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20th Century Harmonic Vocabulary

Ted Greene – 1975, January 6 & February 22

While just about any chord can be used as a passing chord for a split second, or brought in gradually, that is, one
note at a time (which give the ear time to get used to it), this list will include only those sounds which are common
enough to appear often or are successfully able to be lingered upon. = most important



1) Triad and Extensions: 1) Triad and m6 Family: 1) Dominant 7th & Major 7
major triad minor triad Scale (Mixolydian) ͦ 7 with §7 on top (or 2nd, 4th,
/9 m6 Extensions and Suspensions:
or b6th on top)
6 m6/9 7 7sus
ͦ 7 with appoggiatura in inner
6/9 m6/11 7/6 7/6sus
∆7 m6/9/11 9 9sus(11)
ͦ 7 with §5 in bass or near bass
∆9 m6/∆7 13 13sus
∆13 m6/9/∆7 Also with 17’s (also root)
∆7/6 ͦ 7 with b7 on top (or b2nd,
Some 7/11’s §3rd, or §5th on top)
ͦ triad and friends

2) Major/#11 Types: 2) m7 Family: 2) Overtone Dominants:

triad/#11 m7 13#11 7
/9#11 m7/11 (13b5) 7/6
6#11 m9 #11 9
6/9#11 m11 9b5 13
∆7#11 m/9 7/6#11
∆9#11 m7/13 (7/6b5)
∆13#11 m7/11/13 7#11
m9/13 7b5

3) Suspensions, + “2’s” 3) m7b5 (±7) Family: 3) Other Raised or Lowered

Sus (triad with 3rd up m7b5 5th, 9th Dominants:
to 4th) m7b5/11 7+ 9+
2 (triad with 3rd down m7b5b9 7b5 13b9
to a 2nd) m9b5 7+b5 13b9#11 (b5) *
Drone (R and 5 only) m7b5#5 7#9 some 11b9’s
m9b5#5 7b9 some 11b9+’s
m7b5/13(11) 7#9+ 13#9
m7b5#5/11 7b9+ ∆7+
m11b5 7#9b5 ∆7+(§5)
m9b5/13 7b9b5 /9+
7+ (§5) /9+ (§5)
7b9 appog. m7+
chords m7/11+
∆9+ ∆9+(§5)
m7b5 family too
11+ #11b13
Normal 18th and 19th Century Harmonic Vocabulary Ted Greene, 1975‐02‐22 page 2


4) Other Appoggiatura 4) m∆7 Family: 4) Whole Tone Dominants:

Chords: m∆7 + triad
/9 sus
m∆9 +b5 triad (see below **)
4 up a 4th m∆9/11 7+
Pedal dominants up a 5th /9+ /9b5+
7b5+ 9b5+


5) m/#11 Family: 5) Pedal Dominants:

m/9#11 7/11 7/6/11
m/6/9#11 7sus 11b9+
m∆7#11 11 13b9/11
m6/∆7#11 11b9

6) m+ Family:

* There are some other dominant types but they seem to occur mainly in situations where certain special voice-leading makes
it easier for the ear to accept them. Example: 13b9/11

** +b5 triad: 1) no 3rd, 2) no root, 3) complete.

Whole Tone Scale: 6 members (we will call them A B C D E F). Find all possible structures by combining all members.
Example: all 2-note structures are: AB, AC, AD, AE, AF, BC, BD, BE, BF, CD, CE, CF, DE, DF, EF.
All 3-note structures are:
20th Century Harmonic Vocabulary and Progressions
Ted Greene 1976-01-21

Diatonic Sounds
Major Key (Key of F)

Common I Chords: F, F/9, F6, F6/9, Fmaj7, Fmaj9, Fmaj13, Fmaj7/6, Fsus
Common ii Chords: Gm7, Gm7/11, Gm9, Gm11, (Gm7/13, Gm7/11/13, Gm9/13, Gm13), Gm,
Common V Chords: C7, C7/6, C9, C13, C7sus, C7/6sus, C11(9sus), C13sus (some with 17’s), C
Common vi Chords: Dm7, Dm7/11, Dm9, Dm11 (some with #5’s), Dm, Dm/9
Common iii Chords: Am7, Am7/11, Am
Common vii± Chords: Em7b5, Em7b5/11, Eº
Common IV Chords: B¨/9, B¨6, B¨6/9, B¨maj7, B¨maj9, B¨maj13, B¨maj7/6, B¨6/9#11,
B¨maj7#11, B¨maj9#11, B¨/9#11, B¨/#11, B¨

Some Important Diatonic Progressions:

(ii7) V7 I (see separate sheets) I vi7 ii7 V7

iii7 vi7 ii7 V7 I iii7 IV V7
ii7 V7 I vi7 (Imaj7) IVmaj7 vii±7 iii7 vi7 ii7 V7 Imaj7

For study of these sounds see Modern Chord Progressions.


Common Non-diatonic V7 Chords: C7+, C7¨5, C7#9, C7¨9, C7#9+, C7#9¨5, C7¨9¨5, C9+,
C13¨9, C13¨9#11, C7/6#11, C13#11, C9¨5, C+11, C+

These chords are more resister sensitive as far as their ability to sound like V7’s goes.

Practice resolving all of these V’s to different I’s (see separate sheets).

Common Non-diatonic ii7 and II7 Chords: Gm7¨5, Gm7¨5/11, G7, G7/6, G9, G13, G7sus,
G7/6sus, G11(9sus), G13sus, G13#11, G9¨5, G+11, G7/6#11, G7+, G7¨5, G7#9, G7¨9, G7#9+, G7¨9+,
G7#9¨5, G7¨9¨5, G9+, G13¨9, G13¨9#11, G, G+

Practice the following progressions using all the different types of II7’s. (See separate sheets.)
vi7 II7 ii7 V7 (I) I II7 ii7 V7
ii±7 V7 I I or iii7 vi7 II7 V7 (see Modern Chord Progressions.)
20th Century Harmonic Vocabulary and Progressions Ted Greene, 1976-01-21 — page 2

Common Non-diatonic vi7 and VI7 Chords: Dm7¨5, Dm7¨5/11, D7, D7/6, D9, D13 (careful),
D7sus, D7/6sus, D11(9sus), D13sus, D13#11 (careful), D9¨5, D+11, D7/6#11, D7+, D7¨5, D7#9, D7¨9,
D7#9+, D7¨9+, D7#9¨5, D7¨9¨5, D9+, D13¨9 (careful with 13 on top), D13¨9#11, D, D+

Progressions to practice:
I vi±7 II7 V7 I or iii7 VI7 ii7 V7 (see Modern Chord Progressions.)
I or iii7 VI7 II7 V7

Common Non-diatonic iii7 and III7 Chords: Am7¨5, Am7¨5/11, Am9, Am11, A7, A9, A7/6,
A13 (careful), A7sus, A7/6sus, A11(9sus), A13sus (careful), A7+, A7¨5, A7#9, A7¨9, A7#9+, A7#9¨5,
A7¨9¨5, A13¨9 (careful), A13¨9#11, A7/6#11, A, A+, (A9+)

Progressions to practice:
iii±7 VI7 ii±7 V7 III7 VI7 II7 V7 III7 vi7 II7 V7
Common Non-diatonic vii7 and VII7 Chords: Em7, Em7/11, Em11, Em9 (careful),
(Em7/13, Em7/11/13, Em9/13, Em13, Em, Em/9); E7, E7/6, E9 and E13 (careful), E7sus, E7/6sus,
E11(9sus), (E13sus) (E13#11, 9¨5, #11, 7/6#11), E7+, E7¨5, E7#9, E7¨9, E7#9+, E7¨9+, E7#9¨5,
E7¨9¨5, (E9+), E13¨9 (careful), E13¨9#11, E, E+

Progressions to practice:
I vii7 III7 vi7 (or VI7) II7 V7 I I VII7 III7 VI7 (or vi7) II7 V7 I
I IV vii7 III7 vi7 II7 ii7 V7 I IV VII7 III7 VI7 II7 ii7 V7
vii7 III7 iii7 VI7 vi7 II7 ii7 V7

Common Non-diatonic IV7 and iv7 Chords: B¨7, B¨7/6, B¨9, B¨13, B¨7sus, B¨7/6sus,
B¨11(9sus), B¨13sus, B¨13#11, B¨9¨5, B¨+11, B¨7/6#11, B¨7#9, B¨7#9¨5(#11),
B¨m7, B¨m7/11, B¨m9, B¨m11, (B¨m7/13, B¨m7/11/13, B¨m9/13, B¨m13)
B¨m6, B¨m6/9, B¨m, B¨m/9 (B¨m6/11, B¨m6/9/11, B¨m6/∆7, B¨m6/9/∆7, B¨m∆7, B¨m∆9, B¨m∆9/11)

Progressions to practice:
I IV7 III7 VI7 II7 V7 I I IV7 III7 VI7 vi7 II7 ii7 V7
I IV7 vii7 III7 vi7 (or VI7) II7 ii7 V7 I IV7 iii7 VI7 (or vi7) ii7 V7 I
I IV7 iii7 VI7 vi7 II7 ii7 V7 I iv7 (or iv6) iii7 VI7 ii7 V7 I
I iv7 (or iv6) iii7 VI7 vi7 II7 ii7 V7 I IV7 I II7 ii7 V7 I
(I) iv6 I iv6 etc.
20th Century Modulation
Use Lots of Extensions, Modern Chords, etc.
Ted Greene – 1975-04-29

To Major Keys
1) Right to New I. Also just V(7) – I works good.
1) ii7 V7 of New Key: Precede new ii – V with:
1. Chord scale in old key (mixed scale concept)
2. Any chord in old key
3. ii (V’s) in groups of descending minor 3rds, ascending 3rds, descending minor 2nds,
descending 3rds, ascending 4ths, ascending 5ths, or any combinations of these.
4. Cycle progression on other modern progression in old key.
5. Ascending or descending bass progression in old key.
6. Chromatic wandering. Example: C6 Cº6 Bm6 B º6 A6 Aº6 A¨6 = Fm743, B¨7/6 E¨.
7. Contrary in old key
8. Compound modulation

Sym. i IV (Dorian) or I v (Aeolian major)

ii V or any other modulating device on this pages does not have to progress to new I only.
Instead of ii V (of new key) try:
| ii±7 V7 | iv7 ¨VII7 (bVI7) | iv6 V7 | iv(7) V(7) |
| iv dorian or Aeolian to new V7 or other diatonic progression. | iv7 ¨VII7 (ii7 V7) |
| ii7 iii7 (IV²7 V7) | IV V7 | IV²7 iii7 ii7 V7 | V11th family | V7 | iii6 V7 | iv7 or 6 V11th |
| iii7 ¨iii7 ii7 V7 | iii7 IV (IV/9) V | iii7 vi7 ii7 V7 | vi IV | vii±7 IV | vi iii IV (V) |
| ii vi IV (V) | vi7 ii7 V7 ala George Van Eps “Lullaby” | vi7 II7 ii7 V7 | II7 V7 |
| ¨VI9 V11th | I64 | #iv±7 iv6 or 7 iii7 or I etc. |

Where possible (or necessary) add “new key” passing tones or decoration to help loosen the bond of the
old key.

2) Many subdominant type of modulations – see all modulation on “Romantic” page, especially
¨VII13#11 family I, II13#11 I, I+¨5 I, I+/9 I, iv6/(9) vi6/(9) iv6/(9) etc.

Use 9ths, 9 no root, 13, 7, instead of ¨VII13#11, or II13#11 – prepare in any of the ways at the top of the
page, especially in symmetric intervals.

3) 6/9 pentatonic or /9 on I of new key – symmetric interval preparation.

4) Borrowed major progressions (and cycle of 5ths major progressions). Å lots of different kinds, such
as ¨VI ¨III , iv I | ¨III, ¨VII, i, v, I. Also ¨VI or ¨III or ¨VII or ¨II to all keys.

5) Whole-1/2 (1/2-whole scale) preparation or post-triad embellishment.

6) minor 6 key cycles; 9th key cycles
7) Various modal modulation or modulation cycles.
8) Wandering | impressionistic wandering and chord movements.
Ted Greene, circa 1973
Read this first: The word diatonic means “in the key” or “of the key.” Theoretically, any diatonic chord may
be combined with any other, but there are some basic things to learn first.

A tonality (key) becomes clearly established only when all of its tones (7) have been heard. In using chords,
at least 3 triads are needed. When 3 such triads follow each other but do not end on the tonic (I) triad, a
tension is created, a longing to return to the tonic, to rest there. When these three triads do end on the tonic,
the resulting chord sequence is called a cadence. The I, IV, V followed by the I again form the most usual
cadence. Notice that in playing the I, IV, and V triads that all seven tones of the scales are sounded.

To perform I, IV, V cadences in minor, the triads of the harmonic minor scale are used. This means that I is
minor, IV is minor, and V is major. Another important cadence is the I-V-IV-I. Examples:

Key of C:

Key of Am:

The most important notes in music are the outer voices, that is, the melody and bass. The ear hears these first

Often in place of the V chord, the V7 is used; sometimes an incomplete V7 is used, that is one that does not
have all the notes of the chord (1, 3, 5, b7). Usually in 4-part harmony, the root is doubled in an incomplete
V7 while the 5th is left out. Some examples are on the next page.
Cadences – Ted Greene, circa 1973 page 2

Some of the most common incomplete V7 chords with their resolutions are:

A good exercise at this point would be to go back to the cadence examples and substitute V7 or incomplete
V7 chords.

Another important cadence is one that ends on the V or V7. This is known as the 1/2 cadence.

A more rich cadence is one that adds a I chord in between the others in the following manner:

I - IV - I - V - I or I - V - I - IV - I. This new I chord usually has the 5th in the bass; (it is called a 64 chord).

Cadences – Ted Greene, circa 1973 page 3

Notice in these three examples how the last chords all have the root as the melody and the bass. These types
of cadences are called final cadences.

To construct long musical phrase from cadences, some more tools are needed. One is a knowledge of
substitute harmonies. One simple rule will yield many beautiful sounds: You may substitute harmonies that
are a 3rd apart for each other in many cases.

Key of C major has the following harmonies: C, Dm, Em, F, G, Am, Bo, C, Dm, Em, F, G, etc.
For a C chord you could substitute Em or Am.
For an F chord you could substitute Am or Dm.
For a G chord you could substitute Bo or Em.

Important: Even though the statements [above] are right and true, a simpler approach should be learned first:
I, iii, vi are tonic sounds.
ii, IV are subdominant.
V, viio are dominant.

You may now try building longer phrases by adding some substitute harmonies.

Examples: in place of C, F, G, C, you could play C Am Dm F Em G7 Am


One way to do this is as follows:

Cadences – Ted Greene, circa 1973 page 4

Another tool of harmony is to play a chord twice in a row in different inversions. Here is a phrase derived
from C, F, C, G, C using substitute harmonies and repeated chords.

In writing chord progressions such as these, it is wise to decide on either the melody or bass first and then get
the rest of the chord.

Also, when using substitute harmonies, the following suggestions might help:
1) The viio is a V7 chord with no root, so you may just think V7 instead of viio.
2) The iii in place of V may sound odd in some places, so use this more sparingly.
3) iii for I may also not fit particularly as the final chord in a cadence.

After working on more extended cadences you will find you can abandon the thought of substitute harmonies
completely and just make up chord progressions that flow together smoothly.

Example: C, Em, Am, Dm, G7, C.

This could be thought of as C, F, G, C or it could be thought of as itself, that is, C, Em, Am, Dm, G7, C.


Chords and Cadences

In sequences that follow the I-IV-vii-iii-vi-ii-V-I pattern, you may leave out any one of the harmonies, or
three, four, or five consecutive harmonies (two is less desirable, though also acceptable). You would be wise
to experiment with this principle, as many songs have these kind of chord changes.

Seventh Chords
For additional color in a chord, the seventh is often added. For those who do not know this: the I and IV
chords in the harmonized major chord scale are major 7ths; the ii, iii, and vi are minor 7ths; the V is a
dominant 7th (7), and the vii is a minor7b5. Likewise, the 7th chords in the Natural minor [harmonized scale]
are as follows: im7, iim7b5, bIII²7, ivm7, V7 or vm7, bVI²7, and bVII7. The Harmonic minor is also
important, but will not be necessary now.

Exercise: Practice smooth chord progressions, cadences, and sequences using 7th chords exclusively and in
combination with triads.
Cadences – Ted Greene, circa 1973 page 5

The word modulation means to change the key or tonal center. There are 3 basic ways: 1) by direct skip from
the first key to the second. This merely involves establishing a key (remember that is what a cadence does)
with a certain series of chords, and then establishing the second key with chords related to it.

Modulating by skip if very often done between two keys that are not diatonically related.
Example: in C the diatonically related keys are Dm, Em, F, G, and Am; so modulation by skip might be from
C to keys such as Eb, E, D, B, instead of diatonic ones.

The second kind of modulation is using pivot chords, that is, a chord (or chords) that is common to both keys
is used between the two keys. This is accomplished very easily between diatonically related keys by using the
chord of the new key itself as the pivot chord and following with a cadence in the new key.
Examples: I IV V I i iv V i
C F G7 C Am Dm E7 Am
pivot chord

[Ted’s original page indicated that this lesson is continued on another page, but we don’t have that page.]
Chord Connections, Part-Writing, Voice-Leading
Ted Greene – 1974-02-17

As related to earlier periods of harmony (such as the Baroque period) which, if grasped first, lay a
rock-solid foundation upon which to add the more modern devices in harmony. Some important thoughts
to keep in mind: 1) The outer voices are the most important.
Common Tones: one if roots are 4th or 5th apart

Hundreds of years ago music began to be written in 4 parts for voices which were named from the
bottom up: Bass, Tenor, Alto, and Soprano (instrumental music also adopted these now widely-accepted
terms). Four-part writing has been highly regarded ever since for its ability to achieve a balance between
a full, rich texture, and one that still allows some ease of manipulation of the individual voices. Therefore
we will be working in this type of context for awhile, that is, with four parts. (The terms voices and parts
are both used to indicate the separate notes in chords.) The art of writing and connecting chords is,
logically enough, called Part-Writing, and the art of moving the voices smoothly from chord to chord is
called Voice-Leading.

Movement is essential to music as we know it. Therefore, the movement from one chord to
another is of primary interest, and the ability to connect chords is very important to almost any guitarist.
The first chords you should learn to connect are the simplest ones know to mankind, the triads. We will
work in the 4-part triads with root in the bass first (remember, there are three “positions”of this chord, so
named for whichever note is in the soprano (R, 3, or 5th) ).

1) Do not repeat the same position twice in a row. (This creates too “parallel”of a feeling which is
not usually desirable with 4-part triads).

2) In many cases, keeping any notes that are “common”(contained in both chords) in both chords in
the same voice(s) and moving the other notes of the 1st chord to the closest possible notes in the 2nd
chord will give a good result. This is known as the minimum movement principle. (This too is a carry-
over from vocal music –they didn’t want all the singers to get in each others’way by leaping about.)

You will be able to observe these principles in action on the upcoming pages.


[Ted’s notes to himself:] Definitely give non-harmonic tones (P.T. [passing tones] and N.T. [neighbor
tones]) before 1st inversion triads, then later show how to connect successive 1st inversion using five
voicings that have 3-to-root compass.
[Regarding this last statement, here Ted is referring to successive first-inversion voicings with the third in
the bass (naturally) and the root in the highest voice (compass referring to the space from lowest to
highest voice). In a three-voice texture you can write successive first-inversion voicings without creating
parallel fifths or octaves; but in a texture that contains more than three voices, doubling of one or more
notes becomes necessary and the possibility of “forbidden parallels”arises, which must be handled
carefully. One or more of the inner voices would not be able to move in parallel motion but will have to
skip around instead. –Editor’s note.]

(Converging voices) Sometimes two voices sing the same pitch.

Chord Substitution – Part 1
Chord Construction (Formulas) & Substitution
Ted Greene – 1973, November 16

Your musical life will be much easier if you look for systems and ways to organize large
clumps of knowledge into more easily digestible forms. The idea of chord construction can be
simply broken down into 3 groups of sound, each of which has its own subdivisions; these groups
are based on three main chords: the MAJOR chord, the MINOR chord, and the DOMINANT
7th chord

As you know by now, chord construction can be, and is most often viewed in relation to
major scales. For instance, any major chord is built by combining the 1, 3, and 5 (Root, 3rd and
5th tones) of its own major scale — like a G major chord has the notes G, B, and D which are the
1, 3, and 5 of the G major scale. With this in mind, here is a listing of the most common chords in
the three categories:

Don’t let this list frighten you. With patience you will know all these before too long.

The major, minor, and dominant 7th chords will be referred to as the parent chords of the
three families of sound; all other chords are called extensions of these.

Not all notes need be played in most chords. Quite often, the 5th or root are left out;
sometimes both; also the 3rd is omitted occasionally. However, rather than trying to build these
chords on your own, you should save the time and energy by learning the chords that have already
been worked out for you on the Essential Chords Lists and analyzing these chords to spot the
above principles at work.

[Also see Ted’s page on Chord Construction Formulas in the Fundamentals section of this website.
That page is dated 1976-05-26 and is an updated/revised version of the below chart. ~ Editor’s note]
Chord Substitution (part 1) Ted Greene, 1973‐11‐16 page 2

Major (triad) — 1,3,5 Minor (triad) — 1,b3,5
Major 6th — 1,3,5,6 m7th — 1,b3,5,b7
Major 7th — 1,3,5,7 m7/11th — 1,b3,5,b7,11
Major /9th — 1,3,5,9 m9th — 1,b3,5,b7,9
Major 9th — 1,3,5,7,9 m11th — 1,b3,5,b7,9,11
Major 6/9th — 1,3,5,6,9 m/9th — 1,b3,5,9
Major 13th — 1,3,5,7,9,13
Major 6/9#11 — 1,3,5,6,9,#11 m7b5 — 1,b3,b5,b7
Major 9#11 — 1,3,5,7,9,#11 m7b5/11 — 1,b3,b5,b7,11
Major /#11 — 1,3,5,#11 m7+ — 1,b3,#5,b7
Suspended — 1,4,5 m6 — 1,b3,5,6
2 — 1,2,5 m6/9 — 1,b3,5,6,9
m6/7 — 1,b3,5,6,7
m6/9/7 — 1,b3,5,6,7,9
m6/11 — 1,b3,5,6,11
m6/9#11 — 1,b3,5,6,#11
Major 7+ — 1,3,#5,7 m7 — 1,b3,5,7
Major 9+ — 1,3,#5,7,9 m7/9 — 1,b3,5,7,9

DOMINANT [red circled = Group number]

Dominant 7 — 1,3,5,b7 Dominant 7b9 — (1),3, 5,b7,b9
Dominant 7/6 — 1,3,5,b7,13 Dominant 7#9 — 1,3, 5,b7,#9
Dominant 9 — 1,3,5,b7,9 Dominant 7b9+ — 1,3,#5,b7,b9
Dominant 13 — 1,3,5,b7,9,13 Dominant 7b9b5 — 1,3,b5,b7,b9
Dominant 7#9+ — 1,3,#5,b7,#9
Dominant 7sus — 1,4,5,b7 Dominant 7#9b5 — 1,3,b5,b7,#9
Dominant 7/6sus — 1,4,5,b7,13 Dominant 13b9 — 1,3,5,b7,b9,13
Dominant 11 — 1,5,b7,9,11 Dominant 13#9 — 1,3,5,b7,#9,13
Dominant 13sus — 1,5,b7,9,11,13 Dominant 13b9b5 — 1,3,b5,b7,b9,13
Dominant 9b5 — 1,3,b5,b7,9 Dominant 11b9 — 1,(3),5,b7,b9,11
Dominant #11th — 1,3,5,b7,9,#11 Dominant 11b9+ — 1,(3),#5,b7,b9,11
Dominant 13#11th — 1,3,5,b7,9,#11,13 Dominant 7/11 — 1,3,5,b7,11
Dominant 7b5 — 1,3,b5,b7 Dominant 7/6/11 — 1,3,5,b7,11,13
Dominant 9+ — 1,3,#5,b7,9
Dominant 7+ — 1,3,#5,b7 Diminished 7th — 1,b3,b5,bb7 (6)
+ — 1,3,#5

Chord Substitution
I. In theory, any extension in one of the three families above may replace its parent chord (like A∆7 or A∆13
for A) or (Am7 or Am6 for Am) etc. However, much experimentation and listening will be required to effectively
utilize this concept and some general guidelines should help.:
1) All the major extensions will pretty much fit as substitutes for any major triad that is not functioning as a
dominant or dominant of a dominant (VofV, etc.). Another way of saying this is that the extensions all lie pretty
well on I, IV (in major, not minor keys). bII, bIII, bVI, and bVII; also more rarely on bV.
Some other major substitutes: a) /9, 2, on II, V, VI. b) sus on all degrees. c) 6 or 6/9 rarely on other degrees.
Be careful with altered 5th or #11 type major chords; they are not as easily substituted as the others. (See dominant
7th substitutes, next page [part 2]. Continued on Part 2.
Chord Substitution – Part 2
Ted Greene – 1973, November 16

I. 2) The minor extensions fall into four main groups as you can see [in Part 1].
Group 1 – can all usually be used to replace any minor or minor 7 chord.
Group 2 – are used to replace minor 7’s and are most common on ii of a minor key (vii of major).
Group 3 –
a) Used in place of i’s, iv’s, and bvi’s – like if you were given C E7 Am F G7 C, you could use Am6
or Am6/9 for Am because Am is functioning as i temporarily (remember those principles of
b) For an altered effect, this group also can replace dominant 7th types whose roots are 1/2 step lower
(like Am6 for G#7)
c) Also, this group has the same notes as Group 2 chords whose roots are a m3rd lower – like Am6 =
These principles are only given to increase your awareness of inter-relationships. You will arrive at the
same notes through other means that will be given.
d) Minor 6 and minor 6/11 chords are used on ii; Group 3 also works rarely on biii, vi, and bvii.
Group 4 – Are used most often in moving line progressions such as Am, Am∆7, Am7, Am6, or are used
when the ∆7 is on top for the melody effect this creates. Your best bet to learn about these chords would
be to eventually explore the following tunes: Michelle, My Funny Valentine, More, Embraceable You,
Taste of Honey, Volaré, The Summer of ’42, Something, and Blue Skies.
I. 3) The dominant 7th extensions are a truly vast world of sound, and because of the frequency
of the V7 – I (i) progression in Western music, this compounds the issue even more. However, as
mentioned before, systems can speed up the learning process considerably:
1) Group 1 consisting of 7/6, 9, 13 (and the 7th itself) have a “pretty sound” (these definitions are just
one man’s opinion – make your own judgments also) on some degrees, and a “bluesy” or “modern”
sound on others. Through trial and error you will determine on which degrees of the scale you favor
these sounds. However, the top note (melody note) in these chords plays a big part in your ears’
acceptance or rejection of these sounds, so watch closely what is going on with the melody and listen.
2) Generally, wherever Group 1 works, Group 2 will also.
3) Group 3 is a unique group of sounds – all these sounds have a strong affinity to one of the two
whole-tone scales and also to a melodic minor scale. There are different types of sound within this
group: one type includes the + [augmented], 7+, 7b5, and 9+. This type can often be used to replace a
dominant 7th functioning as a V7 (or V of V, etc.).
The other type includes the 9b5, #11, 13#11, and 7b5 again. These all have notes which are within
a melodic minor scale whose root is a 5th higher (like A13#11, #11, 9b5, 7b5 are in the E melodic
minor scale). These chords work well on the following degrees:
On I – as ending chords
On bII as substitutes for V7
On II (in major keys usually) for II7
Occasionally for bIII (in major keys usually for VI7
On IV for IV7
On #IV (bV) for I7,
Rarely on V for V7
On bVI for II7 and bVI7
On bVII for II7 and bVII7
4) Group 4 are used to replace 7th’s functioning as V7’s.
5) Group 5 are used almost exclusively on V for V7 (also rarely on I, II for I7, II)
6) The diminished 7th will be discussed later. It is unique.
7) Group 1 chords (and occasionally Group 2) are commonly used to replace dominant 7th types
whose roots are a b5th higher (like C7 for Gb7, C13 for Gb7).
8) Try ∆7+, ∆9+ for 7+ for an unusual quality; also m7+ for 7#9+.
Chord Substitution – Part 3
Ted Greene – 1973, November 20

The “blues” effect can be obtained by replacing any I or IV triad with a dominant 7th type chord (that is,
one whose construction is based on the dominant 7th chord. Example: for C F C try the following:

The following listings are chords on I & IV that create the blues effect:
I: Group 1 and 2, 7#9
IV: Group 1 and 2, 7#9, 9b5, #11, 7b5, 13#11, 7#9b5
(Back-cycling, Temporary Modulation, Secondary Dominants Cycle of 4ths)
Any chord may be treated as a temporary tonic and preceded with its V(7).
Example: Given A F#m D A
Beats or counts: / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

You might play: A C#7 F#m A7 D E7 A

/ / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

Or: A C#7 F#m A7 D E7 A

/ / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

Because of the possibility of extension substitution, you could have something like the following:
A∆7 C#7#9 F#m7 A13 D/9 E7/6 A∆9 (see below) Examples:
Chord Substitution (part 3) Ted Greene, 1973‐11‐20 page 2

This process is called tonicization or back-cycling (because you are ‘backing up” in the cycle of
4ths to add the V7 chord. This will become clear soon). The above 7th type of chords are all functioning
as V7’s, right? Any 7th type chord of this nature is called a secondary dominant if it is on any degree
other than the V of the home key. Also these type of progressions are often thought of as temporary
modulations to new keys: like in the above, there were temporary modulations to the keys of F#m and D.

Another common device, which is actually an off-shoot of the above, is to precede any secondary
dominant with certain other chords in the new key. Namely, ii7, ii±7 (iim7b5), II7 (and less commonly
IV∆7 [major keys only], iv7, IV7; these and others will be discussed later).
So now you could possibly change the above progression to:

A G#±7 C#7 F#m Em7 A7 D B7 E7 A

I ii±7 V7 i ii7 V7 I II7 V7 I


Passing chord
(Will be explained later, but for now, notice the bass line it helps perpetuate.)
Chord Substitution – Part 4
Ted Greene – 1973, November 20

One of the most (if not the most) important patterns or progressions in the history of music is the
Cycle (circle) of 4ths (also called the Cycle (circle) of 5ths). Chunks or portions of this cycle dominate the
flow of most chord progressions as you will see or have seen.
Diatonic Cycle: If you were to start in the key of A, on the A major triad and move up a 4th, you
would arrive at the D major triad; a 4th up from there, in the key of A is a G#○ triad; a 4th up from there is
a C#m triad, and so on. Using Roman numerals to indicate this pattern you would get something that
looks like this:
I, IV, vii°, iii, vi, ii, V, I, etc. ÅThis is the (diatonic) cycle of 4ths
(Worksheet will be given on this)
In 7th chords:
I∆7, IV∆7, vii±7, iii7, vi7, ii7, V7, I∆7, etc.

Look at the last three chords in the cycle: ii, V, I or ii7, V7, I∆7. Does this ring a bell from the
previous page on tonicization? It should. But, you might be saying, what is the reason for a ii±7 or II7 if
the diatonic chords are ii7 or ii? Well, two things, firstly: there came a time when man tired of hearing
diatonic sounds only, and began experimenting with other sounds, changing a note here and there and the
vocabulary began to expand. And secondly: the minor key has its own diatonic chords and its own cycle
of 4ths, and some of these chords are mixed in with the major key chords. Since there are at least five
popular minor scales, the cycle given for minor keys will include the most common chords at present.

Diatonic Minor Key Cycle of 4ths:

i, iv, ¨VII, ¨III, ¨VI, ii°, V, i, etc.
In 7th chords:
i7, iv7, ¨VII7, ¨III7, ¨VI∆7 (or §vi±7), ii±7, V7, i7, etc.

