Graduate Course
ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS
PART – A: (ALTEBRA)
VECTOR SPACES AND MATRICES
Lesson 
1 
: Vector Spaces 

Lesson 
2 
: Matrices : Basic Concepts 

Lesson 
3 
: Elementary Operations on a Matrix and Inverse of a Matrix 

Lesson 
4 
: 
Rank 
of a Matrix 
Lesson 
5 
: Systems of Linear Equations 

Lesson 
6 : The Characteristic Equation of a Matrix 
Editor:
Dr. S.K. Verma
SCHOOL OF OPEN LEARNING
UNIVERSITY OF DELHI 5, Cavalry Lane, Delhi110007
1
Session 20122013 (1500 Copies)
© School of Open Learning
Published By: Executive Director, School of Open Learning, 5, Cavalary Lane, Delhi110007 Laser Composing By : M/s Computek System (201213)
2
LESSON 1
1.1 Introduction
You are already familier with several algebric structures such as groups, rings, integral domains and fields. In this lesson we shall tell you about another equally important algebric structures, namely, a vector space.
Let V be a nonemply set and let F be a field. Let us agree to call elements of V elements of F scalars.
vectors and
A maping from V × V to V will be called addition in V and a mapping from F × V to V will be called multiplication by a scalar multiplication, V is said to a vector space over F if addition and scalar multiplication satisfy certain properties. Of course, these conditions are to be chosen in such a manner that the resulting algebric structure is rich enough to be useful. Before presenting the definition of a vector space, let us note that addition in V is denoted by the symbol ‘+’, and scalar multiplication
is denoted by juxtaposition, 
i.e., 
if x 
∈ V, 
y ∈ V, and 
α 
∈ F, the 
x + 
y 
denoted the sum of 
x 
and 

y, and αx denotes the scalar multiople of 
x by 
α. 
Defintion 1. A nonempty set V is said to be a vector space over a field F with respect to addition and scalar multiplication if the following properties hold.
1


x + (y + 
z) 
= (x + y) + z, for all 
x, 
y, z, ∈ 
V 

2 

x 
+ 0 = 
0 + x = x, for all x 
∈ 
V 

3


x 
+ y 
= 
y + x = 0. 

4


x 
+ 
y 
= 
y + x 

5


i.e., 
α(βx) = 
(α β) x, for all 
α, β, ∈ F and 
x 
∈ 
V 

6


1x 
= 
x, where 1 is the multiplicative identity of F. 

7 
for all 
and x, y ∈ 
V. 

(α 
+ 
β)x 
= αx + α, β ∈ F βx 

α(x + 
y) 
= αx + αy 
Remarks 1. The first of the two distributivity properties stated in V 7 above is generally called distributivity of scalar multiplication over addition in F, and the second of the two distributibity properties is called distributivity of scalar multiplication over addition in V.
3
2.
We generally refer to properties V 1 – V 7 above by saying that (V, +) is a vector space over
F.
If the underlying
field
F
is
an explicit reference to F.
fixed, we simply
say
that
(V,
+,)
is
a
vector space, and do not make
In case, the two vector space compositions are known, we denote a vectors space over a field’ F by the symbol V(F). If there is no chance of confusion about the underlying field, then we simply talk of ‘the vector space V’.
3. You might have observed that the axions V 1 to V 4 simply assert the V is an abelian group
for
the composition ‘+’. In view of
the we can restate
the definition of a vector space as follows:
2. Definnition and Exampls of a Vector Space
Defintion 2.
A triple (V, +,) is said to be a vector space over a field F if (V, +) is an abelian
group, and the following properties are satisfied :
α(βx) = (αβ)x, 
∀α, β ∈ F and 
∀ x ∈ 
V 

