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isograph

Availability Workbench®
Version 3.0
incorporating RCMCost and AvSim

User Guide
Integrated
Reliability-Centered Maintenance
System Availability Simulation
Weibull Analysis
Life Cycle Costing
Process Reliability
SAP Portal
MAXIMO Portal
Accelerated Life Testing

SAP is a registered trademark of SAP AG in Germany and in several other countries.

MAXIMO is a registered trademark of IBM.

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Copyright © 2017 Isograph Limited

All rights reserved. This document and the associated software contains proprietary information which
is protected by copyright and may not be copied in whole or in part except with the prior written
permission of Isograph. The copyright and the foregoing restrictions on the copyright extends to all
media in which this information may be preserved.

Isograph makes no representations or warranties of any kind whatsoever with respect to this document
or its associated software. Isograph disclaims all liabilities for loss or damage arising out of the
possession sale or use of this document or its associated software.
Table Of Contents
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................... 1
Availability Workbench Functional Summary ..................................................................................... 1
Introduction to the RCMCost Module ................................................................................................. 3
Introduction to the AvSim Module ...................................................................................................... 5
Introduction to the Life Cycle Cost Module ........................................................................................ 6
Introduction to the Weibull Module ..................................................................................................... 7
Introduction to the Process Reliability Module ................................................................................... 8
Introduction to the SAP Portal Module ............................................................................................... 9
Introduction to the MAXIMO Portal Module ......................................................................................... 10
Accelerated Life Testing Module - Overview ........................................................................................... 11
The Availability Workbench Simulation Engine ................................................................................ 12
New Features for Version 3.0 ................................................................................................................. 13
New Features for Version 3.0 Overview .......................................................................................... 13
Licensing ................................................................................................................................................. 15
Overview of Licensing ...................................................................................................................... 15
Demonstration Mode........................................................................................................................ 16
License Configuration ...................................................................................................................... 17
Checking Out Server Licenses ........................................................................................................ 21
License Server Activation ................................................................................................................ 22
Getting Started ........................................................................................................................................ 25
Getting Started - The User Interface ................................................................................................ 25
Getting Started - Building a Project .................................................................................................. 27
Getting Started - Defining Resources .............................................................................................. 28
Getting Started - Importing Historical Data ...................................................................................... 31
Reliability-Centered Maintenance ........................................................................................................ 34
Getting Started - Building The Location Hierarchy ........................................................................... 34
Getting Started - Assigning Effects To Causes ................................................................................ 38
Getting Started - Recording Decisions And Obtaining Advice ......................................................... 41
Getting Started - Optimizing Maintenance Intervals ......................................................................... 43
Getting Started - Performing a System Simulation .......................................................................... 44
System Availability Simulation ............................................................................................................. 45
Getting Started - Building a Reliability Block Diagram ..................................................................... 45
Getting Started - Building a Fault Tree Diagram .............................................................................. 46
Getting Started - Performing A System Availability Simulation ........................................................ 47
Getting Started - Examining Results ................................................................................................ 48
Getting Started - Building a Life Cycle Cost Model .......................................................................... 49
Projects and Libraries ............................................................................................................................. 51
Overview of Projects and Libraries .................................................................................................. 51
Project and Library Validation .......................................................................................................... 52
Enterprise Project and Library Management ........................................................................................... 53
Task Library ............................................................................................................................................ 55
Opening Reliability Workbench Projects ................................................................................................. 56
Project Options ....................................................................................................................................... 57
Overview of Project Options ............................................................................................................ 57
Project General Options - All Modules ............................................................................................. 58
Project Lifetime Options – RCMCost, AvSim, LCC Modules ........................................................... 59
Project Simulation Options – RCMCost Module .............................................................................. 60
Project Simulation Options – AvSim Module.................................................................................... 61
Project Net Present Value Options – RCMCost, AvSim Modules .................................................... 62
Project Spares Options – RCMCost, AvSim Modules ...................................................................... 64
Project Importance Options – AvSim Module .................................................................................. 66
Project Capacity Availability Options – AvSim Module .................................................................... 67
Project View Options........................................................................................................................ 68
Project Precision Options................................................................................................................. 69
Project Notes Options ...................................................................................................................... 70
Project Fonts Options – AvSim Module ........................................................................................... 71
Project Colors Options – RCMCost, AvSim Modules ....................................................................... 72
Project RBD/FT Drag Options – AvSim Module ............................................................................... 73
Common Resources and Data ................................................................................................................ 75
Labor ................................................................................................................................................... 75
Labor - Overview ............................................................................................................................. 75
Labor - General Properties .............................................................................................................. 76
Labor - Notes ................................................................................................................................... 77

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Equipment ........................................................................................................................................... 78
Equipment - Overview...................................................................................................................... 78
Equipment - General Properties ...................................................................................................... 79
Equipment - Notes ........................................................................................................................... 80
Tasks ................................................................................................................................................... 81
Tasks - Overview ............................................................................................................................. 81
Corrective Maintenance Tasks ........................................................................................................ 82
Corrective Tasks - General Properties ............................................................................................. 82
Corrective Tasks - Advanced Properties.......................................................................................... 83
Corrective Tasks - Rules.................................................................................................................. 84
Corrective Tasks - Notes ................................................................................................................. 85
Planned Maintenance Tasks............................................................................................................ 86
Planned Tasks - General Properties ................................................................................................ 86
Planned Tasks - Advanced Properties ............................................................................................. 88
Planned Tasks - Rules ..................................................................................................................... 90
Planned Tasks - Notes..................................................................................................................... 91
Planned Tasks - Optimization .......................................................................................................... 92
Inspection Tasks .............................................................................................................................. 93
Inspection Tasks - General Properties ............................................................................................. 93
Inspection Tasks - Advanced Properties.......................................................................................... 95
Inspection Tasks - Predictive Data .................................................................................................. 96
Inspection Tasks - Rules.................................................................................................................. 98
Inspection Tasks - Notes ................................................................................................................. 99
Inspection Tasks - Optimization ..................................................................................................... 100
Task Groups ...................................................................................................................................... 101
Task Groups - Overview ................................................................................................................ 101
Task Groups - General Properties ................................................................................................. 102
Task Groups - Predictive Data Properties...................................................................................... 103
Task Groups - Rules ...................................................................................................................... 105
Task Groups - Notes ...................................................................................................................... 106
Task Groups - Tasks...................................................................................................................... 107
Spares ............................................................................................................................................... 108
Spares - Overview ......................................................................................................................... 108
Spares - General Properties .......................................................................................................... 109
Spares - Level 1 Properties ........................................................................................................... 110
Spares - Level 2 Properties ........................................................................................................... 111
Spares - Level 3 Properties ........................................................................................................... 112
Spares - Repair Shop - AvSim Module .......................................................................................... 113
Spares - Notes ............................................................................................................................... 114
Spares - Optimization - AvSim Module .......................................................................................... 115
BOMs ................................................................................................................................................ 116
BOMs - Overview ........................................................................................................................... 116
BOMs - General Properties............................................................................................................ 117
BOMs - Spares .............................................................................................................................. 118
BOMs - Notes ................................................................................................................................ 119
Using Types ................................................................................................................................... 120
The Failure Distribution Wizard ...................................................................................................... 121
Converting and Linking to Different Formats ......................................................................................... 123
Converting Location, RBD And Fault Tree Structures ................................................................... 123
Linking Causes To Failure Models ................................................................................................. 124
RCMCost Module .................................................................................................................................. 125
Building The Location Hierarchy .................................................................................................... 125
Location Types .............................................................................................................................. 127
Assigning Criticality Rankings ........................................................................................................... 128
Criticality Rankings - Overview ...................................................................................................... 128
Criticality Rankings - Properties ..................................................................................................... 129
Assigning Causes .............................................................................................................................. 130
Causes - Overview ........................................................................................................................ 130
Causes - General Properties ......................................................................................................... 131
Causes - Failure ............................................................................................................................ 132
Causes - Maintenance ................................................................................................................... 135
Causes - Alarm .............................................................................................................................. 136
Causes - Commission .................................................................................................................... 138
Causes - Redesign ........................................................................................................................ 139
Causes - Notes .............................................................................................................................. 140
Causes - Strategy .......................................................................................................................... 141
Assigning Effects ............................................................................................................................... 143

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Effects - Overview .......................................................................................................................... 143


Effects Properties .......................................................................................................................... 144
Assigning Effects To Causes ......................................................................................................... 146
Performing a Simulation .................................................................................................................... 148
Performing a Simulation - Overview .............................................................................................. 148
Model Integrity Validation............................................................................................................... 149
Simulation Results ............................................................................................................................. 150
Simulation Results - Life Costs ...................................................................................................... 150
Simulation Results - Causes .......................................................................................................... 152
Simulation Results - Effects ........................................................................................................... 155
Simulation Results - Spares........................................................................................................... 156
Simulation Results - Labor ............................................................................................................. 157
Simulation Results - Equipment ..................................................................................................... 159
Optimizing Scheduled Task Intervals ............................................................................................. 160
Optimizing Spares Holdings in the RCMCost Module ........................................................................... 162
RCMCost Plots .................................................................................................................................. 164
Cost Profile Plots ........................................................................................................................... 164
Labor Profile Plots ......................................................................................................................... 165
Equipment Profile Plots.................................................................................................................. 166
Spares Profile Plots ....................................................................................................................... 167
Effect Profile Plots ......................................................................................................................... 168
Interval Optimization Plots ............................................................................................................. 169
Contribution Plots .......................................................................................................................... 171
Spares Optimization Plots ..................................................................................................................... 172
Project Comparison .............................................................................................................................. 173
AvSim Module ....................................................................................................................................... 175
Modelling System Availability With RBD Diagrams ........................................................................... 175
Modelling System Failures ............................................................................................................. 175
Modelling Loss Of Production ........................................................................................................ 180
Modelling System Availability With Fault Trees ................................................................................. 182
Modelling System Failures ............................................................................................................. 182
Modelling Loss Of Production ........................................................................................................ 189
Comparing RBDs and Fault Trees ................................................................................................. 191
Building a RBD .................................................................................................................................. 193
Building a RBD - Overview ............................................................................................................ 193
Adding Blocks ................................................................................................................................ 194
Editing Block Properties ................................................................................................................. 195
Adding Nodes ................................................................................................................................ 198
Editing Node Properties ................................................................................................................. 199
Adding Connections ....................................................................................................................... 201
Editing Connection Properties ....................................................................................................... 202
Adding Labels, Notes and Hyperlinks (RBDs) ............................................................................... 203
Editing Label Properties ................................................................................................................. 204
Editing Note Properties .................................................................................................................. 205
Editing Hyperlink Properties........................................................................................................... 206
Using Pages (RBD) ....................................................................................................................... 207
Moving Diagram Objects................................................................................................................ 208
Diagram Cut, Copy, Paste and Delete ........................................................................................... 209
Finding Blocks and Nodes ............................................................................................................. 210
Building a Fault Tree Diagram ........................................................................................................... 211
Building a Fault Tree Diagram - Overview ..................................................................................... 211
Adding Gates ................................................................................................................................. 212
Editing Gate Properties .................................................................................................................. 213
Adding Events ................................................................................................................................ 215
Editing Event Properties ................................................................................................................ 216
Adding Labels, Notes and Hyperlinks (Fault Trees) ....................................................................... 219
Editing Label Properties ................................................................................................................. 220
Editing Note Properties .................................................................................................................. 221
Editing Hyperlink Properties........................................................................................................... 222
Using Pages (Fault Tree) ............................................................................................................... 223
Moving Diagram Objects................................................................................................................ 224
Diagram Cut, Copy, Paste and Delete ........................................................................................... 225
Finding Gates and Events.............................................................................................................. 226
Common Cause Failures ............................................................................................................... 227
Standby Arrangements .................................................................................................................. 229
Failure Models ................................................................................................................................... 232
Failure Models - Overview ............................................................................................................. 232

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Failure Models - General Properties .............................................................................................. 233


