HL Lucas transform, Fibonacci-Lucas transform with their
and HH sub bands of DWT. The scheme found robust comparative sustainability against robustness is presented
against rotation attack, Gaussian noise, salt & pepper by Minati Mishra et al.[50], grey code transformation,
attack, speckle noise attack, median filtering attack and affine modular transformation are also proposed by
histogram equalization attack.The composition of DWT- EhsanNezhadarya et al.[51].An excellent style manual for
DFT isused by Xiangui Kang et al.[43] for achieving science writers is [7].
robustness against different affine transforms and
compression attacks. IV. DISCCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS:
Based on the classical review presented here, some
L. WATERMARKING BASED ON COMPOSITION OF TWO significant conclusions are drawn here:
TRANSFORMS:  The highly secured, strongly robust with high payload
The composition of three transforms is also used by watermarking techniques for grey scale, color and
some of researchers. SivavenkateswaraRao. V et al.[44] medical images are required in majority application
combined DWT,DCT and SVD for optimization of areas of image processing.
robustness and fidelity. The scheme is tested for attacks  The spatial domain image watermarking techniques
including Gaussian noise(σ=0.01), rescaling (512-1024- are simple for implementation but support less
512), histogram equalization, gamma correction (0.7), low watermark information hiding capacity, poor
pass filtering, JPEG Compression (quality factor: 80), perceptual transparency and poor correlation between
contrast adjustment (20) and false positive problem original and extracted watermark.
checking.  Transform domain methods insert watermark in
transformed coefficients of cover mage. They have
M. OPTIMIZATION BASED WATERMARKING better watermark hiding capacity and better
TECHNIQUES: robustness compared to spatial domain watermarking
It is challenging issue to achieve robustness and methods.
imperceptibility i.e. fidelity under high payload scenario  DWT has multi-resolution property and it is most
maintaining security of underlying watermarking popular transform preferred for image watermarking.
technique. Some researchers proposed optimization based As per international standard organization (ISO)
solutions. DCT-Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) based norms, JPEG2000image compression standard has
genetic algorithm(GA) technique by Chih-Chin Lai et replaced DCT by DWT. Hence majority of researchers
al.[45], wavelet based GA method by K.Ramanjaneyulu et are focusing on DWT for implementation of
al.[46], quantization with DWT-SVD non-dominated watermarking frameworks.
Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II proposed by Jiann-Shu Lee et  In spread Spectrum communication, a narrow band
al.[47] are example GA based techniques proposed used signal is transmitted over larger bandwidth such that
for optimization of robustness and fidelity. Particle swarm signal energy present in any frequency is undetectable.
optimization effectively explores solution space for Spreading the watermark through spread spectrum of
optimal feature subset as per criteria specified as per image ensures large measure of security. But spread
requirement of the application. The particle swarm spectrum based watermarking methods have low
optimization with feature based robust image watermark information hiding capacity.
watermarking using DWT-SVD is proposed by Chih-Chin  Many researchers working in watermarking field have
Lai et al.[48] . SulagnaLaha et al.[49] proposed robust tried to prove that watermarking techniques using

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NOVATEUR PUBLICATIONS
International Journal of Research Publications in Engineering and Technology [IJRPET]
ISSN: 2454-7875
VOLUME 3, ISSUE 8, Aug. -2017
composition of two or three transforms give better Transform”, IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing,
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The author expresses deep sense of gratitude and on Information Forensics and Security, Vol. 9, No. 4,
hearty thanks to her Ph.D supervisor Dr. Suresh N. Mali, pp. 610-623, Apr. 2014.
Principal, Sinhgad Institute of Technology and Science 10) Mohsen Zareian, Hamid Reza Tohidypour, “Robust
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Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India for his constant support.. Robustness of Quantization-Based Image Watermarking
via Adaptive Receiver”, IEEE Transactions on
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NOVATEUR PUBLICATIONS
International Journal of Research Publications in Engineering and Technology [IJRPET]
ISSN: 2454-7875
VOLUME 3, ISSUE 8, Aug. -2017
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