This accounts for the ii±7 chord, the iv7 chord on the previous page if you accept the above
statement that minor key chords can be mixed in with major keys (more on this later) as well as played in
their own keys.
To apply all this info to the back-cycling principles: When time and your taste permit, you may
extend the back-cycling logic even further than ii V I to include more of the cycle.
Given: A F#m, you might play: A D∆7 G#±7 C#7 F#m or A D#±7 G#7 C#7 F#m
¨VI ii○ V i §vi○ II V i

Or given: A D, you might play: A Bm7 Em7 A7 D or A F#m7 Bm7 Em7 A7 D∆7
vi ii V I iii vi ii V I

If, as you’ve seen, ii can be changed to ii○ or II, you might be wondering if vi and iii and others
can be changed also. A general guideline: for cycle patterns: diatonic m7’s may be converted to ±7’s or
dominant 7ths according to personal taste. Playing many songs that contain cycle chord patterns will help
speed up your learning process in regards to this, which brings up another point. All this information
should serve at least a twofold purpose: 1) to teach you these principles so that you can enrich a given
chord progression; and 2) to make you aware of what other musicians are doing so that you can pick up
songs faster and generally understand what is going on – this understanding leads to creativity and beauty.
By the way, there is another way of thinking of the minor cycle – this is to think of the i as if it
were vi of its relative major. (See next part).
Chord Substitution – Part 5
Ted Greene – 1973, November 20

Compare the following:

1) Key of A Æ F#m7 Bm7 E7 A∆7 D∆7 G#±7 C#7 F#m7
vi ii V I IV vii○ III vi

2) Key of F#m Æ F#m7 Bm7 E7 A∆7 D∆7 G#±7 C#7 F#m7

I iv ¨VII ¨III ¨VI ii○ V i
What is different about these two progressions? Only the Roman numerals underneath, or in other
words, only the way you choose to think of the chords in relation to each other. When you encounter a
minor cycle of 4ths, you should ask yourself which of the two sets of Roman numerals would help you to
understand and get the most out of it; often the relative major viewpoint is easier.
Another thought: all previous and forthcoming substitution principles will not be appropriate
everywhere – you must experiment.
Another neglected point which may have already occurred to you – any 7th chord dealt with may
be replaced with its related triad, like C# for C#7, G#○ for G#±7, B for B7, etc.

Here are some common cycle patterns in the key of A Æ

Practice them “straight” first, that is as indicated, then substitute extended chords (or triads).
Transpose to all major and minor keys (they are given in A and F#m).
Know your names and numbers (Roman numerals) in all keys.
Use lots of different inversion on each one.
Remember, ±7 = m7 ¨5; different people use one or the other. You will encounter both.

Plan on at least a month on this set of exercises.

1) Bm7 E7 A 1) G#m7 C#7 F#m

2) B7 E7 A 2) G#7 C#7 F#m
3) Bm7¨5 E7 A 3) G#m7¨7 C#7 F#m
4) (A) F#m7 Bm7 E7 A 4) (F#m) D∆7 G#m7¨5 C#7 F#m
4a) D#m7¨5 G#7 C#7 F#m

5) F#m7 B7 Bm7 E7 A 5) D#m7¨5 G#7 G#±7 C#7 F#m

6) C#m7 F#m7 Bm7 E7 A 6) A∆7 D∆7 G#±7 C#7 F#m

7) C#m7 F#7 Bm7 E7 A 7) A7 D∆7 G#±7 C#7 F#m

8) C#m7¨5 F#7 Bm7¨5 E7 A 8) A7 D∆7 G#7 C#7 F#m
9) C#7 F#7 B7 E7 A 9) Am7 D7 G#m7 C#7 F#m
[Key of A] 10) G#m7 C#7 C#m7 F#7 F#m7 B7 Bm7 E7 A
[Key of F#m] 10) Em7 A7 Am7 D7 D#±7 G#7 G#±7 C#7 F#m
Chord Substitution (part 5) Ted Greene, 1973‐11‐20 page 2

In any chord progression, you may, if time and taste allow, “squeeze in” chords that create a
“circle of 4ths” effect. The most common progressions of this nature are all variations of the ii-V-I or ii-
V-i (in case you didn’t notice it, everything could be further reduced down to V-I(i) – that is, ii is the v of
V, vi is the v of ii, and so on, thus the cycle of 5ths name as well as the cycle of 4ths).

All of this information on back-cycling and the cycle must be committed to memory as soon as
possible, so plan on re-reading this stuff quite a few times, but as said before, learning songs that contain
these types of patterns will speed things up (and give you something to show for your work).

Another way of thinking of ii-V progressions is to simply remember that on any dominant 7th type
chord, you may count up a 5th and play a m7 type chord before the dominant 7th type. This m7 type
usually takes some of the time value away from the dominant 7th type.

Given E A
/ / / / / / / /

you could play Bm7/11 E7#9 A∆7

/ / / / / / / /

Actually, in the above patterns, number 10) in the key of A is this type of device being applied to
number 9). So in a way, numbers 5), 7), 8) and 10) are chains of ii-V’s.
Chord Substitution – Part 6
Ted Greene – 1973, November 20

Another common device in modern progressions is that of replacing chords with others whose roots are a
¨5th higher.
Example: given Bm7 E7 A, you could play: Bm9 B¨13 A∆9 (B¨13 is a flat 5th higher than E).
Actually this device was only originally done with dominant 7th types. Observe:

1) The essence of the 7th chord is its 3rd and b7th; (notice that either the root or 5th may be left out
when you are playing 3-note chords).
2) The essence of the 7th chords whose roots are a b5th apart is (coincidentally) the same.
3) Therefore in many cases, especially when a 7th type chord is functioning as a V7, you may replace
one with the other as show above.

The application of this to some common progressions could be as follows:

Given: Bm7 E7 A Or
substitute possibility: Key of C: given Dm7 G7 C

Given: B7 E7 A substitute:
//// //// ////

Chord Substitution (part 6) Ted Greene, 1973‐11‐20 page 2


The most common chords to be used on the ¨5th device (for dominant 7ths) are 7th’s, 9th’s, 7/6’s, 13th’s,
7b5, 7+, 9¨5, 9+, #11, 13#11, 7b9, 7#9, + [augmented], 7#9¨5.

Notice the relationship between altered dominant 7ths (those with #5, ¨5, ¨9, #9, #11) on any degree and
extensions whose roots are a ¨5th higher. Examples:

This points up the closeness of some

altered chords in the ¨5 relationship.

Sometimes m7 and major types are involved in this ¨5th principle either as the chord that is being
substituted for, or the chord that is doing the substituting.
For Bm7 E7 A:

For F#m7 B7 Bm7 E7 A:

Notice that the Cm7 F7 is a ii-V type pattern being used for F#m7 B7, which is also a ii-V type pattern.
This type of device can multiply the possibilities of cycle patterns (see next part).

[Ted’s note to himself for teaching this material:] Talk about uplifting effect of bIII7 for VI7
Chord Substitution – Part 7
Ted Greene – 1973, November 20

Longer Back-Cycling
Here is a listing of some possible variations of a III7 – VI7 – II7 – V7 pattern, using ¨5ths and then back-
cycling from there. If you can absorb this logic, you should be able to grasp any other ¨5th application
that you might encounter (or devise yourself).


¨VII7 ¨III7 ¨VI7 ¨II7
¨VII7 VI7 ¨VI7 V7
III7 ¨III7 ¨VI∆7 ii7 V7
viim7 III7 iii7 VI7 vi7 II7 ii7 V7
iv7 ¨VII7 ¨vii7 ¨III7 ¨iii7 ¨VI7 ¨vi7 ¨II7
viim7 III7 ¨vii7 ¨III7 vi7 II7 ¨vi7 ¨II7
iv7 ¨VII7 iii7 VI7 ¨iii7 ¨VI7 ii7 V7

ii – V patterns

Any chord in column 1 may move to any chord in column 2, and so on.
Like vii – ¨VII7 – ¨vii – VI7 – ¨iii – II7 – ii – ¨II7

You could mix up the chords in many other ways also though these are a lot of the most common ways.
Practice the above in all keys “straight,” and then with extended chords (which should sound much better
on these patterns than just playing them straight).

If you were given a time into which the III – VI – II – V pattern was already written, any of these
variations would be possible and many of them could sound worthwhile. However, if you were to try and
squeeze one of these longer patterns in to replace just V7 or ii-V7, you might find it getting in the way.
Only experience will help you in learning where things fit – you’ve got to experiment and also see what
more experienced musicians are doing. Be patient – you can’t absorb this in all keys overnight.
Consistent, intelligent practicing is the key – day by day, absorbing more and more, strengthening your
powers of concentration, discipline. It ain’t easy, but it’s worth it (if you have come this far already, you
can handle it).
Chord Substitution (part 7) Ted Greene, 1973‐11‐20 page 2

Here are some other cycle patterns that are very useful; it would be good to familiarize yourself with them.
Practice them as you did the others, that is, first “straight,” then with substitutions, in all keys.

1) I∆7 IV∆7 vii±7 III7 vi7 II7 ii7 V7 :||

2) I7 IV7 III7 VI7 II7 ¨VI7 ii7 V7 :||
3) I∆7 iv7 ¨VII7 ¨III∆7 ¨VI∆7 ¨II∆7 ii7 V7 :|| or vi - II7, or go into key of V
4) I∆7 (iv7) ¨vii7 ¨III7 ¨VI∆7 ¨II∆7 ii7 V7 :|| (for last 4 chords of progression)
5) I7 IV7 ¨VII7 ¨III7 ¨VI7 ¨II∆7 ii7 V7 :||
6) I∆7 IV∆7 vii±7 III7 vi7 II7 v7 I7 to IV
7) I∆7 iv7 iii7 VI7 ¨iii7 ¨VI7 ii7 V7 :||
8) #iv 7 VII7 iii±7 VI7 ii±7 V7 I :||
9) I∆7 I7 IV∆7 iv7 iii7 VI7 ii7 V7 :||
∆ ±
10) I 7 IV∆7 #iv 7 VII7 iii7 VI7 ii7 V7 :||
11) I∆7 #iv±7 (or IV7) VII7 iii7 VI7 ii7 V7 ¨II∆7 :||

Examples in D of 1st pattern above.

* see note

Same progression with motion added via passing tones and delays. Hit white [hollow] notes after black
notes are ringing:

A variation using VII7 and VI7 with a 2 note melody pattern.

Chord Substitution (part 7) Ted Greene, 1973‐11‐20 page 3

A variation using IV7 for IV∆7 with an ascending melody:

* Notice that in a m7¨5 chord, if the 5th is omitted you are left with a m7 chord.

hit simultaneously
with other white [hollow] notes
Chord Substitution – Part 8
Ted Greene – 1973, November 22

To modulate means to change keys. You will recall that tonicization is a form of temporary
modulation. You might be wondering what would constitute a more permanent modulation. It is simply
a matter of lingering in a new key by playing chords in its own key after the tonicization process.

Example: in place of A F#m D A, you might find in a song the following:

A G#±7 C#7 F#m Bm G#7 C#7 F#m F#7 Bm7 Em7 A7 D E7 A

I ii○ V i iv II V i III vi ii V I V I

Can you see that this is just an elaboration of A F#m D A? Because of the length of time spent in the
F#m region, the ear would interpret this as a modulation to this key. Some cases are borderline.

Suppose that the above were as follows: A F#m G#7 C#7 F#m A7 D E7 A.
Notice that the tonicization process has been eliminated before the 1st F#m, but the II V (G#7 C#7)
precedes tonicization (you really needn’t call it anything if you don’t like fancy words as long as you
understand it – these terms are necessary only for certain types of communication such as this paper).
Whether or not this is a permanent modulation is up to you and your ears.

Practice this internal tonicization process on lots of your old exercises using various chords in the
new keys to linger there.

Scalular Embellishment
Any diatonic chord may be preceded with ascending or descending scalular passages in the key.
Example: given A D A
/ / / / / / / / / / / /
you could substitute:
A∆7 Bm7 C#m7 D∆7 A∆7 or A∆7 Bm7 C#m7 D∆7 C#m7 Bm7 A∆7
// / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /
A∆7 G#±7 F#m7 E7 D∆7 C#m7 Bm7 E7 A∆7
/ / / / / / / / / / / /
This chord is added to make a ii V I progression
in this case.

Here is another example: given Bm7 E7 A you might play: D∆7 C#m7 Bm7 E7 A∆7
// // / / / / / /
Notice that the Bm7 is delayed in this substitution; this type of thing is common.

Here is another variation of Bm7 E7 A Æ G#±7 A∆7 Bm7 E7 A∆7.

/ / / / /

Experiment with this type of principle.

Chord Substitution (part 8) Ted Greene, 1973‐11‐22 page 2

Chromatic (non-diatonic) chords can also be involved in the scale-like passages:

C#m7 Cm7 Bm7 E7 A∆7 or if time permitted: D#±7 Dm7 C#m7 Cm7 Bm7 B¨∆7 A∆7

Most chromatic chords in scale-type passages can be explained from substitutions on the cycle
patterns or ¨5 substitutions.
An off-shoot of scale-type embellishment is parallel embellishment, that is, preceding any chord
with descending (more rarely, ascending) passages using similar types of chords.

Example: given B7 E7 A Æ you could play B7/6 A7/6 G7/6 F7/6 E7/6 A∆7
or B7 B¨7/6 A7 A¨7/6 G7 G¨7/6 F7 E7/6 A∆7

Given: A G#m7 C#7 F#m7 Æ you could play A∆7 Bm7 Am9 G#m7/11 C#7 F#m7
/ / / / / / / / / /

Given: Bm7 (E A):

Notice that there are different types, one with strict chromatic roots for quite a while.
Chord Substitution – Parts 9 and 10
Ted Greene – 1973, November 22 & 26

Because of common tones and similarities of function, certain substitutions have come about:

1) iii7 for I. Example: given ii V I vi ii V I Æ

Key of D:

Sometimes I is played for iii (the reverse of above).

2) vi for I: given ii V I Æ

Key of A:

3) ii7 for IV∆7 or IV∆7 for ii7

V7 for vii±7 or vice-versa
ii(7) for vii±7
also v(7) for iii±7 or vice-versa Notice that all the substitutions listed
iv(7) for ii±7 or vice-versa involve chords whose roots are a 3rd apart.
#iv±7 for vi or II7
¨VI for iv and vice-versa.

As with other substitution principles, you needn’t totally replace one idea with another, but instead you
could combine a little of the original with a little of the variation.

You may also back-cycle or embellish the substitute chord.

Example: given Bm7 E7 A
ii V I
You might play: D∆7 E9 A∆7 which, with the back-cycling could become Em7 A7/6 D∆7 E9 A∆7
IV V I ii V I
Or compounding it Æ G∆7 A7/6 D∆7 E9 A∆7.
Chord Substitution (parts 9 and 10) Ted Greene, 1973‐11‐22 & 26 page 2

More variations of Bm7 E7 A Æ D∆7 G#±7 C#m7 F#7 Bm7 E7b9 A∆7

With scalular embellishment: Bm7 C#m7 D∆7 D#±7 E13sus (A∆7)

for B9/D# bass Å this type of logic

will be discussed later.

Given: ii V I vi ii V I substitute: IV vii○ iii vi ii V I

More Embellishments:

I) When a I chord is to be held for an extended duration, just about anything can be used for it, but
some of the most common are:
1) Any of the variations given previously for III – VI – II – V- (I)
2) Any other cycle pattern
3) Simple progressions like I – IV(or iv) – I; I – ¨VII7 – I; I – V - I
4) I – ii – iii – ii – I and other scalular progressions
5) Cycle of 5ths where each chord is a 5th higher than the preceding chord:
given A you might use D – A, or G – D – A, or C – G – D – A, or F – C – G – D – A.
6) Other concepts coming up next:

II) You may precede many chords with a diminished 7th chord build on the same root:
Given A you could play A○7 A
//// // //

Notice that a ○7 chord is also a 7b9 chord (no root).

Like A○7 = B7¨9, D7¨9, F7¨9, G#7¨9.
Because of this, the above given embellishment
principle could be found in cycle patterns, due to a device known as elision (“leaving out something”).

To explain, suppose you were given the progression B7 E7 A and instead you played B7¨9 A.
This is an elision (and a common one at that).
You can expect to see various forms of II7 or ¨VI7 going right to I
(like B9 A, B7 A, F7 A, F9 A ) in popular music.
II7 I II7 I ¨VI7 I ¨VI7 I
Chord Substitution (parts 9 and 10) Ted Greene, 1973‐11‐22 & 26 page 3

Certain progression involving bass lines have grown out of this concept (or are at least related to it) and
are used to replace a prolonged duration of various chords.
Example: given A You could play A∆7 Bm7 B7¨9 (A○7) A(3rd in bass)
//// //// // // // //

Likewise, if given B7 you might play B7 C#m7 B○7 B/D#

//// //// // // // //

Analyze the song “Birth of the Blues” with its ascending bass line.
Continued [in Part 10]

Chord Substitution – Part 10

The main thing in progression of this type is the bass line; like you could also play A E7(B bass) A○7 A
instead of A Bm7 A○7 A because the bass line is the same and the harmony above it, whether it be E7 or
Bm, is still related to the key. In analyzing songs you will find many progressions built from the bass up.

Like suppose you were given

A C#7 F#m using bass lines to build progressions from, you might play:
//// //// ////
Note use of melodic minor (F#m) pedal point

Chord Substitution (parts 9 and 10) Ted Greene, 1973‐11‐22 & 26 page 4


Try making up bass-line oriented progressions such as these.

III) Other forms of embellishment that possibly you have seen on your own already are:
1) Any descending scale pattern may be converted into a cycle: like if you were given
D∆7 C#m7 Bm7 A∆7 this could become D∆7 G#±7 C#m7 F#m7 Bm7 E7 A∆7.

2) In any ascending scale pattern, chords may be followed by chords whose roots are a 4th higher –
this will give the effect sometimes of ascending ii-V patterns. Example:
Given Bm7 C#m7 D∆7 you might play: Bm7 E7 C#m7 F#(m)7 D#∆7
//// //// //// // // // // ////

“For Once in My Life”, “Eleanor Rigby”, “Michelle”, “Summer of ‘42”,

“What Are You Doing [the Rest of Your Life?]”, “[My Funny] Valentine”

On any major or minor chord of prolonged duration, you might try the “moving voice” type of
progressions: given A Bm7 E7 you might play:
//// //// //// ////

Given A D Æ
//// ////

Given A Æ
Chord Substitution (parts 9 and 10) Ted Greene, 1973‐11‐22 & 26 page 5

Given F#m Æ
//// ////

Notice the bass line

Given F#m F#m…….. Æ

//// ////
Common Chord Progressions and Harmonic Principles
Ted Greene – 1973-10-22
( ) = optional

1) General Guideline: Any diatonic chord can progress to any other.

Diatonic major scale
Triads: I ii iii IV V vi viiº
7ths: I²7 ii7 iii7 IV²7 V7 vi7 vii±7

Diatonic minor triads (including Aeolian, Dorian, Phyrgian, Harmonic and Melodic minor
Triads: i, ¨II, ii, (II), iiº, III, III+, iv, IV, V, v, vº, VI, (¨vi), §viº (¨)VII, bvii, §viiº.
7ths: i7, i²7, ¨II²7, ii±7, ii7, III²7, (III²7+), III7, iv7, IV7, V7, v7, v±7,
VI²7, §vi±7, (¨)VII7, (¨)VII²7, ¨vii7, §viiº7.

Here are some common progressions in a major key (key of A):

1) A D A 2) A E A 3) A D E A

vi often replaces I:
4) A D A/E E A 5) A E (A) D A 6) F#m D E A

vi often follows I: ii often replaces IV:

7) A D A E F#m 8) A F#m D E A 9) A F#m Bm E A
I IV I V vi I vi IV V I I vi ii V I

iii can replace I and

often can precede vi: iii often precedes IV:
10) C#m F#m Bm E A 11) A C#m D (E) A
iii vi ii V I I iii IV (V) I

There are some strong progressions of

IV and ii are sometimes chords whose roots are moving up a 5th:
used together:
12) (A) D Bm E A or Bm D E A 13) F#m C#m D A
(I) IV ii V I ii IV V I vi iii IV I

Also: The circle (cycle) of 4ths (5ths)

is often used:
14) Bm F#m D A 15) A D G#º C#m F#m Bm E A
ii vi IV I I IV vii º iii vi ii V I
Common Chord Progressions and Harmonic Principles — Ted Greene, 1973-10-22 page 2

Cycle of 4ths starting from IV: 4ths starting from ii:

16) D G# º C#m F#m Bm E A 17) Bm E A D G#º C# F#m
IV vii º iii vi ii V I ii V I IV vii º III vi
Will be discussed later

Cycle of 4ths up stepwise:

18) Bm E C#m F#m D E A

ii V iii vi IV V I
V is often used for vii and vice versa.


Same ideas in Am:

1) Am Dm (D) Am 2) Am E(m) Am 3) Am Dm E Am

4) Am Dm Am/E E Am 5) Am E (Am) Dm Am 6) F Dm E Am

7) Am Dm Am E(m) F 8) Am F Dm E Am

9) Am F Bº or Bm E Am 10) C F B º E Am
iiº or ii III

11) Am C Dm E Am 12) (Am) Dm Bm E Am or Bm Dm E Am

III iv ii ii iv

13) F C, Dm Am 14) Bm F, Dm Am

15) Am Dm G C F Bº E Am 16) Dm G C F Bº E Am

17) Bm E Am Dm G C F 16) Bm E, C F, Dm G or E Am


Triads may be replaced by their diatonically related 7ths:

1) A D E A could become: A²7 D²7 E7 A²7
2) Am Dm E Am could become: Am7 Dm7 E7 Am7

Try all of the above progressions using 7ths in place of any or all of the triads.
Common Chord Progressions and Harmonic Principles — Ted Greene, 1973-10-22 page 3

Mode Mixing in Major Keys:

The chords of any of the modes may be used in place of diatonic triads with the same letter names or in
conjunction with these diatonic chords. This will be clarified shortly. First of all, here is a listing of the
triads of the modes of A:

Ionian: (A Bm C#m D E F#m G#º ) is the same as the major scale.

Dorian: Am Bm C D Em F#º G
Phyrgian: Am B¨ C Dm E º F Gm
Lydian: A B C#m D#º E F#m G#m
Mixolydian: A Bm C#º D Em F#m G
Aeolian: Am Bº C Dm Em F G
Locrian: is not used very much, if at all.

A, Am, B¨, Bm, B, Bº C, C#m, C# º, D, Dm, D# º, E, Em, Eº, F, F#m, F#º, G, Gm, G#º

Some common uses:

1) For A Bm D A Æ A B D A or Æ A B D Dm A

2) A D A E F used for F#m

3) A G D A 4) A C#m C D A

5) A D C E A 6) F G C D A

7) A D F G A

Mixture triads may be replaced by their related 7ths just as diatonic triads may:

8) A²7 B7 D²7 A²7, A B7 Dm7 A

9) A F²7 G7 A
Complete Formulas for Discovering All Voicings of All Chords
Due to realization that my search was going too slowly
Ted Greene – 1993-08-20, Friday, at Aunt Re’s

2000-08-14: Upon re[thinking Or re-examining] in some depth. A delightful method overall fun!! And
not as nasty to do as the “out-of-the-gate total onslaught method” would be.

Soprano as fixed item Consonance Dominant Types. [1995-07-15: In this case, the b7 will be necessary]
First: 4-noters… with logic as the generator and benefactor….

Root on Top [1995-07-25: Top two voices as constants: R, b7 _ _ ]

b7 b7 b7 b7
6 6 6 6
5 4 3 2 [Descending R b7 6 5 4 3 2 R bottom voice]


b7 b7 b7 b7
5 5 5 5
4 3 2 R b7 6 5 4 32R


b7 b7 b7 b7 b7 b7
4 4 4 4 4 4
3 2 R b7 6 5 4 3 2 R


b7 b7 b7 b7 b7 b7
3 3 3 3 3 3
2 R b7 6 5 4 3 2 R


b7 b7 b7
2 2 2
R b7 6 5 4 3 2 R
Complete Formulas for Discovering All Voicings of All Chords - Ted Greene, 1993-08-20 page 2


b7 b7 b7 b7
R 5 4 3
3 4 3 2 R 3 2 R 2 R


6 6 6 6
5 4 3 2 R
b7 b7 b7 b7


6 6
b7 b7
5 4 3 2 R


6 6 6
5 4 3 2
b7 b7 b7


5 5 5 5 5 5 5
4 3 2
b7 b7 b7 b7 b7 6 4 3 2
6 4 3 2 b7 b7


5 I 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 = 11 4
b7 wish b7 R b7 b7 b7 3 2 = 9 R
3 4 13 5 4 2 R b7 b7 b7 b7
the “co-minor”
Complete Normal Vocabulary for 20th Century (Max Steiner) Sounds
Ted Greene 1974-11-26

1) Major: a) Triad and extensions
b) Triad and extensions with #4th (Lydian)
c) Suspensions and 2’s
d) #5th on triads and extensions
2) Minor: a) Triad and minor 6 family extensions
b) Minor 7 family and extensions
c) Half-diminished 7 and extensions
d) Minor-major 7 and extensions
e) Diminished triad, diminished 7 and extensions
3) Dominant 7th: a) Dominant 7 and extensions
b) Suspended 7th and extensions
c) Overtone dominants
d) Whole-tone dominants and augmented
e) Altered dominants and #5 majors and minor 7+
f) Pedal dominants
4) Diminished: a) Triad
b) Diminished 7th and extensions (include appoggiatura and pedal diminished
5) Augmented: a) Triad and other #5 extensions
b) ¨5 extensions


Major Key
1) Major Triads: All degrees
Major and extensions with #4 on I, ¨II, (II), ¨III, IV, (V), ¨VI, (VI), ¨VII
Suspended: I, II, III, IV, V, ¨VI, VI, ¨VII, VII
2’s on all degrees.
Major extensions on: I, ¨II, II/9, ¨III, IV, V/9, ¨VI, VI/9, ¨VII

2) Minor Triads: All degrees except #iv

Minor 6’s on i, ¨ii, ii, ¨iii, iv, v, ¨vi, vi, ¨vii
(major 7’s, 9’s or 11’s are possible also)
Minor 7’s and extensions on all degrees
Minor 7¨5’s and extensions on all degrees except ¨iii, ¨vi

3) Dominant 7ths on all degrees

9th’s on all but VII
7/6, 13th on all but III, (VI), VII
Suspended dominant types on all degrees
Overtone dominants on all degrees except III, VI, VII
7¨9’s on all degrees
7#9 on all degrees except ¨III (unless 5th is on top), ¨VII, VII (to I)
Complete Normal Vocabulary for 20th Century Sounds Ted Greene, 1974-11-26 — page 2

7¨5’s on all degrees

7+ on I, II, ¨III, III, V, ¨VI, VI, VII
7¨9+ on I, II, III, V, VI, VII
7¨9¨5 on I, II, III, V, VI, VII
7#9+ on I, II, III, V, (¨VI), VI, VII
7#9¨5 on I, ¨II, II, (¨III), III, IV, ¨V, V, (¨VI), VI, (¨VII), VII
9+ on I, II, (III), V, ¨VI, VI
13¨9 (9th on top) on: I, II, (¨III), III, V, (¨VI, IV, ¨VII), VI, VII
13#9 where lines dictate
(13th on top on): I, V
13¨9¨5 on I, V
11¨9(+) on I, V
Major 7+, minor 7+ in place of 7+ or 7#9+
Pedal dominants on I, V

4) Diminished and diminished 7th and extensions on all degrees

5) Augmented and other #5 whole-tone dominants on I, (III, ¨VI), and V (¨III, VII); others with
proper preparation.

Minor Key
1) Minor triads on i, (¨ii), ii, (¨iii), (iii), iv, v, ¨vi, (vi), (¨vii).
Minor 6 family (major 7’s, 9’s, and 11’s are possible also) on: i, (¨ii), ii, ¨iii, (iii), iv, #iv – ¨v,
¨vi, vi, (¨vii)
Minor 7’s and extensions on all degrees
Minor 7¨5’s and extensions on (i), (¨ii), ii, (¨iii), iv, (#iv – ¨v), v, §vi, ¨vii, (vii)

2) Major triads on I, ¨II, II, ¨III, IV, (¨V), V, ¨VI, ¨VII, VII
Major extensions on ¨II, ¨III, IV/9, ¨VI, ¨VII, VII
Major triads and extensions with #4 on I, ¨II, ¨III, (IV), (¨V), (V), ¨VI, (¨VII), VII
Suspended on I, (¨II), II, ¨III, IV, V, (¨VI), ¨VII, (VII)

3) Dominant 7th’s on all degrees except §vi

9ths on ¨II, ¨III, IV, #IV, V, ¨VI, ¨VII,
7/6th, 13th on ¨II, (II), ¨III, III (¨II of ¨III), IV, #IV, ¨VI, §VI (¨II of ¨VI), ¨VII, VII
Suspended dominants on all but vi
Overtone dominants on ¨II, (II), III (¨II of ¨III), IV, #IV, (V), ¨VI, VI (¨II of ¨VI), (¨VII), VII
Complete Normal Vocabulary for 20th Century Sounds Ted Greene, 1974-11-26 — page 3

7¨9’s on all degrees

7#9 on I, II, ¨III (III is ¨II of ¨III), IV, V, (¨VI, VI), ¨VII
7¨5 on all degrees
7+ on I, II, ¨III (III), (#IV), V, (¨VI), ¨VII, VII
7¨9+ on I, II, (¨III), IV, (#IV), V, ¨VII
7¨9¨5 on I, II, ¨III, IV, V, (VI, ¨II), ¨VII
7#9+ on I, II, (¨III), IV, V, ¨VII, §vi, VII
7#9¨5 on I, (¨II), II, ¨III, (IV), #IV, V, ¨VI, §vi, ¨VII, VII
9+ on I, ¨III, (III), IV, V, ¨VII, (VII)
13¨9 on I (¨9 on top), II, ¨III, IV, (¨V), V, §VI, ¨VII, (VII)
13th on top: ¨III, IV, ¨VII, (VII)
13#9 where lines dictate.
11¨9(+) on I, II, V, ¨VII
[major?]7+ and m7+ in place of 7+ or 7#9+
Pedal tones on I, ¨III, IV, V (¨VI), ¨VII, (VII)
13¨9¨5 – see 7#9

4) Diminished, diminished 7, and extensions on all degrees.

5) Augmented and other #5 whole-tone chords on V (¨III, VII) – others with preparation
II (¨VII, #IV)
Diminished 7th Chords — Common Progressions and Principles
Ted Greene
The following principles concerning diminished 7th chords are pretty complicated and take quite awhile to
absorb, unfortunately. While it is quite possible that part of the fault lies with the choice of words (and I apologize if
this is so), much must be said if the chords are to be thoroughly understood and used with knowledge, and not just
with a hope and a prayer.
A good idea might be to wait until you play a song that contains a diminished 7th chord before tackling the
subject so you will have some place to relate it to. This way you will gradually absorb the material instead of trying
to do a crash course which would probably slip away pretty quickly without application.
Diminished 7th Chords
Certain progressions using O7 chords appear very often, especially in major keys, so naturally you want to be
familiar with them. The O7 chord is an amazing chord in that any note in the chord can be called the root.
Example: a C O7 chord contains the notes C, Eb, Gb, Bbb (A); an Eb O7 contains the notes Eb, Gb, Bbb (A), Dbb (C);
an F# O7 (Gb O7) contains F# (Gb), A, C, Eb; and an A O7 contains A, C, Eb, Gb.
All 4 chords contain the same notes. They are called SYNONYMS (or Homonyms). This makes for
problems when trying to name the chord; many people prefer to name the chord according to the bass note. Others
prefer to group them into 3 categories, each containing 4 members (more on this soon). And there are many cases
where a O7 chord can be renamed as a 7b9 chord (more on this also will follow).
Here is a chart of the O7 chords, grouped according to which ones are the same:

iO7 Family: iO7 = biiiO7 = #ivO7 = viO7

CO7 EbO7 F#O7 AO7

ivO7 Family: ivO7 = #vO7 = viiO7 = iiO7

FO7 G#O7 BO7 DO7

vO7 Family: vO7 = bviiO7 = #iO7 = iiiO7

GO7 BbO7 C#O7 EO7

This chart will be important for certain types of MODULATION (key changing) techniques later, but for now
it is just here for reference (you don’t have to memorize it now).