1x 
= 
x, 
∀x, β 
∈ 
V, where 
1 
is 
the 
multiplicative identity of F 

(α 
+ 
β)x 
= 
αx 
+ 
βx, 
∀α, β 
∈ F, and 
∀x, y ∈ 
V 

α (x + 
y) 
= αx + 
αy, 
∀α ∈ F and ∀ x, y ∈ 
V 
We shall now consider some examples of vector spaces.
Example 1. Let R be the
set of number (R, +) is
vector space over R. The addition is addition
in R and scalar multiplication is simply multiplication of real numbers.
It is easy to verify that all the vector space axioms are verified. In fact, V14 are satisfied because R is an abelian group with respect to addition, V5 is nothing but the associative property of multipication, V6 is the property of the multiplicative identity in (R, +,) and the properties listed in V7 are nothing but the distributivity of multiplication over addition.
Example 2. (C, +, ) is a vector space over C
Example 3.
(Q, +, ) is a vector space over
Q.
Example 4. Let F be any field. F is a vector space over itself for the usual compositions of addition and multipication (to be called scalar multiplication) in F.
Example 5.
C is a vector space over
R, and
R is a vector space over
Q.
Example 6.
R is not a vector space over
C. Observe that if
α ∈ C and
x
∈ R, the
αx
is not
in R. Therefore the multiplication composition in R fails to give rise to the scalar multiplication composition.
The examples considered above are in a way relabelling of the field properties C, R or Q. We shall now consider some examples of a different type.
Example 7. Let V
be the set of all vectors in a plane. You know that addition of two vectors
is a vector, and that
V is a group with respect to sum of vectors. Let us take addition of vectors as
the first compostion for the purpose of our example. Also, we know that if d be any vector and k be
any real numbers, then k d is a vector.
Let us take
R as the underlying field and multiplication of
vector by a scalar as the second vector space composition. It is easy to see that V is vector space over
R for these two compositons. Example 8. Let R ^{3} be the set
{(x , x , x ): x , x
1
2
3
1
2,
x
3
∈ R}
4
and the addition and scalar multiplication R ^{3} be defined as follows:
If x ∈ 
R ^{3} and 
y ∈ R ^{3} 
let

y 
= (x +++ 1 y , x 1 2 y , x 2 3 
y ). 3 

Also if 
x 
∈ R ^{3} and 
c 
∈ 
R, 
let 

cx = (cx , cx , cx ). 123 

It can be seen that 
R ^{3} 
is 
a vector space over R for the two compostions—addition and scalar 
multilication, as defned above. We may note before passing on to the next example that the vector space bing considered here is nothing but the space of the vectors (in space) with addtion and scalar multiplication as the compostion. This example is of special interest because it was in fact motivation for the present teriminology of vector spaces. The next three examples are a little abstract in nature but are quite important. Example 9. Let R ^{n} be the set of ordered ntuples of real numbers, so that a typical element of
Let us first of all see that addition scalar multiplication as defined above are meaningful in the
sense that they define the two compositions taht we need for making
R ^{n} vector space.
Since
xxx
1
,,,
2
3
x
n
and
y
1
,
y
2
, ...
y
n
are all real numbers, therefore
x
1
+ y ,
1
y
2
,
...
,
+ y
n
are all
real numbers and therefore
(
x
1
+ y
1
,
x
2
+ y
2
,
...,
+ y
n
)
is an ordered ntype
of real numbers and
consequently it is in R ^{n} . Again, since α is a real number and
(
x
1
,
x
2
,
...,
x are also real numbers, therefore
n
)
αx
1
,
αx
2
, ...
,
αx
n
and so is
R ^{n} .
are also real numbers, and consequently
(
αx
1
,
αx
2
,
...,
αx
n
)
is an ntype of real numbers
Having defined addition and scalar multiplication in R ^{n} , let us see in some detail that all the properties needed for R ^{n} to be a vector sapce are actually satisfied.
1. Let
x =
(
x
1
,
x
2
,
...,
x
n
),
y =
(
y
1
,
y
2
,
...,
y
n
),
z =
(
z
1
,
z
2
,
...,
z
n
)
be any three elements of
R ^{n} .
Then
(x +
y) +
z
=
(
x
1
+ y
1
,
x
2
+ y
2
,
...,
x
n
+ y
n
)(,,,)
+
z
1
z
2
K
z
n
=
[(
x
1
+ y
)
1
+ z
1
, (
x
+
y
)
222
+ z
,
...
,(
x
+ y
)
+ z
nnn
]
=
[
x
1
+
(
y
1
+ z
1
),
x
2
+
(
y
2
+ z
2
),
K
,
x
n
+
(
y
n
+ z
n
)]
=
(
x
1
,,,,)
x
2
x
3
K
x
n
+
(
y
1
+ z
1
,
y
2
+ z
2
,
...
y
n
+ z
n
)
=
x +
(y +
z).
5
Let = (0, 0, ... ,
Let ( x 1 , x 2 , ..., x an element of R ^{n} such that 
0). so that o ∈ R ^{n} and n ) be any element of x + 0 = R ^{n} . If o + x = –x _{n} , x for all ... , ∈ –x _{n} ) then x y = (–x _{1} , R ^{n} y ∈ R ^{n} and 
y 
is 