Failure Models - Failure ................................................................................................................. 234
Failure Models - Maintenance........................................................................................................ 237
Failure Models - Alarm ................................................................................................................... 238
Failure Models - Commission ........................................................................................................ 240
Failure Models - Redesign ............................................................................................................. 241
Failure Models - Notes ................................................................................................................... 242
Failure Models - Strategy ............................................................................................................... 243
Phases .............................................................................................................................................. 244
Phases - Overview ......................................................................................................................... 244
Phase Properties ........................................................................................................................... 246
Phase Groups ................................................................................................................................ 247
Consequences .................................................................................................................................. 248
Consequences - Overview ............................................................................................................. 248
Consequences - General Properties .............................................................................................. 251
Consequences - Cost .................................................................................................................... 252
Consequences - Severity ............................................................................................................... 253
Consequences - Rules................................................................................................................... 254
Consequences - Notes .................................................................................................................. 255
Bitmaps ............................................................................................................................................. 256
Bitmaps - Overview ........................................................................................................................ 256
Bitmap Properties .......................................................................................................................... 257
Performing a Simulation .................................................................................................................... 258
Model Integrity Validation............................................................................................................... 258
Full Simulation Run ........................................................................................................................ 259
Simulation Watch ........................................................................................................................... 260
Simulation Record ......................................................................................................................... 261
Performance Simulation................................................................................................................. 262
Batch Run ...................................................................................................................................... 263
Simulation Results ............................................................................................................................. 264
Simulation Results - Overview ....................................................................................................... 264
Simulation Results - Life Costs ...................................................................................................... 265
Simulation Results - Systems ........................................................................................................ 267
Simulation Results - Components .................................................................................................. 270
Simulation Results - Consequences .............................................................................................. 273
Simulation Results - Phases .......................................................................................................... 276
Simulation Results - Spares........................................................................................................... 278
Simulation Results - Labor ............................................................................................................. 279
Simulation Results - Equipment ..................................................................................................... 280
Importance Rankings ........................................................................................................................ 281
Component Importance Rankings ................................................................................................. 281
Spare Importance Rankings .......................................................................................................... 282
Optimizing Spares Holdings in the AvSim Module ......................................................................... 283
Optimizing Scheduled Task Intervals ............................................................................................. 284
AvSim Plots ....................................................................................................................................... 286
Cost Profile Plots ........................................................................................................................... 286
Labor Profile Plots ......................................................................................................................... 287
Equipment Profile Plots.................................................................................................................. 288
Spares Profile Plots ....................................................................................................................... 289
Consequence Profile Plots............................................................................................................. 290
Contributions Plots ......................................................................................................................... 291
System Profile Plots ....................................................................................................................... 292
Capacity Availability Plots .............................................................................................................. 293
Project Comparison .............................................................................................................................. 294
Weibull Module ..................................................................................................................................... 295
Weibull Module - Overview ............................................................................................................ 295
Weibull Module - User Interface ..................................................................................................... 296
Weibull Sets ...................................................................................................................................... 297
Weibull Sets - Overview ................................................................................................................. 297
Defining or Importing Weibull Set Items ......................................................................................... 298
Weibull Sets - General Properties .................................................................................................. 299
Weibull Sets - Analysis Options ..................................................................................................... 300
Weibull Sets - Notes ...................................................................................................................... 302
Weibull Sets - Fitting a Distribution ................................................................................................ 303
Weibull Sets - Goodness of Fit and Correlation Coefficients ......................................................... 308
Weibull Plots .................................................................................................................................. 309
Assigning Weibull Sets .................................................................................................................. 310

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Table Of Contents

Process Reliability Module .................................................................................................................... 311


Process Reliability Module - Overview .............................................................................................. 311
Process Reliability Module - User Interface ................................................................................... 312
Process Sets ..................................................................................................................................... 313
Process Sets - Overview................................................................................................................ 313
Defining or Importing Process Set Items........................................................................................ 314
Process Sets - General Properties ................................................................................................ 315
Process Sets - Analysis Options .................................................................................................... 316
Process Sets - Notes ..................................................................................................................... 317
Process Plots ................................................................................................................................. 318
Transferring AvSim Profiles to Process Sets ..................................................................................... 319
Sorting Process Set Items ................................................................................................................. 320
Life Cycle Cost Module ......................................................................................................................... 321
Life Cycle Cost Module - Overview ................................................................................................ 321
Life Cycle Cost Module - User Interface ........................................................................................ 322
Building a Life Cycle Cost Structure .............................................................................................. 323
Cost Nodes........................................................................................................................................ 324
Cost Nodes - General Properties ................................................................................................... 324
Cost Nodes - Notes ....................................................................................................................... 326
Global Variables ................................................................................................................................ 327
Global Variables - General Properties ........................................................................................... 327
Reserved Variables ....................................................................................................................... 329
Performing an Analysis and Examining Results ............................................................................ 331
LCC Plots .......................................................................................................................................... 332
Cost Profile Plots ........................................................................................................................... 332
Accelerated Life Testing Module ........................................................................................................... 333
Accelerated Life Testing - Overview ..................................................................................................... 333
Accelerated Life Testing - User Interface .............................................................................................. 334
ALT Sets............................................................................................................................................ 335
ALT Sets - Overview ............................................................................................................................. 335
Defining or Importing ALT Set Items ..................................................................................................... 336
ALT Sets - General Properties .............................................................................................................. 337
ALT Sets - Analysis Options ................................................................................................................. 338
ALT Sets - Notes................................................................................................................................... 341
ALT Sets - Stress Profiles ..................................................................................................................... 342
ALT Sets - Fitting a Distribution ............................................................................................................ 345
ALT Sets - Goodness of Fit, Log Likelyhood and Correlation Coefficients ............................................ 349
ALT Plots .............................................................................................................................................. 350
Reports ................................................................................................................................................. 351
Reports - Overview ........................................................................................................................ 351
Diagram Report Settings ....................................................................................................................... 353
Diagram Report Settings - Overview.............................................................................................. 353
Diagram Report Settings - RBD Page Order ................................................................................. 355
Diagram Report Settings - Fault Tree Page Order ......................................................................... 356
Application Settings .............................................................................................................................. 357
Application Settings - Overview ..................................................................................................... 357
Application Settings - Files............................................................................................................. 358
Application Settings - Backup ........................................................................................................ 359
Application Settings - Fonts ........................................................................................................... 360
Application Settings - Colors .......................................................................................................... 361
Application Settings - Plots ............................................................................................................ 362
Application Settings - Undo............................................................................................................ 363
Application Settings - Import .......................................................................................................... 364
Application Settings - Naming ........................................................................................................ 365
Application Settings - Threads ....................................................................................................... 366
Application Settings - General............................................................................................................... 367
Enterprise Application Settings ............................................................................................................. 368
Plugins Application Settings .................................................................................................................. 369
Importing and Exporting Data ............................................................................................................... 371
Importing and Exporting Data - Overview ...................................................................................... 371
Importing Data ................................................................................................................................... 372
Importing Data - Connecting to the External Data Source ............................................................. 372
Importing Data - Matching Tables .................................................................................................. 373
Importing Data - Matching Columns .............................................................................................. 374
Exporting Data ................................................................................................................................... 375
Exporting Data - Connecting to the External Database.................................................................. 375
Exporting Data - Matching Tables .................................................................................................. 376

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Exporting Data - Matching Columns .............................................................................................. 377


Export No Match - Specifying Tables for Export ............................................................................ 378
Export No Match - Specifying Columns for Export ......................................................................... 379
Importing and Exporting Data - Schema ........................................................................................ 380
Importing and Exporting Data - Filtering Data ................................................................................ 381
Importing and Exporting Data - Specifying Text File Column Positions ......................................... 382
Importing and Exporting Data - Database Login ............................................................................ 383
Tools ..................................................................................................................................................... 385
Renaming RCMCost Locations ...................................................................................................... 385
Renaming AvSim Blocks and Nodes ............................................................................................. 386
Sorting Data ................................................................................................................................... 387
Creating a Clipboard Image ........................................................................................................... 388
Setting Task Group Efficiency Values ............................................................................................ 389
Converting Data ............................................................................................................................. 390
Updating Special Reports .............................................................................................................. 392
Project Statistics ............................................................................................................................ 393
Project Declassification .................................................................................................................. 394
The Grid Control ................................................................................................................................... 395
The Grid Control - Overview .......................................................................................................... 395
The Grid Control - General Layout Options ................................................................................... 396
The Grid Control - Filter Layout Options ........................................................................................ 397
The Grid Control - Sort Layout Options.......................................................................................... 398
The Grid Control - Find and Replace ............................................................................................. 399
The Grid Control - Statistics ........................................................................................................... 400
The Grid Control - Importing and Exporting Grid Layouts .............................................................. 401
The Grid Control - Removing and Resetting Layouts .................................................................... 402
Miscellaneous Dialogs .......................................................................................................................... 403
The About Dialog ........................................................................................................................... 403
The Prompt Dialog ......................................................................................................................... 404
Finding Objects ..................................................................................................................................... 405
Selecting Objects .................................................................................................................................. 406
The SAP Portal ..................................................................................................................................... 407
The SAP Portal - Overview ............................................................................................................ 407
SAP Portal Options ........................................................................................................................... 408
SAP Portal Options and Templates ............................................................................................... 408
SAP Portal General Options .......................................................................................................... 409
SAP Portal Download Options ....................................................................................................... 410
SAP Portal Download Filters .......................................................................................................... 411
SAP Advanced Filters ........................................................................................................................... 413
SAP Portal Analytics Options ......................................................................................................... 414
SAP Portal Upload Options ............................................................................................................... 415
SAP Portal Upload Defaults ........................................................................................................... 417
SAP Portal Connection Options ..................................................................................................... 419
Downloading Data from SAP ................................................................................................................ 421
Building Data in RCMCost ............................................................................................................. 422
Building SAP Data ......................................................................................................................... 424
Uploading Data to SAP .................................................................................................................. 425
Analyzing Performance Data ......................................................................................................... 426
Object Properties ............................................................................................................................... 427
SAP Portal Object Properties ......................................................................................................... 427
SAP Portal Work Instruction Document Formats ........................................................................... 428
SAP Portal Custom Read Table Function ...................................................................................... 429
Sap Download Utility ............................................................................................................................. 432
Connecting to SAP using Web Services ............................................................................................... 433
SAP Portal Plots ................................................................................................................................ 434
SAP Portal Performance Plots .............................................................................................................. 434
SAP Portal Profile Plots ........................................................................................................................ 435
Miscellaneous SAP Portal Functions ................................................................................................. 436
SAP Portal Message Log ...................................................................................................................... 436
The MAXIMO Portal .............................................................................................................................. 437
The MAXIMO Portal - Overview ........................................................................................................ 437
Maximo Portal Options ...................................................................................................................... 438
MAXIMO Portal Options and Templates ........................................................................................ 438
MAXIMO Portal General Options ................................................................................................... 439
Maximo Portal Download Options ......................................................................................................... 440
MAXIMO Portal Download Filter Options ....................................................................................... 441
MAXIMO Portal Analytics Options ................................................................................................. 442

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MAXIMO Portal Upload Options .................................................................................................... 443


Maximo Portal Upload Defaults............................................................................................................. 444
MAXIMO Portal Connection Options ............................................................................................. 445
Downloading Data from MAXIMO ......................................................................................................... 446
Building Data in RCMCost .................................................................................................................... 447
Building MAXIMO Data ......................................................................................................................... 448
Uploading Data to MAXIMO ........................................................................................................... 449
Analyzing Performance Data ............................................................................................................. 450
Object Properties ............................................................................................................................... 451
MAXIMO Portal Object Properties ................................................................................................. 451
MAXIMO Download Utility ..................................................................................................................... 452
MAXIMO Portal Plots ........................................................................................................................ 453
MAXIMO Portal Performance Plots ....................................................................................................... 453
MAXIMO Portal Profile Plots ................................................................................................................. 454
Miscellaneous MAXIMO Portal Functions ......................................................................................... 455
MAXIMO Portal Message Log............................................................................................................... 455
The Ellipse Portal .................................................................................................................................. 457
The Ellipse Portal - Overview ............................................................................................................ 457
Downloading Master Data to AWB ................................................................................................ 458
Analytics ........................................................................................................................................ 459
Ellipse Portal Options and Templates ............................................................................................ 461
Ellipse Portal General Options ....................................................................................................... 462
Ellipse Portal Master Data Options ................................................................................................ 463
Ellipse Portal PM Options .............................................................................................................. 464
Ellipse Portal Analytics Options ..................................................................................................... 465
Ellipse Portal Connection Options ................................................................................................. 466
Ellipse Download Utility ......................................................................................................................... 467
The Dynamic Link Library ..................................................................................................................... 469
The Dynamic Link Library - Overview ............................................................................................ 469
How the Dynamic Link Library Works ............................................................................................ 470
The Dynamic Link Library - Sample Code ..................................................................................... 471
DLL Class Reference ........................................................................................................................ 472
DataSet Class ................................................................................................................................ 472
LicenseConfiguration Class ........................................................................................................... 476
DataTable Class ............................................................................................................................ 477
DataColumn Class ......................................................................................................................... 478
DataRow Class .............................................................................................................................. 479
DataValue Class ............................................................................................................................ 480
Foreign Key Data Values ............................................................................................................... 481
Plugins .................................................................................................................................................. 483
Plugins Overview .................................................................................................................................. 483
Plugin Definition .................................................................................................................................... 484
Index ..................................................................................................................................................... 487

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Introduction
Availability Workbench Functional Summary
Welcome to the Availability Workbench (AWB) simulation program for Microsoft Windows. Availability
Workbench provides a fully integrated environment for:

 Developing and maintaining a Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) program


 Performing full system availability predictions taking into account complex dependencies on
spares and other resources
 Performing a Life Cycle Cost Analysis
 Process Reliability Analysis

AWB interfaces seamlessly with external databases and applications through its sophisticated
import/export facility and dynamic link library. AWB integrates the functionality of Isograph’s RCMCost
and AvSim products that have been serving the Reliability and Maintenance Community since 1988.