Here are some common progression using O7 chords, with the O7 chords named according to the bass note; try them
Em7 or
1) C/E EbO7/Eb Dm7/D G9/G 2) C7/C C#O7/C# Dm7/D G7/G 3) F/F F#O7/F# C/G
bass note
4) C/C C#O7/C# Dm7/D EbO7/Eb C/E Fm6/F F#O7/F# C7/G
5) G/B BbO7/Bb F/A AbO7/Ab Em/G GO7/G D/F# FO7/F C/E EbO7/Eb Dm7/D G7/G Cadd9/C

Notice that 1st (and occasionally a 2nd) Inversions of Triads pop up all over the place in these progressions.
Even though you were advised that triads are not used too much in modern harmony tunes, as you get more used to
creating rich chordal effects, you will be able to hear how to tastefully use triads without making everything sound
too plain or too much like Renaissance and Baroque music (nothing wrong with these types of music—they are
great—but we are dealing with 20th Century harmony on these sheets).
Diminished 7th Chords - Common Progressions and Principles — Ted Greene, 1974-12-29 page 2

Notice in progression (5) above that naming the O7 chords from the bass makes it hard to see the logic of the
progression. You might say, “The logic is clear – it is based on a descending bass”; but what about the Em to GO7?
No, the logic is based on following each triad with a O7 chord of the same name:
G/B GO7/Bb F/A FO7/Ab Em/G EO7/G D/F# DO7/F C/E CO7/Eb Dm7/D G7/G Cadd9/C
So always be on the lookout, when you see O7 chords, for easier ways to name them. The last determining
factor in naming them has to do with more SYNONYMS. Any O7 chord contains the same notes as 4 different
incomplete (no root) 7b9’s.

Here is a reference chart of the affinities between O7 and 7b9 chords:

All iO7 family O7 chords = II7b9, IV7b9, bVI7b9, VII7b9 The circled chords are the
most commonly used ones.
All ivO7 family O7 chords = V7b9, bVII7b9, bII7b9, III7b9

All vO7 family O7 chords = VI7b9, I7b9, bIII7b9, #IV7b9 Å (also called bV7b9)

Many people might prefer to rename certain O7 chords as 7b9’s; the advantage is that this method opens up
other doors:
Notice that in progression (2) on the previous page, you could rename the C#O7 as A7b9 (which is logical
because it is a secondary V7). Now here is the advantage: If you can play A7b9, you might try A7+ or A7b9+ or
A7#9+ (or even Eb9 or 13 by way of the cross-cycle principle). Calling the chord C#O7 doesn’t open all these doors.

Here is a suggested list of commonly done conversions (major key) of O7’s to 7b9’s:

1) When any vO7 family, O7 chord progresses to a ii(7), ii±7, or II7, convert the O7 to VI7b9.
2) When any ivO7 family O7 chord progresses to a vi or VI7, convert the O7 to III7b9
3) When any ivO7 family O7 chord progresses to a I or iii, you might convert it to V7b9
4) When any iO7 family O7 chord progresses to a ii, V or v, you might convert it to II7b9 or bVI7b9
5) When any iO7 family O7 chord progresses to a iii or III, you might convert it to VII7b9
6) When any iO7 family O7 chord progresses to anything, you might substitute II7, bVI7, VII7 or
IV7 for the O7 chord.
7) When any O7 progresses to a 7th chord or triad of the same letter name, don’t convert; if it is a disguised
version of this, convert to same letter name.
Examples: C/C GO7/C# G7/D is fine, but C/C C#O7/C# G7/D should be converted to C G O7 G7.
Also in this type of case, you may try and substitute any of the four 7th chord families that are related by
virtue of SYNONYMS.
Example: instead of C/C GO7/C# G7/D you might try C/C Eb7/Db G/D because GO7 is also A7b9,
C7b9, Eb7b9, and F#7b9.

By the way, if you ever do encounter a O7 chord in a minor key tune, you will be able to figure out what to do
with it if you understand O7’s in major keys.
One last word of caution: most sheet music incorrectly lists O7 chords as O triads. Example: if you see
something like C GO G7 or C EbO Dm7, many times they actually mean C GO7 G7, C EbO7 Dm7. If in doubt,
either consult the piano staffs on the music or just play a O7 chord instead of a triad.
Often, O7 chords are played with non-chordal tones “frozen” on top of the chord; you will naturally end up
with playing these chords when working out a song in chord-melody style (see On a Clear Day, Pennies from
Heaven, How About You, Manhattan, and others).

Suggested tunes for getting into O7 chords:

Someone to Watch Over Me, People, Night and Day, Body and Soul, On a Clear Day, You Go to My Head, Birth of
the Blues, San Francisco, Ol’ Man River, Pennies from Heaven, How About You, Manhattan, This Nearly Was Mine.
Embellishment and Substitution
Ted Greene
1) Decide on family, then type (sub-family) within family
Major: triad, 6, maj7, maj9, maj13, /9, 6/9, #11 types, +types, sus+2 types (include 9th or 4th in bass)
Minor: triad, m7 types, ±7 and m7+, m6 types, minor(maj7) types.
Dominant: Extensions, sus, altered (include +), overtone,
pedal (Ro7, 11b9, 7/11) | m7+, maj7+, 13#9, /9, sus2, 6, 6/9)

2) Normal “Back cycling” in C:

| 1st Class 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th
C | Dm7 G7 Am7 D7 Em7 A7 Bm7 E7 F#m7 B7 Gm7 C7
| and/or and/or and/or and/or and/or and/or
| Abm7 Db7 Ebm7 Ab7 Bbm7 Eb7 Fm7 Bb7 Cm7 F7 C#m7 F#7
Any class may be skipped; (also, any 2 or 3 classes)
Any m7 may be omitted from any class.
Also the dom.7 may be omitted except in 1st class.
All combinations of above are possible or 6th class again.
What this adds up to is that you are back-cycling in 4ths, keys in 4ths, chromatic movement
using b5th substitute, using parallel m7’s.

3) Diatonic “Back-Cycling” (parallel-scalular embellishment). (also Bass Patterns)

Also diatonic “fill in”
Example: given Cmaj7 - Am7 - Fmaj7 - G7 Æ Cmaj7 - Bm7b5 - Am7 - G7 - Fmaj7 - Em7 - Dm7 - G7.
Try thinking in terms of what melody is doing: like parallel, contrary [motion], common tone, etc.
4) Bass View “Back-Cycling” (harmonize from a preparatory bass line)
(Scale-Wise Bass and Chromatic Bass embellishments)
5) Substitute (replace) or mix (precede or follow, like ii and iv in People) chords a 3rd apart.
Like for D7: Bb D7, F72 D7, F#±7
For Em: Gm9 Em7
For C±7: Ab±7 E±7 C±7
New chord may be back-cycled to:
Tenderly — for C: Gm7/11 – F#m7 – B7 – Em This is part of
6) The Distant or New Goal Back-Cycling or Embellishment Principle or Progression Substitute.
Like example: for C – Am – Dm – G7
use: C – C7 – F – Fm.
or: C (G6/4) [combining bass back-cycling] – C76/5 – F – Fm
Or: given: C – F do C – Am – F
Sometimes bass back-cycle produces same results as normal back-cycle
7) Real Tonicization: Bring in any chords from key of chord you are on, before,
or after that chord (use The Man I Love as model).
Look for “door openers” to other keys; example: The Days of Wine and Roses – before vii± comes
ii± (bvii6/9) vi6/9 i±/9 because ii± is also bvi6 of vi6.
8) Mixtures, especially bIII, bVI, bVII, bII, may precede, replace, or follow their diatonic brothers.
Examples: C – Ebmaj7 – Em7
Fmaj7 – Em
Embellishment and Substitution Ted Greene, 1974-07-09 — page 2

Ebmaj7 – D±7 – C
Fmaj7 – Em7 – Dm7 – Db7 – C
C – B±7 – Am7 – Abmaj7 – C
9) Elisions (modern vs. traditional) like C7 – G – C13 – G – Eb7 – G – Eb9 – G, etc.
10) Diminished 7th Embellishment of any chord—this can be thought of as temporary modulation.
Example: C°7 – C, A°7 – Am, Ab°7 - Ab, G°7 - G, F°7 – F
Also do V7b9 embellishment of any chord.
Also °7 1/2 step above m7 (ala same root 7b9 back-cycle)
11) Compounds of all principles where possible:
Example: Alfie — given Dm Æ D6 – E6 – Am – G6 – A6 – Dm
Example of bass back-cycle:
Ain’t Misbehavin’ — G – Am7 – Bb7/6 – B7+ – C (C72 – C#± – C#±72)
G6/4 – B76/5 – Em – G72 – Cmaj74/3 – Bm74/3 – Am74/3 – D7 – G
Sub Dominant Mixing (ala chords a 3rd apart)
G – B7+ – Eb6/4 – C7 – A76/5
G – A7 – C7 – Eb7 – G6/4
12) bVI7 emb.; bvii emb. of any major triad (on any degree) | vi6 embel.; example: use on I IV bVI I
13) Embellish any chord with other patterns. Ex: (use All the Things You Are as model)
embellish IV with vi iii or I vi or bII bV
embellish any chords with its iii/5 V7/2
embellish V with IV bIII, vi, all progressions with mixtures, all turns, all sub-dominants.
14) Chromatic Alt in normal progression: I V6 vi° iii6 | Chromatic alt. in scale: I7 ii7 iii IV9b5
15) b5th Substitute on any chord
16) Common tone subst.: A#±, °7, Bbm7 for A7 or A7
17) Contrary Embellishment (outer voices)
18) Modulation Embellishment: for C D± use C Eb7 Ab C7 Fm Ab7 D±
19a) 1/2 Step Embellishment with and without contrary motion
19b) Moving-line Principles (inner or outer)
20) Internal “Filling in” for unusual colors
21) Switches on any chord if possible
22) Mix Minor Families (like bridge of Lover Man)
23) Conversion of Step-wise to Cycle Pattern
24) Embellish with Dorian Chords: before ii V of E Æ Em Bm C, Am Em F (F#±) B7 or C7 Bm Am7,
Am Em7 F F#± F#m7 B7 E or Am7 Bm7 C7 (D11) F#m7 G#m7 A7 B11 E or ii iii IV V or I, bIII,
bV; also embellish any minor 6 with its dorian.
25) Embellish any chord with satellite notes in any voice.
26) Compound: go into key of substitute chord – like key of Dm for B±
27) On any 13 #11, think lydian down a step.
28) Replace any 7th with triad or rel. triad.
29) End in new key.
30) Deceptive Movements such as: C A7 Dm Em | Em7 Am7 Ab7 C | F#± Fm7 etc. |
C C7 F Em7 | Dm7 Db7 Eb | C D7 B7 Ebm |
31) Deceptive Movement by way of Sym. Back Cycle with conveyor belts of ii-V’s
Examples: 1) vi–II, #iv–VII, etc., to I, ii, iii, IV, V, VII (vi)
2) bii–bV, bvii–bIII, etc., to ii, IV, V, vi, VII
3) ii–V, iv–bVII, etc., to all. Also V7–I7 to iii.
Embellishment and Substitution Ted Greene, 1974-07-09 — page 3

32) Prepare m6 as if it were a 9th chord. Example: D± use Bb F+ Bb9

33) Exotic Scales: Gb9 Abm11/4 etc.
34) Explore #iv interval Æ like The Defenders: |: E Bm :| E D G#....
or Am7 Eb7 or Eb7 Am7
also 1/2 step interval: Eb7 Em7, Ab7 Gm7
35) Reverse Physical Direction (also chronological order) of any progression.
36) Isolate Triads in Poly-chords
37) v, v± , bVI, bVII can be used cadentially.
38) Teasing: C C#m7 Eb7 C#m7 F#7 B
39) Cross-Rhythms (George Van Eps or Lenny Breau)
40) Rhythmic Transitions
41) Wandering
42) Work in 3 voices ala Gershwin
43) [Solo?] Runs
44) Write blues melody & harmonize (ala Young Man with the Horn)
45) Chromatic “Creeping” on any progression or single root.
46) Ascending and Descending Reduction and Expansion of all chords via Scales.
Also Diatonic and Chromatic melodies on all possible chords and progressions.
VOCAB: know melody, bass, degree views, also Harmonic Tendencies.
(what types – families)
Some Tune Treatments:
1) Build bass 1st
2) Change mode
3) Switch styles
4) 2-part Invention
5) Imitations
6) Stretto
7) Ground bass
8) Reharmonization
9) Parallelism
10) Constant Melody
11) Chrom. Alt.
12) Focus on any 2 or 3 voices and move in contrary or parallel motion.
13) Listen melody 1st – sing by numbers
14) Switch octaves
15) New Key on each (or ?) phrase of tune.
47) Elaborated Cadence View: I bVI7 (or II7 IV7 bVI7) of bIII V7
48) Pedals Under Progression: like V vi± vo7 V7
49) All whole tone and overtone types in + cycles (double whole step intervals)
50) When doing “Symmetric-Mono-Family” type progressions: prepare any m6 with its m7 (Ex7), rel.
major, parallel major, 7+, 7, V, V4; also ii-V’s, may replace m6’s.
Prepare any dom. 7th with its V7, 7b5, 7b9, etc., v7, bii7, ii7, V7+ and others.
51) Group Mixtures (borrowed chords) in various ways – like bII, bIII, bVI, bVII with their relative
52) Old Ballad in open triads: Dm A6 F6/4 C ||: Cm Abm6 Eb6/4 Cb Gb Bb Eb6/4 G6 :|| Cm Gm, Gm Ebm6

53) Old Ballad #2 in open triads: (or do in key of D)

Embellishment and Substitution Ted Greene, 1974-07-09 — page 4

| E6 B+6/4 | Bm6/4 C#+6 C#6 | D6 F#m | F#o F |

| High // | // / / | // // | // // |

| C6 | Em E | G /4 | Eb | G /4 | D | F#o6/4 | B | B7 :|| or E6/4 G6 | B | B7 |
6 o6

| //// | // // | //// | //// | //// | //// | //// | //// | //// :|| // // | //// | //// |

Use as intro to Whiter Shade of Pale.

Substitute for II7 bVI7 ii7 V7; 1) ii7 iv7 V7 bvi6 or ii76/5 bVI72 II6 bvi6/2

54) Raised Supertonic in ii chord:

• Sus7th family for m7

• Herb Mickman: use m7+; use m7b5 add7 (in descending line)

• Convert ii V I vi ii V I to IV viio iii etc.

• Prepare any overtone dominant with a 6/9#11 or other major sound. Example: Ab6/9#11 Ab13#11

• [Tom J?] iii7 vi7 vamps for I

After vamping on Dm7 G7, to end in major use Gm7 Dmaj9
• Parallelism: Like C11 D11 Eb11 D11 C11

• Prepare any dominant 7th with a suspended dominant on same root.

Minor polychords Displaced Bass: Gb Db7 Gb Eb7 Abm Gb7 E B/E A/E B/E (or E(/9) etc.
3 3 3 5
For lower tuning do in E

• Chord Substitution: Dominant 7 for minor 7

• Diatonic Back-cycling to vii± or others.
• Substitute for +; substitute for m7
• bVI for V: iim11/b7 (V7#9+/3) bVImaj9/3 Imaj9
• Any dominant 7 down a 1/2 step to a maj7 (ala Wives and Lovers)
• Precede any dominant with a m9:
Example: Db/9\5 Bm9 Bb13b9 Ebm7 Am9 Ab13b9 D13 Dbmaj9

[?] note before bridge

• Use #iv7 VII7 for V7. Example: For Once in My Life in C use F#m114/3 to B7 to C
Or in E use Bm7 A#m7 D#7 G#m7 C±7, etc.

Transcribed by P. Vachon
"Multi-Tonal Major Key Colors: 'Diatonic Mixtures' or 'Mixed Majors'
Parallel Root Moves and Voicings"

Ted Greene Harmony Lesson

1989, July 19, updated 1989, December 17

Example #5: "Modulation. This sustain is important here."

Key: Organized sounds where one tone can be sensibly seen, and heard, to have generated the others.

Tonality: The particular flavoring or color of a in key of C major, or more specifically at times,
C Major Diatonic or C Blues, or C Mixolydian, or when more precision is needed, C Jazz Blues,
C Gospel Blues, Cm Chicago Blues, Cm Dorian Blues, Cm Dark Jazz Blues, and so on.
"Introduction to Expanded Diatonicism:
Extensions on bIII & bVII......and the Contrast with Normal Diatonic Flavor"

Ted Greene Harmony Lesson

1989, July 17

Example #1:
"Now let's contrast this spicy shade with warm diatonic color:"

"Play all this many times over & over before going on, to really soak up the sounds."
[For the last chord in this example:] "A different form of spice altogether: Hidden non-diatonic 9th"

Example #2:
"There's no mystery here, yet it's all mystery....meaning, one can learn to use these sounds, call them up at
will, but why they affect us the way they do remains a glorious wonder."

Example #3:
"This particular voicing always strikes me as a bit bolder, tougher, less warm, but more 'modern'
(?)'s modern, tomorrow's passé."

"The contrast always moves me; hope it does something for you."

Example #4:
"For the adventuresome:"

"Coming attraction"
Favorable Mating of Quality (Chord Extension & Such)
& Degree (of the Key)
© Ted Greene, 1990-06-18

Major or Dominant 7th Key: for Dominant Type Chords

On I7: Dominants function three main ways Specific Groups of Dominant Chord Types
1) As V7 of IV. Try all 4 groups, although Group 1: 7, 9, 13(no9) [7/6], 13 (with 9)
#11 types are delicate and troublesome in
certain registers and/or voicings. But Group 2: 7sus4, 9sus4, [also called 11th],
groups 1, 2, and 4 work wonderfully 13sus4.
well. Optional: inclusion of ‘3’ here. Ask me next
2) As Tonic dominant color for bluesy time about 3 circumstances.
color. Groups 1, 2, 3, and 7#9, 7#9#11,
13#9, 13#9#11. Group 3: 7#11, 9#11, 13#9,
3) As final chord, even in a very ‘majory’
sounding piece. Group 4: Altereds:
1) b5 [#11], #5, b9, #9 in 7th chords…any or all
On bII7: Group 1, 3 are great in almost all of them. Also:
voicings. 2) 9#5
Group 2 is trickier. 3) 11b5, 11#5, 11b9
Group 4: 7#9, 7#9#11, 13#9, 13#9#11 are 4) 13b9, 13#9
recommended amongst the altereds.
Other much rarer types such as 7#9§9 do come in
On II7: 99.9% of all dominants work here. due to melodic needs, but we needn’t catalogue
them for now; rather, they appear in front of you
On bIII7: Group 1 is smooth & luxuriant. while you’re playing.
Group 2’s are great for setting up or replacing
Group 1’s here.
Group 3 can be great when you want to
approximate the sound of altered VI7 types.
Group 4: b5[#11] or 13 on top are smoother than
#5. Overall, the Altered’s are rougher on bIII7.

On III7: Group 4 is wonderful, but watch out

for 13 or §9 on top. Example in key of C:
E9+\F# soprano or E13b9\C# soprano
to Am7 will work, but they’re rougher,
less flowingly natural than say, E7#9+\G
soprano and E7b9+\C soprano.
Group 2: Smoothest soprano notes: R, 11, 5, b7,
17th .
Group 1 & 3: Useable if you remember that 9 &
13 usually will sound better “buried in the
chord” (i.e. not in the soprano).
Ask about the special ‘key within a key’
circumstance that changes all this.
Harmonic Improvement
Ted Greene — 1976, June 2

1) Any of the three basic chord types may be enriched by adding 6ths, 9ths, etc. to them. A glance at
the “Chord Construction page” will reveal what types of chords result from this process. One of the
fastest ways of learning to apply this concept is through the patient study (playing and analyzing) of the
material on chord progressions, songs, etc., that you will be given as assignments. This concept will be
referred to as Chord Enrichment. (This concept applies in a limited way to the °7 also.)

2) Any chord may be preceded by a similar type chord whose root is a 1/2 step above. This process
will be called 1/2 Step Embellishment. Examples:

Given: (key of Ab)

# of
Beats: // // // //

With 1/2 step embellishment with melody in contrary motion


// / / // // // / / // //

Given: (key of Ab)

// // // //
With 1/2 step embellishment:

Is there somewhere
else here that you
could add 1/2 step

// / / / / / /
Harmonic Improvement (parts 1 and 2) Ted Greene, 1976, June 2 — page 2

An interesting twist on the above is to have the bass notes approach the given chords from a 1/2 step
below, while the rest of the embellishing chord comes from above, normally. The resulting “polar”
embellishing chords need not be given names. As a group, they might be referred to as 1/2 Step Moving
Line Chords (the result of musical lines in motion).

You might be wondering if 1/2 step embellishment with the whole chord approaching from below is a
commonly used principle…yes and no—most players seem to use 1/2 step embellishment from above
more than below (that is, when they use any kind of embellishment), but it does add variety, so you’ll
probably enjoy fooling around with it also. Example: (using 1st progression above again).

with contrary motion

/ / / / / / / /

This concept of embellishment can get pretty “hairy” if we include some notes going in contrary motion,
as illustrated in a few of the examples. For instance, here is a summary of some ways to embellish an F7
chord, with various combinations of 1/2 step notes:

If you were to make a similar list with a 4-note chord you would have a least twice as many options, and
with 5- and 6-note chords…you could easily spend many years, if not the better portion of your life on
just this concept alone. So a keyword here is moderation.
Harmonic Improvement (parts 1 and 2) Ted Greene, 1976, June 2 — page 3

You will see these 1/2 step embellishment sounds used on the song pages to come, so you will get some
experience in this area without really trying, just by playing and learning the material.

One last thing: melodic leaps in the soprano voice (highest pitch) are commonly used with 1/2 step
embellishment. Examples:


3) Any dominant 7th type chord (and to a lesser extent, any m7 type chord) may be preceded by a m7
type chord whose root is a 5th higher. Examples:

Given: G | A7 | D7 | G

/ / / / / / / / / / / / ////

Given: B | B7 | E


/ / / / / / / / / / / /
Harmonic Improvement (parts 1 and 2) Ted Greene, 1976, June 2 — page 4

4) Any major, minor or dominant 7th type chord may be preceded with a dominant 7th type chord
whose root is a 5th higher. Examples:
Basic: G A7 | Am7 D7 | G

/ / / / / / / / ////

Basic: Bb | Eb

/ / / /

Basic: A F#m7 | Bm7 E7


/ / / / / / /

It is often interesting to combine different principles. Examples:

Basic: A | Bm7 E7

/ / / / / / / /
Harmonic Improvement (parts 1 and 2) Ted Greene, 1976, June 2 — page 5

Basic: Ab | Ab7 | Db

/ / / / / / / /
This process, of adding chords a 5th higher, will be referred to as Back-Cycling (because you are
“backing up” in the cycle of 5ths (4ths) in order to find the chord(s) to add in).
The process of back-cycling can be carried out even further (and this is especially useful in chord melody
style playing) as you will see if you apply this concept to some songs.

Sometimes it is effective to break up a measure or two of a given chord by inserting the back-cycle chord
in the middle in a “sandwich” fashion:

A7 | A7 | D7 | D7 | G7

/ / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / etc.

Or you might alternate the back-cycled chord with the original:

Given: A7 | A7 | D7 |

/ / / / / / / / / / / /

D7 | G7


/ / / /

Minor 7th and dominant 7th type chords that stand in the relationship of Am7 – D7, will be called
Companions (like Gm7 is the companion m7 of C7, and C7 is the companion dominant 7th of Gm7).
Harmonic Improvement
Ted Greene — 1977, April 4, July 10, and May 6.

[These lesson pages are Ted’s updates or revisions to his lesson with the same title dated 1976, June 2, 4, 6 with
1975 Feb. 20. Some things have been changed, rearranged, or re-named, and there are new examples. Missing
are pages (parts) 2, 4, 5. It is quite possible that Ted decided that those pages didn’t require a revision. For the
most thorough understanding of these concepts as Ted taught them, it would be best to study both the 1976 and the
1977 versions. –Editor’s note.]


1) Any of the three basic chord types (major, minor, and dominant 7th) may be replaced with any
chord in its own family…(consult the “Chord Construction Page”)

1) Instead of playing a C major chord you might play a C major 7th (C7) or a C major 6th (C6) or a C
added 9th (Cadd9 or C/9) or….
2) Instead of playing a Cm you might try a Cm7 or Cm7/11 or a Cm6 or….
3) Instead of playing a C7 you could use a C9 or C7/6 or a C7#9 or a C13+11 or….

In all these cases, what you are really doing is enriching the basic chord, not replacing it with something
that is different. Therefore, this concept will be referred to as Chord Enrichment.

You will be learning to apply this concept gradually if you carefully analyze the material on chord
progressions, songs, etc., that will follow.
(This concept applies in a limited way to the °7 and its family too.)

2) Any chord may be preceded by a Dominant 7th type chord whose root is a 1/2 step above. This
process will be referred to as 1/2 Step Dominant. Example:

/ / / / / / / /


/ / / / / / / /
Harmonic Improvement Ted Greene, 1977 — page 2

Here is another example: Suppose you were given the following chord progression on a chord chart:
F#m7 – B7 – E – C#m7 – F#m7 – B7 – E. Using just chord enrichment, you might play:
// // // // // //

/ / // / / / / / / //

Now using the 1/2 Step Dominant principle too:

/ / / / / / / /

/ / / /

Another example:

/ / / / / / / /

/ / / /
Harmonic Improvement Ted Greene, 1977 — page 3

2a) This is very similar to the 1/2 Step Dominant Principle: Any chord may be preceded by a similar
type chord whose root is a 1/2 step above (or more rarely, below). By similar type, it is meant: a member
of the same family, and usually sub-family too.
This concept will be referred to as 1/2 Step Embellishment.

Examples: (using the same give progression as above).

[Abmaj7 – Cm7 – Bbm7 – Eb7 – Abmaj7]
// // // //


// / / // / /

[F#m7 – B7 – E – C#m7 – F#m7 – B7 – E]

// // // // // //

/ / / / / / / /

/ / / /

Where are the 1/2 step chords in the above example? (Draw an arrow to indicate them.)


[For Part II, see Ted’s lesson “Harmonic Improvement” 1976-06-2]
That page covers concepts #3 and #4.
Harmonic Improvement Ted Greene, 1977 — page 4

1977, July 10

5) Dominant 7th chords whose roots are a b5th or #4th interval apart have many notes in common
and may be substituted for one another. Examples:

Given Am7 D7 G you might play:

└───── compare ──────────┘

└───── compare ──────────┘

This concept will be referred to as b5th Substitution. Here are some more examples:
Given: Bm7 E7 Am7 D7
───────── compare ──────────────

└───────── compare ──────────────┘

5a) There are further elaborations of this concept that are used by various players; one of these is that
minor 7 type chords may be substituted (or substituted for) in this b5th relationship.
Examples (using the same give progression: Bm7 E7 Am7 D7 as a basis):

└───────── compare ──────────────┘

Harmonic Improvement Ted Greene, 1977 — page 5

───────── compare ──────────────

└─── compare ────────────────────┘

└───────── compare ──────────────┘

5b) Compare this example too and notice that Major types
may be involved in this
b5th Substitution too.

5c) The b5th Substitute chord may be combined with the original chord:
Given: A7 D7 G
// //

Notice the similarities of the above results and the results of applying the 1/2 Step Dominant principle to
the progression A7 D7 G. The “overlap” of the b5th and 1/2 step concepts is one of the many
phenomena of music.
Harmonic Improvement Ted Greene, 1977 — page 6

5d) Back-Cycling can be effectively combined with the b5th Substitution (or 1/2 Step Embellishment)
Given: A7 D7 G
//// ////

/ / / / / / / / /

Explain the two different reasons for the two Eb9 chords here.


[See Ted’s lesson “Harmonic Improvement” 1976-06-2]
These pages cover concepts #6 through #10.

Harmonic Improvement Ted Greene, 1977 — page 7

1977, May 6

11) Any minor 7 type chord may be preceded with a dominant 7th type chord whose root is the same
or a b5th (#4th) higher. Examples:

Analyze each example carefully

Given: F Bb Gm7 C7, you might play to see the reason for each chord.
// // // //

resolution chord

// / / // / /

/ / / / / / //

/ / / / / / / /

/ / / / / / / /

why? why? to be
Harmonic Improvement Ted Greene, 1977 — page 8

/ / / / / / //

Key of E:


/ / / / / / / /

to be explained later.

11a) The new dominant 7th chord that is added in may be combined with its companion minor 7 or may
be generally back-cycled to. Examples:
Given: Db Ebm7 Ab
//// // //
Key of Db chord

/ / / / / / / /

/ / / / / / / /

Key of E

/ / / / / / / /
Harmonic Improvement Ted Greene, 1977 — page 9

/ / / / / / / /

11b) The added dominants on the same root and the b5th may be combined:

/ / / / / / / /

Key of Ab

/ / / / / / / /

/ / / / / / / /
I vi7 II7 bVI7 ii7 iii7 ii7 V7 I
Harmonic Improvement
Ted Greene — 1975, Feb 20 and 1976, June 4 & 6

5) The Cross-Cycle or b5th Substitution Principle A sometimes used substitution principle in
modern harmony is to replace any dominant 7th type chord with another dominant 7th type chord, but
whose root is a b5th higher. Example: given Am7 – D7 – G you could try playing Am7 – Ab13 – Gmaj7.
As to why this type of substitution works, observe:
1) The most important notes in a dominant 7th chord (termed its essence) are its 3rd and its b7th.
2) The essences of dominant 7th chords whose roots are a b5th apart are, amazingly enough, the
same. Notice:
The 3rd and b7th of Ab7 are C and Gb;
the 3rd and b7th of D7 are F# and C.
Since Gb and F# sound the same on the guitar (and all
tempered-tuning instruments), the essences of D7 and Ab7
are virtually the same. Because the essences of these chords
whose roots are a b5th apart are the same, theoretically, you
might say that any extensions or altered chords should work
for each other in this b5th relationship.
However, many of these sound poor or out of place, so some suggestions on the more tasty
substitutions might prove helpful:

Taking the normal ii7 – V7 – I progression in G as a vehicle, instead of just playing Am7 – D7 – G, try
the following substitutions:

| Am7 – Ab7/6 – Gmaj7 | Am7 – Ab9 – Gmaj9 | Am7/11 – Ab13 – Gmaj7 |

| Am11 – Ab9b5 or #11 – Gmaj9 | Am11 or 7/11 – Ab13#11 – Gmaj9 | Try these physical examples
of some of the ideas:

Notice the relationship between these examples and the first two above.
Harmonic Improvement (parts 3, 4, and 5) Ted Greene, 1975 and 1976 — page 2

This gives us a clue into the effect of the b5th substitution principle in many cases; thru
observation and experimentation it has been found that the major scale extended dominants and the
overtone dominants are usually the best choices for use in the b5th substitution principle, and the effect is
similar to using an altered dominant type on the original chord.

Sometimes because of the “pull” of a certain b5th substitute, a major type chord is substituted
instead of a dominant 7th type. The most frequent degree for this is on the bIII7 to bVI. Observe:

Given: G – E7 – Am (or A7) – D7, you might play:

// // // // //
bIII7 bVI7

Due to Back-Cycling, m7 chords sometimes find their way into a progression as a b5th substitute.

Notice that the “melody” of the substitute chords (Fm9 – Bb13 – Ebmaj7) does not clash with the
original “melody,” and the key in general. Unfortunately, when trying to apply the b5th substitutions to
songs, you will find that more often than not a chord will clash with the melody, or will sound forced or
The b5th principle should be treated with reverence and respect, in this man’s opinion, because on
those rare occasions when it fits perfectly, it is like a breath of fresh air; but it should never be used just
for the sake of using it, so that one can say to himself or others, “Look here, I’m using the b5th principle.”
After all, the whole ideas in music is to find beautiful sounds, right?, not to play intellectual games to
show how much we know or how clever we are. The only reason for these sermon-like comments is that
most students, upon learning the b5th principle, tend to go ape with it and force it where it doesn’t fit.

More Common Tone Substitutions:
6) Chords whose roots are a 3rd apart often have some notes in common, sometimes many, and once
in a while, even identical notes. This can lead to some interesting substitutions, some of the more
common of which are as follows:

[All substitutions don’t work well all the time—trial and error will be your teacher.]
Harmonic Improvement (parts 3, 4, and 5) Ted Greene, 1975 and 1976 — page 3

1) A major type chord can be replaced with a minor (7th) type chord whose root is a minor 3rd lower
(it acts like a vi in relation to the major chord it is replacing) or a major 3rd higher (it acts like a iii).
Examples: Cmaj7 may be replaced with Am7 or Em7; Ab may be replaced with Fm9 or Cm7 or
Cm7 Fm7.

2) A minor 7th type chord can be replaced (preceded or followed) with a major type chord whose root
is a major 3rd lower or a minor 3rd higher. Examples:
Am7 can be replaced with F/9 or Cmaj9; Em7 can be replaced with C or Gmaj7.

3) A minor 7b5 type chord can be replaced (preceded or followed) with a dominant 7th type chord
whose root is a major 3rd lower, or a minor type chord whose root is a minor 3rd higher. Examples:
Bm7b5 can be replaced with G13 or Dm7 or Dm9 G9; Em7b5 can be replaced with C7/6 or Gm6/9 or
Gm7/11 C13.

You will be seeing all these principles at work in the back-up arrangements of songs you’ll be
working on, so don’t worry about memorizing all this just yet; just browse and remember that this type
of thinking exists, and by referring back to it occasionally, as you’ll have to in order to complete
certain assignments, it will sink in.

4) This one is more rare: a dominant 7th type chord can be replaced with a minor 7b5 type chord
whose root is a major 3rd higher. This is effective in the following situation mainly:

Given: Dm7 G7 Cmaj7 Dm7 G7 Cmaj7

/ / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

ii7 V7 I7 ii7 V7 I7


for Dm7 for G7 for Cmaj7……………...

IV7 vii 7 iii7 vi7 ii7 V7 I7

All of the above principles fall under the heading of what we will call 3rd Substitution. Half-step
embellishment and back-cycling are forms of Chord Addition, while b5th and 3rd Substitution are forms
of Chord Substitution. Remember that when you do something like play G9 for G7, or Cmaj7 for C, this
is referred to on these pages as Chord Enrichment.
Harmonic Improvement (parts 3, 4, and 5) Ted Greene, 1975 and 1976 — page 4

7) Remember about companion dominant 7th’s and minor 7th’s, such as D7 and Am7 types? One
reason that they are companions is that they have quite a few common tones—compare the notes in Am7
and D9 for instance. Now compare Am6 and D9. We can derive a few substitution principles from this

1) Any minor 6 type chord can be replaced with a dominant 7th type chord (especially 9th’s, 13th’s,
9b5’s, #11’s and 13#11’s) whose root is a 4th higher.

2) Any minor 7 type chord can be replaced (or followed) with a dominant 7sus type chord whose root
is a 4th higher. Compare:

3) A little less commonly useable: Any minor 7 type chord can be followed (or replaced) with a
dominant 7th type chord whose root is a 4th higher (or vice versa).

These principles will all be referred to as Companion Dominant Substitution. (For the “categorizers”:
Companion Dominant Substitution is a branch of Common Tone Substitution, which is a branch of Chord
Substitution, which is a branch of Harmonic Improvement, which is a branch of music, which is a branch

8) Any minor 7 type chord may be replaced with a dominant 7th type chord on the same root or vice
versa. Examples: A9 for Am9, or Am9 for A9. Even though a dominant 7th type and a minor 7th type
can have many notes in common, there seems to be a great difference in their color or effect on the ear
(since the only main difference between the two types is the 3rd or b3rd [135b7 vs. 1b35b7] we have to
assume that the 3rd is a very special note to human beings), so be careful; as usual, experimentation is
going to help you a lot.

9) A chord may be preceded (or followed) with other chord in its own key, especially with chords
whose roots are in scalewise order. Example:
Given: Am7 – D7, you might play: Cmaj7 – Bm7 – Am7 – D7 or you could “squeeze” the Am7 into the
//// //// // / / ////
next measure: Cmaj7 – Bm7 – Am7 – D7.
// // // //
Another example: Given: G – C, you might play Gmaj7 – Am7 – Bm7 – Cmaj7.
//// //// // / / ////
Notice that the added chords can be in the same measure as the chord they precede or in the previous one.
This principle will be referred to as (Diatonic) Scalewise Embellishment. (abbreviated SW EMB.)
Harmonic Improvement (parts 3, 4, and 5) Ted Greene, 1975 and 1976 — page 5

Here is an example of Diatonic Embellishment that uses chords whose roots are not in scalewise order:
Given: G – C substitute:
//// ////

The big feature in this type Æ

of sound is the bass movement.
/ / / / / / / /

Diatonic sounds are also effective with “leaps” in the bass.

Example: Given: G – C
//// ////

/ / / / / / / /

Notice in all the examples given so far on this page that the first chord always has a close relation to the
original given chord (Bm7, for example, [above] for G – why does this work?). This is the norm, rather
than the exception. Contrary motion is very effective with diatonic sounds, and you will get a separate
series of studies on this subject later.

10) The 1/2 Step Embellishment concept (remember what that is?) can be carried back further.
Examples: given: C Bm7


/ / / / / / / /

When, as in these examples, there is more than one 1/2 step embellishment used, this technique will be
referred to as Parallel Embellishment.

Parallel embellishment does not

have to use only 1/2 step movement:

/ / / /
Harmonic Improvement (parts 3, 4, and 5) Ted Greene, 1975 and 1976 — page 6

Sometimes you might wish to mix the quality of the chords involved (you will learn, in more detail, how
to do this as you become familiar with more progressions) in parallel embellishment.
Bm7 E7 Amaj7

/ / / / / / / /

This passage could also be analyzed as being derived totally from back-cycling and b5th substitution
principles. Try to figure out why.

Here are two more examples. Notice how contrary motion heightens the pull to the last chord and makes
it very satisfying.

F7 Bb7

/ / / /

G7 C7

/ / / /
Common Harmonic Improvement Concepts
Ted Greene — 1979, October 14

[Ted’s note to himself about teaching this page:] Show application of all this to tunes! by using your different programs (ex.
All the Way lead sheet, Days of Wine and Roses comping, Green Dolphin Street.)

1) Chord Enrichment and Siblings: Any chord may have extensions and/or altered tones added
to it according to personal taste. Or, some tones in a chord may be replaced with extensions or altered
tones. Another way of saying all this is: Any chord may be used for any other if they are in the same
Chord Family. We might say that any chords in the same family are Siblings.

Also 1a) Chord Abbreviation (just like the name implies)

2) 1/2 Step Approaches: A) Any chord may be preceded by various types of chords whose
‘named’ roots are a 1/2 step above. Examples: Before Cm7, you might wish to use C#m7/11 or Db9 or
Dbmaj7. B) The principle works from below too. Example: Before Cm7, you might try Bm9 or B7/6 or

3) 5th Approaches (“Back-Cycling”): Any chord may be preceded by various types of

chords whose roots are a 5th above. Example: You might precede Cmaj9 with G11 or G7+ or Gm9 or
even Gmaj7 in certain situations. You might precede C9 with Gm9 or Gm7b5 or G7b9+. You might
precede Cm9 with Gm7 or Gm6 or G7+.

|------------------------------#s 4, 5, 6, 7, and 9 — Common Tone Substitution---------------------------|

4) b5 Substitution (“Tritone Subst.”): A) Any dominant 7th type chord has strong affinity
to other dominant 7th type chords whose roots are a b5th higher, and therefore these chords may substitute
(replace) or each other: Example: For E7#9, you might use Bb13 or Bb13#11 (or vice versa).
B) Minor 7th and major type chords may work favorably in this relationship at times.
Example: Given = (Bm7) E7#9 Am7 D11
Subst. = F9 Bb7/6 (Ebmaj7) (Abmaj7), or use Fm9 for the Bm7

The substitute chord may also precede or follow the give chord in this principle.

5) 3rd Substitution: Chords whose roots are a 3rd apart often have some notes in common,
sometimes many, and once in awhile, even identical notes. As you may suspect, some substitutions ensue
because of this. Some of the more common are listed (in one key only each, to save space).
A) For C major types, try Am7 or Em7 types….or vice versa.
B) For Bm7b5 types, try G dominant 7th types or Dm6 or minor/maj7 types….or vice versa for all these

As above, the substitute chord may precede or follow the given chord in this principle.
Common Harmonic Improvement Concepts Ted Greene, 1979, Oct 14 — page 2

6) Common Dominant (and Minor) Substitution: A) Most dominant 7th type chords
have strong affinity to m7 types whose root is a 5th higher. These chords are referred to as Companions
and may be rather freely combined with each other whenever either chord is given.
Example: For 2 measures of D9, try D7 Am7 D9 Am9 D9 Am7 D7
/ / / / / / / /

Or for Am7 Dm7, try Am7 D9 Dm7

//// //// // // ////

B) Dominant 7sus types and their companion m7’s are virtually identical (compare G7sus and Dm7; G11
and Dm7; G13sus and Dm9), and may replace each other.

7) Change of Family (Quality Change): Although much discretion is needed here, you
may find quite a few successful situations where you may wish to replace a chord with one from a
different family. Example: For Am7, try A7#9; for A6 try A7/6 or A13; for Am/9, try Amaj9.

8) Scalewise Approaches: A chord may be preceded or followed by other chords (often

diatonic) in its own key whose roots or bass notes are in ascending or descending scalewise orders.
Example: Given Am7 D7, try Cmaj7 Bm7 Am7 D7b9;
// // / / / /

Or given F Bb you might play Fmaj7 Gm7 Am7 Bbmaj7 or Fmaj7 Gm7 Ab°7 F/A Bbmaj7
//// //// // / / //// / / / / ////

Actually the bass can leap around in the key as well as move in order.

9) Neighbor Tone Approaches: Any chord may be preceded with chords that create attractive
moving lines. This concept sometimes overlaps into the 1/2 Step Approach, but also allows for many
other sounds. Many are quality shifts on the same root. Ask for examples.

Note: Many of the concepts on this page are often combined or repeated as our studies will show.
Harmonic Tendencies and Common Progressions
Ted Greene – 1986-04-26 and 1986-09-19

What we are going to do in this series of pages is focus on the way that chords have commonly
been used in jazz standards and also in popular music, classical music, and maybe some other areas too.
The attention will be on the common chord progressions from one chord type at a time. Some or much of
this information may be somewhat familiar to you already, but it is hoped that a new perspective may
present itself every now and then.
For a variety of reasons, a good place to start is with the “two minor 7” chord in a major key. The
common Roman numeral symbol used is ii7. The ii7 loves to go to the “five dominant 7th” (V7), so let’s
take a look at this progression first:

Right away you may have noticed that we are adding the 11th to the ii7 chord. This process of Chord
Enrichment, that is, the adding of chord extensions as they are commonly called, is all part of the normal
modern harmonic language.

When “melodized” as in these examples, the ii7 V7 progression is soft, warm, tender, even romantic, no?
But rhythm, being a big part of life as it is, can change the flavor of things. Try the following examples in
Jazz Waltz and Bossa Nova (maybe Swing too) rhythms. Because of the lack of “melody” now combined
with the potency of the rhythms, the mood is considerably changed:
Harmonic Tendencies and Common Progressions Ted Greene, 1986-04-24 and 1986-09-19 - page 2

Successive inversions are an attractive way to bring the ii7 V7 progression to life. Influenced by the
master French composer Claude Debussy, the late great Wes Montgomery brought this color to the jazz
guitar. An example:

This type of example needs no rhythm or “groove.” The ear’s satisfaction comes from the flow of chords
and the “melody” created by the top voice.

One last device for now, once again favored by Debussy and also many film composers, is that of change
of key (modulation) by “parallel” means. Try this example and see if you catch my drift:

Harmonic Tendencies and Common Progressions Ted Greene, 1986-04-24 and 1986-09-19 - page 3


Highly related to the ii7 V7 progression is the ii7 bII7 move. Try the following:

The colors of altered V7’s and unaltered bII7’s are often remarkably similar, even identical except for the
bass notes. Also, something kind of like the reverse of the above happens when you use #9’s on the bII7.
Try the two examples [below] and compare carefully.

More examples:

Now some “successive inversion” sounds:

Harmonic Tendencies and Common Progressions Ted Greene, 1986-04-24 and 1986-09-19 - page 4

Finally, let’s look at combining ii7 V7 and ii7 bII7:



Another way that ii7 likes to make its way home to I is via the iº7. This diminished 7th chord is seldom
found with its root in the bass, but rather, most often with the b3rd instead:

Also the iº7 is sometimes abbreviated by leaving out the bb7, thereby creating just the i7 triad:

Also try adding the open D

note to these three chords.
Harmonic Tendencies and Common Progressions Ted Greene, 1986-04-24 and 1986-09-19 - page 5

And “melodizing” these progressions is a common thing to do:

The °²7 [diminished major 7] chord is a result of the moving soprano line. Sometimes a “diminished
extension” such as this will be used as a substitute (for the iº7) even without the moving soprano:

Now for some examples from the “bass string”:

Å Do this one in the keys of

G and low Eb also.
Harmonic Tendencies and Common Progressions Ted Greene, 1986-04-24 and 1986-09-19 - page 6

Another diminished extension

is the °add 9 chord:

And the °²9 [diminished major 9 chord]

deserves some of our attention:

Now some decoration again (“in 3”):

Finally, some more examples using the °/9 [diminished add 9]:

Harmonic Tendencies and Common Progressions Ted Greene, 1986-04-24 and 1986-09-19 - page 7


The ii or ii7 chord likes to move to I through the iv. Let’s look at some little triad forms of this first:

Now with larger chords:

Harmonic Tendencies and Common Progressions Ted Greene, 1986-04-24 and 1986-09-19 - page 8

And now some iv7 types:

This [next] example connects the ii7 iv7 to I via an intermediate ii7 V7 and a IV iii ii…..make sure the
open B and the C# ring at the end!
Harmonic Vocabulary of Standard Tunes
Ted Greene, 1984-08-04 & 31
(Transcribed text from each page)

Page 1

V7 - I:
Probably the most important chord progression in the history of music. It’s still around in full bloom today.
Master as many of these 20th Century voice-leadings as you can.

Key of C – and transpose these to the key of D too….

Key of Eb – and transpose these to the key of F too….
Key of A – transpose to G and Bb too….

This is the tip of the tip of the iceberg on this progression, but you will have done well if you learn most of
these for now.

ii7 - V7 - I: The logical extension of V7-I. Some thinkers say, “Everything is two-five-one.” This is a bit
impetuous, but not that far from the truth (in certain idioms).
Study these examples carefully and commit them to memory. We have to build the vocabulary, and we
have to have something to build on.

Page 2

ii7 - V7 - I – vi7 and ii7-V7 - I – VI7:

vi7 or VI7 commonly follow I, and often lead back to ii7 again. Play all these examples many times until
you can play the whole page straight through without stopping. And of course, think of the chord names
(and try to include the numbers too) while playing. If these means you have to slow way down at first, then
“join the club.”

Page 3

I - vi7 - ii7 - V7 - Ascending Melody Studies:

This progression is one of the true staples of many styles of music. Play thru this page until you can do
these examples from memory (remember the logic of them and it’ll be far easier). D you notice that his
progression is kind of like the previous one (ii-V-I-vi) “inside out” ?

You may also find it advantageous to look for resolutions of the V7’s (to I’s that is) after you’ve gotten
friendly with this page.

Page 4

iii7 - vi7 - ii7 - V7 – (I) - Mainly Descending Melody of Various Types:

This page is another of what could be considered “the main ones.”

Page 5

Continuous Ascending Melody on one-six-two-five (mostly diatonic, nothing too rowdy yet):
ii7 - V(7) - I
Ted Greene – 1974-11-28 & 29

In the beginnings of harmony, the Tonic Subdominant, and Dominant triads were the pillars that
established a sense of Tonality or Key. Gradually, the other diatonic triads were used more frequently,
and finally the diatonic 7th chords were discovered. The Dominant 7th became a favorite of composers,
used more frequently than all the other 7th chords put together; still later, the Supertonic 7th (ii7) came to
be used in place of the Subdominant triad, especially in the cadence formula IV - V - I, (which became ii7
- V(7) - I).
You might wonder why IVmaj7, rather than ii7 wasn’t used for IV. It is because of the strongly
dissonant interval of a major 7th (between root and 7th) in the IVmaj7 — this was apparently harsher to
the ears of our forefathers than the mild dissonance of a minor 7th in the ii7. To modern ears the IVmaj7
is just as nice as a ii7, but through tradition and for other reasons not to be discussed here, the ii7 has
remained the favorite chord to precede V(7) with, so a thorough understanding and familiarity with it are
necessary for the student of music.
The following are some common examples of ii7 - V(7) given in the key of A or D. Practice them
in various keys, and decoration, and resolve them to I. Then do them in minor keys, but use ii±7 - V(7) – i
instead of ii7 - V(7) - I.
ii7 - V(7) - I Ted Greene, 1974-11-28 and 1974-11-29 page 2
ii7 - V(7) - I Ted Greene, 1974-11-28 and 1974-11-29 page 3
Learning to Use Altered Dominants on One Degree at a Time
Altered Dominant: 7#9 / Major Key (part 1)
© Ted Greene 5-27-1986

We’re going to work with the 7#9 chord for awhile, seeing how it’s inherent color is sometimes softened,
sometimes sharpened, and sometimes pretty much left alone, all according to which degree of a key it is used on
(this will become clear as we go). Let’s start with the bluesier sounding ones in the context of a major key:

The V7#9 is so bluesy and cool (warm?) If you want to hear this kind of
color coming into its own in American musical life, try listening to the
“Rhapsody in Blue” by George Gershwin, the composer who is so
associated with this sound that all one need do is play a little passage like
any of the above in a roomful of musical people and inevitably someone is
likely to utter his name.
Similar in effect is the I7#9. Compare the following two examples:

Is there any doubt that if there is any such thing as Blues Harmony, you’re in there when you give I7#9 the call?

Let’s hear one more comparison:

Learning to Use Altered Dominants on One Degree at a Time: 7#9 / Major Key (part 1) Ted Greene — page 2
  Using 7#9’s on IV can sound kind of weird sometimes. But when this mating of quality (7#9) and degree
(IV) does work, the effect, as with I7#9 and V7#9, seems to be in the blues realm of color.

Here are some examples showing how bluesy the IV7#9 can be:

Here’s an example of IV7#9 mentioned above, sounding weird or kind of “out of place” at least to my ears:

Suggestion: Be very cautious in using IV7#9 when the #9 tone is in the soprano.

Do your best to store the general and/or specific information presented on this page deep into your
musical self.
Make up variation if you feel able.

Transcribed by P. Vachon
Learning to Use Altered Dominants on One Degree at a Time
Altered Dominant: 7#9 / Major Key (part 2)
© Ted Greene 5-28-1986

Let’s look at the 7#9 on some other degrees where a “softer,” more “romantic” or “pretty” effect seems to be the

bII7’s act and sound like

substitutes for V7’s.

Ask if need be.


    [Optional continuation] 
Try these next phrases using a swing feel:

As you may have noticed, when adding rhythmic life to

progressions, effects are sometimes modified. The overall,
combined effect may take over, rather than the exact
shadings of each chord so much being responsible for the
Learning to Use Altered Dominants on One Degree at a Time: 7#9 / Major Key (part 2) Ted Greene — page 2
Now we’re going to work with the 7#9 on the bVI degree:

The bVI7#9 is highly related to the i diminished 7 color. More on this later or ask if curious.

[Notice the darker bII chord here]

Also try a bII7#9 to compare.
They’re both nice—different kinds of nice.
Read this more than once, slowly:
bV7#9 (#IV7#9) acts like a kind of tart substitute for I7 when I7 is functioning as the V7 of the next
chord (some kind of IV or iv or IV7):

Assignment: Make friends with all 3

general colors and get as specific as you
feel the need to.

Transcribed by P. Vachon
Learning to Use Altered Dominants on One Degree at a Time
Altered Dominant: 7#9 / Major Key (part 3)
© Ted Greene 5-28-1986
This page will deal with 7#9’s on VI, II, III and VII (in that order). Some of these lean towards the blues
scene again, especially when other factors point a little that way (factors such as the soprano, certain time-feels,
and so on.).
Try phrasing these in different ways and in different rhythmic grooves:
Learning to Use Altered Dominants on One Degree at a Time: 7#9 / Major Key (part 3) Ted Greene — page 2

This page is starting to look “pretty thick”so maybe we’ll stop now.
Assignment: Try absorbing all four general colors given. Transposing each example to many keys can work
wonders! Of course, this is work if you are trying to concentrate and think about the various VI7#9’s and such.
But you do want to learn to hear the colors and have, at least your favorites, at your disposal right?
So… … onward.
Transcribed by P. Vachon
Learning to Use Altered Dominants on One Degree at a Time
Altered Dominant: 7#9 / Major Key (part 4)
© Ted Greene 5-29-1986

There are two more degrees to take care of, bIII7 and bVII7. Both of these have required more searching
for smooth passages utilizing them. But they aren’t bad at all with certain soprano notes (we’ll get into this
thoroughly soon):

bIII7 subs for VI7

Variation (at end) on last example.

Note: bVII7 is a sub for III7 when used as in these examples.

Learning to Use Altered Dominants on One Degree at a Time: 7#9 / Major Key (part 4) Ted Greene — page 2
Many of these #9 chords wish to keep moving. We’ll do that at the bottom of the page.

Now with at least one

resolution or progression from
each of the 7#9’s:

As you can see, deciding to be thorough can take “some of your time.”
And there will be more on this subject to follow. But your ear will profit
so much from patient study and careful listening to all of the above, so as
an Assignment: Please do it. If you love harmony and want to develop a
sharp ear and great harmonic sense, this type of work is worth your time.

transcribed by P. Vachon
Main Harmonic Resources
In Contemporary Music
Ted Greene, 1975-10-05


Diatonic Sounds:
Triads I ii iii IV V vi vii°
7ths I∆7 ii7 iii7 IV∆7 V7 vi7 vii±7 (m7¨5)
Various extensions (9ths, 13ths, etc.)

Borrowed Chords (Mixtures):

Triads i ¨II ¨III iv v ¨VI ¨VII ¨vii
7ths i7 ¨II∆7 ii±7 ¨iii∆7 iv7 iv6 IV7
v7 v±7 ¨VI∆7 vi±7 ¨VII7 ¨VII∆7 ¨vii6 (or 7)

Secondary V’s (Dominants) Cross-Cycle Substitutes

V of vi: III, III7 (¨VII), ¨VII7
V of IV: (I), I7 (¨V) ¨V7
V of V: II, II7 (¨VI) ¨VI7
V of iii: VII, VII7 (IV) (IV7)
V of ii: VI, VI7 ¨III ¨III7
¨V of V ¨II ¨II7

Also Various Secondary Sub-dominants:

ii, ii7, ii±7, (ii°), II, II7, (¨II, ¨II∆7), iv, iv6, iv7, IV, IV∆7, IV7, #iv±7
This actually accounts for lots of chords like say ¨iii7.
Various Diminished 7ths and Triads
Lydian tonality
Mixolydian tonality

All types of extensions and alterations may be applied to all the above

Common Modulations to:

vi, iii, (ii), I, (iv), (v)
(¨II), (II)
Main Harmonic Resources in Contemporary Music page 2


Diatonic Sounds (including those of Aeolian, Dorian, Phrygian, Harmonic, Melodic & other minors):
Triads i (I) ¨II ii II III iv IV v V VI VII
7ths (6ths) i7 (i∆7) i6 ¨II∆7 ii±7 ii7 ii6 III∆7
iv7 iv6 IV7 v7 V7 VI∆7 §vi±7 VII7
Various extensions

Secondary V’s (Dominants) Cross-Cycle Substitutes

V of iv: I, I7 (¨V) ¨V7
V of v: II, II7 VI VI7
V of III: VII VII7 (§III) (§III7)
V of VI: III, III7 (§VI) (§VI7)
V of VII: IV, IV7 (§VII) (§VII7)
¨V of V ¨ii ¨II7

Various Secondary Sub-dominants:

ii, ii7, ii±7, (ii°), II, II7, (¨II, ¨II∆7),
iv, iv6, iv7, IV, IV7

Various Diminished 7ths and Triads


All types of extensions and alterations may be applied to all the above.

Common Modulations to:

iv, v
III, VI, (VII), I, V
Minor Key Harmonic Vocabulary Reference Page
Ted Greene 1974-06-11

7ths change the color, not the function of a triad

Degree Commonly Commonly used Function in relation to other chords
of scale used triads 7ths (& 6ths)

1st i, I i7, I7, I7¨9, im6

i (also i7, im6) are tonic and also iv of v, V
I and I7 are V of iv, IV of v, III of VI, II of VII,
I is also used in final cadences.
iº7 is used for deceptive cadences.
I7b9 is V of iv; iº7 is also II7¨9 which is V of v, V
¨2nd bII ¨II∆7, (¨II7) ¨II types are dominants and sub-dominants of i
¨II, ¨II∆7 are VI of iv, IV of VI
(¨II, is V of ¨II of iv)
2nd iiº, ii, II ii±7, II7, II7 ¨9, ii7 All ii, iiº, II types are sub-dominants of i
and v (vº, V) of V (v).
iiº, ii±7, ii, ii7 are §vi of iv.
iiº, ii±7 are #ivº of VI.
All ii, iiº, II types are iii or III of VII.
All ii, iiº, II types are vii or VII of III.
¨3rd (¨) III (¨)III∆7, (¨)III7 (¨)III is the relative major of i.
understood All III types are VII of iv, VI of v, I of III.
III and III7 are V of VI.
III and III∆7 are IV of VII.
(§)3rd §iiiº §iiiº7 §iiiº, §iiiº7 are viiº, viiº7 of iv (that is they function
as V7¨9 of iv)
which is also I7¨9
4th iv, IV ivm6, iv7, IV7 iv and IV types are sub-dominants of i.
iv and IV types are ii or II of III, i or I of iv,
vi or VI of VI, v or V of VII.
Also IV and IV7 are VII of V.
#4th #ivº (#IV) #ivº7 #ivº, #ivº7 are viiº, viiº7 (V7¨9) of v, V.
This also makes them equal to II7¨9, iº7.
(#IV is ¨II of iv)
Minor Key Harmonic Vocabulary Ref Page Ted Greene, 1974-06-11 — page 2


5th V, v, vº V7, V7¨9, v7, v±7 V, v types are dominants of i.

V, V7, V7¨9 are III of III, II of iv, I of v, V,
VII of VI, VI of VII.
vº, v±7 are ii of iv, vii of VI, iiiº of III.
v, v7 are iii of III, ii of iv, i of v, vii of VI,
vi of VII.
¨6th (¨)VI (¨)VI∆7, (¨)VI7 (¨)VI types are subdominants of i.
VI types are III of iv, I of vi, V of bII.
VI, VI∆7 are ¨II of v, V and IV of III.
6th §viº, (§vi) §vi±7, (§vi7, §viº7) §viº, §vi±7 are tonics.
All §vi and §viº types are #iv of III, ii of v, V,
vii of VII.
¨7th (¨)VII, ¨vii (¨)VII7, (¨)VII∆7, (¨)VII, (¨)VII7 are dominants of i.
¨vii7 (¨)VII, (¨)VII7, (¨)VII∆7 are III of v, I of VII.
(¨)VII, (¨)VII7 are V of III, IV of iv, II of VI.
(¨)vii, (¨)vii7 are iv of iv, ii of VI.
7th §viiº §viiº7 §viiº, §viiº7 are dominants of i (same as V7¨9).
Later developments V7¨5, V7+
and additions:

Other Baroque harmonies: pedals, pedal dominants, suspensions,

[Misc. Notes on Solo Guitar Devices]
[From Ted Greene’s Personal Music Studies papers (undated)]

1) I chord (or other single chords in tonality)

a) Sustained melodic patterns in pentatonics and such.
b) Block teams on inversions
c) Various broken chords and sliding broken chords.
d) Various “hi–lo’s”, “lo-hi’s” and such.
e) Various chord unfoldments (delays and embellished delays)


Everything in ascending, descending, contrary, and broken or mixed directions

1) Chord Unfoldment and multiple sustain - Ascending, descending, broken

Cascading or ?

1) Sustained melodic patterns

2) Chases (2 or more voices) and imitation –not derived from chordal thinking, but
rather a kind of free counterpoint
3) Certain types of harmonic patterns and melody note
4) Scale lines
5) Embellished entrances or embellished delays

2) Bass in Motion –Ascending, descending, broken (2-to-1, 3-to-1, 4-to-1, or

combinations. Also above in 3/4.

1) One chord chain (possibly combine with short progression into one category)
2) Short progression with chain
3) A chord progression with or without chains
4) Stepwise progression (including but not excluding all chord scalds –ascending
or descending)
5) Ascending or descending stepwise bass progression (not necessarily root in bass)
6) Ascending or descending cycle progression of 3rds
7) Progression of 4ths (cycle)
8) Progression of 5ths (cycle)
9) Other symmetric progressions
10) Contrary or semi- and contrary-lines - ascending and portions of this
11) 10ths with inner pedal (1-to-1)
12) Modulating Symmetric progressions
Misc. Notes on Solo Guitar Devices Ted Greene, page 2

3) Middle Voice in Motion – Ascending, descending, broken.

(2-to-1, 3-to-1, 4-to-1, or combinations. Also above in 3/4
With one chord chain; etc. as above except for 1-to-1 tenths.

4) Soprano Voice in Motion – Ascending, descending, broken.

(2-to-1, 3-to-1, 4-to-1, or combinations. Also any of the above in 3/4

1) As above except for 1-to-1 tenths
2) Plus Bass pedal or double bass pedals or Alternating Bass Pedal (with lines,
melodic patterns, triads, and other chords)
3) Plus Inner pedal (delayed or not) with a bass note
4) Plus Elaborated or delayed Soprano pedal or “Sandwich”pedal.

5) Teams, Various types of each: ”Hi-Lo”, “Lo-Hi”, broken chord, delays

on ascending, descending, and broken.
On all the above except bass pedal, inner pedal, soprano pedal, sandwich pedal

6) Block Sounds (1-to-1) Ascending, descending, broken

on: all above accept 1-to-1 tenths

7) Intervallic (2 note) Broken or Block - Ascending, descending, and mixed:

One chord such as ∆7 in 5ths and 4ths, 3rds, other

8) Harmonics (various devices with same) with virtually any of the above

9) Sliding Broken Chords and ?

A Note from Barbara Franklin about Ted’s pages on MODULATION:

Ted loved to play in ALL keys. If you listen to any of his chord melody arrangements you will
hear the frequency with which he modulates to various keys in the same song. Ted told me that he began
doing this because staying in one key became stale for him, and that a new key brought him much needed
personal stimulation in addition to rekindling interest in and infusing new life into the song.

The following pages were written by Ted in 1973, and are his only written texts detailing his
procedures for MODULATION. Although the pages are adequate, knowing Ted, there is no doubt that if
he’d written an updated definition and explanation he would have refined the text in a manner more
comprehensible for the student.

In creating this translation page, I left much of what Ted originally wrote intact. In a few instances
I rearranged the paragraphs so each section would only encompass the specifics of an individual concept.
Where I felt it might be helpful I interjected brief comments to clarified Ted’s explanation. In a few
places I eliminated that which might otherwise be confusing.

My comments are in italics. If Ted would have revised these pages later in his life he certainly
would have addressed this somewhat complicated subject with greater elaboration and written pages and
pages of examples
—Barbara Franklin
by Ted Greene — 1973, May 1

Modulation is the name given to the process of changing from one key to another. There are many subtle
variations of this process but the most common way is called Diatonic Modulation. This means: to
modulate to a key whose home chord is diatonic to the key you are leaving. Example: A modulation
from (the key of) A to Bm, C#m, D, E, or F#m is a diatonic modulation.

A diatonic modulation is almost always accomplished the same way: some variation of the V or V7 of the
new key is introduced… Often a key is entered by its home chord and then a cadence is used which
contains the V7 of the new key.

A - F#m - Bm - C#7 - F#m.
[modulation to F#m via the V7 (C#7) of the new key of F#m.]
You might say that the F#m and Bm were still in the key of A, but they are also in the key of F#m.

One reason why diatonic modulation sounds so smooth is because there are chords that are common to
both keys that are usually involved. These are called PIVOT CHORDS.

Often the V(7) of the new key is prepared by ii7(b5) or IV of the NEW KEY as well. (Actually, any
chord of the new key might precede the V7, but ii and IV are the most common.)

Diatonic modulation is also referred to as Common Chord Modulation in which a Pivot Chord, common
to both keys, is used as the means of leaving the old key and as the entry into the new key.
The original key should be firmly established in the first phrase, which could end in a half cadence on the
V chord (dominant). This chord (the “old” V) then becomes the I chord (tonic) of the new key. The V
chord is the Pivot Chord.

Temporary Modulation
If there is no cadence in the new key, the process of preceding a diatonic chord with its V7 is often
called a temporary modulation.
A - C#7 - F#m - Bm - D - E7 - A.
[The F#m - Bm is the temporary modulation]

Although A - C#7 - F#m could be said to be a modulation from A to F#m, however, because of the
briefness of such a chord progression the ear doesn’t really accept this fact as much as if a final cadence
progression is played in the new key:
A - C#7 - F#m - Bm - F#m (2nd inversion, 5th in bass*) - C#7 - F#m.

*Ted had written F#m 6/4 - I used the “word definition” to avoid confusion due to the multiple meaning
of 6/4 and the inability to properly notate the 6/4 symbol as used to designate a second inversion chord.
Also, quite frequently the ii-V of different keys are strung together without resolving to their respective
A - G#m7(b5) - C#7 - F#7 - Bm7 - E7 - [Em7 - A7 - D]
Notice that because this whole phrase ends on a ii-V-I of D, the ear can accept this as a modulation even
though no cadence follows.

Most pieces of music start and end in the same key - seems to make for good sense of proportion, balance,
unity, and all that good stuff.

By the way, while it is wise to know about this ii-V business in the diatonic keys, it is also important to
know how they relate to the home key so that you always know where you are in relation to it in case you
want to get back to it smoothly.

For example, the chords in brackets:

A - [G#m7(b5) - C#7 - F#m]
could be called: [iim7(b5) - V7 - i of F#m]
OR (could be called) [viim7(b5) - III7 - vi ] (in the key of A.)
Know it both ways and you will get the most out of it.

Direct Skip
Another common device in diatonic modulation is that of modulation at the end of a phrase or by direct
Example: A - F#m - Bm - D - A - E7 - A [pause] || E - A - E - B7 - E.

Because of the pause in the phrase, the ear readily accepts the modulation.

Sometimes the same idea will be repeated at a different pitch level, this is known as a sequence.

The important thing in all these thoughts expressed on this page is not to argue over whether this or that is
a temporary modulation or a real modulation or such, but to learn to hear these type of progressions in
songs, to learn to use them, and to understand what and why you or others are doing certain chord
changes no matter what you call them.
Modulations often occur to other keys than the diatonically related ones. All of the devices that worked in
the diatonic modulations tend to work in these others also. The most common keys to go to that are non-
diatonic are the bIII, III, bIV, or IV if the home key is major. If the home key is minor the most common
keys are I, IV, and V.
Here are some Examples:

Your best bet in learning about advanced modulation (or simple modulation too) is to study many songs,
preferably old standards, classical pieces, and some of the modern songs that have lots of pretty chord
changes in them. Then, if you take the ideas in the songs and experiment in different inversions, and try
mixing them up in various ways, you will have a whole beautiful world of sounds to play with.
Comments on Ted’s “Modulation” page
From Paul Vachon:
This page comes from Ted’s Private Music Studies papers, and was written only for him; it was not
intended as a student hand-out, so it needs some explanation. On this page Ted was exploring various
ways to modulate using a minor 6, augmented, dominant 7, and dominant 7b9 chords on different degrees
of the new key – the “target” key.

It was difficult to try to determine an “order” for which the comments and lists should be laid out. Some
of the comments may seem disjointed. We decided to put the listing of minor 6th chord modulators first,
then add some of Ted’s comments about options after that, and lump all the rest at the end.

As mentioned in my “Editor’s note,” Ted used the minor 6 chords for the “pivot” chord or modulator, and
placed it on various degrees of the new “target” key. These experiments allow one to hear how well the
m6 chord can transition into the new key.

For the first list, Ted uses the bviim6. Remembering that the minor 6 is closely related to a dominant 9
built up a 4th, Ted has listed this option in parentheses. In #1, the pivot chord of bviim6 (bIII7) is Am6
(or D9) – or you could also think of it as an F#m7b5. Listen to that sound of starting in the key of C, then
moving to the key of B using its bviim6. That is what he’s defining in #1.

In the #2 thru #10 the same pivot chord is used to get to the target key, but the relationship of the starting
key and the pivot chord changes. I think a lot of these examples are for ear-training purposes: “How does
this sound?”

In the next list he does a similar experiment but using a vim6 (II7) as the pivot chord. How does that
sound? It might be wise to do these all with good voice-leading to really hear the voices move most
effectively, logically, and musically.

In the listing of augmented chord Ted is confining his experiments to the use of augmented chords built
on the I, V, IV, and II of the starting key. So, from a start in C, he’s using C+, G+, F+ and D+ to
modulate to a variety of new keys. How does that sound? Work up some nice voice-leading on these.

Next, he tries using bIII²7 or bIII7 to all major keys and all minor keys.
This could be interpreted as using the bIII of the starting key, or the target key.
Starting key: C – Eb²7 Æ F (new major key) or to Fm (new minor key).
Starting key: C – Eb7 Æ F (new major key) or to Fm (new minor key).
Target key: C – Ab²7 Æ F (new major key) or to Fm (new minor key).
Target key: C – Ab7 Æ F (new major key) or to Fm (new minor key).
And of course, when you arrive in the new key, you don’t necessarily have to go directly to the I chord.
You may instead play a progression in that key: C – Ab²7 Æ Gm7 – C7 – Fmaj7.

The section on dominant 7 pivot chords deals with just the III7 and the VII7 degrees of the target key.

For the section on progression using 7b9 chords, Ted wrote, “in CÆ” but it seems that the examples are in
more than just the key of C.

At the end of the transcribed page is a collection of ideas, reminders, etc., for Ted to further enhance these

I hope this helps in getting some ideas from this page.

~ Paul Vachon.
Comments on Ted’s “Modulation” page

From James Hober:

Ted is investigating pivot chords that are not common and he’s trying to consider all possibilities. He’s
being very concise in that he’s not writing confirmatory chords of a key.

So when he writes:
1) C…Am6 B…Abm6 Bb etc.
It must mean something like, “Establish the key of C (with I IV V I or something), then play vim6 (= Am6)
which becomes bviim6 in the new key of B, and then establish the key of B. Then you can chain this
modulation: vim6 (= Abm6) in the key of B is viim6 in the key of Bb. And the “etc.” means that you can
continue to chain with the key areas descending by half step: C to B to Bb to A and so on.

The second one:

2) C…Abm6 Bb…F#m6 Ab etc.
has the key areas descending by whole step, and so on.

Now, I’m not hearing things as Ted apparently did. To me, C Am6 B sounds like C F#m7b5 B, and wants
to go to Em and establish the key of Em. But as Ted is being extremely terse in writing for himself, my
guess is that he would have written confirmatory chords in his target keys and may not even have
intended his pivot chord to move directly to the target tonic chord. Maybe the pivot would move first to V
in the target key or to some other chord.

As pointed out in Paul’s “Editor’s note,” the section heading “Using bviim6 (bIII7) as Pivot” must mean
that the bviim6 has that function in the target key, not in the source key.

Ted definitely wanted to catalog all possible pivot chord modulations. Here he is in the process of that
exploration. And I know he eventually had some discoveries along this line that he wanted to share with
some students. He wanted to teach me something about interesting pivot chords in my lessons but we
never got around to it. But looking at this page on “Modulation,” jogged my memory of the lesson I had
with Ted. We were talking about minor 6 chords near the end of a lesson. I think I asked Ted to explain
them to me better. I told him that I could hear i, the minor tonic chord, as a minor with an added 6. And
similarly iv with an added 6. But I had trouble understanding and hearing any other uses. To me it
usually sounded more like the homonyms: m7b5 or dominant 9 no root, when used in other

So then Ted started talking about the m6 on the bVII degree and how this could be a pivot chord. That
sounded bizarre to me. He said we would get back to discussing such pivot chords and the lesson
ended. I don’t remember discussing it again, or maybe we did but I still didn’t understand it. To this day,
the m6 chord eludes me. No doubt Ted thought about that chord in ways that I do not understand.
Perhaps if I study this personal study page of his I will understand more. Maybe you will, too.

~ James
Ted Greene – 1974-02-12

Using bviim6 (bIII7) as Pivot [First chord given is the starting key, followed by the pivot chord, which is used to
modulate to the new key. In the first example the Am6 is a bviim6 in relation to
the target key of B. Then Abm6 is the pivot to Bb. –Editor’s note.]

1) C…Am6 B…Abm6 Bb etc.

2) C…Abm6 Bb…F#m6 Ab etc.
3) C…Gm6 A…Em6 Gb etc.
4) C…Fm6 G…Cm6 D etc.
5) C…Em6 F#…Bbm6 C etc.
6) C…Ebm6 F…Abm6 Bb etc.
7) C…Dm6 E…F#m6 Ab etc.
8) C…Gm7 - C7 Gm7 - C#m6 Eb…Em6 Gb etc.
9) C…Cm6 D…Dm6 E etc.
10) C…Bbm6 C

Using vim6 (II7) as Pivot

1) C…G#m6 B…Gm6 Bb etc.
2) C…Gm6 Bb…Fm6 Ab etc.
3) C…Fm6 Ab…C#m6 E etc.
4) C…Em6 G…Bm6 D etc.
5) C…Ebm6 Gb…Am6 C
6) C…Dm6 F…Gm6 Bb etc.
7) C…C#m6 E…Fm6 Ab etc.
8) C…Cm6 Eb…Ebm6 Gb etc.
9) C…Bbm6 Db…Bm6 D etc.
10) C…Am6 C

vi, iv, bVI7 can be combined

ivm6 as Pivot (bVII7)

1) C…Em6 B…D#m6 Bb etc.
2) C…Ebm6 Bb…C#m6 Ab etc.
3) C…(preparation with Em F ) Dm6 A…Bm6 Gb etc.
4) C…C#m6 Ab…Am6 E etc.
5) C…Cm6 G…Gm6 D etc.
6) C…Bbm6 F…Ebm6 Bb etc.
7) C…Am6 E…C#m6 Ab etc.
8) C…Abm6 Eb…Bm6 Gb etc.
9) C…Gm6 D…Am6 E etc.
10) C…Fm6 C
Also to Cm, Gm, Fm (Ebm) (Dm, Em, Am)
Modulation - Ted Greene, 1974-02-12 page 2

im6 (im6 may be replaced with im7)

1) C…Bbm6 Bb etc.
2) C…Am6 A etc.
3) C…Abm6 Ab etc.
4) C…Gm6 G etc.
5) C…Fm6 F etc.
6) C…Em6 E etc.
7) C…Ebm6 Eb etc.
8) C…Dm6 D etc.
9) C…C#m6 C# etc.
10) C…Cm6 C
Also to Bbm, Am, Abm, Gm, Fm, Em, Ebm, Dm, C#m, and Cm

iiim6 to i
1) C…Em6 Cm6 to Cm
2) C…Ebm6 Bbm6 to Bbm
3) C…Dm6 Bm6
4) C…C#m6 Am6
5) C…Cm6 Abm6
6) C…Bbm6 F#m6
7) C…Am6 Fm6
8) C…Abm6 Em6
9) C…Gm6 Ebm6
10) C…Fm6 C#m6

biiim6 to i (Follow with bIII etc. in new key)

1) C…Ebm6 Cm6
2) C…Dm6 Bm6
3) C…C#m6 Bbm6
4) C…Cm6 Am6
5) C…Bbm6 Gm6
6) C…Am6 F#m6
7) C…Abm6 Fm6
8) C…Gm6 Em6
9) C…Fm6 Dm6
10) C…Em6 C#m6
Modulation - Ted Greene, 1974-02-12 page 3

§vim6 to i
1) C…Am6 Cm6
2) C…Abm6 Bm6
3) C…Gm6 Bbm6
4) C…Fm6 Abm6
5) C…Em6 Gm6
6) C…Ebm6 F#m6
7) C…Dm6 Fm6
8) C…C#m6 Em6
9) C…Cm6 Ebm6
10) C…Bbm6 C#m6

bvim6 to i
1) C…Abm6 Cm(6)
2) C…Gm6 Bm(6)
3) C…Fm6 Am(6)
4) C…Em6 G#m(6)
5) C…Ebm6 Gm(6)
6) C…Dm6 F#m(6)
7) C…C#m6 Fm(6)
8) C…Cm6 Em(6)
9) C…Bbm6 Dm(6)
10) C…Am6 C#m(6)

Possible [embellishment] of minor keys with their bvm6

Use at least 3 functions in new key for maximum smoothness.

Examples: C Cm7 Db²7 Eb7 Ab
C Cm7 Db²7 C#m7 Ab
C Cm6 Abm6 B7 Eb

(vm6 or 7 may be preceded with V7+)

II7 IV7 bVI7 in various combinations to all major and minor keys.

iim6 (viiº) to iii vi ii V

Baroque: residual functions:

C Am7 D7 G C# F# Bm….F# etc.
C or Am to Bb via Bb itself or Dm F7
(also to Gm)
Modulation - Ted Greene, 1974-02-12 page 4

I+, V+, IV+, II+ Å IV+ after IV II comes after V

1) C…G+ or C+ Cm or C
2) C…G+ or D+ Bm or B
3) C…F+ or D+ Bbm or Bb
4) C…F+ or C+ Am or A
5) C…C+ or G+ Abm or Ab
6) C…G+ or D+ Gm6 or G
7) C…D+ or F+ Gb or F#m
8) C…F+ or C+ F or Fm
9) C…C+ or G+ E or Em
10) C…G+ or D+ Eb or Ebm
11) C…D+ or F+ Dm or D
12) C…F+ or C+ Db or C#m

bIII(²7)(7) to all major and minors; also IV(²7) to majors. Also bVII, bVI, v(6), bII.

1) C…Eb7 B
2) C…D7 Bb
3) C…C7 Ab
4) C…B7 G
5) C…Bb7 Gb
6) C…A7 F
7) C…Ab7 E
8) C…G7 Eb

1) C…G7 Ab
2) C…A7 Bb
3) C…D7 Eb

Also diatonic chords

Also many ii - V’s

Include iii6 to V as well as ii, iv, IV, V:

C Cm Eb7 to G, Ab, Db, Bb, etc.
C C#m6 C#m E7 to Ab, A, D, B, etc. and so forth.
Modulation - Ted Greene, 1974-02-12 page 5

Some progressions using 7b9s – in C:

F G7b9 C
F E7b9 Dm
F E7b9 Eº A7 Dm
F Bb7b9 Bb943 Db6 E7 Ab64
F Db7b9 Db765 Ab64
F D7b9 C
F B7b9 (Bº E7) Am
F F7b9 Eb
F Ab7b9 Cm(6) D7 Gm
C F#7b9 (F#º) (B7) E or Em
C A7b9 Aº D7 Gm
C A7b9 G
C C7b9 Cº F7 Bbm
C D#7b9 D#º G#7 C#m E7 A C#m G#7 C
Am A7b9 Dm F#7b9 F#º B7 E

Beethoven (in Eb): C F G7b965 Dm64 G7b9 G7/6 C7 (Eb7) Gb7 Gb72 B

Connect any minor to a 7th chord (43) whose root is a minor 3rd up.
Connect any 7th to other 7ths whose roots are major or minor 3rds up or down. (C D7 B7 Ebm)
Convert any major into a Rº7 by adding leading tone of destination.

I I²7+ or I7+ (also I²9+) III or bVI

I I7+ iiim6

7b9 part of any Rº7 can function as V or II7 of new key.

Also think in these terms to various keys:
iii V7, iv bVII, bvi bII, vii III, i IV,
biii bVI, #iv VII, vi II, v I,
bvii bIII, iii VI – either chord may be omitted from these pairs in minor keys.
Use all ii V’s – that is on all degrees.

Use diatonic chords in new keys as “pullers”

Also chromatic alterations to old key to create new key.
IV iv I ala “Valentine” intro.
Compounds; Sym. Compounds (“Bouree”); Mixed Scales; Mod. Sequences;
Sym. Mod’s (include subdominant and dominant) in 4ths, b3rds, b2nds descending cycle progressions:
E A13 D13 G13 Gm7 C7 F.
Poly. Contr.; Chrom. Contr.; Direct (phrase); Rootacization; Bass line ascending and descending walks.
Most Common Harmonic Tendencies
in Jazz and Related Music
Ted Greene, 1977-10-27 & 1979-09-14

7th symbols List modulation keys also?

7th’s can be reduced to triads or expanded to included upper extensions. Likewise 6ths.
Triad symbols can be expanded….

Major Key
I to: I7, i°7, ¨II7 as vamps, #i°7 (actually VI7¨9 or v°7), ii7, II7, ¨III7, (¨iii7) ¨iii°7 (actually i°7)
III7, iii±7, (iii7), IV, IV7, iv7, (iv6), #iv±7, (#iv7), ¨V7, V7, v7, v6 (iii±7), ¨VI7, (¨vi7), vi7,
vi6 (#iv±7), VI7, ¨VII7, ¨VII, ¨vii7, vii±7, vii7, VII7.
(also i7, i6, i+, but all less common, though not totally rare.)
I7 to: IV, IV7, (iv7 or 6), #iv±7 (vi6), II(7), i7, i°7
(i7 to: IV7, vii7 or vii±7)
I+ to: I6, vi, IV
¨II to: I, I7
¨II²7 to: I, ii7
#i°7 to: ii7, V7/5
ii7 to: V7, (v7), ¨II7, ¨II²7, ¨iii°7, (i°7), VI7, (vi7), iii7, (III7), iv7(or iv6), ¨VII7, ii7/7, (IV/5), vii±7, (vii7)
ii±7 to: V7, ¨II7, ¨II²7, I
II7 to: V(7), ¨II7, ¨II²7, ii7, ii±7 (iv6), vi7 as vamps, VI7,
¨iii7 to: ii7, ¨VI7
¨iii°7 to: ii7, I/3, (V7, iii7)
¨III7 to: ¨VI²7, ¨VI7, ii7, II7
¨III²7 to: ¨VI²7, ii7, ii±7
iii7 to: vi7, VI7, ¨iii7, ¨III7, ¨iii°7, (¨III²7), I7, (v7), i7 or 6 when going into key of V, ii7, IV²7, IV7, iv7 or 6, ¨VI7
III7 to: vi7, VI7, ¨III7, iii7, iii±7, (¨III²7), IV
iii±7 to: VI7
IV to: iv7 or 6, ¨VII7, #iv°7 (i°7), #iv±7, V7, vii±7, (vii7), II7, iii7 or iii±7, III7, I
IV7 to: III7, iii7 (iii±7), I, I7, #iv°7, #iv±7, iv7 or 6, ¨VII7, vii±7 or vii7
iv6: (see ii±7)
¨V7 to: IV, iv7, IV7, iv6
iv7 to: ¨VII7 iii7 or iii±7, I
#iv°7 to: I/5, I7/5
#iv±7 to: VII7, IV7, iv7, iv6, V7, I
#iv7 to: VII7, IV7, iv7
V7 to: I, I7, iii7, iii±7, III7, v7, #iv7, #iv±7, vii±7, vii7, ii7 or ii±7 as vamps, iv7
v7 to: I7
v6: (see iii±7)
¨VI7 to: ii7, ii±7, (II7), ¨II²7, ¨II7, V7, I
¨vi7 to: ¨II7, v7, V7
¨VI²7 to: ¨II²7¨II7, V7, ii7, ii±7, ¨vi7
vi(7) to: ii7, II7, ii±7, vi7/7 (I/5), #iv±7 (vi6), ¨VI7, ¨vi7, III7 as vamps, (VII7), I7/5
vi6: (see #iv±7)
VI7 to: ii7, ii±7, II7, ¨iii7, iii7 (or iii±7) as vamps, #iv±7, ¨VI7, vi7
¨VII7 to: I, iii7, (iii±7), VI7, vi7, ¨III7, ¨III²7, iv7 as vamps
¨vii7 to: ¨III7
vii 7 & vii7 to: III7, iii7, iii±7, (¨VII7, ¨vii7)
VII7 to: iii7, iii±7, III7, vii±7 or vii7, I, (iv7)
Non-Harmonic Tones (NH Tones)
Ted Greene 9-16-1973

Non-harmonic tones can be defined generally as quickly moving tones that are unessential
and/or foreign to the chords with which they are being played. They are arrived at and usually
conceived by the melodic action of a given voice in a chord. Remember that chords do not only have
to be thought of as frozen blocks of sound; rather, they are most often treated as a temporary freezing
of the separate melodic lines which are constantly in motion.

However, because melodies tend to either be conceived from, or to imply a certain chordal
background, it has been found convenient to classify tones as those belonging to the chords and those
not (this is in reference to triads and triadal harmony mainly because almost any tone can be frozen to a
triad, and this new combination then given a name. For example, an A triad with a B note is called an
A added 9th, but this viewpoint will be covered thoroughly later – for now everything is in terms of
triads – if a note does not belong to a triad with which it is being played, it will be called a non-
harmonic tone).

Stepwise motion has been found to be the smoothest type of melodic interval, so the whole and
1/2 steps dominate most melodies; however, when there is a melodic skip (a movement other than by
step) the diatonic notes that are missing may be commonly filled in.

become: or:

This type of NH tones are called Passing Tones.

Notice that chromatic (non-diatonic) passing tones could be used instead:


However, it is better to learn how to use diatonic passing tones first, so as not to miss the many beautiful sounds
they produce.
Non-Harmonic Tones Ted Greene, 1973-09-16 — page 2

So now go back to all of your exercises and try adding passing tones. Sometimes you will run across physical
limitations. Example:

If you try to move the C# note

in the A chord up to E in the
E chord via the diatonic note D,
you would have to remove
one of the other notes from
the neck in order to finger it.

You could try playing the A like this:

which is rough, or
better yet, you could
try relocating the chords
and see if this will solve
the problem. In this case the
following re-location will
probably be easier than the
optional fingering given:

You must use all the resources at your disposal to cope effectively with non-harmonic tones. You may have
noticed that NH tones help give motion to chordal sounds; also the temporary dissonance they create helps to
give variety and added color.

Scale tones are used to embellish chordal tones in other ways such as some of the following:
(Numbers refer to chronological
order of notes to be played.) Diatonic NH Tones:

NH Tones
will be
Non-Harmonic Tones Ted Greene, 1973-09-16 — page 3

As you can see this system of [chord grid] notation leaves something to be desired (another argument in favor of
learning how to read music).

You should practice these techniques with all of your old exercises and also if you haven’t learned to read music
yet, you should start today; it will be much easier in the long run.

One more common device with NH tones is suspension. A suspension is a NH tone that is carried over from one
chord into the following and is then resolved usually by step up or down. Example:


So suspensions act as a delaying of the resolution. Suspensions are often sustained between both chords (that is
the note is not plucked again in the second chord) but this is by no means necessary and is often impossible on
the guitar.

Other scale notes are often inserted Notice that because of the device in notation
between a suspension and its resolution: known as the tie, that chordal common tones
can be sustained:

This device differs from a suspension in that

the suspension is sustaining a note that is foreign
to the second of the two chords dealt with.
“Non-Voice Leading” Exercises on Important Progressions
(4-Part Triads)
Ted Greene, 1974-11-15

To add variety, voice-leading is sometimes abandoned. One common instance of this (when working
with 4-note triads whose top 3 notes are in close position) is to move the top 3 notes to the position
opposite the normal direction. This opens up the possibility of passing tones.

Example: A to D

When connecting chords whose roots go down in 3rds, take the next higher position than normal.
When connecting chords whose roots go up in 3rds, take the next lower position than normal.

Following is a list of progressions with the places to change position circled; once you change
direction, continue chord connecting procedures as usual (from wherever you are now).

Example: given: I - IV - V - I

Using as a starting place Æ

…you would get two changes of position, because D to E is a chord progression by 2nds, and as you
have learned, these normally are played with a change of position to avoid parallelism.

The goal of these exercises (as with most) is not to have each one memorized by a separate title
(like “I-IV-I-V-I with a change of position on I”) but rather, to get you familiar with the neck of the
guitar so you will feel free to move in different directions instead of one fixed pattern.
This is not to say, however, that you shouldn’t know what you are playing, that is, the names of
the chords. These should always be present – you just don’t need all the ultra-specifics to be
uppermost in your mind when playing a simple progression.
For instance, no matter how you play a I-IV-I it is still I-IV-I — the main thing is to know lots
of nice I-IV-I patterns all over the neck, not to clutter up the brain with too many specifics. The human
mind can only think of so much at once — the names of the chords, the particular inversions, and the
Roman numerals will be plenty.
‘Non-Voice-Leading’ Exercises on Important Progressions, Ted Greene p. 2

[ = place to change position]

Try to add passing tones where possible in all examples.

1) I - IV - I | I - IV - I | I - IV - I |

2) I - V - I | I - V - I | I - V - I |

3) I - IV - I V I | I - IV - I V - I |
4) I - ii - V I | I - ii - V - I |

5) I - vi - V I | I - vi - V - I |

6) I - vi - ii V I | I - vi - ii - V - I | I - vi - ii - V - I |

I - vi - ii V I | I - vi - ii - V - I | I - vi - ii - V - I |

7) I - vi - IV V I |

8) iii - vi - ii V I | iii - vi - ii V I | iii - vi - ii V I | iii - vi - ii V I |

9) I - iii - IV V I |

10) vi - iii - IV I | vi - iii - IV I |

11) ii - vi - IV I |
‘Non-Voice-Leading’ Exercises on Important Progressions, Ted Greene p. 3

Important Progressions in Minor Keys (with and without voice-leading)

1) i - iv - i | i - iv - i | i - iv - i |

2) i - V - i | i - V - i | i - V - i |

3) i - iv - V - i | i - iv - V - i | i - iv - V - i |

4) i - iv - i - V - i | i - iv - i - V - i | i - iv - i - V - i |

5) i - VI - V - i |

6) i - VI - iiº - V - i | i - VI - iiº - V - i |

7) i - VI - iv - V - i | i - VI - iv - V - i |

8) III - VI - iiº - V - i | III - VI - iiº - V - i |

9) i - III - iv - V - i | i - III - IV - V - i |

10) VI - III - iv - i | VI - III - iv - i |

Normal 18th and 19th Century Harmonic Vocabulary
Ted Greene – 1975-02-22

Listed in keys of C and Am

Only chords that are normally used without completely pulling into a new key are listed
here. There is a fine line to tread when deciding this – it is often debatable and up to each

Degree of Scale:
I C, Csus and other appoggiatura chords like C/9 (see below), C6, C∆7
Cm, (Cm6), (Cm∆7), Cm appoggiatura chords, Cm7
C○, C○7, C○7 appoggiatura chords
C7, C7/6, C9, C7sus, C7+, C7¨5, C7¨9, C7¨9 appoggiatura chords,
C7 pedal dominants, C+
(#i) ¨II (D¨, D¨/#11, D¨∆7, D¨∆7/#11, D¨/9#11, D¨6), D¨6 (Neapolitan 6th)
D¨7, D¨9 (Italian 6th), D¨7¨5
C#○, C#○7, C#○7 appoggiatura chords, (C#±7), (C#+)
II D, Dsus, D7, D7/6, D9, D7sus, D7¨5, D7¨9, D7¨9 appoggiatura chords,
D7 pedal dominants
Dm, Dm7, Dm/9, Dm6, Dm appoggiatura chords, Dm+
D○, D±7, D○7, D○7 appoggiatura chords.
(#ii) ¨III E¨, (E¨6, E¨∆7, E¨sus, E¨/#11), E¨7, E¨7 – Italian 6th, E¨7¨5, E¨7¨9, E¨7¨9
appoggiatura chords, E¨+
D#○, D#○7 (E¨○7), D#○7 appoggiatura chords
(E¨m, E¨m6)
III E, Esus, E7, E7sus, E7+, E7¨5, E7¨9, E7¨9 appoggiatura chords,
E7 pedal dominants, E+, (E7 – Italian 6th)
Em, Em7, (Em6), Em appoggiatura chords
E○, E○7, E○7 appoggiatura chords, E±7
IV F, F/#11, F/9(#11), F∆7, F6, F appoggiatura chords
Fm, Fm6, Fm∆7, Fm7, Fm/9, Fm+,
(F±7), F○, F○7, F○7 appoggiatura chords
(F7), F7¨5, F7 – Italian 6th, (F+), (Fsus)
#IV (F#, F#m, F#m7) F#○, F#±7, F#○7, F#○7 appoggiatura chords
F#7, F#7 – Italian 6th, F#7¨5
V G, Gsus, G7, G7/6, G7sus, G9, G7¨9, G7¨9 appoggiatura chords, G7¨5, G7+,
G7 pedal dominants, G+
Gm, Gm7, Gm6, Gm+
G○, (G±7), G○7, G○7 appoggiatura chords.
Normal 18th and 19th Century Harmonic Vocabulary Ted Greene, 1975‐02‐22 page 2

(#i) ¨VI A¨, A¨∆7, A¨6, A¨/#11, A¨/9#11, (A∆7#11, A¨sus)

A¨7, A¨7/6, A¨7sus, A¨9, A¨7¨5, (A¨7+), A¨7¨9, A¨7¨9 appoggiatura chords,
A¨7 – Italian 6th, A¨+
A¨m, A¨m6, A¨m∆7, (A¨m7)
G#○, G#○7 (A¨○7), G#○7 appoggiatura chords
VI A, Asus, A7, A7sus, (A9), A7+, A7¨5, (A7 – Italian 6th), A7¨9, A7¨9
appoggiatura chords, (A+), A7 pedal dominants
Am, Am7, Am6, Am+, Am/9, Am appoggiatura chords
A○, (A±7), A○7, A○7 appoggiatura chords
¨VII B¨, B¨6, (B¨∆7, B¨/#11, B¨/9#11, B¨sus)
B¨7, (B¨7/6, B¨9), B¨7sus, B¨7 – Italian 6th, B¨7¨5, B¨7¨9,
B¨7¨9 appoggiatura chords
(B¨m, B¨m6, B¨m7, B¨m/9)
B¨○, B¨○7, B¨○7 appoggiatura chords
VII B, Bsus, B7, B7sus, B7+, B7¨5, B7¨9, B7¨9 appoggiatura chords,
B pedal dominants, B+, (B7 – Italian 6th)
Bm, Bm7, B○, B±7, B○7, B○7 appoggiatura chords

Degree of Scale
I Am, Am7, Am6, Am∆7, Am+, Am/9, Am appoggiatura chords
A, Asus, A7, A7sus, A7 pedal dominants, A7+, A7¨5, A7¨9,
A7¨9 appoggiatura chords, (A7 – Italian 6th), A+
A○, (A±7), A○7, A○7 appoggiatura chords
¨II B¨, B¨6, (B¨∆7, B¨/#11, B¨/9#11, B¨∆7#11, B¨sus), (B¨7, B¨7 – Italian 6th), B¨7¨5
B¨○, B¨○7, B¨○7 appoggiatura chords
III B, B7, Bsus, B7sus, B7+, B7¨5, (B7 – Italian 6th), B7 pedal dominants, B7¨9,
B7¨9 appoggiatura chords, (B+)
B○, B±7, B○7, B○7 appoggiatura chords
Bm, Bm7
(¨)III C, Csus, C6, C∆7, C appoggiatura chords
C7, C7sus, C7/6, C9, C7¨9, C7¨9 appoggiatura chords, C+ (C7+, C7¨5,
C7 pedal dominants)
C○, C○7, C○7 appoggiatura chords
(Cm, Cm6, Cm∆7)
Normal 18th and 19th Century Harmonic Vocabulary Ted Greene, 1975‐02‐22 page 3

§III (¨IV) C#○, C#○7, C#○7 appoggiatura chords, (C#±7)

(D¨6), D¨7 – Italian 6th, D¨7¨5, (D¨7)
IV Dm, Dm6, Dm7, Dm/9, Dm+, Dm appoggiatura chords
D, D7, (D7/6, D9), D7sus, D7¨9, D7¨9 appoggiatura chords,
(D7 pedal dominants)
D○, D○7, D○7 appoggiatura chords
#IV (¨V) D#○, D#○7, D#○7 appoggiatura chords, E¨7 – Italian 6th, E¨7¨5, E¨7, (E¨, E¨+)
V E, Esus, E appoggiatura chords, E7, E7sus, E7+, E7¨5, E7¨9,
E7¨9 appoggiatura chords, E7 pedal dominants, E+
Em, Em7, Em+, Em appoggiatura chords, (Em6)
E○, E±7, E○7, E○7 appoggiatura chords
(¨)VI F, F#11, F/9#11, F∆7#11, F∆7, F6, (Fsus)
F7, F7sus, F7/6, F9, F7¨5, F7¨9, F7¨9 appoggiatura chords, F7 – Italian 6th, F+
Fm, Fm6, (Fm∆7, Fm/9, Fm7)
F○, F○7, F○7 appoggiatura chords, (F±7)
§VI F#○, F#±7, F#○7, F#○7 appoggiatura chords, F#7 – Italian 6th, F#7¨5, F#7
(¨)VII G, Gsus, G7, G7sus, G7/6, G9, (G7¨5), G7¨9, G7¨9 appoggiatura chords, (G+),
G7 pedal dominants
Gm, Gm6, Gm7, (Gm/9)
G○, G○7, G○7 appoggiatura chords, (G±7)
§VII (¨I) G#○, G#○7, G#○7 appoggiatura chords, (A¨, A¨7, A¨7/6, A¨7¨5, A¨9, A¨7sus),
A¨7 – Italian 6th, A¨+, (A¨∆7, A¨6, A¨/#11, A¨/9#11)

Some typical appoggiatura chords on C: C/9, F64, G7 pedal dominants, (A¨6, D¨∆72, F743, C○7, etc.)
Scale-Chord Relationships in Popular Music
Ted Greene, 1974-03-23

1) Diatonic Chords in Major – use appropriate modes.

2) Secondary Chords: II7
a) II7 – Mixolydian mode (all extensions of II7 use this mode too)
b) II7, II7+, II9+ – Mixolydian of Melodic minor
c) II7, II7+, II7¨9, II7¨9+, (II11¨9(+)) – Mixolydian of Harmonic minor
d) II7+, II7¨5, II7¨9+, II7#9+, II7¨9¨5, II7#9¨5 – Locrian Melodic scale
e) II7, II7¨9, II13¨9, II7¨9¨5, II13¨9¨5, II7#9, II7#9¨5, II13#9 – Half-Whole scale
f) II+, II7¨5, II7+, II9+, II9¨5 – Whole-tone scale
g) II7, II9, II13, II7/6, II7¨5, II7#11, II9¨5, II#11, II13#11 – Melodic Minor up a 5th
(do not think Lydian Melodic)
h) II7#9(¨5) – Blues scale
— V7 uses all scales [above] according to taste and necessity —
3) Other Secondary Chords:
VI7: Most common 1st choice usually is Mixolydian Harmonic Minor with added #9th.
Second choice: Locrian Melodic. Third choice: Mixolydian.
III7: Like VI7
VII7: Like VI7, III7
I7: Treat is same manner as V7 (it is used as V7 of IV)
IV7: Mixolydian; Melodic Minor up a 5th
¨VII7 Melodic Minor up a 5th; Mixolydian
¨II7: Melodic Minor up a 5th
¨III7: Mixolydian, Melodic Minor up a 5th
¨V7: Treat as the bII7 of IV
¨VI7: Melodic Minor up a 5th, Mixolydian
4) Any major extended family sound: use Major or Lydian scales.
5) Any major+ sound: use relative Melodic and Harmonic Minor scales
6) On minor 7 chords other than the three diatonic ones, the Dorian mode is almost always used.
Exceptions to this are when a modulation has taken place and some vi or iii chords are being used, in
which case you use the appropriate modes (Aeolian and Phrygian respectively).
7) On minor 7¨5 chords use either Locrian, Dorian of Harmonic Minor, or Aeolian of Melodic Minor.
8) On minor 6 chords use either the Melodic or Dorian scales depending on whether the melody allow
either or both.
9) On minor/major 7 types, use the Melodic or Harmonic Minor scales.
10) Diminished 7 chords should be converted to 7¨9 chords with the appropriate scale then being played.

Minor Keys
1) Diatonic Chords (all 5 main scales) – use appropriate modes.
2) Secondary Chords:
II7: Use Mixolydian of Harmonic Minor, Locrian Melodic, Half-Whole, Mixolydian.
¨VII7: Treat as V7 of ¨III
IV7: As in major keys, but also when functioning as V7 of ¨VII, the other scales on V7 may be
¨II7, ¨V7, ¨VI7: Same as major keys.
¨IiI7: Treat as V7 of ¨VI
Secondary Dominants, Tonicization (part 1)
Ted Greene 1975-05-15

Play the following examples:

Observe the E7, D7 chords in the first example, and the C7, B7 in the second example. These chords are
acting as V7’s of the chords which follow them. These V7’s are called Secondary Dominants.

To further explain:
In days of olde, musicians were curious about other sounds than the diatonic resources which they had
become friends with. The V7 – I (or i) had become the most important progression for defining a key
with just two chords, and this relationship of chords so intrigued a few musicians that they tried applying
the same logic (that is: preceding a triad with its V7) to other diatonic triads. Æ For instance, in the key of
C, they experimented preceding Dm with A7, Em with B7, F with C7, G with D7, and Am with E7.
These diatonic triads (Dm, Em, F, etc.), when preceded with their own V7’s (A7, B7, C7, etc.), take on
the feel of Temporary Tonics; diminished triads cannot be preceded with their own V7’s because there is
no such thing as a diminished key, or in other words, a diminished chord cannot be a temporary tonic, and
it has no V7.

If you are confused, here is another approach:

A great deal of harmonic richness can be gained by temporarily treating diatonic major or minor triads as
if they were the home key and preceding them with chords that function as dominants (V, V7, vii°, vii±7,
vii°7) in their own key. These dominant functioning chords are called Secondary Dominants; this whole
process is called Tonicization.
Secondary Dominants, Tonicization, (part 1) Ted Greene, 1975-05-15 — page 2

Examples: Suppose you decided to work with I IV V I in the key of C. Here it is with tonicization:

Notice in both examples (#3 and #4) that I is also being “tonicized,” that is, preceded with its own V7.
Also notice in example #1 at the top of the page that V7, not V, is being tonicized – since diatonic 7ths
may replace diatonic triads, the 7ths may be tonicized too.


Here are examples of each specific type of secondary dominant commonly used in Baroque harmony:

Major Key Types:

V of V Formed by raising the 3rd of the ii triad, so as to make a major triad (II); often substitutes
for ii (all secondary dominants are used as substitutes for their various related chords).

V7 of V Formed by raising the 3rd of the ii7; becomes II7.

Notice how V of V and especially V7 of V increase the drive to V in these 1/2 cadences.
Secondary Dominants, Tonicization, (part 1) Ted Greene, 1975-05-15 — page 3

vii±7 of V Formed by raising the root of IV major7; becomes #iv±7. vii° of V (#iv°) is more rarely used.


Minor Key Types:

For an interesting comparison showing the contrast between major and minor modes, the above examples
(#5, #6, and #7) are shown in their parallel minor keys below, illustrating the secondary dominants (as
listed [below]) in minor keys.

V of V Formed by raising the 3rd and 5th of ii°, thereby creating II.

V7 of V Formed by raising the 3rd and 5th of ii±7, creating II7.

Note use of melodic minor

to avoid the +2nd interval

Rvii°7 of V – also called V7b9 of V Formed by raising the 3rd and root of iv7, creating #iv°7 or
[R = “raised”] II7b9. Rvii° of V is used more rarely.
Secondary Dominants, Tonicization (part 2)
Ted Greene 1975-05-15

Play the following examples:

Major Key Types:

V of vi Formed by raising the 3rd of the iii, thereby creating III.


V7 of vi Formed by raising the 3rd of the iii7, thereby creating III7.

Rvii°7 of vi (V7b9 of vi): Formed by raising the root of V7, creating #v°7 or III7b9.
Rvii° of vi is more rare.


Secondary Dominants, Tonicization, (part 2) Ted Greene, 1975-05-15 — page 2

Minor Key Types:

For an interesting comparison showing the contrast between major and minor modes, the above examples
(#5, #6, and #7) are shown in their parallel minor keys below, illustrating the secondary dominants (as
listed [below]) in minor keys.

V of VI Formed by flatting the 7th of IIImaj7, creating III7.


vii±7 of VI Pretty rare. Formed by lowering the 5th of v7, creating v±7.
vii° of VI is more rare.


Major Key Types:

V of ii Formed by raising the 3rd of the vi, creating VI.

Secondary Dominants, Tonicization, (part 2) Ted Greene, 1975-05-15 — page 3

V7 of ii Formed by raising the 3rd of the vi7, creating VI7.


Rvii°7 of ii (V7b9 of ii): Formed by raising the root and lowering the 7th of Imaj7,
creating #i°7 or VI7b9. Rvii° of ii is more rare.


Major Key Types:

V of IV = I

V7 of IV Formed by lowering the 7th of Imaj7, creating I7.

Secondary Dominants, Tonicization, (part 2) Ted Greene, 1975-05-15 — page 4

vii±7 of IV: Formed by lowering the 5th of iii7, creating iii±7. (Medium rare)
vii° of IV is pretty rare.


Minor Key Types:

V of iv Formed by raising 3rd of i, creating I.


V7 of iv Formed by raising 3rd of i7, creating I7.

Secondary Dominants, Tonicization, (part 2) Ted Greene, 1975-05-15 — page 5

Rvii°7 (V7b9 of iv): Formed by raising root and lowering 7th of IIImaj7, creating I7b9 (iii°7).
Rvii° of iv is rare.


Major Key Types:

V of iii Formed by raising the 3rd and 5th of the vii°, creating VII.

V7 of iii Formed by raising the 3rd and 5th of the vii±7, creating VII7.
Secondary Dominants, Tonicization, (part 2) Ted Greene, 1975-05-15 — page 6

Rvii°7 (V7b9 of iii): Formed by raising root and 3rd of ii7, creating VII7b9 (#ii°7).
Rvii° of iii is more rare.


Minor Key Types:

V of III = VII

V7 of III = VII7
All these are already diatonic.
vii±7 of III = ii±7

vii°of III = ii°


Minor Key Types:

V of VII = IV

V7 of VII = IV7 On the one hand, these chords are derived from the
melodic minor scale and are used to avoid the +2nd interval.
vii±7 of VII = Rvi±7 On the other hand, they function as secondary dominants
of VII.
vii° of VII = Rvi°


You probably have noticed how most of the secondary dominants bring in chromatic (non-
diatonic) tones to a key; also, how rich they sound. Because of this variety and richness, composers have
used them extensively for hundreds of years.
Use of secondary dominants is actually a type of Temporary Modulation (modulation means
changing from one key to another) – more on this later.
Try variations on all the examples given so far; use different inversions but the same root
progressions. Do in many keys. A series of exercises will follow soon.
Secondary Dominants, Tonicization (part 3)
Ted Greene 1975-05-16

Sometimes it might be easier to think of secondary dominants in terms of the home key as far as
Roman numeral thinking goes. Example: Suppose you are playing around with a I vi ii V progression,
and decide to precede ii with its V7 (which is VI7 in the home key). You might then play I VI7 ii V and
think of VI7 as a chromatic substitute for vi. Experiment with this type of thinking in various
Other good places to use home key numbering are in progressions that use secondary dominants as
chromatic replacements in cycles of 4ths which will be illustrated below:
A pretty common device in Baroque music is the Chain of Dominants where each secondary
dominant is followed by another secondary dominant whose root is a 4th higher.

Example: in key of C Æ E72 A765 D72 G765 C

V72 of vi V765 of ii V72 of V V765

Such a cycle could probably be thought of (in terms of Roman numerals) more easily in the home key.
Example: III72 VI765 II72 V765

Also see example #23 [in part 2].

Here is an example of some chain dominants to play:

Notice the chromatic bass line; this is what happens when you alternate 3rds and 7ths in the bass in
such a chain, which brings up another point: you may have noticed that in the examples of secondary
dominants given so far, very few root in the bass voicings are used as secondary V’s or V7’s. All I can
say is that this was the custom of the time—that is, the composers and musicians just favored the sound of
inversions over root position voicings (as secondary V’s and V7’s). You must have observed how rich
these inverted chords sound by now so this shouldn’t be hard to accept; it was only later in impressionistic
and jazz harmony, with the addition of other colorful tones to chords, that root in the bass voicings took
over again.
Another use of secondary dominants which could be labeled Sandwich Tonicization or Internal
Tonicization is illustrated in the following examples:
Secondary Dominants, Tonicization, (part 3) Ted Greene, 1975-05-16 — page 2

In example #25 the secondary dominant is “sandwiched” between two inversions of its tonic (ii).
In example #26 the secondary dominant precedes and then is sandwiched between its tonic (ii).

You can see why this device is given its name, I hope. To really absorb these concepts, to make
them become part of your musical life, it would be good for you to make up some progressions (in both
major and minor keys) using the chain dominant concept; then also make up some using the Internal
Tonicization concept. Next, go back to some of your old progressions and try the following

1) Replace, precede or follow vi or vi7 with VI or VI7 or VI7b9 (this includes all inversions).
2) Replace, precede or follow ii or ii7 with II or II7 or #iv±7 (this includes all inversions).
3) Replace, precede or follow iii or iii7 with III or III7 or III7b9 (this includes all inversions).
4) Replace, precede or follow vii○ or vii±7 with VII or VII7 or VII7b9 (this includes all inversions).
5) Replace, precede or follow I or Imaj7 with I7 or iii±7 (this includes all inversions).

Then do similar in minor keys.

All of the above modifications will not work in all cases, but it is good for your ears to find out for
yourself. You might try combining different modifications.
Example: Taking I vi ii V as a model you might play

I VI765 II V765
I vi6 VI765 ii II72 V6 I
I vi VI72 II6 ii765 V7 I (or III)

Later for variety’s sake you might wish to try different meters (such as 4/4, 3/4, 6/8, etc.) or pulses, and
possibly different harmonic rhythms (harmonic rhythm has to do with how often chord changes appear in
a piece of music). Examples of different harmonic rhythms applied to I vi ii V are the last two examples

More exercises are listed on the follow page [part 4 of this series].
Secondary Dominants, Tonicization (part 4)
Ted Greene 1975-05-17

Practice the following exercises in various keys (all keys for the serious musician) with different
meters, pulses, and harmonic rhythms as discussed on the previous page [part 3]. Many of these are
sequences, and you will find that they work out best in keys where the 1st chord can be started on a
reasonably high or reasonably low fret, depending on whether they are descending sequences or ascending
sequences—this will become clear as you try them. You might try “setting up” the home key first (play a
diatonic progression to get the sound of the key in your ears) to help you hear the main tonal center of
these examples.

Major Key:
1) I V743 of vi vi V743 of IV IV V743 of ii ii IVmaj743 vii±7 V743 of V V V765 I

2) I V765 of vi vi V765 of IV IV V765 of ii ii IVmaj765 vii±7 V765 of V I64 V7 I

why V of V to I?

2a) I V7b965 of vi vi V765 of IV IV V7b965 of ii ii IVmaj765 vii±7 II765 I64 V7 I

2b) I V765 of vi vi V765 of IV IV V765 of ii II72 V765 I IV #iv±7 #iv±765 I64 V7 I

3) I6 V72 of vi vi6 V72 of IV IV6 V72 of ii ii6 V765 I I6 #iv±765 #iv±7 I64 V7 I

|| Try 1st inversion triads in place of 65’s occasionally; also 7b9’s on V of ii, iii, and vi. (See #2a). ||

4) I I72 IV6 vii±72 III765 VI72 II765 V72 I6 vii±7 IV64 #iv±7 I64 V7 I

4a) I I72 vii±72 III765 | VI72 II765 V72 I765 | IV vii±7 IV64 #iv±7 | I64 V7 I

4b) I IV6 vii±72 III765 | vi72 II765 V72 I765 | IV vii±765 iii vi7 | ii7 V7 I

4c) I I765 IV VII765 | III72 VI765 II72 V765 | I I72 IV6 I64 | II6 V7 I

4d) I IV VII765 III72 | VI765 II72 V765 I72 | IV6 ii6 I6 II765 V

4e) I IVmaj765 vii○ III765 vi II765 V

4f) I IVmaj765 VII III765 VI II765 V

4g) I #iv±765 vii III765 vi II765 V

4h) Imaj765 IV vii±765 iii VI765 ii V765 I

4i) Imaj765 IV vii±765 III vi765 (or VI765) II V765 I

4j) Imaj765 IV (or #iv○) VII765 III VI765 II V765 I

Secondary Dominants, Tonicization, (part 4) Ted Greene, 1975-05-17 — page 2

5) I V72 of ii ii6 V72 of IV IV6 V72 of vi vi6

5a) I V765 of ii ii V765 of IV IV V765 of vi vi

5b) I V743 of ii ii6 V743 of IV IV6 V743 of vi vi6

6) I V765 of IV IV V765 of V V V765 of vi vi

7) I V765 of ii ii V765 of IV IV V765 of V V V765 of vi vi V765 I V7 of V (II7) V

8) I V765 of IV IV V765 of ii ii V765 of V V V765 of iii iii V765 of vi vi V765 IV64

#iv±7 I64 V7 I

8a) I V765 of IV IV V765 of ii II V765 of V V V765 of iii III V765 of vi vi V765 IV64
#iv±7 I64 V7 I

9) I V765 of vi vi V765 of V V V765 of IV IV V765 of iii iii V765 of ii ii V765 I ii6

I64 V7 I

9a) I V765 of vi VI V765 of V V V765 of IV IV V765 of iii III V765 of ii II V765 I

#iv±765 I64 V7 I

9b) I6 V743 of vi vi6 V743 of V V6 V743 of IV IV6 V743 of iii iii6 V743 of ii ii6 V743 I6
IV I64 V7 I

9c) I6 V72 of vi vi6 V72 of V V6 V72 of IV IV6 V72 of iii iii6 V72 of ii ii6 V72 I6 vii±765
IV64 V7 I

9d) I6 V72 of vi VI6 V72 of V V6 V72 of IV IV6 V72 of iii III6 V72 of ii II6 V72 I6
vii±765 IV64 V7 I

10) I V72 of V | V6 V72 of iii | iii6 V72 | I6 V72 of vi vi6 V72 of IV |

IV6 V72 of ii ii6 vii○6 of ii | ii vii±7 IV64 | #iv±765 #iv±7 I64 V7b965 of vi | vi
/ / //

10a) I V743 of V | V V743 of iii | iii V743 | I V743 of vi vi V743 of IV |

IV V743 of ii ii V765 | IV64 II765 I64 V7 | I

10b) I6 V765 of V | V V765 of iii | iii V765 | I V765 of vi vi V765 of IV |

IV V765 of ii ii V765 | IV64 II765 I64 V7 | I

11) I IV64 I V72 of V V6 V743 of V V V743 of iii iii vi7 ii7 V7 I

12) I V765 I V765 of V V V72 of ii ii6 V of vi vi V72 of iii iii6 IV I6 V743 I

Secondary Dominants, Tonicization, (part 4) Ted Greene, 1975-05-17 — page 3

Minor Keys:
Before you go any further in minor keys it would be good to know about a few other choice sounds:
Play the following example:

Notice the colorful sound built on the bII of Gm (Ab6)—it is called a Neapolitan 6th. It is built by
lowering the root of a ii○ (thereby forming a major triad on bII). The name comes from the fact that, it
was supposedly first heavily used by composers around Naples in the late 1600’s and it was most often
used in 1st inversion (chord of the 6th). It is subdominant in function, since it is a derivative of ii○ (also,
compare it with iv). The 3rd is often doubled in the chord.

The N6 often progresses to V72, V7b92, V, i64, II7b965, iv7 V72, II7b965 i64, ii±7, I7b965 (and others
to be discussed in the sections on secondary sub-dominants and modulation).  

Make up progressions using the N6 progressing to each one of the above sounds; for now, keep the N6 in
1st inversion.

In the classical period of music (1750-1825), N6’s began to appear more often in root position, even in
2nd inversion, and 7ths or b7th were sometimes added; also, bII came to be used as a temporary tonic and
preceded with its own dominant forms of harmony. Some of these sounds are going to be incorporated in
the exercises on the next page [part 5], to enable you to have some kind of temporary key center on the
2nd degree (V of II sounds too distant). Although chronologically, the sounds are out of place, to the ear,
they fit very nicely, and it is only a quirk of musical evolution, that mankind waited till the classical
period to make heavy use of them.

Secondary dominants of bII —

V of bII = VI

V7 of bII: Formed by lowering the 7th of VImaj7, creating VI7.

vii±7 and vii○ of bII are more rare.
Secondary Dominants, Tonicization (part 5)
Ted Greene 1975-05-18 & 1975-07-01

Minor Keys:
Follow instructions as given at top of last page (part 4).
1) i64 V72 i6 V72 of VI VI6 V72 of iv iv6 V72 of bII bII6 ii±765 i64 V7 i

1a) i64 V72 i6 V72 of VI VI6 V72 of iv iv6 V72 of bII bII6 ii±765 i64 II765 V (or II743 V6)

Try 1st inversion triads in place of 65’s; also 7b9’s on V’s of I, iv, and v (V).
Also I for i at end of phrases (Picardy 3rd) – See 1b.

1b) i V765 i V765 of VI VI V765 of iv iv V765 of bII bII ii±72 V765 i ii±765 V I

1c) i V765 i V765 of VI VI V765 of iv iv V765 of bII bII ii±72 V765 i ii±765 II765 V

1d) i V765 i V765 of VI VI V765 of iv iv VImaj765 ii±7 V6 I72 iv6 II7b943 V(7) i

1e) i V765 i V765 of VI VI V765 of iv iv VImaj765 ii±7 V6 I72 IV6 ii±743 V(7) i

or end on i64 II743 V(6) after iv6 or IV6

1f) Do 1b, 1c, 1d, and 1e all with 43’s on V7, V7 of VI, V7 of iv, and V7 of bII;
also 1st chord becomes i6.

2) i V72 of III III6 V72 of iv iv6 or IV6 V72 of V V6

2a) i V765 of III III V765 of iv iv or IV V765 of V V

3) i V765 i V765 of III III V765 of iv iv V765 of VI VI ii±765 (or II7b965) i64 V7 i

3a) i V765 i V765 of III III V765 of iv iv V765 of VI VI i64 ii±765 II7b965 V
or II7b965 i64 ii±765 V

3b) i V72 i6 V72 of III III6 V72 of iv iv6 V765 of VI VI6 ii±765 (or II7b965) i64 V7 i
or ii±765 II7b965 V(7) I

3c) i V72 i6 V72 of III III6 V72 of iv iv6 V765 of VI VI6 i64 ii±765 II7b965 V

4) VI i64 II7b965 V72 I765 IV72 VII765 III72 VI765 ii±765 i64 V7 i

4a) VI i64 II7b965 V72 I765 IV72 VII765 III72 VI765 ii±765 i64 II765 V

4b) V7b943 i6 II7b92 V765 I72 IV765 VII72 III765 VI72 ii±765 i64 V7 i

4c) V7b943 i6 II7b92 V765 I72 IV765 VII72 III765 VI72 ii±765 i64 II765 V
Secondary Dominants, Tonicization, (part 5) Ted Greene, 1975-05-18 — page 2

5) V65 | i (or I) V765 of VII VII V765 of VI | VI V765 of V (or bII6) V |

5a) V65 | i (or I) V765 of VII VII V765 of VI | VI i64 V7 | i

5b) V743 | i (or I) V743 of VII VII V743 of VI VI V743 of V V (or i64 V7 i)

5c) V72 | i6 (or I6) V72 of VII VII6 V72 of VI VI6 V72 of V V6

6) i I72 iv6 (or IV6) VII72 III6 VI72 bII6 (or ii○6) V i

6a) i V765 of iv iv (or IV) V765 of III III V765 of bII II V765 i

7) i I72 iv6 IV765 VII VII72 III6 III7 VI VI72 ii±765 ii○ V

8) V765 of III | III V765 of VI VI V765 of iv | iv (or IV) V765 of VII VII V765 of V |
V V765 i V765 of III | III - Finish this modulation.

9) i V765 i V765 of III | III V765 of V V

9a) i V743 i6 V743 of III | III6 V743 of V V6

10) | i V765 of VII VII V765 of v | v V765 of III III V765 |

| i V765 of VI VI V743 of V | V or V6

10a) | i V743 of VII VII V743 of v | v V743 of III III V743 |

| i V743 of VI VI V743 of V | V

10b) | i6 V72 of VII VII6 V72 of v | v6 V72 of III III6 V72 |

| i6 V72 of VI VI6 V72 of V | V6


Miscellaneous Facts:
1) Some other more rarely used sounds of the Baroque era are those of I7b9, II7b9 and V7b9 being
used in major keys to replace I7, II7 and V7; you might try experimenting with these sounds

2) Also, try leaving out any note in a 7b9 chord (in either major or minor keys).

3) When adding decoration notes to progressions with secondary dominants, these notes are derived
from the new temporary key scales in most cases.

4) Sometimes secondary dominants resolve to chords other than the new I or i; this subject will be
covered with up-coming topics.
Secondary Dominants, Tonicization, (part 5) Ted Greene, 1975-05-18 — page 3

5) Secondary Dominants are also used in 1/2 cadences:

This phrase could go right back into Bb or it could go further into Cm (it could even go into other related
keys – all this type of operation will be discussed under the soon-to-come topic of Modulation).

6) Secondary Dominants can be used as deceptive cadence chords: Example:

Try experimenting with these concepts.

Also integrate last part of Secondary Subdominants page 1.

Tonicization (Secondary Dominants)
Ted Greene 1973-10-22

A great deal of harmonic richness can be gained by temporarily treating diatonic major or minor triads as
if they were the home key and preceding them with chords in their own key. By far the most common
device is to use the V7 (or V) of the new temporary key.

Example: for A F#m D A

you could have A C#7 F#m A7 D (E7) A

Or for A D Bm E
you could have A A7 D F#7 Bm B7 E

In minor keys the ii and II are not tonicized this way, but bII is:
For Am Dm C Bb Am
Æ Am A7 Dm G7 C F7 Bb E7 Am

Tonicizing V7 chords are called Secondary Dominants or Applied Dominants.

The V7 of the new temporary keys are often preceded by other chords in the new key, namely the ii, IV,
iv, ii°, II, bII, and bVI (also more rarely, bIII, bVII). Also the related 7ths of these triads are often used.

Examples of a two chord tonicization of vi (F#m) in A:

ii V7 1) G#m C#7 F#m

ii7 V7 2) G#m7 C#7 F#m
iv V7 3) Bm C#7 F#m
iv7 V7 4) Bm7 C#7 F#m
iv6 V7 4a) Bm6 C#7 F#m
IV V 5) B C# F#m
IV7 V7 6) B7 C#7 F#m
ii° V 7) G#° C# F#m
ii±7 V7 8) G#±7 C#7 F#m
II V7 9) G# C#7 F#m
II7 V7 10) G#7 C#7 F#m
bII V 11) G C# F#m
bII7 (7) V 12) Gmaj7 (7) C# F#m
VI V 13) D C# F#m
VI7 V7 14) Dmaj7 C#7 F#m

Also: G, Gmaj7, D, Dmaj7, Bm, Bm7

to E(7) F#m
dominant function
Modulation and Tonicization Ted Greene, 1973-10-23 — page 2

Even non-diatonic triads are tonicized frequently:

1) A F Bm7 E A Æ A Gm7 C7 Fmaj7 Bm7 E7 A

2) A C D E A Æ A Dm7 G7 Cmaj7 Bm7 E7 A

Remember, ii can be used for IV.


V7 chords may be tonicized:

A E7 A Æ A B7 E7 A or A F#7 B7 E7 A or A F#m7 B7 E7 A

An easier way to think of it (and this opens up other doors too) is that a tonicization may deceptively lead
to a 7th chord.
Example: Given A F#m Æ could become A G#±7 C#7 F#m Æ A G#±7 C#7 F#7 or F#m7


Internal Tonicization: The principles of tonicization may be used to enrich a chord “internally” as
Given A Bm E A Æ A Bm Em F#7 Bm E7 A
iv V7
of Bm


Pivot Chords or Change of Function: Suppose you encountered the following progression in a song:
A F#m B7 E7 A.
F#m can be considered to be the vi of I or ii of V(7). Likewise B7 could be II7 of I or V7 of V(7).
It is a matter of taste as to how you will interpret these things.

In a sense the home key can be tonicized: for A E A Æ

A Bm7 E7 A or A F#m7 Bm7 E7 A or A C#±7 F#7 B7 Bm7 E7 A

You may have noticed that tonicization often results in a circle of 4ths; for this reason tonicization is also
called Back-cycling.

Practice making up exercises in brief tonicization (V(7)), internal tonicization, and also more lengthy visits
to the new keys. Stick firstly to diatonically related keys; then later get more distant using modal mixture

This whole process of leaving one key for another is also called Modulation, but modulation often is used
to refer to the lengthy stays in the new keys. Tonicization is temporary modulation.
Modulation and Tonicization
Ted Greene 1973-10-23

Modulation is simply the process of abandoning one key for another. Hopefully you have seen
that tonicization is a way of temporarily changing keys, so it is therefore a temporary modulation.

A more permanent feeling of modulation is established if you linger in the new key or, even more,
if a cadence is played in the new key. This usually only happens in longer pieces of music – most
modulation in popular songs are of such a fleeting nature that they are really just tonicizations because
you are not really abandoning the old key, just putting a veil over it for a few seconds.

Anyway, some phrases are up for grabs as to whether they are modulations or tonicizations. The
important thing is to be able to go smoothly into a new key for either a brief vacation or an extended visit.
Equally important is being able to smoothly return to the home key if desired.

The whole process of key changing is one of the main elements of variety in music.
Paradoxically, key changing is also a prime factor in creating unity in a piece of music. For example,
many songs use the so-called “A A B A” form – that is the main tune (A) is stated, then repeated, then a
contrasting tune (B) is played, then the main tune (A) is played again. The B section is almost always in a
different key than the A section. So there is this balance of unity and variety that modulation helps to
keep in check.

Essentially there are two types of modulation:

1) Phrase Modulation. This is the case when modulation occurs at the end of one phrase and the
beginning of another. Usually, the ear readily accepts this type of modulation because of the pause
between phrases. Analyze some popular songs and you should encounter some phrase

2) The second type of modulation is the type discussed in connection with tonicization, that is, within
a phrase.

Modulation can be viewed as an elaborated chord progression or cadence:

A G#±7 C#7 F#m Bm7 G#7 C# F#m Bm7 Em7 A7 D G A7 D

I ii V i iv II7 V i iv
vi ii V I IV V I
A F#m

Or to reverse the procedure if you were given the progression A F#m D

with simple tonicization Æ A C#7 F#m A7 D Æ
with more complex tonicization Æ A G#±7 C#7 F#m Em7 A7 D Æ
with internal tonicization Æ A G#±7 C#7 F#m Bm7 G#7 C# F#m Bm7 Em7 A7 D G A7 D
Modulation and Tonicization Ted Greene, 1973-10-23 — page 2

Use brief (symmetrical) tonicization, more lengthy tonicization, and internal tonicization in
all of the following – transpose to all keys eventually. Also remember about deceptive
resolutions to 7th chords in place of triads.

1) A D A E A
2) A Bm D E F#m A
3) A F#m D Bm G E A
4) A D C#m Bm A
5) A C#m F#m E A
6) A E Bm F#m C#m D A
7) Am Dm Am Em Am
8) Am F C G Dm Am
9) Am C Dm F Am
10) (C) Am F Dm Bb (E) Am
11) Am Dm C F Am
12) (Am) C F Dm G Em
13) A D Bm E C#m

In key of D:
Use V7 before each chord in symmetric resolution cycles. Then use V7b9 for each.

1) D Bm (A) G (F#m) Em
2) (D) Em (F#m) G (A) Bm D cadence
3) Bm D F#m A
4) G Bm D F#m cadence.
5) D F#m A cadence.
6) D G Em A F#m cadence.
7) D G, Bm Em, A D cadence.
8) D A Em Bm F#m (G) D cadence.
9) D F#m Bm Em A D G

Secondary Dominants in Common Progressions
Ted Greene – 1990-01-20

1) Key of A. V7 of IV(I7) is often preceded by V 1a) I7 is often also preceded by V7

2) Pedal bass under the V is common

Why do you think the “four minor” types appear above? Why the Asus4? And the other sus’s?

The sopranos above (that is, the top “voice” in each example) contain the line that is generating the
progression I V(7) I7 IV…have you noticed? [Take note]
This line is also often found in the bass, that is, songwriters and composers like to sometimes place it here
on purpose. Also it is sometimes buried in an inner voice. Study the following example and all this will
likely be clear.

3) Key of C

4) Give each chord 2 beats here

Secondary Dominants in Common Progressions Ted Greene, 1975‐01‐20 page 2

5) Key of Eb

6) Key of E. Each diagram [gets] one beat here

* IMPORTANT: Be able to SING every soprano and bass line on this page.
Secondary Subdominants
Ted Greene – 1975-07-01

You may be wondering if any diatonic major or minor chord may be preceded with a subdominant
type of chord in its own key (since you spent so much time working with dominant types); the answer is
yes, but not commonly. For some reason, Baroque composers went wild over dominant harmony, and it
is relatively rare to see a progression such as IV-I (iv i) or ii-I (ii○ i) in a temporary new key unless the
new I (i) is followed by a dominant type of chord.

Example: C Bb F G C is more rare than C Bb F C7 F G7 C (in Baroque music).


However, you may wish to try out some of these Secondary Subdominant harmonies even without
dominants, so here are a few examples that try to illustrate how good voice-leading and lines can help
make a progression sound “more Baroque.”

If you experiment with the above concepts, you will find that many secondary subdominants are chords
that are diatonic in the home key, so they will conform to normal sounds that you have experienced so far.

Secondary Subdominants Ted Greene, 1975‐07‐01 page 2

A much more common use of secondary subdominants is as follows:

When any chord is being tonicized with a secondary dominant, the secondary dominant may be preceded
with a chord that is functioning as a subdominant in the new key; naturally this subdominant functioning
chord is called a Secondary Subdominant.

Examples: Normal Progression: C Em

With secondary dominant: C B765 Em
With secondary dom. and secondary subdom.: C F#±765 B Em
ii±7 V7 i

Normal Progression: C F
With secondary dominant: C C7 5 F
With secondary dom. and secondary subdom.: C B¨6 C765 F

To find out what secondary subdominants are available, you should get acquainted with the
“Catalogue of Baroque Harmonies” sheet; as you will notice, there are more subdominant harmonies than
any other type, so we are talking about a wealth of rich sounds. As mentioned, though, many of the
sounds already have appeared in progressions, so you don’t have to be worried about learning thousands
of new chords – it’s not nearly that bad of a situation. In fact, you have already worked with the great
majority of these sounds, but as dominant functions or diatonic chords.

Example: C E765 A72 Dm6

II7 V7 i

You have already played progressions like this, but it would have been analyzed as:
I V7 of vi V7 of ii ii or I III7 VI7 ii
So all this amounts to is a different viewpoint on this progression, not any different sounds.
You might be saying, “If that is so, then why bother?”
Well, look at it this way: Suppose you had a normal progression of C Am F Dm, etc.
Here it is with secondary dominants and subdominants:

II7 V7 i…….… II7 V7 I………….. II7 V7 i
└──── of vi ────────┘└──── of IV ────────┘└──── of ii ───┘

You can see that some nice sounds result from this different viewpoint; in other words, different
viewpoints inspire different creative ideas and chord progressions. (There is a good chance that you
wouldn’t have come up with this type of progression unless you were thinking in II7 V7 I(i) groups like
Secondary Subdominants Ted Greene, 1975‐07‐01 page 3


1) It’s suggested that you go back to any of the progressions that used secondary dominants and try
to squeeze in secondary subdominants where they seem to fit.

2) Then take each type of subdominant harmony listed in the catalogue and make up a few
progressions that use it (in different inversions, different keys, etc.) and don’t forget that the whole
catalogue is applicable to a tonic minor and its related keys if you renumber the whole business.

3) A separate list of some progressions using secondary subdominants will follow on the next page;
these will all be cycle of 4ths types because they are so common and characteristic of Baroque music.

4) Secondary dominants may resolve as in deceptive cadences; this new deceptive chord can: 1)
continue in the home key (if possible) or 2) in the intended new key.

Examples: 1) C E7 F G7 C
2) C D7 Em Am6 G64 D7 G

The new deceptive chord can even pull into a totally different related key:
3) C A7 B¨ Gm6 F64 C7 F
I Vof ii VI of ii

Examples 2) & 3) are….[page is cut off]

Catalogue of Common Cycle of 4ths Patterns (Including Secondary Chords)
Ted Greene – 1975-07-04 & 10

Give the following progressions a try, starting from all the different forms of close and open
triads. These patterns are for sequence type voice-leading, but you might want to try regular voice-
leading as well. Not all progressions will sound that great because of some augmented 2nd intervals that
will appear in the soprano. Breaking up these patterns and using decorations will help.

is optional at the end

of minor key cycles
Major Keys: Minor Keys:
Normal I IV vii ͦ iii vi ii V I normal i iv VII III VI ii ͦ V (i)
I IV VII iii vi ii V I i iv VII III VI ii V
I IV VII III vi ii V I i iv VII III VI ¨II V
I IV VII III VI II V I i iv VII III Rvi ͦ ii ͦ V
I IV VII III vi II V I i iv ¨vii III VI ii ͦ V
I IV VII iii VI ii V I i iv VII III VI ii ͦ V
I IV VII iii vi II V I i iv VII III Rvi ͦ ii V
I IV vii III vi ii V I
I IV vii III VI ii V I [R = raised]
I IV vii III vi II V I
I IV vii ͦ iii VI ii V I
I IV vii ͦ iii vi II V I
I IV vii ͦ iii ͦ VI ii V I
I IV ¨VII iii ͦ VI ii V I
I IV ¨VII iii ͦ vi ii V I

• Try replacing i with I.

• Then precede all of these (using I for i) with v or v ͦ, using substitute voice-leading.
• Next try starting the cycle of 4ths on iv or V using sequence voice-leading.
• Try replacing IV with #iv ͦ in all of the above.
• Next try these:
I #iv ͦ vii iii vi ii V I
I #iv ͦ vii iii VI ii V I
I #iv ͦ vii iii vi II V I

Then try preceding all of the above with v or V, using substitute voice-leading.

If you start the cycle of 4ths from IV or V using sequence voice-leading, you will notice that vii ͦ, vii or
¨VII will sound better than VII in many cases (because of the augmented second problem again).

One last thing – you should try similar patterns with 7ths (or 4-note triads) replacing the above triads, or
in patterns of your own devising.
Seventh Chords
Ted Greene, undated and 1975-03-16 & 30

Sevenths may be added to triads; they change the color – not the function.
The diatonic major scale produces: I²7, iim7, iiim7, IV²7, V7, vim7, viim7b5.
The natural minor scale produces: im7, iim7b5, [b]III²7, ivm7, vm7, [b]VI²7, [b]VII7.
The harmonic minor scale produces: im²7, iim7b5, [b]III²7+, ivm7, V7, [b]VI²7, viio7.

The V7 and viio7 are widely used to replace the V in minor keys. The other chords of the harmonic
minor can be discarded for now, and the chords of the natural minor then contended with.

The figured bass symbols for 7ths are:

Root position: 7  Root in bass

1st inversion: 6
/5  3rd in bass
2nd inversion: 4
/3  5th in bass
3rd inversion: 4
/2 or 2  7th in bass

The main 7th chord to learn how to use at first is the V7 (dominant 7th). In authentic cadences, the V7
usually is voiced with two roots, a 3rd, and 7th (no 5th). Examples:

Here are some important V7’s with all 4 tones:

Notice the inversions (6 and 6/4).

Notice the passing tone [o].

Seventh Chords – Ted Greene, undated and 1975-03-16 & 30 page 2

Practice Comparable Exercises in Minor Keys

Here are some exercises with V6/5’s :

V7 also connects When done at the end of a phrase, V – vi

well with vi : is known as a deceptive cadence.
In minor it is V – VI.

V6/5’s progress
well to 6/4’s a
scale step higher:

Second inversion (V74/3) :

Seventh Chords – Ted Greene, undated and 1975-03-16 & 30 page 3

Second inversions also progress well to 6/4’s :

Third inversions ( 4/2 or 2 ):

Notice the appoggiatura chords;

also the freer use of chords in

Key of F:

Key of Db:

Make up similar exercises to all those on this page in major and minor keys.
Seventh Chords – Ted Greene, undated and 1975-03-16 & 30 page 4

As you may know, there are many kinds of dominant 7th type chords which are used in jazz;
but (as usual) they can be organized into groups according to similarities of sound. So which of these
chords can take the dominant 7th scale? The secret lies in analyzing the chord tones of the dominant
7th scale, which are as follows:
1, 3, 5, b7, 9 (2), 11 (4), and 13 (6)

Important: Any chord containing some combination of any of (but only) these chord tones, can take
the dominant 7th scale. Here is a list of the most commonly used of these chords:

Name Formula Symbol
Dominant 7th 1, 3, 5, b7 7
Dominant 9th 1, 3, 5, b7, 9 9
Dominant 7/6th 1, 3, 5, 6, b7 7/6
(or 7/13) 1, 3, 5, b7, 13 (7/13)
Dominant 13th 1, 3, 5, b7, 9, 13 13

Name Formula Symbol
Dominant 7th suspended 4th 1, 4, 5, b7 7sus
Dominant 9th suspended 4th 1, 4, 5, b7, 9 9sus
or Dominant 11th 1, 5, b7, 9, 11 11
Dominant 7/6th suspended 4th 1, 4, 5, 6, b7 7/6sus
(7/13) or (7/6/11) 1, 4, 5, b7, 13 (7/13sus)
Dominant 13th suspended 4th 1, 4, 5, b7, 9, 13 13sus
or Dominant 11/13th 1, 5, b7, 9, 11, 13 11/13

For the curious: the 11th and 3rd are not often played together in the same chord because they tend to
clash to most ears.

Notice that the above chords are divided into two groups. Also notice that for every chord in the group
on the left [Group 1] there is, in the group on the right [Group 2], a corresponding chord which has the
exact same formula except for one thing: the 3rd has been replaced by the 4th or 11th. Check this

The two groups will be referred to as Group 1 and Group 2 dominants. In case you are wondering
about the names of these chord, specifically about words like “dominant” and “suspended,” the
explanations are long and unfortunately not too logical, so for now it is in your best interests to just
accept these terms as something you have to put up with, at least in the sense of knowing what chords
these words stand for. we’ll take a pass on this subject here. It’s better left for a book on Harmony.

You will recall that in the section on Major chords, a discussion of chord tones was presented. There
will be a similar discussion pertaining to the Group 1 and 2 dominant chord tones, but it will be after
the soon-to-be-given musical examples.

In this section, as in the Major section, there will be chord forms and arpeggios given for each position
(of the dominant 7th sounds); and as before, you will want to learn these – one group of chords and
arpeggios at a time to fit each position as you encounter them as you progress through this section.
Seventh Chords – Ted Greene, undated and 1975-03-16 & 30 page 5

You will also find it in your best interest to learn the scale fingerings given for the different positions
of the runs, as many of the runs are derived from just freely mixing up the notes of the dominant 7th

Remember to visualize the notes on the fingerboard as explained earlier, especially for any runs that
you like enough to memorize.

And as before, if you want to (and know what this means) try phrasing all runs as “jazz” 8ths and
“straight” 8ths. If you’re still having some difficulties in making the runs you have learned so far
sound like jazz, it is probably the time to try to find a good teacher to take at least one lesson in the
“feel” of the music. (Just a suggestion: take a tape recorder to your lesson if you can, because we
humans aren’t blessed with the memories of elephants or recording tapes.)

Naturally, you will want to learn your favorite sounds out of all this material in more than one key. I
have found certain orders of keys that sound very good to my ears, so I would like to share them with
you if you care to try them:

1) For the 1st three positions (which star in the key of Bb7) try the following order of keys for
each arpeggio and run (and the scale diagrams too):
Bb7, (F7), D7, B7, Ab7, Eb7, C7, A7, (G7), E7, Db7, Bb7
( ) = optional

2) For the last position that starts n Bb7 (7th-8th fret), try the following key order:
Bb7, G7, E7, C7, A7, F#7, Eb7, B7, Ab7, F7, D7

3) For the position that is given as G7 (on the 7th fret), try the following key orders:
G7, E7, Db7, F7, A7, F#7, Eb7, Bb7, G7
or G7, E7, Db7, A7, F#7, Eb7, C7, Ab7, F7, D7, B7

4) For the two positions that are given in the key of E7, try the following key orders:
E7, Db7, F7, D7, F#7, Eb7, G7, B7, Ab7, (F7)

You may have noticed that most of the intervals between all these keys are ascending or descending
3rds. It just seems to sound good to me this way.
Seventh Chords – Ted Greene, undated and 1975-03-16 & 30 page 6

Seventh Chords
Ted Greene, 1975-03-16 & 30

7ths in Major Keys:

When another 3rd interval is added on top of a triad, the sound that results is called a 7th chord.

An important thing to remember is that 7th change the color of triads but not the function. For
instance, a I²7 is still a Tonic chord, just like a I. To put it another way, you may replace a triad with
its related 7th chord (according to personal taste) without changing the essence of a chord or


To learn the 7th chord fingerings on guitar you should study the page on 7th Chord Voicings in various

The most important 7th chord is the V7, having been used by composers much more than the others.
One reason for this is that the V7 – I progression clearly defines a key. Look at it this way: when you
play a G chord to a C chord, no key is clearly established yet. It could be I – IV [in the key] of G, or V
– I [in the key] of C. But G7 to C by itself indicates only the key of C.

If you were to make other experiments using just two chords, trying to define a key, you would see that
vii±7 – I gives a similar effect to V7 – I; this is logical because, as you know, viio is dominant in its
function. Anyway, separate sheets will be passed out on the progression V7 – I, and you should figure
out similar examples of vii±7 – I after you have learned the V7 – I’s.

An easy way to convert V7 into vii±7 is to raise the root of a complete V7, one whole step.
Important: vii±7 = V9.
Seventh Chords – Ted Greene, undated and 1975-03-16 & 30 page 7

Naturally, like triads, 7th chords can be inverted. Because there are 4 notes in a 7th chord, there are 3
inversions. The figured bass symbols are as follows:

Root position: 7
1st inversion: 6
/5 An easy way to memorize these symbols is to notice that
2nd inversion: 4
/3 the numbers, coincidentally, go in order: 7, 6/5, 4/3, 2.
3rd inversion: 2 (or /2 )

You will find a list of exercises using all types of the 7th chords on the same page that has the 2nd
inversion triad exercises. Practice these (with decoration, suspensions, etc., optional) patiently, and the
world of 7th chords will open up to you.

Sidelight: In the “old” days, the 7th in a chord was considered a dissonance, and consequently, people
thought it too harsh to have the 7th tone enter without suitable “preparation.” The rules governing
preparation of the 7th were: 1) it could enter as a suspension or repeated note from a previous chord, or
2) it could be approached step-wise from a previously heard tone.

Notice the prepared 7ths in the above examples near the top of the page. While modern ears definitely
do not require the preparation of 7ths, it is good practice to do this once in a while to know how to
create the old, authentic sounds.

Irregular Resolution of V7 or vii±7: For variety’s sake, composers would sometimes avoid I after
V7 or vii±7, instead progressing to some other chord. Some of the most common of these chords are
IV, vi, iii, and iii7 (and other chords to be discussed later). This concept includes all inversions of all
chords involved.

7ths in Minor Keys:

The diatonic 7th chords in minor keys are as follows:

Natural minor: i7, ii±7, [b]III²7, iv7, v7, [b]VI²7, [b]VII7

Harmonic minor: i²7, ii±7, [b]III²7+, iv7, V7, [b]VI²7, Rviio7 [R = raised]

Melodic minor: i²7, ii7, [b]III²7+, IV7, V7, Rvi±7, Rvii±7

Of all these 7th chords only some have been commonly used by Baroque composers:
Common: i7, ii±7, [b]III²7, iv7, V7, [b]VI²7, Rvi±7, [b]VII7, Rviio7
Less common: ii7, IV7, v7
Rare: i²7, [b]III²7+, Rvii±7

The ii7, IV7, Rvi±7 are used according to the normal use of the melodic minor (to avoid the augmented
2nd interval). Otherwise the above chords are used just like in major keys. Naturally, inversion are
not only possible, but welcome.

Rviio7 is used to replace V7 quite often in minor keys, so it is a good idea to take the V7 – i resolutions
and convert them to Rviio7 – i by raising the root of any complete V7, one 1/2 step.
Important: Rviio7 = V7b9.
Sub-dominant Harmonies
Ted Greene – 1973, October 24

There are many colorful chords that can be classified as subdominants (a subdominant harmony could be
said to be a harmony that can smoothly lead to the dominant harmony or the tonic).

Here is a list of triads and 7th chords that are sub-dominant in their function (of course, extensions can be

Major Key:
1) ii, II, iiº, ii7, II7, ii±7
2) IV, iv, IV∆7, IV7 (“blues”), iv7
3) ¨VI, ¨VI∆7, ¨VI7
4) #ivº, #iv±7

5) ¨II, ¨II∆7 ¨II7

6) iº, i±7
7) ¨III, ¨III∆7, ¨III7 Less important
8) ¨VII (¨vii), ¨VII∆7, ¨VII7, (¨vii7)
9) viº, vi±7

In Minor Keys all chords are the same except:

1) omit IV∆7, #ivº, #iv±7, ¨vii, ¨vii7
2) viº, vi±7 are §viº, §vi±7

Diminished 7th chords are not listed, as they can be interpreted as 7¨9 chords.

Practice connecting all the sub-dominant harmonies to dominant 7ths and tonics. Try all basic inversion
of each chord – plan on this taking a few months, at least, to learn in all major and minor keys.

Key of A (Am where applicable)
Subdominant Harmonies Ted Greene, 1973‐10‐24 page 2
Theory of Chord Progressions
Ted Greene – 1974-02-17

In different time periods, composers have favored certain root progressions move than others. A
man named Allen McHose has done research on the tendencies of the 18th century along these lines and
has come up with the following information:

1) Tonic chords are most often preceded by V (or viiº); in minor – V, (viiº). These chords that
precede the tonic are all given the label Dominant Function or 1st Classification.
2) 1st Classification chords are most often preceded by ii or IV (ii, iiº (¨II), iv and IV in minor).
These chords are labeled Subdominants or 2nd Classification.
3) 2nd Classification chords are most often preceded by vi or I (¨VI, i in minor). These chords are
labeled 3rd Classification.
4) 3rd Classification chords are most often preceded by iii (¨III in minor). These chords are called
4th Classification.

Summing up these observations of McHose the following would be typical root movements (given in
major keys):
1) V I 5) vi IV V I
2) ii V I 6) I IV V I
3) IV V I 7) iii vi ii V I
4) vi ii V I

Any progressions such as the above, McHose calls Normal Progressions, and justly so since he found
them used so frequently.

Also important:
Tonic Chord Movements:
1) The tonic chord may progress to any chord in its key and
2) the tonic chord may be used between two chords which form a normal progression without
disturbing their classification.

The Circle of 4ths:

An often used long progression is I - IV - vii○ - iii - vi - ii - V - I etc. It may start on other degrees than I.
Example: IV - vii○ - iii - vi - ii - V - I.

Some other types of chord progressions:

1) Elision – the skipping of a classification.
Some of the more common ones are: iii - IV, IV - I, ii - I, and vi - V.
2) Retrogression – movement in reverse of the normal progressions, such as from a 1st classification
chord to a 2nd classification chord. Some common examples: vi - iii, V - IV, ii - vi.
3) Repetition – the chords which are most commonly repeated (almost always with a change of
position at least, if not change of inversion) are the I, V, IV, and ii.

Some startling specific facts relating to the above: after analyzing thousands of chord
progressions of Bach and Handel, the two most highly respected masters of the early 18th century, it was
found that they used approximately 80% normal progressions, and approximately 90 to 95% tonic, 1st
classification, and 2nd classification chords!
Tonality Types
(Modulation & Tonality Transitions are Very Important)
Ted Greene, 1975-10-10 and 12
(Material arranged according to how to think when playing)

1) Organum, Gray Harmony (intervals of 5ths, 4ths, 2nds, and octaves; rarely others)
Rhythms: rubato, marches
• Parallel harmonization of melodies (in any mode or scale) using any perfect interval or combinations
• Random use of perfect intervals or combinations
• Fanfares with gray harmonies
• Soprano pedal (Root) with 5ths in Aeolian (optional: ¨II, ii, vi) (¨V)
• Soprano pedal (Root) with 4ths in Aeolian (optional: ¨II, ii, vi) (¨V)
• Soprano pedal (Root) with any other gray harmonies (same options as above)
• Soprano pedal (5th) with all above sounds (optional: also iii)
• Soprano pedal 5th & Root, Root & 5th or other double pedals with above sounds
• Bass pedal (Root) with 4ths, 5ths, or any other gray harmonies
• Bass pedal (Root & 5th) with 4ths, 5ths, or any other gray harmonies
• Bass pedal (5th & Root) with 4ths, 5ths, or any other gray harmonies
• “Sandwich” double pedal (Root & Root) as usual
• “Sandwich” double pedal (Root & 5th) as usual
• Miscellaneous other degrees used as miscellaneous (above) pedal types
• All pedals: ascending, descending, or broken

2) Minor ¨6/9 Scale Tonality (easy transit to synonym tonality (maj7#11) Å see page
Rhythm: rubato with textures, also 4/4 march.
• Single-note melodies and melodic patterns (textures) Å see page
• 2-note “3rds”; 2-note “4ths”, 3-note (35R) diatonics; also (85R) but with necessary right-hand break-
up. (many others)
• Pedals (Root or 5th): ascending, descending, or broken
• Soprano pedals with “3rds” or “4ths”
• (Root) Bass pedal with “3rds” or “4ths”
• Root & 5th, or Root & Root Sandwich pedals with “3rds” or “4ths”
• Contrary from unison
Option: sustain some voice (which then
becomes an inner or bass voice)

3) Dorian
Rhythms: rubato, 6/8 with or without lilt, 4/4, march.
• Dorian vamp…IV (3- or 4-note)
• Same with soprano pedal of Root, 5th, Root & 5th, or 5th & Root.
• Soprano pedal (Root) with closed triads: R in bass, 64’s, i-IV
• Soprano pedal (Root) with open triads: R in bass, i-IV
• Double-Soprano pedals
• Root & 5th Sandwich pedal with close triads (3rd in bass) or 6th’s or i-IV
• Root & Root Sandwich pedal with 6th’s or i-IV
• Bass pedal (Root) with all close, open triads, 6ths, i-IV
• Bass pedal (5th) with all close, open triads, 6ths, i-IV
“Tonality Types” – Ted Greene, 1975-10-10 and 12 p. 2

• Alternate Root & 5th bass pedal with all close, open triads, 6ths, i-IV
• All pedals: ascending, descending, or broken
• Chord scales
• Various chord forms with inner pedals
• Contrary from odd and even intervals in 1-to-1 (or either voice in 2-to-1)

4) Aeolian (options: ¨II (Phrygian), ii, V, II)

Rhythms: rubato, 6/8 with or without lilt, 4/4, march, 3/4
i-v, i-v-VI-(iiº)-V
• All pedals: ascending, descending, or broken
• Bass pedal (Root) with closed and open triads, 743, 6ths, 3rds
• To a lesser extent: 5th in bass, alternate Root & 5th, anchors
• Soprano pedal (Root) with closed and open tirades, 6ths, 3rds, and others
• Soprano pedal (5th) with closed and open tirades, 6ths, 3rds, and others
• Double-Soprano pedal (Root & 5th or 5th & Root) with closed and open tirades, 6ths, 3rds, and
• Inner pedals: Root & 5th inside of 6ths, 10ths, various others
• Sandwich pedals: Root & 5th with close triads, 6ths, 3rds
• Sandwich pedals: Root & Root with close triads, 6ths, 3rds
• Contrary sounds (remember about options)
• Chord scales (remember about options)
• Vamps (with and without options)
• Chord progressions: bass or Root progression view

5) Phrygian Major (options: i, iiiº, VI+, ¨II7, ¨II7¨5, (V7¨5), ¨vi, ¨VII7, iiº)
(hi-note chord, chord scale descending from ¨II72)
Rhythms: rubato, 4/4, march, 6/8, 3/4
• Pedals: ala Johnny Smith “Michelle”,
• “Young Man with Horn” pedals
• Single-note melodies and melodic patterns
• Vamps: I-¨vii | I-¨vii6 (v±7) | I-¨vii7 | I-¨II | I-¨II7 | I-¨II7¨5 (V7¨5) | I-V7¨7 (or V7#5 to 7¨5 or ?)
(or reverse these) | I-¨vi(6) | I-¨VII7 |
• Pedals: ascending, descending, and broken
• Bass pedal (Root) with closed and open triads, 6ths, 3rds, 743
• Bass pedal (5th) with closed and open triads, 6ths, 3rds, 743
• Bass pedal (alternate) with closed and open triads, 6ths, 3rds, 743
• Bass pedal (5th anchor) with closed and open triads, 6ths, 3rds, 743
• Bass pedal (4th) with closed and open triads, 6ths, 3rds, 743
• Soprano pedal (Root) with closed and open triads, 6ths, 3rds, 743
• Soprano pedal (5th) with closed and open triads, 6ths, 3rds, 743
• Soprano pedal (Root & 5th or 5th & Root) with closed and open triads, 6ths, 3rds, 743
• Sandwich pedal (Root & 5th) with closed triads (6 & 64), 6ths, (3rds)
• Sandwich pedal (Root & Root) with closed triads (6 & 64), 6ths, (3rds)
• Contrary sounds
• Chord scales first inversion: I-¨II-¨III-ivº-vº-¨viº-viiº | i-iiº-iiiº-iv-v-¨VI-¨VII
“Tonality Types” – Ted Greene, 1975-10-10 and 12 p. 3

6) Aeolian Major (options: iiiº, V, ii) (svn with borrowed major in 20th century)
Rhythms: rubato, 6/8 with or without lilt, 4/4, march, 3/4
• Vamps: I-v | (I-¨VI or I-iv or I-¨VII)
• Pedals as above: Root & 5th, Sandwich, Pedal with added melodies using ¨7
• Contrary sounds
• Chord scales
• “Borrowed Major” progressions
• I-VII with bass pedal

7) “Biblical Renaissance” Melting Pot (major and minor)

Rhythms: as above
• Fanfare
• Major and minor horn 5ths
• Progressions (major and minor)
• Symmetric progressions

8) Lydian
Rhythms: rubato, 4/4, march, 6/8 (lilt)
• Pedals: ascending, descending, and broken
• Bass pedal (Root) with 3rds, 6ths, I-II, 4ths, 5ths, contrary
• Bass pedal (5th) with 3rds, 6ths, I-II, 4ths, 5ths, contrary
• Bass pedal (alternate) with 3rds, 6ths, I-II, 4ths, 5ths, contrary
• Bass pedal (anchors) with 3rds, 6ths, I-II, 4ths, 5ths, contrary
• Inner pedal (Root) with 6ths, 10ths, miscellaneous chords
• Scales with suspension
• Soprano pedal
• 64 Triad Anchor
• 3rd Anchor

9) Baroque (Major and Minor) (also Mixolydian of melodic minor)
Also consider harmonic rhythm
Rhythms: Rubato, chorale in 4/4, 3/4, 6/8






March: 6/8
9/8 is optional
“Tonality Types” – Ted Greene, 1975-10-10 and 12 p. 4

• Single-note melodies (including diminished 7th sounds)

• “Held-note” exercises
• Broken chord scales and harmonic patterns
• Pedals: ascending, descending, and broken
• Soprano pedal (Root) with 3rds, 6ths, 10ths, closed, open, and wide open (3rd in bass only) triads
• Soprano pedal (5th) with 3rds, 6ths, 10ths, closed, open, and wide open (3rd in bass only) triads.
• Soprano pedal (Root & 5th) with 3rds, 6ths, 10ths, closed, open, and wide open (3rd in bass only)
• Soprano pedal (5th & Root) with 3rds, 6ths, 10ths, closed, open, and wide open (3rd in bass only)
• Inner pedal (Root) with 6ths, 10ths, various chords
• Inner pedal (5th) with 6ths, 10ths, various chords
• Bass pedal (Root) with 6ths, 3rds, 10ths, closed and open triads, progressions
• Bass pedal (5th) with 6ths, 3rds, 10ths, closed and open triads, progressions
• Also Bass and Inner [voice] with various
• Sandwich pedal (Root & 5th) with 6ths, 3rds, closed triads
• Sandwich pedal (Root & Root) with 6ths, 3rds, closed triads
• (Optional: Mixolydian Sandwiches)
• Try pedals on other degrees too.
• Vamps: I-IV | V-I | V7-I | I-IV-(I)-V-I | I-V-(I)-IV-I |
• Adjacent degrees
• Chord Scales
• #iv±7-I
• Similar in minor keys, also ivº- i | ¨viº-i | i-iv6 or 7 |
• II7¨9-V or fragment.
• Progressions:
o Bass view (ascending, descending, or broken [leaps]) diatonic or chromatic
o Diatonic cycles of 4ths (start on V, I, IV and in minor)
a) closed triads, b) open triads, c) combinations,
d) 4-note triads, e) 4-noters & 7ths, f) 7ths only
o Streams or Switches possible on all above
o Cycles of 4ths with secondary chords
o Other progressions with secondary chords
o Main progressions with diatonic chords (voice-leading and non-voice-leading)
o 1st Inversion following root position triads on same bass (using any symmetric pattern)
o Internal tonicization
o Pedal and appoggiatura 64’s
o Building bass 1st on any progression formula
o Harmonic tendencies view
o Contrary thinking: switches and others
o Counterpoint,
o Pyramids,
o Announcing one voice then all
o Trick canons
“Tonality Types” – Ted Greene, 1975-10-10 and 12 p. 5

10) Classical and Romantic (Major and Minor)
Rhythms: as in Baroque, but also waltzes,
on 6/8
also more powerful 4/4’s with dynamics and accents
• Basically, Baroque sounds can be used in moderation
• Chord progressions with borrowed or color chords:
o a) Vamps
o b) Other root progressions
o c) Replacing preceding or following diatonic or secondary chords with borrowed or color chords
o d) ¨5th substitute and ¨2nd embellishment
o e) Mediant relations and generally free harmonic tendencies
o f) Chromatic flux technique (ala Chopin) and wandering
• Contrary Sounds: chromatic and semi-chromatic contrary [motion];
• Switches
• More extensive use of chromatic tones in melodies
• Mixed Root relations: example Æ A¨, A, E¨, G7, C#7, B¨
• Gypsy minor sounds
• Some chromatic pedal sounds (see 20th Century urban)
• Rhythmic transitions

11) 20th Century Romantic (Major) (see supplement)

Bouncy horizontal walk and other 4/4 (Dixieland, “[My] Mammy”,
“Surrey [with the Fringe on Top]”
3/8 with or without lilt
Waltz with or without lilt
March with or without lilt
Slow jazz swing
Fast jazz swing
Jazz waltz
[Also Rhythmic displacement of at least one factor:
Chord - hi-note
Broken chords
Teams and delays
Pinch harmonics
3-note pinches
Entrances (ascending or descending, scale or 1/2 step embellishment)
Ascending or descending (and variations)
Melody on streams
Bass then chord
Held-Note sounds are very similar
Different melody types: 1) common tone, 2) ascending, 3) descending, 4) patterns
“Tonality Types” – Ted Greene, 1975-10-10 and 12 p. 6

11) (continued)
• Chord scales of 7ths, some triads (ascending, descending, leaps)
• Harmonic patterns (with or without rhythmic displacement)
• Streams (with or without melodies)
• Pedals: (ascending, descending, or broken); try on different degrees than Root and 5th also
a) Soprano pedal (Root) with closed and open (R or 3 in bass) triads, small density 7th’s (R in bass),
6ths, 10ths, 3rds.
b) Soprano pedal (5th) with closed, open, and wide open (3rd in bass), Triads, small density 7ths (R
or 3rd in bass), 6ths, 10ths, 3rds, top 3-noters of #17th
c) Soprano double pedals (5th & Root) with closed triads (3rd in bass), and 6ths.
d) Bass Pedal (Root) with closed and open triads, small density 7ths (except 3rd in bass), 6ths, 3rds,
10ths, 5ths, 4ths, close har. 7ths, bottom 3 notes of #17ths. (Likewise, Bass and inner pedal)
e) Bass pedals (5th) with closed and open triads, small density 7ths (5th in bass), close har. 7ths,
bottom 3 notes of #165, 6ths, 3rds, 10ths, 5ths, 4ths
f) Anchors (5th or 4th interval) with some sound
g) Inner Pedal (Root) with 6ths, 10ths, various chords, 4ths
h) Inner Pedal (5th) with 6ths, 10ths, various chords, 4ths
i) Sandwich Pedal (Root & 5th) with 6ths, 3rds, closed triads, 4ths, 5ths
j) Sandwich Pedal (Root & Root) with 6ths, 3rds, closed triads, 4ths, 5ths
k) Likewise in Mixolydian with both types of sandwiches

11a) (Chain) Vamps (and reverses):

ii7-V7 (normal and “Max Steiner” types); also Dorian sounds
ii7-iii7 (IV²7-iii7) | IV²7-iii7-ii7-(V7) | [I-IV | (ii7)-V7-I | ]
[Also include letters b), e), h), and k) from above #11)]

11) (continued)
• Progressions:
1) Bass view progression (ascending, descending, or broken)
2) Diatonic Cycles of 4ths (start on V, I, or IV)
a) 4-note triads and 7ths
b) 7ths only. Also other Baroque types
3) Root Progression view (option: build bass 1st)
4) Symmetric progressions (moving line progressions)

11b) Secondary Chords (may replace, follow, or precede diatonic chords (even in chord scales).
(Use in moderation, and don’t use highly extended chords too much in this style):
• Root Progression view
• Bass view
• Semi-classical variations of iii (III)-VI-ii (II)-V (chromatic basses are common)

11) (continued)
• Contrary Sounds (from all odd and even intervals in 1-to-1 and 2-to-1; start with diatonic sounds,
then add Secondary or Color chords “later”)
• Diatonic Contrary around pedals (1-to-1, 2-to-1) — all degrees.

• Switches
• Color Chord Progressions (as in 19th century but also a moderate use of more extended sounds:)
“Tonality Types” – Ted Greene, 1975-10-10 and 12 p. 7

Other Root Progressions
Replacing, preceding, or following diatonic or secondary chords with color chords
Progressions using diminished 7ths or diminished triads

• Borrowed chords (mixed modes) (mainly ¨VI, ¨III, ¨VII, [(¨II])
• Chord progression (Root progression view)
• Vamps
• (Chord scales)
• Pedals
• Contrary Sounds

• American Gospel Progressions: Start with diatonic, then use other devices.
(example: “Lucky Ol’ Sun”)

12) 20th Century Urban (Major) or Modern

Rhythms: as above, also Bossa.
Textures: as above.
[Any harmonic device listed above, but not here can be used (in moderation) as a foil.]
• Single-note melodies and melodic patterns
• Chord scales of 4th chords (3-note, 4-note, 4-note with extensions,
(5-note, 5-note with extensions), add 9’s
• Altered chord scales
• Streams (really a texture)
• Chord progressions (see melody types):
o Vamps
o Variations on ii-V-(I)
o Short progressions using color chords
o Short turnarounds
o Symmetric – mono family types
o Moving line types (or bass view)
o Combined vamps
o Long turnarounds and cycles
o Some symmetric progressions
o Borrowed chords: progressions, chord scales, pedals, contrary, vamps.
• Pedals: (ascending, descending, or broken)
o 1) Bass with chromatic or semi-chromatic minor 3rds, major 3rds, 4ths, #4ths, 5ths,
minor 6ths, major 6ths, minor 10ths, major 10ths.
All closed and open triads, 3- and 4-note.
4th chord structures, some 7ths, also bass and inner
o 2) Soprano pedal (or double) with same
o 3) Interval stacking: bass view
o 4) Interval stacking: soprano view
o 5) Sandwiches with above
o 6) Inner pedal with chromatic 4ths, #4ths, 5ths, minor 6ths, etc. in 1-to-1 or 2-to-1.
o 7) Bass pedal with chromatic or semi-chromatic contrary
o 8) Soprano pedal with chromatic or semi-chromatic contrary
“Tonality Types” – Ted Greene, 1975-10-10 and 12 p. 8

o 9) Sandwich pedal with chromatic or semi-chromatic contrary

o 10 Anchors with chromatic or semi-chromatic contrary

12a) Chromatic Universe Concepts – Equal Interval and 12-Tone thinking

• Poly-contrary (bass and triads or group of notes)
• Chromatic or semi-chromatic contrary from all odd or even intervals (1-to-1, 2-to-1)
• Chromatic or semi-chromatic contrary around pedal 4 (1-to-1, 2-to-1)
• Any chord or idea in equal interval progressions (also compound patterns such as 1/2-whole) with or
without voice-leading, substitute tones, etc.
• Precede, replace, or follow any diminished 7, diminished, or 7¨9 with any triad or 7th.
• Progression of triads in minor 3rds or ¨5ths;
compounds: open triads – D B6, F D6 or D A¨743, F B743
• Pedals or Contrary on 1/2, whole or whole, 1/2 scale
• Wandering: lots of entrances, semi-scale entrances, pyramids (because the fewer notes played, the
more you can wander)
• Parallel Harmonization of any scale or melody
• “Rootacization”: continuous change of function
• Tri-tone scale
• Embellishment and substitution principles and “leading tone” embellishments

13) Impressionistic, Exotic, Oriental

Rhythms: rubato, happy 4/4, happy 6/8, happy 3/4, march
Textures: See list [for #11]
1) Major 6/9 pentatonic (m7/11)
a) Single-note melodies and melodic patterns (textures - also see list for #11), also “harmonics”
b) 2-note “3rds”, “4ths”, many other chord scales
c) Chord progressions (“tonality” progressions)
d) Pedals:
Soprano pedal (5th, 5th & Root, Root, Root & 5th, 6, 9, 3)
Bass Pedal (any note or notes) and any 2 or 3 notes.
Various anchors
Various sandwiches
e) Contrary from all intervals (with or without inner pedal)
f) Contrary with any pedal type
1a) Add 9th (as above)
1b) 6th (as above)
1c) Major 7th (as above)
1d) Triad (as above)
2) Major 7#11 Pentatonic (also major 7#11, 6/9#11, major 9#11, major 13#11)
as above
3) 9th Pentatonic (also 9th no root, 13th)
as above do diatonics as above
4) 13#11, #11, 9¨5, whole-tone scale
as above, also chords in 3rd interval and streams
4a) Augmented family – likewise
5) 13sus, 11 – as above where applicable
6) Minor 6/9 Pentatonic (m6) (m6/²7, minor ²7, m6/9/²7, m6/11)
“Tonality Types” – Ted Greene, 1975-10-10 and 12 p. 9

as above; triad
6a) Minor ¨6/9 Pentatonic. As above.

Lots of 20th century major and minor sounds and impressionistic sounds overlap

14) 20th Century Minor

Rhythms and Textures: as at [#12]
• Single-note melodies and melodic patterns - in harmonic, melodic, natural, Dorian, Phrygian,
• Chord scales of 7ths, some triads, 4th chords - in harmonic, melodic, natural, Dorian, Phrygian,
• Streams (voicings: ala 19th century and also modern ones (“4thy”, altered., extensions)
• Chord progressions: (voicings: ala 19th century and also modern ones (“4thy”, altered., extensions)
• Vamps
• Variations on ii-V-(i)
• Short progressions using color chords
• Short turnarounds
• Symmetric - mono family types
• Moving line types (on bass view)
• Combined vamps
• Long turnarounds and cycles
• Switches
• Contrary - as in major (in any minor scale or combinations)
• Pedals - as in major (in any minor scale or combinations) (also Gershwin chromatic inner voice type)
• All chromatic universe concepts where applicable
• Minor blues

15) Blues (and Gospel, some country sounds)

Rhythms: Rubato, slow swing, fast swing, 6/8 Gospel, jazz waltz
Textures: ?
• Single-note melodies
• Chord progressions:
o Vamps
o Short progressions
o Short turnarounds
o Satellite 12 bar
o Moving line or bass view types
o Combined vamps
o Long turnarounds and cycles
o Borrowed chords in Gospel style
o Open triad borrowed chords
o 12-Bar Progressions
ƒ Dominant 7th ext.
ƒ ii-V types (with ext.)
ƒ I-V
ƒ Major
ƒ GVE [George Van Eps]
ƒ Lenny Breau
“Tonality Types” – Ted Greene, 1975-10-10 and 12 p. 10

ƒ Bluesette
ƒ Riffs like “Rock House” or “Blue Monday”
ƒ Parallel
ƒ Close harmony (Western swing)
ƒ Counterpoint
ƒ Gershwin (I - V+ - v - V+ )

Original Gospel progressions

“Swing Low” progression
“Zipadee” progression
Sub-dominant connection like “Young Man with Horn” (also, slight use of parallel minors)
[George] Benson 7b9
Sliding 6ths
“Birth of the Blues” type

15a) Minor Gospel

• Chord scales of (2, 3, 4 notes) 7/11 Pentatonic, 9th Pentatonic, and other hybrids; also from other
blues scales (see list)
• Pedals - ala Gershwin (major and minor)
Tonality Types for Solo Guitar
(Dealing more with Norms than Exceptions)
Ted Greene, 1975-03-25


1) Baroque (ala Bach, Handel)

A. Rhythm (Meters and tempos actually):
1) Rubato – M.M. 72-80
2) Chorale – (slow 72-80, medium slow 84-92, medium 96-100) in 2/4, 3/4, 6/8 “Jesu”

3) Lively “4” Feel – on 80-88 or more. (2/4, 4/4)

4) Lively “3/4” Feel – on 126-168 or more. (3/4)

5) Lively “3” Feel – 6/8 time on 92-120
6) March – 6/8 time on 100-126
B. Harmony – Diatonic, Secondary Harmony, Diminished Scale.
Also used Mixolydian of Melodic Minor

2) Early Romantic (ala Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert)

A. Rhythm: As in Baroque, also 7) Minuets with Lilt, or slow “3” feel (“Minuet in G” and
“Moonlight Sonata”)

3) in 72-84 Development of rhythms that are much more

4) and 5) in Scherzo playful, passionate, powerful than Baroque.
Also more syncopation.
B. Harmony: As in Baroque plus Borrowed Triads, 7ths; Secondary chords of more remote keys;
Modulation to all keys; lots of diminished 7’s with new resolutions; lots of augmented chords;
lots of +6th’s mediant relationships, Horn 5ths more often.

3) Late Romantic (ala Chopin, Liszt, Grieg, Tchaikovsky, Wagner)

A. Rhythm: Extensive use of Rubato; also Chorale; March; limited use of Baroque type lively feels
except for certain composes like Tchaikovsky; emergence of 8) Waltz.
B. Harmony: As above; also emergence of 6th, 7/6, 7+, m6, m²7, (m6/²7); more free use of +6ths;
Chromatic Wandering; ¨5th substitute and ¨2nd Embellishment used more frequently.

4) Impressionistic (ala Debussy, Ravel, Film Composers like Max Steiner)

A. Rhythm: Again, extensive use of Rubato; temporary animated 2/4, 3/4, 6/8 feels.
B. Harmony: Triads only occasionally; emergence of lots of new kinds of chords 
Vocabulary consists of 9 main families:
Major ext., Major 7#11 (Pentatonic), 9th, 13th, 13sus, 13#11,
9¨5 (9+), m6(9), m7. [9¨5 and 9+ and families sound the same but function differently.]
See Impressionist Sheet.
(Also use of Ancient modes again.)
Any of the 9 families (or sub-families within the families) can be lingered upon.
Many of the families are built on Pentatonic scales, exotic-mystical chords
“Tonality Types for Solo Guitar” — Ted Greene, 1975-03-25 p. 2

5) 20th Century Romantic (ala Max Steiner and other film composers)
A. Rhythm: Rubato, Chorale, 9) Horizontal Walks 10) Bounces
(See themes from “Gone with the Wind” and other movies.)
Happy or Romantic 6/8, Marches, Waltzes, snatches of animated 2/4, 3/4 as in Baroque,
11) Swing, 12) Bossa, and Latin Rhythms
B. Harmony:
1) Mostly diatonic triads, Pedal chords, 6ths, 7ths, /9ths (add 9), V7/6,
Appoggiatura chords: /9sus, sus4, 7/6 sus (possibly some extensions as below).
Ala one theme of “So Big”, “Hanging Tree”, Big Country” “The Magnificent Seven.”
2) More emphasis on diatonic 7ths, 9ths, 7/11s, 11ths, 13ths, 13sus, 6/9 (on ii, IV), 6/11,
6/9/11, (13/11), /9ths, 7/6’s, 6ths.
3) Combining 1) with Color chords, Extended Color chords, Secondary chords, Extended
Secondary chords, Borrowed chords, Extended Borrowed chords, or any combination of
4) Combining 2) with same.
5) Aeolian with Borrowed I (and/or ¨II) – Triads, Extensions.
6) Phrygian with Borrowed I – Triads, Extensions.
7) Lydian mode – Triads, Extensions.
8) Diminished, diminished 7 types – some are included in Color chord types.
9) Extended (or plain) Borrowed majors only (optional: iv7, v7)
10) Blues (ala Gershwin) – include I7-V7, I ¨VII (see IV part of “Willow Weep for Me”)
11) ii7-V7 (Modern Mixolydian) also ii7 iii7 or reverse.
12) Whole-Half (Half-Whole) scale chords and intervals.
13) Wandering.

Also with Aeolian and I: Mixolydian with bIII (¨VI)

Also with Phrygian and I: Spanish Gypsy scale (Mixolydian of Harmonic Minor)
Harmonic Minor with I; I6, ¨II6, ¨III6, iv°6, v°6, ¨vi°6, vii°6
I, ii°, iii°, iv, v, ¨VI, ¨VII


1) Dorian (optional ¨VI, V, and I at cadences)

A. Rhythm: Possibly all 12 rhythms [listed above in yellow highlight]
B. Harmony: Triads, Extensions
2) Aeolian (optional ii, ¨II, V, and I at cadences)
A. Rhythm: As above.
B. Harmony: As above.
3) Phrygian (optional ¨V, v, V, I)
A. Rhythm: As above.
B. Harmony: As above.
4) Baroque Minor
A. Rhythm: As in Baroque Major
B. Harmony: As in Baroque Major
“Tonality Types for Solo Guitar” — Ted Greene, 1975-03-25 p. 3

5) Romantic Minor
A. Rhythm: As in Early Romantic, Late Romantic [listed above]
B. Harmony: As in Early Romantic, Late Romantic [listed above]

6) Impressionistic Minor #1
A. Rhythm: See 4) [listed above]
B. Harmony: minor 6, minor 6/9 Pentatonic, (and whole m6 family)

7) Impressionistic Minor #2
A. Rhythm: As above
B. Harmony: Minor ¨6/9 Pentatonic

8) 20th Century Minor

A. Rhythm: As in 5) [listed above]
B. Harmony:
a) minor 6 family as tonic
b) minor 7 family as tonic
In either situation, using all available resources including diatonic (of all scales and modes), Triads,
Extensions, Color chords, Extended Color chords, Secondary chords, Extended Secondary chords.

9) Gypsy Minor (offshoot of Romantic Minor)

A. Rhythm: As above
B. Harmony: Lots of free use of Harmonic and Hungarian Minors

Organum (strict and free) also sus, 2’s

Quartal Harmony
4-Note Arpeggio of ²7, 6, /9
7/11 Pentatonic Scale
Tri-tonic Scale

All Tonality Types (where applicable) in:

1) Streams
2) Chord Scales (diatonic, altered, mixed, broken in various ways)
3) Pedals
4) Vamps (chains, reverses)
5) Chord Progressions
6) Modulation (not only changing keys, but also, or instead, changing tonality type)
7) Contrary Motion Sounds and Pyramids
Triads in 1st Inversion
Ted Greene, 1973-09-15

Triads with the 3rd in the bass are used to create a melodic bass line. Due to the expected
resolution of the bass lines they help create, they give added forward motion or momentum to
chord progressions and they also have a sound all their own, different from root in the bass

Practice the progressions on this page and concentrate especially on the bass line and the
unique type of sound that 1st inversions create; also compare the 1st group of progressions
with their root in the bass counterparts on the other page (“Triads in Root Position”). Faithful
study of these progressions will speed up your musicianship quite a bit.

Do all of these progressions in F#m using C# (V) where appropriate to replace C#m (v).
Do in A, F#m, D, Bm, etc. (circle of 4ths)
Triads in 2nd Inversion
and Figured Bass
Ted Greene, 1973-09-15

Figured bass is a system of musical shorthand where chords are indicated by the relationship in close
voicing of all the notes to the bass note. Example: a closed triad in 1st inversion has (from the bass up)
the following intervals  a 3rd, and a 6th. (Whether or not the 3rd’s and 6th’s are major or minor
depends on the type of triad.) A 2nd inversion closed triad has the intervals of a 4th, and a 6th (from the
bass up). In musical shorthand, any 1st inversion voicing is referred to as a 63 or more commonly, just 6.
Example: C in 1st inversion is written as C6 (notice that the 6 is under the chord). Similarly, any 2nd
inversion is referred to as a 64. Example: C in 2nd inversion is written as C64. This system of notation
will prove to be valuable for the serious musician.

A 64 chord is a very potent chord and should be treated with care and skill. Here are some guidelines:
1) The I 64 or (i in minor) is used to “announce” cadences, that is, it sets up the V chord in authentic (and
1/2 cadences sometimes).

Figured bass symbols can be omitted at the discretion of the individual when labeling chords. They are
very useful and effective when one wishes to indicate a precise bass line.

2) Although it is found most often in cadences as above, the 64 may be used effectively elsewhere in a
phrase also:

Key of E:
Triads in 2nd Inversion and Figured Bass – Ted Greene, 1973-09-15 page 2

Another common use is that of connecting a chord and its 1st inversion via the 64 :

These are called passing 64’s. Here is another example in F#m. Ending on a major chord in a minor key is
common (this device is called the Picardy 3rd.)

Another common use of the 64 is as a stationary bass note embellishment of a chord of which the 64 is the
IV (or iv).

Key of F#:
Understanding Chord Progressions
Ted Greene – 1973-11-11

Part 1 – “Baroque”
A thorough grasp of Baroque (“time of Bach”) harmony will form a rock-solid foundation upon which to
add the more modern devices in harmony. There actually is not that much to contend with in this field
since the harmonic vocabulary associated with this type of sound is limited to triads, 7ths, and occasional
9ths. The main principles are:
1) An emphasis on the “outer voices” with a special emphasis on the bass line.
2) The recurrence of certain root progressions (numerical formulas) that must be memorized.

All examples will be given in the key of A only, but should be learned in all keys as soon as possible; also
in all minor keys. Also experiment and make up variations of the given examples using the same devices
but in different voicings. Watch the flow of the outer voices. Try and grasp the significance of each
exercise as there is at least one main harmonic device in each. The root progressions (like I IV V I)
should be memorized in the first 8 examples, at least. Play these exercises backwards also.
[Blue = editorial additions]
Understanding Chord Progressions — Ted Greene, 1973-11-11 page 2
Understanding Chord Progressions — Ted Greene, 1973-11-11 page 3


A sequence is the repetition of an idea at a different pitch level. By far, the most popular sequences in
classical harmony (and modern as well) involve root progressions of 4ths (5ths). Notice the numerical

Finish these sequences:

Understanding Chord Progressions — Ted Greene, 1973-11-11 page 4

A sequence need not start on I:

Delaying and/or sustaining chordal tones adds to the richness of chord progressions:
Understanding Chord Progressions — Ted Greene, 1973-11-11 page 5

Try to impart motion in all exercises if possible. Compare the next two examples to appreciate the extra
beauty of moving lines.
Understanding Chord Progressions — Ted Greene, 1973-11-11 page 6
Understanding Chord Progressions — Ted Greene, 1973-11-11 page 7

Go back and convert all sequences into a form of triple rhythm now (like 3/4, 6/8, 9/8, etc.)
Here is one in 9/8. White notes are numbered in terms of their chronological appearance. Some notes
are part of a chord and then hit again later, which accounts for the symbol:…[These numbers and
symbols have been changed to Ted’s standard “playing order” symbols. – Editor’s note.]

Try sequences with little triads too. Here is another type of sequence:

Sequence of 5ths

Sequence of 2nds

Also elision ascending sequence of 5ths: in scherzo rhythm

G#º D Bm F#m D A etc.
Understanding Chord Progressions
Ted Greene – 1973-11-11

Part 2 – Contemporary, Pop, Rock, Country, Folk, etc.

Just as a study of Bach will provide the necessary insight into the harmonic language of the Baroque period,
the study of the songs of the Beatles will open up the door to the abovementioned categories, because the
Beatles fused many different elements into their music.

The progressions given should be learned in all keys. Look for patterns that constantly reappear; also notice
unusual features when they appear.
Compare with Baroque harmony.

1) All My Loving
ii | V | I | vi | IV | ii | ¨VII | V | ii | V | I | vi | ii or IV | V | I | I :|| vi | III(+) | I | vi | III(+) | I :||

2) And I Love Her

ii | vi | ii | vi | ii | vi | IV | V | I | I :|| vi | V | vi | iii | vi | iii | IV or V | V :||

3) Can’t Buy Me Love

I7 | I7 | I7 | I7 | IV7 | IV7 | I7 | I7 | V7 | IV7 | V7 IV7 | I7 :|| iii | vi | IV7 V7 | I | iii | vi | ii or IV | V :||

4) Eight Days a Week

I | II | IV | I | I | II | IV | I | vi | ii or IV | vi | II | I | II | IV | I :|| V | V | vi | vi | II | II | IV | V :||

5) Fool on the Hill

I | ii | I | ii | ii V | I vi | ii V | i ¨VI i | iv | ¨VII | i iv i | I :||
Beats: / / // / / //

6) Hard Day’s Night ┌─1─┐

I IV7 | I | ¨VII | I | I IV7 | I | ¨VII | I | IV | V | I IV7 | I V :|| I | iii | vi | iii | iii | I | vi | II | V :||

7) Help (break for riff)

I | I | iii | iii | vi | vi | IV ¨VII | I :|| ii | ii | ii | ii | ¨VII | ¨VII | ¨VII | ¨VII | V | V | V | V | I | | I | I :||

8) Here, There and Everywhere

Intro - rubato (no tempo): I iii ¨III ii V ┌─1─┐ // / /
||: I ii | iii IV | I ii | iii IV | vii III | vii III | vi II | i V :|| ii ii V | I vi | ii (or vii±7) III | vi | ii (or vii±7) V :||
of ¨III - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

9) In My Life
I V | I7 | IV iv | I | I V | I7 | IV iv | I | vi | IV | ¨VII | IV I | vi | II | iv | I :||

10) Let It Be
I | V | vi | IV | I | V | IV iii ii | I :|| vi | iii or V | IV | I | I | V | IV iii ii | I :||
// / / // / /

11) Norwegian Wood

I | I | I ¨VII | I :|| i | i | IV | IV | i | i | ii | V :||
Understanding Chord Progressions (part 2) — Ted Greene, 1973-11-11 page 2

12) Penny Lane ┌─ 1 ─┐

± ²
I vi | ii V | I vi | i7 | vi 7 | ¨VI 7 | ii V | ii V :|| ii V | I | iii | IV | IV | I | iii | IV | V :||
of ¨VII - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - of original I

13) Eleanor Rigby

¨VI | ¨VI | i | i :|| ||: i | i | i | ¨VI | ¨VI i :|| i7 | im6 | ¨VI | i | i7 | im6 | ¨VI | i |

14) Michelle
I | iv | ¨VII | ¨VI7 | V II7 | V :|| i | i | ¨III7 | ¨VI | V i | iv V | i im²7 | i7 im6 | ¨VI or iv | V :||

15) Something ┌─1─┐ ┌─────1─────┐ ┌──── 2 ───┐

² ² ²
I | I 7 | I7 | IV | II | V | vi vim 7 |vi7 II | IV ¨III V | I :|| ||: VI | I I 7 | vi I | IV ¨VII IV | I :|| IV ¨VII | I :||
// / / of VI - - - - - - - - - - // / / original I
Repeat to
16) She’s Leaving Home (6/8 time)
I v | ii | vi | II | ii | V | ii | V :|| I | I | I | I | I | ¨VII | vi | II7 | vi | II7 :||

17) With a Little Help from My Friends ┌─1─┐

I V | ii | IV V | I || ||: ¨VII IV | I :|| V :|| vi | II | I ¨VII | IV :|| to beginning
-- repeat twice ---

18) Yesterday
I |vii III7 | vi | IV V | IV I | vi II | IV I :|| ||: vii III7 | vi IV | ii V | I :|| to beginning
Warm Harmonization of Diatonic Major Scale Melodies or Approach Chord
(Written underneath the grids – from left to right across the page- for those who may have
trouble reading from the grid page)

Key of D-
1. Diatonic Harmonization: Ascending step-wise bass heading for IV
2. Expanded diatonicism via bVII

3. Chromatic line passing through II9 to V sus Dominant

4. Heavy Chromaticism heading for bluesy warm IV dom.

5. Softer Chromaticism with warm #iv half-diminished 7 – iv7

6. Again, towards the very soft iii7

Key of Eb
7. Airy, non-angular (due to diat. notes) 4th chords
8. Same, but more restful ending due to tonic feel.

Key of F
9 - 12. Expanded diatonic again – for the next four examples

13. Close harmony diatonic flowing into the warm primary colors of IV I (through the
avoidance of certain tones in the bass)
14.I for iii7 ascending to the “darker” warmth of vi

From the bottom of the page - Ted’s beautiful notes:

Generally, the page has3 or 4 large areas of harmonization:

1) Diatonic
2) Diatonic 4th chords
3) Expanded Diatonic
4) Warm Chromatic colors at least at the end of the passages.

Try with all your heart & soul to absorb the various subtle colors of music so that you can draw
on them when the right opportunities present themselves. There are many ways to study all this,
let’s discuss it.

The “Approach Chord” view is a whole other angle on things. It was actually used to derive
many of the above sounds. Any questions?

From Barbara: Please feel free to post questions in the Forums.

Whole Tone
Ted Greene, 1974-11-27

Permutations of Whole Tone Scale:

1 2 3 b5 (#4) #5 b7
1 2
1 3 1 2 3
1 b5 1 2 b5 1 3 b5
1 #5 1 2 #5 1 3 #5 1 b5 #5
1 b7 1 2 b7 1 3 b7 1 b5 b7 1 #5 b7


1 2 3 b5 1 3 b5 #5 1 2 b5 #5
1 2 3 #5 1 3 b5 b7 1 2 b5 b7
1 2 3 b7 1 3 #5 b7 1 2 #5 b7 1 b5 #5 b7

Key of C
1) 1 2 3 #4 D9no5th, C/9#11
2) 1 2 3 #5 E7+, C9+11, D9#11no3rd, Bb9#11noR
1) 1 2 3 b7 C9no5th
3) 1 3 #4 #5 D7b5#11, (Ab7b5#11), C/9#11+no3
2) 1 3 #4 b7 D7+, C9#11no3rd, Ab9#11noR
1) 1 3 #5 b7 Bb9no5th, (C9+no3rd)
2) 1 2 #4 #5 Ab7+, D9#11noR, F#9#11no3
3) 1 2 #4 b7 C7#11, F#7#11
2) 1 2 #5 b7 C7+
1) 1 #5 #5 b7 Ab9no5th, (C7#11+no3rd)

Conclusion: There are only three different whole tone structures using 4 notes with no doubling:
7+, 7#11, 9no5th (each has other names however).


1 2 3 b5 #5 1 2 3 #4 #5 — C/9#11+. (E9+, D9#11)

1 2 3 b5 b7 1 2 3 #4 b7 — C9#11
1 3 b5 #5 b7 1 3 #4 #5 b7 — C7#5b5
1 2 b5 #5 b7 1 2 #4 #5 b7 — C9#11+no3 (Bb9+, Ab9#11)
2 3 b5 #5 b7
1 2 3 #5 b7 1 2 3 #5 b7 — C9+