x + y 
= y + x 
= 0 

If x = x 1 ,,, K x 2 x n x + y 
), 
y = ( x 1 , y 2 , = ( x 1 ,,, K x 2 = ( x 1 + y 1 , x 2 = ( y 1 + x 1 , y 2 = ( y 1 , y 2 , ... = y + x. 
..., y n ) are any two elements of x n ),(, + y 1 y 2 , ..., y n ) + y 2 , K , x n + y n ) + x 2 , K , y n + x n ) y n )(, + x 1 x 2 , ..., x n ) 
R ^{n} then 

If x = ( x 1 , x 2 , ... x n be any element of R ^{n} and p, q (pq)x = ( pq ) ( x 1 , x 2 , ... x n ) = [( ) pq x 1 , ( ) pq x 2 , ... ,()] pq x n = [ ( p qx 1 ), ( p qx 2 ), ... ( p qx n )] p ( qx 1 = = p(qx) , qx 2 , ... qx n )
If x = , R ^{n} and p, q 
be any real numbers, then be any real numbers, then 

(x _{1} , ... (p + q) x 
= [( ) p + q x 1 
, ( p + q ) x 2 , ,( p + q ) 
] 

= ( px 1 , px 2 , = px + qx 
..., px n ) + ( qx 1 , qx 2 , ..., 
px n ) 

If
x = ( 1 , x 2 , ..., x n ) number, then 
and y = 
( y 1 , 
y 2 , ..., y n ) be any two elements of 
R ^{n} , and 
p 
be any real 

p(x + y) 
= p(x _{1} + 
y _{1} , x _{2} + y _{2} , ... , x _{n} + y _{n} ) 

= [p(x _{1} + 
y _{1} ), 
x _{2} ), ... 

= (px _{1} , px _{2} , ... 
p(x _{2} + px _{n} ) + p(x _{n} + , (py _{1} , py _{2} , , y _{n} )] py _{n} ) 

= 
, x _{n} ) + p(y _{1} , y _{2} , ... 
... y _{n} ) 

If x = ( x 1 , x 2 , ..., x n 1x 
= p(x _{1} , x _{2} , ... px + py. , be any element of R ^{n} , then = = 1( x 1 , x 2 , ..., x n ) (1 ⋅ x 1 ,1 ⋅ x 2 , K ,1 ⋅ x n ) = ( x 1 , x 2 , ... x n ) , 

= x. 
From 18 abobe we find that R ^{n} is a vector space over R with coordinatewise addition and co ordinatewise scalar multiplication as the two vector space compositions.
6
The use of the word cootherwise, is due to the fact that if
x =
(
x
1
,
x
2
,
...,
)
be any element of
R ^{n} then
x
1
,
x
2
,
...
,
are called the coordinates of x, and while defining x + y, we add the corresponding
coordinates of x and y, and while defining cx we multiply the coordinates of x by c. We may note that the space in example 9 is only a spacing case of the example 9 for n = 3.
Example 10. The set C ^{n} of all ordered ntuples of complex number is a vector space over C for coordinatewise addition and coordinatewise scalar multiplication as the two vector space compositions.
Example 11. Let F be any field. The set
F ^{n} of all ordered
ntuples of elements of F is a vector
space over F with coordinatewise addition and coordinatewise scalar multiplication as the two vector space compositions.
Example 12. Let M _{m}_{n} is a vector space over C with respect to matrices over C. M
is a vector
mn
space over C with respect
to matrix addition and multiplication
of
a
matrix
by
a
scalar, for
1. The sum of two m × n matices with complex entries is an m × n matrix with complex entries.
2. Addition of matrices is associative.
3. The m × n zeromatrix is a natural element for addtion.
4. It A be an m × n matrix with complex entries, then –A is also an m × n with complex entries
such that (–A) +
A +
(–A)
=
0
5. Addition of matrices is commutative.
6. If A ∈ M _{m}_{n} and c be any complex number, then –A is also m × n matrix with complex entries
and so 
cA ∈ 
M 

mn 



then 

p(q A) 
= (pq) A, 

(p + q) A = p(A + = 
pA + 
qA, 

B) 1 A 
= pA + pB, A, for all 
A ∈ 
M 

mn 

Example 13. The set S of all matrices of the form 
a − b 
b 
_{} , where a, b are any complex numbers, 


a 
is a vector space over C with respect to matrix addition and multiplication by a scalar for the following reasons:
1.
If A, B, ∈
S, the
A +
B ∈
S.
For,
if
A =
a
−
b
b
a
c
−
d
d
c
,
then
A +
B
=
a
+
c
−
(
b
+
d
)
b
+
d
a
+
c
=
p
−
q
2. Matrix addition is associative.
q
p
,where,.
p
=
a
+
c qbd
=
+
3. The matrix
O
=
o
o
o
o
∈
S
,
and
A
+ O
= O
+ A
= A, for all
A
∈
S.
7
4.
If
A
=
p
− q
q
p
∈
S
, then the matrix
B
=
−
p
q
5.
Addition f matrices is commulative.
−
−
q
p
∈
S
, and is such that
A + B = B
+ AA = 0.
6.
If c be any complex number, and A =
a
− b
b
a
_{}
∈
S, then
cA
is
the matix given by
cA =
ca
− cb
It is obvious that
cA
∈
S.
cb
ca
^{.}
then
7.
If p, q be any complex numbers, and A, B be any two matrices in S, say
A
=
a
− b
b
a
, B
=
c
− d
d
c
^{,}
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(pq)A =
pq
a
−
b
b
a
=
(
(
)
pq a
(
pq b
)
pq
)()(
−
b
pq a
)
=
(
p qA
)
p
(
−
qb
)
(p +
q) A
=
pA +
qA
p(A +
B)
= pA + pB
1 A
=
A.
p qb
(
)
(
p qa
)
=
p
(
qA
).
Example 14. The set of all matrices of the form
x
z
y
o
,
where
x, y, z, ∈ C, is a vector space
over C
with respect to matrix addition and multiplication of a matrix by a scalar.
The verification of the vector space axioms is straight forward.
Example 15. The set s of all hermitian matrices of order n is a vector space over R with respect to matrix addition and multiplication of matrix by a scalar.
To verify that (S, +, ) is a vector space over C, we proceed as follows:
1.
Let A, B be two hermitian matrices of order n. Then A + B is a matrix of order n. It is hermitian
because (A
+
B) ^{θ} =
A ^{θ} +
B ^{θ} =
A +
B, since
A ^{θ} =
A, B ^{θ} =
B.
2.
Addition of matrices is associative.
3.
The nrowed, zero matrix O is a matrix is a hermitian matrix such that
A + 0 =
0
+ A =
A
4.
A = 0.
It A ∈ S, so that
A ^{t} =
A, then (–A) ^{t}
=
–A ^{t} =
–A, so that –4A ∈ S, and
A + (–A) = (–A)
+
5.
Matrix addition is commutative
6.
7.
If
C ∈
R, and
A
∈ S,
then (CA) ^{t} =
CA ^{t} =
If p, q, ∈ R and and
A B
∈ S,
then
CA, so that
c A ∈
S.
(i)
(ii)
(p, q)A =
p(qA)
(p +
q)A =
pA +
qA
(iii)
p(A +
B)
1 A
= pA + A
pB
(iv)
In view
= of the above
propertie it follows that (S, +,
)
is
a
vector space over
R.
8
Example 16. The set S of all real symmetric matrices of order respect to matrix addition and multiplication of a matrix by a scalar.
n is a vector space over R with
In order to convince ourselves that (S, +,
) is a vector space over
R, let us note the following:
A ^{t} = 
A, B ^{t} = 
A. 
It follows that 

(A + 
B) ^{t} 
= 
A ^{t} + 
B ^{t} = A + 
B 

that for 
all A, B, C 
∈ 
S, 

A + (B + 
C) 
= (A + 
B) + C. 


o 
is a real symmetric matrix, and therefore it is in S. 