AWB contains six fully integrated modules:

RCMCost Module (Reliability-Centered Maintenance)


AvSim Module (System Availability Simulation)
Life Cycle Cost Module (LCC Module)
Weibull Module
Process Reliability Module
SAP Portal Module

Each module may be licensed separately depending on the user's needs. For example, the RCMCost
and Weibull modules provide the data management, reporting and analytical facilities for developing and
maintaining a RCM programme. The Avsim module will enable you to analyze the availability and

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reliability of both complex and simple systems and optimize spares holdings, design configurations,
opportunistic maintenance policies and much more. The LCC module will allow you to create a cost
node structure and integrate predicted maintenance and operational costs with other user-defined cost
equations. The Weibull module analyzes incoming historical data to provide the prediction distributions
required by the RCMCost and AvSim modules.

Through its sophisticated simulation and modelling capabilities Availability Workbench can answer
questions such as:

 Is planned maintenance cost effective, and if so, how often should it be performed?
 What design improvements (adding redundancy or upgrading equipment) are cost and safety
effective?
 What is the likely spares usage profile?
 What is the optimum level of spares to be held on site and at a depot?
 How can labor and equipment usage be improved?
 How can buffers best be employed to maintain capacity?
 How can risk be reduced?
 What are the likely life cycle costs?
 What is the best frequency for performing major overhauls?
 Is predictive maintenance worth doing?
 Would combinations of predictive methods be effective?
 Is inspection for hidden failures cost effective?
 What is the effect on availability of rotating equipment?
 How do ageing assets affect life cycle costs?
 How do operational phases affect system availability?
 Is opportunistic maintenance worthwhile?

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Introduction

Introduction to the RCMCost Module


What is Reliability-Centered Maintenance ?
Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) is a procedure for determining maintenance strategies based
on reliability techniques and encompasses well-known analysis methods such as Failure Mode Effects
and Criticality Analysis (FMECA). RCM procedures take into account the prime objectives of a
maintenance programme, which are to:

 Minimize Costs
 Meet Safety and Environmental Goals
 Meet Operational Goals

The RCM process begins with a failure mode and effects analysis that identifies the critical plant failure
modes in a systematic and structured manner. The process then requires the examination of each
critical failure mode or cause to determine the optimum maintenance policy to reduce the severity of
each failure. The chosen maintenance strategy must take into account cost, safety, environmental and
operational consequences. The effects of redundancy, spares costs, maintenance labor costs,
equipment ageing and repair times must also be taken into account along with many other parameters.

Once optimal maintenance policies have been recorded the RCM process provides system performance
predictions and costs, expected spares requirements and labor manning levels. The RCM process may
be used to develop a living strategy with the plant model being updated when new data is available or
design changes take place.

How does the RCMCost Module of Availability Workbench Help?


The RCMCost module of Availability Workbench (AWB) provides the full framework for building the
RCM model to represent your system. It provides facilities for storing RCM data and analyzing
maintenance alternatives. It provides simulation algorithms to predict lifetime maintenance costs, spares
costs and usage, maintenance labor manning requirements, safety and environmental risks and
operational performance. In addition the RCMCost Module identifies critical failure modes (causes) and
compares the cost, safety and operational benefits of different maintenance intervals. AWB is designed
to combine well-established reliability prediction techniques with engineering experience. The program
does not decide on which maintenance policy or combination of policies to adopt. Instead it advises the
individual user or workgroup based on the operational data provided. The program may be used to filter
the most critical item (component) failures before detailed maintenance decisions are made.

The RCMCost Module provides interactive graphical facilities for constructing a location hierarchy
diagram representing the logical connection between the sub-systems and equipments constituting the
overall plant or system. This diagram may be extended to represent critical functions, their functional
failures and their causes (engineering failure modes). System effects are identified which contribute to
outage and operational costs as well as safety and environmental risks. The relative severity of different
effects is specified by the user. This structured method for identifying failure modes and linking them
with their effects on the system is known as Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) and
is a powerful analysis process in its own right. RCMCost allows flexible user-defined reports to be
produced highlighting the most important contributors to operational costs and safety and environmental
risks.

Failure data, maintenance parameters, spares information and maintenance labor details are all stored
in an AWB project. This data is used to provide advisory information based on simulation models
incorporated in the program. For example, different maintenance intervals may be compared for their
effect on maintenance and operational costs. The user may then record the decision on which
maintenance policy (if any) to adopt. This decision may include combinations of:

 Scheduled Planned Maintenance Tasks


 Condition Monitoring Alarms
 On-Condition Inspections (predictive maintenance)
 Inspections for Hidden Failures
 Commissioning Periods
 Re-Design

The RCMCost module will automatically advise the user on the overall cost, safety and environmental
benefits of adopting a particular maintenance policy based on the data provided by the user. The
program’s flexible report facility allows RCM worksheets to be produced identifying the user’s decisions.

3
Availability Workbench V3.0

Once the maintenance policy has been decided for all the critical system components the RCMCost
module will provide predicted spares requirements, maintenance labor manning levels, system costs
and operational performance data.

As new data is gathered during the plant lifetime, or system design changes are made, RCM related
data may be easily modified and maintenance procedures may be adjusted to reflect the living status of
the plant.

Standards Support and Decision Diagrams


AWB supports RCM standards such as SAE JA1011, MSG-3 and MIL-STD-2173(AS) by providing a
structured method for entering FMECA data and simulating the effects of different maintenance
strategies on cost, safety, the environment and operational issues. The RCM decision making process is
therefore substantially enhanced by the ability to quickly simulate the effects of preventive tasks,
inspection tasks and condition monitoring taking into account ageing, hidden failures, maintenance labor
costs, spares costs and availability. RCM decision diagrams are utilized in MSG-3 and MIL-STD-
2173(AS) to provide a logical process for workgroups to determine what type of maintenance strategy to
adopt for a given failure cause. The diagrams ask questions that often require analysis before a
conclusion may be reached. In addition these diagrams follow a sequential process that may not be
appropriate in identifying the optimal task or combinations of tasks for a given failure cause. However,
AWB provides the full flexibility required to allow users to quickly compare the effects of different
practical maintenance strategies and condition monitoring using well-known scientific methods.

AWB may be used to produce reports complying to the SAE JA1011, MSG-3 and MIL-STD-2173(AS)
standards. Reports may contain FMECA data, maintainability data and RCM decision data.

4
Introduction

Introduction to the AvSim Module


The AvSim module of Availability Workbench (AWB) enables users to simulate the performance of their
systems as a whole taking into account dependencies between the individual components. By
simulating how a system will perform, users can determine the effects of design and operational
changes, and hence optimize system performance. Whereas the RCMCost module may be used to
optimize scheduled maintenance policy and intervals, the AvSim module may be used to predict overall
system performance, optimize spare holdings, investigate the effects of design changes and operational
configurations.

In order to simulate the availability performance of a system the program needs to know how individual
equipment failures combine with other failures to reduce throughput, create hazards and affect system
operational capabilities. This is done by constructing a RBD or fault tree diagram that represents how
combinations of events (usually failures) interact to affect the system. The AvSim module of AWB allows
you to quickly construct these diagrams through any number of indenture levels. These diagrams can
represent standby and voting arrangements, phase-dependent configuration changes, switching logic
and buffer facilities.

Failure and maintenance models may then be defined and attached to historical data using Weibull sets.
Also, consequences may be defined indicating the financial, safety, environmental and operational
effects of loss of availability or throughput.

Once this has been done, AWB can produce a full system availability simulation building a picture of
how the system will perform though its lifetime. Special optimization facilities are provided for optimizing
spare holdings and users can try out different design and operational models to reduce life cycle costs.

Some of the capabilities of the AvSim module are summarized below:

 Interactive construction of RBD or fault tree diagrams


 Sub-system blocks, allowing automatic RBD pagination
 Pagination facilities for large fault trees
 Append projects created by different users using libraries
 Hyperlinks to external application in RBD and fault tree diagrams
 Data verification and model checks
 Simulation ‘Watch’ facility for checking your system and spares echelon models
 Multiple-system spares tracking for fleet modelling
 Simulation of production capacity levels with target cost penalties
 Standby sub-systems modelled
 Modelling of spares dependencies and stock levels
 Models recycling of spares via a repair shop
 Spares optimization facilities provided
 Batch ordering of spares with discounting
 Modelling of maintenance queuing
 Switching delays modelled
 Buffers modelled with depletion rates dependent on capacity requirement
 Opportunistic maintenance and 'hold for repair' modelling
 Models ageing and effectiveness of planned maintenance
 Extended outage penalty costs modelled
 Models financial, safety, operational and environmental consequences
 Models changing RBD and fault tree configurations during different phases
 Allows the modelling of different phase groups
 Phased time profiles
 NOT logic capability
 Importance rankings for spares
 Spare volume and weight calculations
 Statistical error indicators
 Record simulation details to file for external data processing

5
Availability Workbench V3.0

Introduction to the Life Cycle Cost Module


The Life Cycle Cost (LCC) module of Availability Workbench allows users to build a hierarchical cost
breakdown structure (CBS) through an unlimited number of indenture levels. The CBS may be directly
linked to cost predictions produced by the RCMCost or AvSim modules. Other costs may be defined as
time-dependent cost equations or simple numerical values. Global variables may be defined and utilized
in the cost equations.

High level costs are determined either by summating the cost values for child nodes in the CBS or by
applying a user-defined cost equation. The syntax of cost equations is easy to understand and the
construction of cost equations is assisted by an intelligent code-recognition utility that automatically
reveals global variable lists as the user types in an equation.

Phase-dependent cost equations may also be defined. Phases are shared between the LCC and AvSim
modules.

In summary the LCC module allows users to define life cycle costs other than those predicted by the
RCMCost and AvSim modules. These costs may be integrated with predicted costs in the LCC cost
breakdown structure to provide a time-dependent analysis of a system’s whole life cycle cost process.

6
Introduction

Introduction to the Weibull Module


The Weibull module of Availability Workbench (AWB) analyzes historical failure data by assigning
probability distributions that represent the failure characteristics of a given failure mode. The failure
distribution assigned to a given set of times to failure (known as a Weibull set) may then be assigned to
causes in the RCMCost location hierarchy diagram or failure models in the AvSim module. Assigning
failure distributions to historical data in this way enables the AWB simulation engine to emulate the
effects of failures on systems. Historical data is usually extracted from the Computerized Maintenance
Management System (CMMS) or Failure Reporting and Corrective Action System (FRACAS) database
using the AWB import or Dynamic Link Library (DLL) facilities. The failure distribution assigned to a
given set of times to failure (known as a Weibull set) may be assigned to failure models that are
attached to causes in a RCM location hierarchy, blocks in a reliability block diagram or events in a fault
tree diagram.

Weibull sets may also represent collections of actual historical repair times for a given task. The Weibull
module can assign distributions that represent possible fluctuations in repair times. Repair Weibull sets
can be assigned to tasks associated with causes in the RCMCost module or failure models in the AvSim
module.

The historical times in a failure Weibull set will represent the age of an equipment at the point of its first
failure. Times in a repair Weibull set represent the time it takes to repair an equipment.

In summary, the Weibull module of AWB analyzes sets of historical data and assigns appropriate
distributions for use in simulations by the RCMCost and AvSim modules.

The Weibull Analysis Module analyzes historical data using the following distributions:

 Exponential Distribution
 1-Parameter Weibull Distribution
 2-Parameter Weibull Distribution
 3-Parameter Weibull Distribution
 Bi-Weibull
 Tri-Weibull
 Lognormal Distribution
 Normal Distribution
 Weibayes
 Phased Bi-Weibull
 Phased Tri-Weibull

AWB automatically fits the selected distribution to the data provided and displays the results graphically
in the form of cumulative probability plots, failure rate plots and probability density function plots.

Data may be entered manually by the user or imported from other packages or transferred via the
Windows clipboard.

New data can be analyzed and assigned in 3 simple steps:

 Enter or import the data


 Select a distribution type
 Assign the Weibull Set to the appropriate causes in the RCMCost module or the failure models
in the AvSim module

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Introduction to the Process Reliability Module


The Process Reliability module allows users to analyze daily production data using Weibull analysis
plots. These plots identify systematic and reliability losses by recognizing trends in the production data.
Nameplate production ratings may be specified (similar to concepts originating from six-sigma
methodology) and compared with demonstrated production data. Losses can therefore be identified for
corrective action.

The Process Reliability module allows production data to be compared from different plants or different
time periods. Production data may also be transferred from simulated production profiles created from
within the AvSim module. This allows production data from potential plant improvements to be
compared with existing production data.

8
Introduction

Introduction to the SAP Portal Module


The SAP Portal allows users to connect directly to their SAP system from within Availability Workbench
(AWB). Historical maintenance data may be downloaded from SAP into AWB, analyzed, and then
uploaded back into SAP in the form of maintenance plans. If SAP has not yet been configured for plant
maintenance, the portal may also be used to upload a functional location hierarchy with installed
equipments, criticality rankings, effects and catalog profiles from the RCMCost module of AWB.
Alternatively, an existing SAP functional location and equipment hierarchy may be downloaded to
populate a new AWB project together with criticality rankings, labor resources, BOMs, effects and
maintenance plans.

The Sap Portal functions may be summarized as:

 Downloading master data from SAP


 Downloading existing maintenance plans and task lists from SAP
 Analyzing maintenance data downloaded from SAP
 Building RCM data in the RCMCost module
 Building new maintenance plans from the optimized RCM model
 Uploading new maintenance plans to SAP

9
Availability Workbench V3.0

Introduction to the MAXIMO Portal Module


The MAXIMO Portal allows users to connect directly to their MAXIMO system from within Availability
Workbench (AWB). Historical maintenance data may be downloaded from MAXIMO into AWB,
analyzed, and then uploaded back into MAXIMO in the form of PMs and the associated job plans. If
MAXIMO has not yet been configured for plant maintenance, the portal may also be used to upload a
functional location hierarchy with installed assets and failure classes from the RCMCost module of
AWB. Alternatively, an existing MAXIMO functional location and asset hierarchy may be downloaded to
populate a new AWB project together with failure classes, spare parts, tools, labor resources, PMs and
the associated job plans.

The MAXIMO Portal functions may be summarized as:

 Uploading master data to MAXIMO


 Downloading master data to AWB
 Uploading PMs to MAXIMO
 Analyzing maintenance data for use in AWB

10
Introduction

Accelerated Life Testing Module - Overview


The Accelerated Life Testing (ALT) module of AWB provides the functionality to analyze accelerated
failure data and predict reliability characteristics under normal use conditions. The ALT module allows
data sets to be analyzed using a proportional hazards or accelerated failure time survival model.
Standard stress profile models are provided (Arrhenius, Eyring and Power Law) together with the ability
to define custom models. Constant, time-varying and multiple stress profiles may be specified for a
single data set.

The ALT module of AWB fits stressed data to exponential, Weibull, lognormal and normal distributions.
Calculated parameters are produced in the form of the distribution parameters at use stress, B life and P
parameter values and distribution plots (reliability, failure rate and pdf).

11
Availability Workbench V3.0

The Availability Workbench Simulation Engine


The Availability Workbench (AWB) simulation engine employs Monte Carlo simulation methods to
estimate system and sub-system parameters such as unavailability, number of expected failures,
production capacity and costs. The process involves synthesizing system performance over a given
number of simulation runs. Each simulation run in effect emulates how the system might perform in real
life, based on the input data provided by the user. The input data can be divided into two categories - a
failure logic diagram and quantitative failure and maintenance parameters. The logic diagram (either a
fault tree or a reliability block diagram in the case of the AvSim module or a location hierarchy in the
case of the RCMCost module) informs the computer program how component failures interact to cause
system failures. The failure and maintenance parameters inform the program how often components
are likely to fail and how quickly they will be restored to service. By performing many simulation runs,
the computer program can build up a statistical picture of the system performance by recording the
results of each run.

Monte Carlo Simulation must emulate the chance variations that will affect system performance in real
life. To do this, the computer program must generate random numbers, which form a uniform
distribution. AWB uses the Microsoft run-time library to generate pseudo random numbers.

As an example of how simulation works, consider the following example. Suppose we wish to
determine the unreliability of a complex system over a period of 1 year. A simulation model of the
system could be developed which emulates the random failures and repair times of the components in
the system. The model might be run over the system lifetime of 1 year 1000 times and each time a
component fails the model determines whether the system has failed. If the system does not survive on
65 of the lifetime simulations then the system unreliability, F(1) , could be estimated as

Simulation methods are generally employed in reliability studies when deterministic methods are not
capable of modelling strong dependencies between failures. In addition, simulation can readily handle
the reliability behavior of repairable components with non-constant failure or repair rates.

For example, the simple expression

may be used to determine the unavailability, Q, of a single component at time t where

 = constant failure rate


 = constant repair rate

This expression assumes that the failure and repair of the component is independent of the state of any
other component in the system. This may not be the case if the component is in standby to another
component (where the standby failure rate is less than the operating failure rate). In addition, the
component may be influenced by other external factors such as the availability of spares and labor to
perform scheduled and corrective maintenance. The component’s reliability behavior may also change
during different operational phases. In addition, if it is a mechanical component, its failure rate may
increase with time (ageing) and therefore the simple expression above inaccurately represents the
behavior of the component.

By using simulation methods, AWB is not restricted to handling only independent component failures
and repairs and can easily model dependencies on spares, labor and operational phases. In addition,
the Weibull failure distribution may be used to handle ageing components.

12
New Features for Version 3.0
New Features for Version 3.0 Overview
New 64-bit version available.
Users may now install a 64-bit version of Reliability Workbench. 64-bit applications are not restricted to
accessing only 2GB memory of RAM.

SAP and MAXIMO Portals


The SAP and MAXIMO Portals are now fully integrated into AWB as a module. This allows greater
flexibility in analyzing SAP/MAXIMO data using the project tree control, grid control, plots and reports.
Downloaded data is now stored as part of a project.

The SAP Portal facility now contains many additional tables originating from SAP such as technical
object types, classes, units etc.

Spares Optimization
RCMCost spares optimization calculations have been improved to include predictive maintenance
modelling. RCMCost spares optimizations may now be performed for multiple identical sites.

Export to Excel
Users may now export to Excel (no match mode) in xlsx format. Excel Export now formats newly created
number cells so that they contain a number style

Import from Excel


Import from Excel has been speeded up significantly

Comparison Plots
RCMCost and AvSim Project Comparison Cost plots may now be used to show cumulative cost profiles

Plugins
Plugins may now use indices for foreign keys when writing data to a dataset

Exception Messages
Exception dialog messages now include a stack trace

AvSim Multiple Phase Groups


AvSim phase rotation rules now operate for multiple phase groups

Plugins
Plugins now automatically reference the calling .Net assembly. New methods have been added to the dll
allowing users to obtain the table name and row index of the currently selected object (for plugin apps).

MAXIMO Portal
Maximo grid PMs, job plans and routes are now filtered by tree control selection. When building
individual RCMCost tasks from the Maximo Portal descriptions are now shown as well as Ids in the
drop-down lists. Maximo Portal crafts are now duplicated as a craft skill to allow for job plans that only
specify a craft in the labor resources. The MAXIMO Portal now provides a facility to delete all failure
classes that are not attached to assets or work orders in the current project.. A facility has been added
to the MAXIMO Portal to build a task library in RCMCost from PMs and the associated job plans.
Specialised work order oil and gas fields may now be downloaded into the MAXIMO Portal. The
MAXIMO Portal now contains a facility to remove all PMs that are not attached to locations or assets
(associated job plans and routes are also removed). Also unattached crafts may also be removed.

SAP Portal
SAP BOM Item downloads now cater for materials with leading zero Ids. SAP maintenance order item
equipment and location references are now attached for numerical numbering schemes. SAP Portal

13
Availability Workbench V3.0

downloads of materials now determine ‘no in stock’ from a sum of all material storeroom locations. SAP
Portal downloads now apply cost conversions for currencies using a non-default decimal point scheme

Mouse Wheel
The mouse wheel may now be used to vertically shift and zoom in/out on RBD and fault tree diagrams

Grid Improvements
The Grid control filter options now allow a ‘where’ clause to be specified. The last grid layout displayed
is now remembered between program sessions.

Import Phonetics
Users may now optionally remove phonetics when importing from an Excel spreadsheet. The
appropriate option needs to be set in the Application Options dialog, Import tab

Diagram Reports
The drawing of large diagram reports has been significantly speeded-up.

New Accelerated Life Testing Module


The Accelerated Life Testing (ALT) module of AWB provides the functionality to analyze accelerated
failure data and predict reliability characteristics under normal use conditions. The ALT module allows
data sets to be analyzed using a proportional hazards or accelerated failure time survival model.
Standard stress profile models are provided (Arrhenius, Eyring and Power Law) together with the ability
to define custom models. Constant, time-varying and multiple stress profiles may be specified for a
single data set.

14
Licensing
Overview of Licensing
If you have purchased a copy of Availability Workbench (or are evaluating Availability Workbench) you
will receive an Entitlement Certificate by email containing your Activation ID. Depending on the
license type you have requested, this Activation ID will either activate a standalone Availability
Workbench license or activate a 'floating' license on a license server. The 'floating' license option allows
one or more users (depending on how many copies you have purchased) on one or more client
machines to obtain an Availability Workbench license from the license server.

The Activation ID is entered in either the Availability Workbench program itself (for a standalone
license) or in the License Server Activation program (for a license server license). The license is
activated by connecting via the Internet to the Isograph License Activation Service. If an Internet
connection is not available the license is activated by sending a request file to Isograph by email and
then processing a response file received by a return email.

Note that activation over the Internet requires port 80 to be open in your firewall.

The license information is held on the local file system of the standalone or license server machine. The
location where this is held is called Trusted Storage. This term is not normally of interest to the user,
but you may see it displayed in status information.

Availability Workbench may also be licensed using a hardware key. Hardware keys can only license the
program in standalone mode. If you have purchased a hardware key then you simply need to plug the
key into a USB port on your computer and set the license type to Hardware key in the License
Configuration dialog within the Availability Workbench program.

15
Availability Workbench V3.0

Demonstration Mode
Availability Workbench will run in demonstration mode unless you are licensed to run an unrestricted
version of the software.

When running in demonstration mode the user is strictly limited in the number of objects that may be
analyzed in a project (limits are displayed in the About Availability Workbench dialog). Each session is
limited to 4 hours and users are prevented from saving or exporting data.

However, if you have purchased an Availability Workbench license you should proceed to the License
Configuration dialog by selecting the Tools, License Configuration pull-down menu option. If the
Demonstration dialog is currently displayed you may proceed directly to this dialog by selecting the
License button. Once you are licensed for a particular module, the restrictions for that module will be
removed.

If the demonstration mode is too restrictive for you to evaluate the software sufficiently, you may apply
for a time-limited evaluation license by contacting Isograph at license@isograph.com (USA) or
licence@isograph.com (Rest of the world).

16
Licensing

License Configuration
You may set your license configuration using the License Configuration dialog. This dialog is
accessed by selecting the Tools, License Configuration pull-down menu option or by selecting the
License button in the Demonstration dialog.

License Type
There are three license types available. These types are:

 Standalone
 Server
 Hardware key
 Server (No trusted storage service)

The Standalone and Server license types use software protection methods to restrict the number of
users of any Availability Workbench (AWB) module according to the license you have purchased. The
Hardware key type uses a USB hardware device (commonly known as a dongle) to provide protection.
Select the license type you have purchased. Then follow the instructions below according to your
license type.

Select the Server (No trusted storage service) option if you have installed the Availability Workbench
client using the ‘no trusted storage service’ installation. This installation does not install the service that
supports standalone licenses stored in local trusted storage. Selecting this mode prevents the checks
for Availability Workbench standalone licenses from running. Note also that when operating in this mode
the borrowing functionality is disabled.

Activating a Standalone License


Before activating a standalone license you will need your Activation ID. This identifier is sent to you
(normally by email) after you have purchased a license. You can then activate the standalone license
from within the AWB program by selecting the Standalone license type and then selecting the Activate
button in the License Configuration dialog. The Application License Activation dialog will then
appear.

Activating using the Web (Recommended)


If your computer is connected to the Web you can simply copy your Activation ID to the
appropriate field and select the Activate button. AWB will then automatically update your
license. You can then exit the license dialogs. You will need to exit and re-start AWB for the
existing restrictions to be removed.

Note that activation over the Internet requires port 80 to be open in your firewall.

Activating using Files


If your computer is not connected to the Web you can obtain the license using files. To do this
select the File sub-tab underneath the Activate License tab of the Application License
Activation dialog. First you will need to send Isograph a request file. To do this use the Browse
button opposite the Request file field to specify a suitable file location and name for the file to be
created. Then select the Generate button. AWB will then create the file in the location you
specified. Send this file to Isograph. Once this file is received by Isograph we will return a
response file. Copy this file to your computer and then use the Browse button opposite the
Response file field to specify the file's name and location. Then select the Process button.
AWB will then update your license. You can then exit the license dialogs. You will need to exit
and re-start AWB for the existing restrictions to be removed.

Activating using Short Codes


If your computer is not connected to the Web and you are not allowed to remove files from your
system then you can obtain the license using the short code method. To do this select the Short
Code sub-tab underneath the Activate License tab of the Application License Activation
dialog. If you have requested activation by short code from Isograph you will have received an
ASR file in addition to your Activation ID. First copy this file to your system and then select the
ASR file Browse button to select this file. Next select the Generate button to generate the Short
Code. Send this Short Code by e-mail to Isograph. You will receive a Response Code by return
e-mail. Copy this code to the Response code text box. Select the Process button to activate

17
Availability Workbench V3.0

the license. The status of the activation process will be displayed in the lower status area. You
can then exit the license dialogs. You will need to exit and re-start AWB for the existing
restrictions to be removed.

Connecting to an Existing License Server


If you already have a license server installed on the network then you can connect to the server by
providing the host name or IP address of the server.

To connect to a license server first select the Server license type. Then type in the host name or IP
address of the server into the appropriate field in the License Configuration dialog. If the default port is
not being used for the connection un-check the Use default port check box and specify the port number
in the appropriate field.

Then select OK to exit the license dialog. You will need to exit and re-start AWB for the existing
restrictions to be removed.

Returning a Standalone License


You may return a standalone license and reactivate the license (using the same Activation ID) on a
different machine so long as your license agreement permits you to do this.

Note: Your license agreement restricts the number of times you can return a license in a year.

Returning a Standalone License using the Web (Recommended)


If your computer is connected to the Web you can return a license by selecting the Return
button in the License Configuration dialog. The Application License Activation dialog will
then appear. Simply select the license to be returned and then select the Return button.
Availability Workbench will automatically shut-down 30 minutes after returning a license so you
should first save your project data.

Returning a Standalone License using Files


If your computer is not connected to the Web you can return a license using files. To do this
select the File sub-tab underneath the Return License tab of the Application License
Activation dialog. First you will need to send Isograph a request file. To do this use the Browse
button opposite the Request file field to specify a suitable file location and name for the file to be
created. Then select the Generate button. AWB will then create the file in the location you
specified. Send this file to Isograph. Once this file is received by Isograph we will return a
response file. Copy this file to your computer and then use the Browse button opposite the
Response file field to specify the file name and location. Then select the Process button. AWB
will then return your license. Availability Workbench will automatically shut-down 30 minutes
after returning a license so you should save your project data before returning a license.

Returning a Standalone License using Short Codes


If you have activated a license using the short code method then it must be returned using the
short code return method. To do this select the Short Code sub-tab underneath the Return
License tab of the Application License Activation dialog. Select a single license to return from
the list view. Next select the Browse button select the ASR file received when you activated the
license. Select the Generate button to generate the Short Code in the Short code text box.
Send this Short Code by e-mail to license@isograph.com. You will receive a Response Code by
return e-mail. Copy this code to the Response code text box. Select the Process button to de-
activate the license. The status of the de-activation process will be displayed in the lower status
area.

Repairing a Standalone License


It is unlikely that you should ever need to repair a license. However, in rare circumstances this may be
necessary.

Repairing a Standalone License using the Web (Recommended)


If your computer is connected to the Web you can repair a license by selecting the Repair button
in the License Configuration dialog. The Application License Activation dialog will then
appear. Simply select the license to be repaired and then select the Repair button.

Repairing a Standalone License using Files

18
Licensing

If your computer is not connected to the Web you can repair a license using files. To do this
select the File sub-tab underneath the Repair License tab of the Application License
Activation dialog. First you will need to send Isograph a request file. To do this use the Browse
button opposite the Request file field to specify a suitable file location and name for the file to be
created. Then select the Generate button. AWB will then create the file in the location you
specified. Send this file to Isograph. Once this file is received by Isograph we will return a
response file. Copy this file to your computer and then use the Browse button opposite the
Response file field to specify the file name and location. Then select the Process button. AWB
will then repair your license.

Repairing a Standalone License using Short Codes


If you have activated a license using the short code method then it must be repaired using the
short code repair method. To do this select the Short Code sub-tab underneath the Repair
License tab of the Application License Activation dialog. Select the license to repair from the
list view. Next select the Browse button select the ASR file received when you activated the
license. Select the Generate button to generate the Short Code in the Short code text box.
Send this Short Code by e-mail to license@isograph.com. You will receive a Response Code by
return e-mail. Copy this code to the Response code text box. Select the Process button to repair
the license. The status of the repair process will be displayed in the lower status area.

Borrowing a Server License


Note: Your license agreement may restrict your borrowing capabilities.

You may borrow licenses if you have a server license and your license agreement permits borrowing. A
borrowed license acts like a standalone license and allows users to run Availability Workbench whilst
disconnected from the network. Licenses are borrowed for a period of time. Once the borrowing period
expires the borrowed license will be automatically returned to the license server. Borrowed licenses may
be returned to the license server before the automatic expiration date if required.

To borrow a license you must first ensure that you are connected to an existing license server.
Instructions on how to do this are given above. Then select the Borrow button in the License
Configuration dialog. The License Borrowing dialog will then appear. To borrow a license enter your
server license Activation ID in the appropriate field, specify the borrowing expiration date and then
select the Borrow button. If you wish to return a borrowed license before the expiration date select the
Return button in the Server license location area of the License Configuration dialog. Then select
the license you wish to return from the list followed by selection of the Return button.

After borrowing a license you will need to exit and restart the program for the license to become
effective.

When using borrowed licenses you should not change the license type or the license server
settings. Availability Workbench will automatically recognize the borrowed license even if your
computer is not connected to the license server.

Using the Application Configuration File to Specify the License Configuration


The LicenseDisableUserSettings value must be set to True in the Availability Workbench
configuration file AvailabilityWorkbench.exe.config as an application setting if you wish to prevent a
user from specifying the license type and connection strings from within the License Configuration
Dialog:

<applicationSettings>
<AvailabilityWorkbench.Properties.Settings>
<setting name="LicenseDisableUserSettings" serializeAs="String">
<value>True</value>
</setting>
<setting name="LicenseServerHostNameOrIPAddress" serializeAs="String">
<value />
</setting>
<setting name="LicenseServerPortNumber" serializeAs="String">
<value />
</setting>
<setting name="LicenseUseDefaultPortNumber" serializeAs="String">
<value>True</value>
</setting>
<setting name="LicenseType" serializeAs="String">

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Availability Workbench V3.0

<value>Server</value>
</setting>
</AvailabilityWorkbench.Properties.Settings>
</applicationSettings>

20
Licensing

Checking Out Server Licenses


If your license configuration indicates a Server license type then Availability Workbench (AWB) will
display the License Check-Out dialog on program start-up. This dialog displays the licenses available
for your use during a program session.

Licenses
You can check-out the licenses you wish to use by selecting the appropriate licenses in the Licenses
list. Once you have checked-out a license it will not be available for use by another user. Licenses will
be automatically returned to the license server on program termination.

Licenses may be selected on a module basis. For example, let us suppose you have purchased 5
RCMCost module licenses, 3 AvSim module licenses and 3 Life Cycle Cost module licenses. If you
check-out 1 RCMCost license and 1 AvSim license then 4 RCMCost, 2 AvSim and 3 Life Cycle Cost
licenses will remain available to other users.

Users
Selection of the Users button in the License Check-Out dialog will reveal the User Information dialog.
This dialog displays information on which users have checked-out licenses from the license server.

License Information
Selection of the License Info button in the License Check-Out dialog will reveal the License
Information dialog. This dialog displays information about the available licenses on the license server.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

License Server Activation


You may activate and return server licenses by selecting Availability Workbench, License Server
Activation from the Windows Start menu. The License Server Activation dialog will then appear.

Activating a Server License


Before activating a server license you will need your Activation ID. This identifier is sent to you
(normally by email) after you have purchased a license. You can then activate the server license by
selecting the Activate License tab in the License Server Activation dialog.

Activating using the Web (Recommended)


If your computer is connected to the Web you can simply copy your Activation ID to the
appropriate field and select the Activate button. Your license will then be automatically updated.
You can then exit the License Server Activation dialog.

Note that activation over the Internet requires port 80 to be open in your firewall.

Activating using Files


If your computer is not connected to the Web you can obtain the license using files. To do this
select the File sub-tab underneath the Activate License tab of the License Server Activation
dialog. First you will need to send Isograph a request file. To do this use the Browse button
opposite the Request file field to specify a suitable file location and name for the file to be
created. Then select the Generate button. The file will then be created in the location you
specified. Send this file to Isograph. Once this file is received by Isograph we will return a
response file. Copy this file to your computer and then use the Browse button opposite the
Response file field to specify the file's name and location. Then select the Process button. The
server license will then be updated. You can then exit the License Server Activation dialog.

Starting the License Server


After activating your server license you must start up the Availability Workbench license server.
Availability Workbench users will not be able to access activated server licenses until the license server
has been started. To start-up the license server select Availability Workbench, License Manager from
the Windows Start menu. The LMTOOLS dialog will appear. Navigate to the Start/Stop/Reread tab and
select the Start Server button.

Returning a Server License


You may return a server license and reactivate the license (using the same Activation ID) on a different
machine so long as your license agreement permits you to do this.

Note: Your license agreement restricts the number of times you can return a license in a year.

Before returning a license you must first stop the license server if it is running. To stop the license
server select Availability Workbench, License Manager from the Windows Start menu. The
LMTOOLS dialog will appear. Navigate to the Start/Stop/Reread tab and select the Stop Server
button. You will then need to access the License Server Activation dialog by selecting Availability
Workbench, License Server Activation from the Windows Start menu.

Returning a Server License using the Web (Recommended)


If your computer is connected to the Web you can return a license by navigating to the Return
License tab in the License Server Activation dialog. Then select the license to be returned in
the list before selecting the Return button.

Returning a Server License using Files


If your computer is not connected to the Web you can return a license using files. To do this
select the File sub-tab underneath the Return License tab of the License Server Activation
dialog. First you will need to send Isograph a request file. To do this use the Browse button
opposite the Request file field to specify a suitable file location and name for the file to be
created. Then select the Generate button. The file will then be created in the location you
specified. Send this file to Isograph. Once this file is received by Isograph we will return a
response file. Copy this file to your computer and then use the Browse button opposite the

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Licensing

Response file field to specify the file name and location. Then select the Process button. The
license will then be returned.

Repairing a Server License


It is unlikely that you should ever need to repair a license. However, in rare circumstances this may be
necessary.

Repairing a Server License using the Web (Recommended)


If your computer is connected to the Web you can return a license by navigating to the Repair
License tab in the License Server Activation dialog. Then select the license to be repaired in
the list before selecting the Repair button.

Repairing a Server License using Files


If your computer is not connected to the Web you can repair a license using files. To do this
select the File sub-tab underneath the Repair License tab of the License Server Activation
dialog. First you will need to send Isograph a request file. To do this use the Browse button
opposite the Request file field to specify a suitable file location and name for the file to be
created. Then select the Generate button. The file will then be created in the location you
specified. Send this file to Isograph. Once this file is received by Isograph we will return a
response file. Copy this file to your computer and then use the Browse button opposite the
Response file field to specify the file name and location. Then select the Process button. The
license will then be repaired.

23
Getting Started
Getting Started - The User Interface
The interface to Availability Workbench (AWB) has been designed to provide a wide range of features
and options in a form that is easy to understand and that will be familiar to users of Microsoft Windows
products. This ensures that new AWB users may rapidly familiarize themselves with program operation
with minimal reference to the user manual. A context sensitive on-line help facility is also provided.
This topic is intended to introduce the user to the basic features in the AWB user interface.

Availability Workbench Main Window


The AWB main window is displayed after program start-up. This window may be resized or iconified at
any time by selecting window reconfiguration options from the top right corner of the window border.

The principal pull-down menu options are positioned along the top of the main window in the menu bar
strip. Pull-down menus and their options may be selected using the left mouse button. Alternatively,
menu options may be selected using the keyboard. This is achieved by pressing the Alt key and then
pressing the underlined character in the required visible menu option. Accelerator keys are also
provided for selected menu options. For example, tapping the Delete key will delete selected objects in
the tree control or a diagram.

Immediately below these menu options, reside a group of controls that form a toolbar allowing the user
to access directly some of the more frequently used menu options.

A pull-down menu directly above the project tree allows the user to switch between modules. Another
pull-down menu directly above the window to the right of the tree control allows the user to switch
between the different display modes.

The contents of the menus on the menu bar, the toolbar and the right window toolbar change according
to the current module (AvSim, RCMCost, Life Cycle Cost, Weibull, Process reliability or Accelerated life

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Availability Workbench V3.0

testing). The purpose of each button in the toolbar can be displayed in the form of a tool tip that
appears when the cursor is placed over the button.

To the right of the toolbar in the AvSim module is a combo-box that allows the user to select the diagram
page to be displayed from the current project when in the RBD or Fault Tree display modes.

Below the toolbar is a split screen arrangement. The division between the left and right windows can be
moved by placing the cursor over the divider, at which point the cursor will change form, and holding the
left button down whilst dragging the cursor to the desired position.

The left window contains the project tree control. The tree concept will be familiar to users of Microsoft
Windows Explorer. The contents of the project tree change according to the current module. The right
window contains the current page of the RBD or fault tree diagram when using the AvSim module with
the diagram display mode selected. Grid, library, plot and report display modes are available for each of
the AWB modules.

A message strip at the bottom of the AWB window displays the status of the program. During a
simulation the message strip displays the progress in terms of the number of simulations performed.

The current project file name is displayed at the top of the AWB window.

Selection of many of the menu options will result in standard Windows dialog boxes being displayed
(such as those for file or font selection). These dialog boxes contain Windows controls. Controls
include buttons, combo-boxes (allowing the user to choose one option from a selection in a pull-down
list), check-boxes (allowing the user to set a facility on or off) and edit controls (allowing the user to enter
text). The AWB controls behave in a similar manner to controls in other Windows applications.

26
Getting Started

Getting Started - Building a Project


An Availability Workbench (AWB) project contains the data necessary to simulate the real-life
performance characteristics of your system. Whether you intend to perform a Reliability-Centered
Maintenance study using the RCMCost module, a full system availability simulation using the AvSim
module, an extended life cycle cost analysis using the LCC module or a combination of all of these
methods, you will need to define or import the appropriate data into an AWB project.

The following topics provide an overview of how to build the various elements of an AWB project. Some
data elements apply to a single module (for example consequences apply to the AvSim module only)
whereas other data elements are shared between modules (for example labor resources are shared
between the RCMCost and AvSim modules).

To start a new project simply select the File, New Project pull-down menu option.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Getting Started - Defining Resources


The Add Resource pull-down menu
Resources, such as equipment and labor may be added to a project by clicking on the Add pull-down
menu in the menu bar and selecting the Resource sub-menu. Now the user may select the type of
resource to add. The resources available differ between Availability Workbench modules, and in the
case of the RCMCost module will vary depending on the part of the project tree that is currently
selected.

Alternatively, right click on the required resource in the project tree and select Add Resource from the
pop-up menu.

The Resource Properties window


The resource properties window contains standard Windows controls such as text fields, drop-down
menus and check boxes. The user may enter the appropriate data for the resource being added and
click OK to confirm. The new resource will be listed beneath the appropriate resource heading in the
project tree.

28
Getting Started

The Add Resource Type pull-down menu


Resource Types are added by clicking on the Add pull-down menu in the menu bar and selecting the
Resource Type sub-menu. Now the user may select the variety of resource type to add. The resource
types available differ between Availability Workbench modules.

Alternatively, right click on the required resource type in the project tree and select Add Resource Type
from the pop-up menu.

Resources may be added beneath a resource type in the project tree by highlighting the resource type
in the tree and using the methods of adding resources described above.

The Resource Type Properties window


The resource type properties dialogs contain standard Windows controls such as text fields, drop-down
menus and check boxes. The user may enter the appropriate data for the resource type being added

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Availability Workbench V3.0

and click OK to confirm. The new resource type will be listed beneath the appropriate resource heading
in the project tree.

30
Getting Started

Getting Started - Importing Historical Data


Historical failure data may be imported to Availability Workbench (AWB) in the form of times to failure.
This data is plotted in the Weibull module of AWB and may be fitted to one of a number of distributions.
The resulting distributions and their associated parameters may be used as failure model data in the
RCMCost and AvSim modules.

The Import Feature


Data imported to the Weibull module of AWB is displayed in the grid beneath the plot area when the
Plot & Grid display mode is selected for the right-hand window. In order to import historical failure data
the user must first add a Weibull set as described in Defining Resources. Once a data set is defined,
select the File, Import pull-down menu option.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

The Import Dialog


The import dialog will appear. In the Database tab select the type of database or file that contains the
historical data. Then change the other settings in the Database tab according to the Type selected. In
the Table Matches tab match the table containing the historical failure data from the External Table list
with the table WeibullSetItems from the Application Table list by left clicking on one and then the
other. In the Column Matches tab match the column containing the historical failure data from the
External Column list with the column TimeValue from the Application Column list in the same way.
Select Import to copy the data to the Weibull set and Quit to exit the Import dialog. For more detailed
information on importing data refer to the section on Importing and Exporting Data.

The Weibull Module display


The data will now be displayed in the grid pane and the corresponding data points in the plot above. To
fit the distribution parameters click on the red eta symbol in the toolbar. To set the parameters manually
click on the green eta symbol. The type distribution used may be selected from the drop down menu
labeled f().

32
Getting Started

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Reliability-Centered Maintenance
Getting Started - Building The Location Hierarchy
The location hierarchy represents the logical hierarchy of sub-systems and equipments within a system.
The location hierarchy is displayed in the RCMCost module project tree in the left-hand window. The
location hierarchy is also used to identify equipment functions, functional failure modes and causes.
Causes are alternatively referred to as failure modes.

In the context of the RCMCost module of Availability Workbench (AWB) the term location is used to
represent both the location of sub-systems and equipments. Intermediate locations in the location
hierarchy (those which have other locations underneath them) represent sub-systems, whereas
locations that form the roots of the hierarchy diagram represent a distinct item of equipment such as a
pump or a valve, which are the smallest items of equipment considered from an operational point of
view. These equipment locations will have one or more functions, functional failures and causes. Each
cause will be associated with a maintenance policy.

Each distinct equipment location will have one or more functions. Usually an equipment will have a
primary function (such as stopping flow in the case of a valve) and one or more secondary functions
(such as containment) that may be safety related.

Each equipment function will have one or more functional failure. A functional failure may be defined as
the inability of the equipment to perform a function to the required standard. More than one functional
failure mode may be associated with the same function. For example total loss of function and partial
loss of function may be considered as 2 distinct functional failures.

Each functional failure may have one or more root cause. These causes are referred to as engineering
failure modes in some standards and constitute the actual physical causes of failure. Some examples of
causes (engineering failure modes) are:

 seal leakage
 piping cracked
 motor burnt out
 insulation breakdown
 corrosion

The system locations, equipment locations, functions, functional failures and causes are all defined and
connected in the location hierarchy which is displayed in the project tree when the RCMCost module is
selected. We will now examine a location hierarchy that has been constructed as part of the Example1
project that is provided with the installation.

Start up AWB by selecting Availability Workbench from the Windows Start menu. The AWB Main
Window should now appear occupying the whole screen.

A drop down menu is located directly above the project tree in the left-hand window. Click on it and
select RCMCost.

Select the File, Open Project pull-down menu option. A standard Open File dialog will appear allowing
you to select AWB project files. Select the Example1 project from the default project directory. On
selecting this file the project tree will display the location hierarchy corresponding to the selected project.

34
Getting Started

The Location Hierarchy

The right-hand window may be used to display data in a grid control. Select the Grid option in the Right
Window Mode menu just above the right window if the grid is not already displayed. Then select the
Causes option in the Current Grid Table menu. The grid control should contain causes associated with
the current selection in the project tree control (some default grid layouts show data in the grid control
relating to the current tree control selection). The location hierarchy consists of locations, functions,
functional failures and causes connected in a hierarchical manner. Locations are displayed by default
in blue, functions in turquoise, functional failures in brown and causes in red. You will see that some
locations represent sub-systems (the ones with other locations underneath them) whereas others
represent distinct equipments (the ones with functions defined beneath them). Remember the root
locations are associated with causes for which distinct maintenance actions may be defined.

Now try clicking the left mouse button with the cursor positioned over the '+' or '-' boxes appearing
alongside the diagram symbols. This action has the effect of opening and closing diagram symbols.
This effectively displays or hides symbols connected below the selected symbol.

Now try a single left button click over any of the symbols. You will see that the selected block or
component becomes highlighted. In certain cases the associated data will be displayed in the grid
control. Many menu options are performed on selected symbols.

New objects may be defined in the hierarchy diagram by selecting the parent object and then selecting
the appropriate option from the Add pull-down menu or equivalent toolbar button. Note that locations
may only be created below the project symbol or other locations. Functions may only be created below
locations. Functional failures may only be created underneath functions and causes may only be
created below functional failures. You may not mix functions and locations underneath the same parent
location. For the moment we will not create any new data.

The Location Properties dialog


You may view the data associated with any of the objects in the location hierarchy by double-clicking the
mouse with the cursor over the appropriate symbol in the project tree. Alternatively you may right-click
with the cursor over the appropriate symbol and select Edit Properties from the pop-up menu. Try right-
clicking the mouse over a location symbol and selecting Edit Properties. A dialog will be revealed
showing the current data associated with the location.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

The Cause Properties dialog


Select the Cancel button to remove the dialog and then view the data associated with a function and a
functional failure mode. Now view the data associated with a cause by double-clicking the mouse over
one of the red cause symbols. A dialog will be revealed showing various descriptive data fields and
other parameters associated with the cause. Selection of the Strategy tab at the top of the dialog will
reveal the maintenance strategy and design decisions based on analysis of the appropriate data. The
assigning of effects and maintenance strategies will be discussed later.

Remove the cause dialog by selecting the Cancel button.

36
Getting Started

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Getting Started - Assigning Effects To Causes


The next step of the RCM process is to specify what happens when a failure occurs (failure effect).
Effects may be associated with lost production costs, operational, safety and environmental
consequences. Different failure modes may have the same effect on a system. Using the RCMCost
module of Availability Workbench (AWB) the possible effects of failure are defined in the effects table
and then associated with the individual causes.

The Effects Properties Dialog


Select the Add, Resource, Effect pull-down menu option. A dialog will appear showing the attributes
that may be associated with an effect. Each effect may have the following numerical data associated
with it:

 Cost per occurrence


 Cost rate
 Safety severity per occurrence
 Safety severity rate
 Operational severity per occurrence
 Operational severity rate
 Environmental severity per occurrence
 Environmental severity rate

These quantities indicate how important the effect is in terms of cost, safety, operational and
environmental considerations. The severity values are arbitrary positive numbers that indicate the
relative severity of different effects. Now remove the dialog by pressing the Cancel button.

The Effects tab of the Cause Properties dialog


Now double-click the left mouse button with the cursor positioned over one of the red cause symbols in
the project tree. A dialog will appear containing the data associated with the selected cause. Now select
the Effects tab. This tab contains a list of effects that have been assigned to the cause. Effects are
assigned to the cause by selecting the Add button followed by selection of the appropriate effect from
the dialog that will appear.

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Getting Started

One of the restrictions of using standard FMECA techniques to predict the frequency and duration of
system effects is the difficulty in modelling the effects of redundancy. Other techniques, such as RBD
and fault tree analysis, are more adapted to analyzing redundancy and the associated complications
such as common cause failures. However, the RCMCost module has a powerful feature that allows the
effects of redundancy to be modelled via the use of redundancy factors. The ability of a RCM program to
model redundancy satisfactorily is essential as maintenance and monitoring decisions may be strongly
influenced by the level of standby equipment and parallel systems.

When assigning effects to a cause AWB allows the user to specify a redundancy factor for each effect.
The redundancy factor indicates whether a cause will produce the assigned effect on its own or whether
other concurrent failures will need to occur for the effect to take place. A redundancy factor often needs
to be determined if the effect is a hazardous effect as there will almost certainly be protective systems in
place to mitigate against failures that would lead to a hazard.

The Assigned Effect Properties dialog


Select one of the assigned effects from the list in the Effects tab of the Cause Properties dialog and
click the Edit button. The Assigned Effect Properties dialog will appear. The Effect drop-down menu
shows the ID of the selected effect. Selecting a new effect from the menu and clicking OK will result in
the new effect being added to the list of assigned effects. The user may specify whether the effect
applies to failures, planned maintenance and/or inspections and manually set a redundancy factor.
Alternatively, the program can calculate a redundancy factor from the number of equipments operating
in parallel, the number required to be operating and the fractional downtime of each equipment as
entered by the user.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

If the cause will produce the assigned effect without other concurrent failures taking place then the
default value of 1 should be assigned to the redundancy factor. If the cause will only produce the
assigned effect when other concurrent failures occur (e.g. protective equipment is unavailable) then a
factor of between 0 and 1 should be applied.

A redundancy factor represents the probability that the failure cause will produce the assigned effect.
For example, suppose we were analyzing the failure cause ‘valve stuck closed’ in a chemical production
system. This failure might lead to a hazardous event unless the system was shut down until the repair
could be effected. The protection system provided to protect against the hazardous event might consist
of sensors and alarms and require the intervention of automatic shutdown systems and operator
actions. If the protection system were to fail then the hazardous effect would occur. In such a case the
unavailability redundancy factor should be set to the estimated probability that the protection system
would not work on demand.

So, if the probability of failure of the protection system was estimated at 0.0001, the redundancy factor
should be set to 0.0001.

40
Getting Started

Getting Started - Recording Decisions And Obtaining Advice


One of the powerful features of the RCMCost module of Availability Workbench (AWB) is its ability to
provide advisory information based on the simulation of the effects of different maintenance and design
strategies. The RCMCost simulator can consider combinations of different maintenance tasks and can
take into account the effects of logistic delays associated with labor, equipment or spare parts.

The Cause Properties Strategy tab


Display the DIE Annulus Blockage cause dialog in the Example1 project by double-clicking the left
mouse button over the appropriate symbol in the block diagram. Select the Strategy tab when the
dialog appears.

This dialog is used to record maintenance strategies and design decisions. Before these decisions are
made you may obtain advisory information by selecting the Evaluate button.

The evaluate button:

On selecting this button AWB will perform a lifetime simulation to determine the cost, safety, operational
and environmental consequences directly associated with the cause. These costs and consequences
take into account the current strategy specified by the enabled check boxes and failure and
maintenance parameters associated with the cause. You may therefore experiment with various options
to determine the associated costs and consequences.

The results of a simulation are displayed as

 Cost
 Cost Benefit Ratio (CBR)
 Safety Criticality
 Safety Benefit Ratio (SBR)

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Availability Workbench V3.0

 Operational Criticality
 Operational Benefit Ratio (OBR)
 Environmental Criticality
 Environmental Benefit Ratio (EBR)
 Corrective hours
 No. Lifetime Failures
 Planned hours
 No. Lifetime PMs
 Inspection hours
 No. Lifetime Inspections
 Statistical Error in TDT
 Statistical Error in Cost
 Unavailability
 Failure Frequency

Criticality values represent the severity of the effects associated with the cause combined with its
frequency of occurrence. The cost, safety, environmental and operational benefit ratios are defined as
follows:

A cost benefit ratio less than 1 indicates that the tasks/alarms specified are worthwhile from a cost point
of view.

A safety benefit ratio less than 1 indicates that the tasks/alarms specified are worthwhile from a safety
point of view.

An operational benefit ratio less than 1 indicates that the tasks/alarms specified are worthwhile from an
operational point of view.

An environmental benefit ratio less than 1 indicates that the tasks/alarms specified are worthwhile from
an environmental point of view.

See Also

Optimizing Maintenance Intervals

42
Getting Started

Getting Started - Optimizing Maintenance Intervals


The RCMCost module of Availability Workbench (AWB) can also help in determining the optimum
planned maintenance or inspection interval to choose. Select the planned maintenance task in the
Cause Properties dialog (under the Strategy tab) for 'Electrical heater controller failure' and then select
the Interval Optimization button. On selection of this button AWB will display the PM Optimization
dialog. Select the Start Optimization Simulation button in the toolbar above the plot area. AWB will
perform a number of lifetime simulations for a range of planned maintenance interval values. The
program will then display the results in the plot showing the variation of cost or unavailability and
criticality values against interval length.

Safety, environmental and operational criticality targets will also be displayed on the plot. By examining
the plot it may be determined whether planned maintenance is worthwhile at all, and if so, the optimum
interval to adopt to minimize cost and meet safety, environmental and operational targets. The accuracy
of the simulation results may be increased by increasing the number of simulations performed. This may
be done via the Simulation tab which is accessed via the Tools, Options, Project pull-down menu
option. The user may modify the trial intervals used during the optimization process by selecting the
Interval Range toolbar button.

A similar review procedure is available for inspection tasks. Now quit the Cause Properties dialog.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Getting Started - Performing a System Simulation


Once the maintenance strategy has been decided for each cause the RCMCost module may be used to
automatically generate some useful parameters for effects, labor, equipment and spares.

Select the Simulation, Start pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar option. AWB will now calculate
system-related profiles that may be displayed in plots and reports in the right-hand window.

44
Getting Started

System Availability Simulation


Getting Started - Building a Reliability Block Diagram
The Availability Workbench (AWB) AvSim module recognizes the system failure logic from the Reliability
Block Diagram (RBD) entered by the user. The diagram represents how different components within the
system interact to produce system failures.

RBDs consist of blocks and nodes connected together in parallel and series arrangements. The blocks
in a RBD usually represent component or sub-system failures, although they may also be used to
represent other events, such as operator actions, which may affect the reliability of the system under
study. The nodes in a RBD are used to position connecting lines (either horizontal/vertical or diagonal),
indicate voting arrangements, set operational capacity targets and apply NOT logic where appropriate.
A complete system RBD will consist of either a single node or block on the left-hand side of the diagram
(input node or block) connected via intermediate nodes and blocks to a single node or block on the right-
hand side of the diagram (output node or block). Note that a complete system RBD can only have one
input node or block and one output node or block. In addition, all the intermediate nodes and blocks
must be connected. The entire system RBD represents the ways in which component and sub-system
failures will interact to cause the system to fail. AWB allows more than one system RBD to be defined in
the same project.

The facilities to add elements to a RBD are accessed either through Add, To Diagram pull-down menu
options or the equivalent buttons on the toolbar.

Each AWB project can contain one or more systems. The Add, New System pull-down menu option
can be used to create new systems when Diagram and RBD are selected from the pull-down menus
above the right-hand window.

Once the system logic has been entered for the system, consequences may be assigned to blocks in
the diagram. Consequences are usually assigned to system level blocks and represent the effects of
failure (financial, safety, operational and environmental) on the system.

See Also

Adding Blocks
Adding Connections
Adding Labels, Notes and Hyperlinks
Using Pages
Assigning Consequences

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Getting Started - Building a Fault Tree Diagram


A fault tree diagram consists of gates and basic events. Availability Workbench (AWB) also allows the
user to add labels to the diagram for purely illustrative purposes. More than one fault tree can be
constructed in a single AWB project. The facilities for adding fault tree elements to an AWB project are
on the Add pull-down menu or the equivalent buttons on the toolbar.

A new fault tree can be constructed during an AWB session by selecting the Add, New Top Gate pull-
down menu option when Diagram and Fault Tree are selected from the pull-down menus above the
right-hand window.

Once the system logic has been entered for the system consequences may be assigned to gates in the
diagram. Consequences are usually assigned to system level gates (Top gates) and represent the
effects of failure (financial, safety, operational and environmental) on the system.

See Also

Adding Gates
Adding Events
Adding Labels, Notes and Hyperlinks
Using Pages
Assigning Consequences

46
Getting Started

Getting Started - Performing A System Availability Simulation


The user has control over the simulation process through a set of options and parameters that are
accessed through the Simulation pull-down menu. Alternatively, the equivalent toolbar buttons can be
used.

The Simulation pull-down menu also contains options for performing importance and optimization
analyses.

To perform a full simulation run in the AvSim module of Availability Workbench (AWB) select the
Simulation, Start pull-down menu option or the equivalent toolbar button. If you have made any fatal
errors when constructing the project (for example, not connecting blocks in a page), AWB will display
the error messages and halt the simulation. Otherwise, the simulation will proceed. A message will also
be displayed at the bottom of the AWB window, indicating the progress (i.e. how many lifetime
simulations have been completed).

If you wish to halt the simulation run before the program has reached the number of simulations
requested then select the Simulation, Stop pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. A
dialog will appear asking if you wish to complete the current simulation in order to retain results. The
user may select Yes to finish the current simulation and obtain a set of results for the partially completed
run, No to terminate the simulation run without retaining any results, or Cancel to resume the simulation
run and continue until it is complete.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Getting Started - Examining Results


Availability Workbench (AWB) computes a wide range of useful parameters during the simulation
process. Most of these parameters can be reviewed, once a simulation is completed, by selecting the
Simulation, Results Summary pull-down menu option. Selection of this menu option will result in the
Simulation Results dialog being displayed.

The summary information is split into 8 categories:

 Life Costs
 Systems
 Components
 Consequences
 Phases
 Spares
 Labor
 Equipment

Summary information for each of these categories may be obtained by selecting the appropriate tab in
the dialog. Results may also be displayed in the form of plots and reports in the right window.

48
Getting Started

Getting Started - Building a Life Cycle Cost Model


The Life Cycle Cost Module of Availability Workbench (AWB) provides the framework and functionality
to perform a full system life cycle cost analysis using a hierarchical cost breakdown structure.

Users may construct a hierarchical cost breakdown structure and assign cost equations to nodes in that
structure. Parent nodes in the structure may simply summate the costs of child nodes or apply a user-
defined equation. Nodes with no children of their own may be assigned a simple numerical cost or a
time-dependent cost equation. Equations associated with cost nodes may be linked to predicted cost
data originating from simulations performed in the RCMCost or AvSim modules.

Life cycle cost calculations are based on the time profile defined in the Lifetime tab of the Project
Options dialog. The time profile (the time span to be analyzed and interval length) is common to all
modules in AWB.

To access the LCC Module in AWB select the Life Cycle Cost pull-down option at the top of the left-
hand window.

The tree control in the left-hand window will display the data categories relevant to this module. These
categories are Cost Nodes (these define the cost breakdown structure), Global Variables (these
define variables to be used in more than one cost node) and Phases (phases may be used to refine
cost equations).

The right-hand window will display a grid control, plot, library structure or report depending on the mode
of display chosen by the user (by selecting the Current right window mode option above the window).

New cost nodes, global variables and phases may be added to the current project by selecting the
appropriate node in the project tree control and selecting one of the Add options from the right button
pop-up menu.

Once data has been added to a project a calculation may be performed by selecting the Analysis,
Perform pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. Results may then be viewed in the Cost
Profile plot in the right-hand window.

To build a cost breakdown structure you need to add cost nodes to the tree control in the left-hand
window. To add a new cost node select an existing node or the top node (labelled Cost Nodes) and
click the right mouse button. From the pop-up menu that appears select the Add Cost Node option. The
Cost Node Properties dialog will appear allowing you define the cost equation for that node and specify
a description and add notes. Select the OK button to add the node and continue this process to build the
structure.

49
Projects and Libraries
Overview of Projects and Libraries
Project and library files hold all the data associated with an Availability Workbench (AWB) project or
library. There is no difference in the data structure held in a project or library. Both projects and libraries
can contain resource data, RBD and fault tree data and life cycle cost data.

AWB restricts the user to opening a single project at a time. However, there is no restriction on the
number of libraries that may be attached during an AWB session. In fact, project and library files are
effectively interchangeable so you can attach a project as a library and open a library as a project.

Project data is displayed in the project tree in the left-hand window. If you attach one or more libraries
during an AWB session then the library data will appear in the right-hand window when the Current
right window mode is set to Library. The majority of the editing functions available in the AWB menus
will apply to project data. However, you may drag and drop and copy and paste data between projects
and libraries. The primary function of libraries is to allow users to copy single items of data or whole
structures (for example a location hierarchy or RBD structure) from a library to a project. When
transferring RBD or fault tree structures from a library to a project AWB will respond to renaming
conventions specified by the user in the Project Options dialog.

You can create, open and save project and libraries using the options on the File pull-down menu.
Project and library data is saved to file in compressed or XML format. You can set your format
preference in the Files tab of the Application Options dialog. Compressed files are created with the
extension '.awb' whereas XML files are created with the extension '.awbx'.

File Extension
Both project and library files are given the default extension '.awb' for compressed file formats or '.awbx'
for XML file formats..

Default Folder Location


The default folder location for project and library files may be specified in the Application Options dialog.

Backup Projects
AWB provides an automatic project backup system. This system regularly saves your current project
data to a backup file. The frequency of project backups may be set in the Application Options dialog.

Enterprise Projects and Libraries


If you are licensed to use the Enterprise version of AWB you will be able to maintain projects and
libraries within the Isograph Enterprise System. These projects and libraries contain the same data
structures as file-based projects and libraries but are controlled by the Enterprise System. Enterprise
project and library functions are accessed via the Enterprise sub-menu on the Files pull-down menu.
These functions are covered in the section entitled Enterprise Project and Library Management.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Project and Library Validation


Validation is performed whenever a project or library is opened. The validation process checks for
inconsistencies in the data structure of a project. It also checks for 'out-of-range' variable values. The
validation process will 'repair' invalid values whenever possible.

Validation is also performed during the import of external data using the AWB Import facility.

52
Projects and Libraries

Enterprise Project and Library Management


The Isograph Enterprise System provides the framework for controlling multi-user project and library
access through a central database system. Access rights to projects, libraries and administrative
functions are controlled through user permissions. This allows an organization to:

 Assign administrators to organize access rights to groups of users


 Build a centralized hierarchy to organize projects and libraries
 Restrict access to projects and libraries where necessary
 Control the check-in and check-out of projects for modification
 Track the current projects that are checked-out to users
 Provide version control of projects and libraries
 Run differencing reports for different versions of the same project

If you are licensed to use the Enterprise System the Files pull-down menu will contain an Enterprise
sub-menu allowing you to access the following functions.

Administration

The Administration option allows an administrator to

 Add folders to the Enterprise System


 Create a new enterprise project or library
 Upload an existing non-enterprise project or library into the Enterprise System
 Delete enterprise projects, libraries and folders
 Assign permissions to folders and individual projects or libraries
 Create users and their associated permissions
 View the check-out status of enterprise projects
 Modify the check-out status of enterprise projects
 Restore backup projects

Check Out and Check-In Project


The Check Out Project option allows a user to check out an enterprise project. Only projects with
modify permission for the user may be checked out. The project data will appear in Availability
Workbench just as for a non-enterprise project opened from file. The user may edit the project and then
check it back into the Enterprise System using the Check-In Project option. Other users will not be able
to check out the same project until it has been checked-in to the Enterprise System.

Cancel Project Check Out


The Cancel Project Check Out is normally used when the user has not made any changes to a
checked out enterprise project and wishes to cancel the check out. This also prevents the automatic
version facility from creating a new version when no changes have been made.

View Project
The View Project option allows users to open enterprise projects but it does not allow the modified
project to be checked-in to the Enterprise System. This option can be used to simply view data or to
save the data as a non-enterprise project file.

Attach Library
The Attach Library option allows users to attach libraries for transferring data into the current AWB
project. Enterprise libraries behave just like non-enterprise libraries once they are attached but cannot
be modified and checked-back into the Enterprise System. An enterprise library may be modified by
opening it as a project using the Check-Out Project option.

Open and Save Local Projects


In some circumstances it may be necessary to temporarily store a checked-out enterprise project as a
local file. Typically this might occur if the client computer is disconnected from the network for a period
of time and the user wishes to continue editing the project. The local file may later be opened and
checked-in to the Enterprise System when the network connection is re-established. To save a checked-
out project as a local file select the Save Local Project option. To re-open the file select the Open

53
Availability Workbench V3.0

Local Project option. Local enterprise projects are saved to a location that is specified in the
Enterprise tab of the Application Options dialog. If you use the Save Local Project option then the
enterprise file will be stored in a sub-folder named Drafts.

Project Backups
If you select the Enable project backup flag in the Backup tab of the Application Options dialog then
Availability Workbench will automatically create a local backup of your current project at the specified
interval. If you are working on a checked-out enterprise project then a local backup will be saved in a
sub-folder named Backups alongside the Drafts folder used to save local projects. These sub-folders
appear below the higher-level folder specified for local projects in the Enterprise tab of the
Application Options dialog. You may use the enterprise Administrator facility to restore enterprise
backup projects. Restoring the enterprise project effectively copies the backup project into the Drafts
folder so that you may open it using the Open Local Project option. The project may then be checked-
in to the enterprise system in the normal way.

54
Projects and Libraries

Task Library
The task library facility allows users to build libraries of common tasks and search, filter and copy these
tasks into RCMCost causes and AvSim failure models. Library tasks may be filtered using the RCMCost
location and AvSim failure model hierarchy structures. Alternatively they may be filtered using the task
group and task group type hierarchical structure.

A task library is similar in concept to any other Availability Workbench library. You may build a task
library simply by adding tasks to RCMCost causes or AvSim failure models in the normal way (by adding
tasks using the Maintenance tab of the Cause Properties or Failure Model Properties dialogs).
Existing projects may also be attached as libraries and all the defined tasks will be available to copy into
the current project.

Library tasks may be copied to an existing project by selecting the Copy Tasks From Library button in
the Maintenance tab of the Cause Properties or Failure Model Properties dialogs. You may also
copy tasks from within the current project rather than from an attached library. When tasks are copied
from an attached library the associated resources (labor, equipment and spares) are also copied across
if they do not already exist in the project.

The task library facility may therefore be used to provide generic task definitions (including the required
resources and other properties such as the task duration) that may be copied into a working project. It
may also be used to quickly locate and copy a task from within the same or different project. When
building generic task libraries first create a new project and then use the location hierarchical structure
(RCMCost) or failure model hierarchical structure (AvSim) to organize the generic tasks. Then add the
tasks to the appropriate cause in the location structure (RCMCost) or failure model (AvSim). For generic
task libraries it doesn't matter whether you use the location structure or failure model structure as all
tasks will be available when using the task library facility. You may also use the task group hierarchy
structure as an alternative scheme to organize tasks. Tasks in a generic task library may be assigned to
a task group. Task groups may be organized at a higher level into task group types. As an example you
might use the RCMCost location structure to organize tasks by equipment class such as 'Motor' or
'Valve' tasks. The task group structure might be used to organize tasks by operation such as
'Lubrication' tasks or 'Replacement' tasks.

Selecting a Task from the Task Library


Tasks are selected and copied to the current project using the Task Library dialog. This dialog is
displayed when the Copy Tasks From Library button is selected in the Maintenance tab of the Cause
Properties or Failure Model Properties dialogs. The top part of the Task Library dialog displays the
location (RCMCost) or failure model (AvSim) structure used to organize tasks. If the Use task group
hierarchy option was selected in the Cause Properties or Failure Model Properties dialog then the
task group hierarchy will be displayed. Selection of nodes in the hierarchy will filter the displayed tasks
in the lower part of the Task Library dialog if the Toggle Task Filter by Tree Control Selection button
is selected. Otherwise tasks may be filtered by typing search text in the first row of the tasks grid and
then selecting the Filter Tasks Using Text in First Row button. Tasks may also be filtered using the
Task type selector.

Once the appropriate task has been located and selected in the grid control, the task may be copied into
the project by selecting the OK button.

55
Availability Workbench V3.0

Opening Reliability Workbench Projects


Reliability Workbench (RWB) is a sister application to Availability Workbench that provides FMECA,
RBD and Fault Tree analysis functionality for safety and reliability studies. Analysis functions are based
on analytical models rather than simulation, however there are many common elements between the
two applications. Organizations that employ both applications may wish to effectively convert the data
from a RWB project into AWB format.

Conversion may result in the loss of model properties that are not compatible between the two
applications. For example, some fault tree gate types that are used in analytical models are not used in
AWB fault tree models. Some failure models may not have a direct equivalent. The conversion
algorithms will find the closest match when making a conversion if no direct match exists.

Select the Read RWB V11 Project File option on the File pull-down menu to select the file you wish to
convert. The specified RWB file will be converted and converted data displayed as the current AWB
project.

56
Project Options
Overview of Project Options
Project options affect the way data is calculated and displayed within the current project. When project
data is saved, the project options are recorded along with other project data.

Some project options are specific to a single Availability Workbench module. The Project Options
dialog only displays data relevant to the current module. To access the Project Options dialog select
the Tools, Options, Project pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Project General Options - All Modules


These options are accessed from the General tab of the Project Options dialog.

ID
An identifier for the project of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Description
A description for the project of no more than 255 characters.

Compiled by
The details of the engineers who constructed the project. A maximum of 255 characters is permitted.

Approved by
The details of the approval authority. A maximum of 255 characters is permitted.

Notes
Project notes of up to 2000 characters.

Set IDs to upper case


If this option is set IDs will be forced to upper case when entered by the user in Properties dialogs.

58
Project Options

Project Lifetime Options – RCMCost, AvSim, LCC Modules


Lifetime options are accessed from the Lifetime tab of the Project Options dialog. Lifetime values and
time profiles are used by the RCMCost, AvSim and Life Cycle Cost modules.

Lifetime
The lifetime value indicates the period of time over which simulations will be performed. The lifetime
should be expressed in units consistent with all other project data. For example, if time to failure and
repair times have been recorded in hours then the lifetime must also be recorded in hours.

Time profiles
Time profiles specify how time-dependent data is to be recorded during a simulation or life cycle cost
analysis. All profile data viewed after a simulation or life cycle cost analysis will be displayed according
to the time profile specified by the user. If the Map to lifetime option is selected then the user need only
specify the number of intervals over the system lifetime. AWB will split the lifetime into equal intervals
over the lifetime specified.

If the Map to lifetime option is not selected then the user must also specify the start time and interval
length.

Interval optimization
The interval optimization mode determines the criteria for optimizing scheduled maintenance interval
(planned maintenance and inspections) in the RCMCost and AvSim modules. Intervals may be
optimized by cost or by availability. If the cost option is chosen then maintenance recommendations will
be based on minimum cost. If the availability option is chosen then optimizations will be based on
maximum availability.

Apply inspection predictive data at time zero


If this flag is unchecked AWB will apply the first inspection at a time corresponding to the inspection
interval added to the inspection offset value. If this flag is checked, AWB will apply the predictive data at
time zero without consuming additional labor or equipment resources. This allows users to model
situations where installations at time zeroin the plant's lifetime will recognize imminent failures of an
equipment.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Project Simulation Options – RCMCost Module


Simulation options are accessed from the Simulation tab of the Project Options dialog.

Number of simulations [1-1000000]


The number of simulations to be performed for each cause in the RCMCost module.

The Monte Carlo simulation process must be repeated a sufficient number of times to produce accurate
statistical results. The user should set the number of simulations such that a significant number of
system failures are generated. This may involve a certain amount of trial and error for a new project.
One way to estimate how many simulations are required is to repeat the simulation run with different
values for the number of simulations. As more simulations are performed, the system unavailability and
other parameters should begin to converge. When they have converged sufficiently, use this value for
future runs.

Random number seed


Modifying the random number seed changes the series of random numbers generated for a simulation
or optimization run.

Safety criticality target


Safety targets are displayed on optimization plots and refer to user-defined targets per individual cause.
Safety criticality values combine the frequency of effects that have a safety implication with the severity
of the effect.

Operational criticality target


Operational targets are displayed on optimization plots and refer to user-defined targets per individual
cause. Operational criticality values combine the frequency of effects that have an operational
implication with the severity of the effect.

Environmental criticality target


Environmental targets are displayed on optimization plots and refer to user-defined targets per individual
cause. