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Class-14

Obligation-

Teacher student-†`i‡K Be verb Ges Have


verb-Gi K_v g‡b Kwi‡q w`‡q obligation-
Gi evsjv A_© ¸wj chorus Kwi‡q modal-Gi
g‡Zv structure-G †d‡j supposed to mn
process †`wL‡q Student-†`i‡K dais-G
drag Ki‡eb|

Obligation gv‡b eva¨evaKZv A_©vr Something mandatory. evsjvq eva¨evaKZv msµvš—


ev‡K¨i ‡hgb- Avm‡Z nq, Ki‡Z nq, Kivi K_v, Kivi K_v wQj, Ki‡Z n‡e, Ki‡Z n‡qwQj, eyS‡Z
nq, eyS‡Z n‡e, Avm‡Z n‡e, †h‡Z n‡qwQj BZ¨vw`i Bs‡iRx nj- Obligation |
Auxiliary verb (Be verb: am, is, are, was, were & Have verb: have, has, had BZ¨vw`|) Gi mv‡_
“to” hy³ n‡q Obligation- Gi wb¤œiæc A_© nqt

am to /is to /are to (am supposed to) Ki‡Z nq/ Kivi K_v|


was to /were to (was supposed to) Kivi K_v wQj|
have to / has to Ki‡Z n‡e|
had to Ki‡Z n‡qwQj|

Note: Obligation-G “Have” Present inde.-i gZ n‡e Ges “Had” Past inde.-i gZ|

01. Avgv‡K AvR ZvovZvwo evwo wdi‡Z n‡e | = I have to return home early today.
02. Avgv‡K AvR ZvovZvwo evwo wdi‡Z n‡e bv | = I don’t have to return home early today.
03. ‡Zvgv‡K wK AvR ZvovZvwo evwo wdi‡Z n‡e ? = Do you have to/ Does he have to ...........?
04. ‡Zvgv‡K wK AvR ZvovZvwo evwo wdi‡Z n‡e bv ? = Don’t you have to/ Doesn’t he have to .........?

01. Avgv‡K H w`b ZvovZvwo evwo wdi‡Z n‡qwQj | = I had to return home early that day.
02. Avgv‡K H w`b ZvovZvwo evwo wdi‡Z nqwb | = I didn’t have to return home early that day.
03. ‡Zvgv‡K wK H w`b ZvovZvwo evwo wdi‡Z n‡qwQj ? = Did you ........................................................?
04. ‡Zvgv‡K wK H w`b ZvovZvwo evwo wdi‡Z nqwb ? = Didn’t you ............................................?

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Class-14

Structure - S + M + V (10-m.)-

am to/ is to/ are to

S was to/ were to


have to / has to
had to
v
Exercise: (15-m.)
01. Avgv‡K mKv‡j Awd‡m †h‡Z nq/ hvIqvi K_v|
02. Avgvi mKv‡j Awd‡m hvIqvi K_v wQj| Teacher Class-
03. Avgv‡K mKv‡j Awd‡m ‡h‡Z n‡e| G oral practice
ensure Ki‡eb|
04. Avgv‡K 2N›Uvi g‡a¨B KvRwU †kl Ki‡Z n‡qwQj|evmvq Oral &
05. MZKvj `ycyi 2Uvi g‡a¨B Zvi Avmvi K_v wQj| Written
Practice Ki‡e|
06. Avgv‡K cÖwZw`b cv‡q †nu‡U evwo †h‡Z nq|
07. Avgvi Rb¨ Zv†`i evm †÷k‡b A‡c¶v Kivi K_v|
08. ‡Zvgv‡K mewKQz mn¨ (endure) Ki‡Z n‡e|
09. Avgv‡K †hfv‡eB †nvK AvR‡Ki g‡a¨B KvRwU †kl Ki‡Z n‡e|
10. Avgv‡K †`vl ¯^xKvi Ki‡Z (confess) n‡qwQj|
11. Avgv‡`i‡K mvivwU c_ (all the way long) nuvU‡Z n‡qwQj|
12. m‡¤§jbwU we‡K‡j cybivq ïiæ nIqvi (resume) K_v wQj|
13. Zywg hw` wKQz †c‡Z PvI, Zvn‡j wKQy w`‡Z n‡e|
14. ‡h K‡iB †nvK Avgv‡K h_vmg‡q K¬v‡m Dcw¯’Z _vK‡Z n‡e|
15. Avgv‡`i‡K KjywlZ/†bvsiv ivRbxwZ (polluted politics) cwinvi Ki‡Z n‡e|

Process Obligation: (30-m.) I can learn English at WinEng.

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Class-14

Process diagram-

1 Avwg
2 Avwg
WH 3 Zzwg
WH 4 Zzwg

* difference between “must” and “have to”:


e³v hLb wb‡Ri B”Qvq ev e¨w³MZ ZvwM‡` †Kvb wKQy Kivi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Abyfe K‡i †m‡¶‡Î - “must”
nq|
here the speaker feels something is necessary.
i. I must take care of my health. (What I feel)
ii. I must learn English well. (This is my will)
* e³v hw` A‡b¨i B”Qvbyhvqx ev cwiw¯’wZi Kvi‡Y †Kvb wKQy Kiv `iKvi g‡b K‡ib †m‡¶‡Î have to
nq|

i. I have to learn English from S@ifur’s. Because I’ve seen, someone did well after having
completed course from S@ifur’s.
(Here the situation makes something is necessary)

ii. You have to be quiet. (It’s the rule)

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Class-14
Individual Practice Format (I.P.F)

Speaking with the things around:


Enlargement: B S P + (6-Tense + M + O)
Process: through 6-Tense + Modal + Obligation
Spadework: through 6- Tense

(Keep doing this until you have achieved fluency)

Present Past PP
Sing (Mvb Kiv) Sang Sung
Sit (emv) Sat Sat
Speak (K_v ejv) Spoke Spoken
Stand (`uvov‡bv) Stood Stood
Swim (muvZvi KuvUv) Swam Swum
Sleep (Nygv‡bv) Slept Slept
Say (ejv) Said Said
Sell (wewµ Kiv) Sold Sold
Select (cQ›` Kiv) Selected Selected
Sting (ûj dzUv‡bv) Stung Stung
Spend (e¨q Kiv) Spent Spent
Strike (AvNvZ Kiv) Struke Struke
Save (i¶v Kiv) Saved Saved
Sink (Wy‡e hvIqv) Sank Sunk
Shoot (¸wj Kiv) Shot Shot
Sweep (SuvU †`qv) Swept Swept
Steal (Pzwi Kiv) Stole Stolen
Supply (mieivn Kiv) Supplied Supplied
Satisfy (mš‘ó Kiv) Satisfied Satisfied
Show (†`Lv‡bv) Showed Showed
Sow (ecb Kiv) Sowed Sowed
Spell (ecb Kiv) Spelt Spelt
Shake (Kuvcv‡bv) Shook Shaken
Swing (†`vjv‡bv) Swung Swung
Sew (†mjvB Kiv) Sewed Sewed
Serve (PvKwi Kiv) Served Served
Smoke (a~gcvb Kiv) Smoked Smoked
Smile (g„`y nvmv) Smiled Smiled
Suspect (m‡›`n Kiv) Suspected Suspected
Search (†LuvRv) Searched Searched

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Class-14
Present Past PP
Stop (_vgv‡bv) Stopped Stopped
Send (cvVv‡bv) Sent Sent
See (†`Lv) Saw Seen
Start (Avi¤¢ Kiv) Started Started
Sing (`iLv¯— Kiv) Signed Signed
Soothe (kvš— Kiv) Soothed Soothed
Supervise (cwi`k©b Kiv) Supervised Supervised
Sulk (gyL fvi Kiv) Sulked Sulked
Support (mg_©b Kiv) Supported Supported
Study (Aa¨qb) Studied Studied
Suck (ï‡l †bqv) Sucked Sucked
Solve (mgvavb Kiv) Solved Solved
Submit (`vwLj Kiv) Submitted Submitted
Swell (†dvjv) Swelled Swelled
Settle (¯’vqx Kiv) Settled Settled
Smell (MÜ †bIqv) Smelt Smelt
Store (gRyZ Kiv) Stored Stored
Slap (Po gviv) Slapped Slapped
Set (¯’vcb Kiv) Set Set
Shrink (m¼zwPZ Kiv) Shrank Shrunk
Sack (eiLv¯— Kiv) Sacked Sacked
Spoil (bó Kiv) Spoiled Spoiled
Slip (wcQ‡j cov) Slipped Slipped
Snap (†Qvej gviv) Snapped Snapped
Stretch (evov‡bv) Stretched Stretched
Salute (Awfev`b) Saluted Saluted
Take (†bIqv) Took Taken
Tear (†Quov) Tore Torn
Throw (wb‡¶c Kiv) Threw Thrown
Think (wPš—v Kiv) Thought Thought
Teach (wk¶v †`qv) Taught Taught
Talk (K_v ejv) Talked Talked
Threaten (fq †`Lv‡bv) Threatened Threatened

Present Past PP
Trade (e¨emv Kiv) Traded Traded
Trust (wek¦vm Kiv) Trusted Trusted

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Class-14
Taste (¯^v` MÖnY) Tasted Tasted
Test (cix¶v) Tested Tested
Touch (¯úk© Kiv) Touched Touched
Tolerate (mn¨ Kiv) Tolerated Tolerated
Visit (cwi`k©b Kiv) Visited Visited
Verify (mZ¨Zv hvPvB Kiv) Verified Verified
Wear (cwiavb Kiv) Wore Worn
Weep (Kuv`v) Wept Wept
Wake (RvMv) Woke Woken
Work (KvR Kiv) Worked Worked
Wring (†gvPov‡bv) Wrung Wrung
Wait (A‡c¶v) Waited Waited
Whisper (wdmwdm K‡i K_v ejv) Whispered Whispered
Walk (nvUv) Walked Walked
Want (PvIqv) Wanted Wanted
Wipe (gy‡Q †djv) Wiped Wiped