Also, A 
+ 0 = 
0 + 
A = A 

for all A in S. 

so that –A ^{t} = 
–A, so that—17 
A ∈ S. Also, A + (–A) 
= (–A) 

If A ∈ S + A = 0.


If
R and A ∈ S, 
then (cA) ^{t} = 
cA ^{t} = cA, so that 
c A 
∈ 
S. 

If
∈ R, and A, B 
∈ S, then 

(i) (p, q) A = p(qA) 

(ii) (p + q)A = pA + qA 

(iii) P(A + B) = pA + (iv) 1 A = 
pB 

A 
3. Some Direct Consequents of Vector Space Axioms
We shall now state and prove some elementary consequences of the vector space axioms. These
will
help
us
in dealing with vector in a convenient
way
in many situations.
Theorem. Let V be a vector over a field
F. Then for all
a
∈ F and
x ∈
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
Proof.
α _{0}
=
0x
=
0,
0,
(–α)x = –ax
(–α) (–x)
= αx
αx
=
0 if either
α = 0 or
x
=
0.
V,
(i)
Since
α _{0}
=
α(0
+
0),
by
the
property of 0 ∈
V
=
α0
+
α0,
by distributivity of scalar
multiplication over addition in V
α0 +
α0
=
α0 =
α0 + 0, by the property of 0 in V by cancellation law in (V, +),
it follows that
α0
=
0
(ii)
Since
0 x
=
(0 + 0)
x,
by
the
property of 0
in
F
=
0x
+ 0x, by distributivity of scalar multiplication over addition in F.
0x
+
0x
= 0x + 0, by, the property of 0 in V, therefore by cancellation law in (V, +), it follows thats
0x
=
0
9
(iii) 
0 
= 
a 
+ (–α) 
⇒ 
0x = 
(α + (–α))x 

⇒ 
0 = 
αx 
+ (–α) 
x, since 
ox 
= 0. 
Now αx, (–α)x are two elements of V such that
ax + (–α)x = 0, therefore (–α) x is the negative
10
LESSON 2
(BASIC CONCEPTS)
1. Introduction
You are already familier with addition and multiplication of matrices. We shall now talk about some important types of matrices such as symmetric and skewsymmetric matrices, hermitian and skew
hermitian matrices etc., elementary operations on a matrix inverse of a matrix, rank of a matrix, and
characteristic equation of a matrix. In the end we shall apply some of these concepts to
solutions of
systems of lineare equations. However, before we do so, we shall briefly recapitalate the main facts about addition and multiplication of matrices.
2. Defintion of a Matrix Let S be any set. A set of mn elements arranged in a rectangular array of m rows and n column as
a
11
a
21
a
12
a
22
K
K
a
1 n
a
2 n
KKKK
a
m
1
a
m
2
K
a
mn
is called an
m × n
(“m by n”) matrix over
S. A matrix may be represented by the symbols 
a _{i}_{j}
,
[a
ij
],
[a
ij
] or by a single letter such as A. The
a
ij
’s in a matrix are called the element of the matrix.
The indices is and j of an element indicate respectively the row and the column in which the elements
a _{i}_{j} is located.
Since we shall be dealing only with matrices over the set of complex number therefore, we shall
use the word “matrix” so as to mean “matrix over
C” throughtout, unless we state to the contrary.
Thes 1 × n matrics are called row vectors and the m × l matrices are called column vectors. The
m × is usually denoted by
n matrix whose elements are 0 is called the
O _{m}
_{×}
_{n} or
simply
by
O
null matrix (or zero matrix) of the type
if there is no possibility of confusion.
m ×
n.
It
If the number of rows and the number of columns of a matrix are equal (say each equal to n)
the matrix is said to be a
square matrix of order
n or an
nrow square matrix. The elements a _{1}_{1} a _{2}_{2} ,
a _{m}_{n} of a square matrix A are said to constitute the main doagonal of A. A square matrix in which
... all the off diagonal elements are zero is called a diagonal matrix. Thus an nrowed square matrix [a _{i}_{j} ] is a diagonal matrix if a _{i}_{j} = 0 whenever i + j. An nrowed diagonal matrix is often written as
dia. [a _{1}_{1} , a _{2}_{2} ,
...
,
^{a} mn ^{]}
A diagonal matrix in whic all the diagronal elements are equal is called a scalar matrix. In other
words, an nrowed square matrix [a _{i}_{j} ] is a scalar matrix if for some number
k.
^{a} ij ^{=}
k
,
0,
when
i
=
j
,
when
i
≠
j
.
A scalar matrix in which each diagonal element is unity, is called a unit matrix. Thus, an nrowed
square
matrix
[a _{i}_{j} ]
is
called a
unit matrix if
11
^{a} ij ^{=}
1,
0,
whenever
i
=
j
,
whenever
i
≠
j
.
The nrowed unit matrix is usually denoted by confustion).
I _{n}
(or simply by
I
if there
is no possibility
of
The matrix of elements which remain after deleting any number of rows and columns of a matrix
A is called a sub matrix of Illustrations :
A.
1.
0000
0000
0000
is
the
3
×
4
null
matrix.
2.
312
5
4
7
− 128
is a 3rowed square matrix. 3, 4, 8 constitute the main diagonal of this matrix.
3.
100
070
0
0
−
2
is a 3rowed diagonal matrix.
4.
400
040
004
is a 3rowed scalar matrix.
5.
100
010
001
is the 3rowed unit matrix. We denote it by
I _{3} .
6.
The matrix
3
6
4
−
5
is submatrix of
187
− 234
165
−
because it can be obtained from the latter
by deleting
the
first row and the first columne.
3. Equality of Matrices
Two matrices A = [a
ij
] and B = [b
ij
] are said to be equal if (i) they are comparable, i.e., the number
A, and the number of columns in
B is
the same
as
of rows in
B is the same as the number or rows
the number of columns in
the matrices
3 8 and
7
9
A;
(ii)
a _{i}_{j} =
b _{i}_{j} = for every pair of subscripts
i and
j. Thus, for example,
362 154 are not comparable ; the matrices
− 123
310
_{}
and
436
189
are comparable but not equal; the matrices
are equal.
From the defintion of equality of matrices, it can be easily verified that if matrices, then
A, B, and
C
be any
12
(i) 
A = A (reflexivity) 

(ii) 
B ⇒ B 
= A (symmetry) 

(iii) 
A = if A = B and B 
= 
C, the A = (transitivity) 

The above statements (i)—(iii) can be summed up by saying that the relation of equality in the set of all matrices is an equivlance relation. 

4. Addition of Matrices 

If A = [a _{i}_{j} ], and 
B = [b _{i}_{j} ] be two matrices of the same type, say 
m × m × 
n 

matrix C 
= 
[c _{i}_{j} ], where 
c _{i}_{j} = 
a _{i}_{j} + b _{i}_{j} for every pair of subscripts 
i and n, their sum is the j. In other words, 

If 
A = 
a 11 a 21 a 12 a 22 K K KKK a 1 n a 2 n K B = b 11 b 21 
b 12 b 22 K K b 1 n b 2 n KKKK 


a m 1 a m 2 K a mn b m 1 
b 
m 2 
K 
b mn 


a + b a + b K a 
+ 
a 


then A + B = Illustrations. If A = then A + B = Properties of matrix addition 
11 11 12 12 a 21 + b 21 a 22 + b 22 aaa + b 1122 mmm m + K K 1 n a 2 n a mn − 2 4 1 2 3 − 1 425 and B _{=} 306 − 2 + 4 1 432 + + 2 + 0 3 + 5 − 1 + 6 = 
1 n + b 2 n + b mn 238 725 


Addtion of matrices, has the following properties: 

(i) 
Addition of matrices is associative. That is, if A, B, and C be matrices of the same type, 

then A + (B + 
C) 
= (A + B) + C 

(ii) Addition of matrices is commutative. That is, if A and B be matrics of the same type, then 

A +</ 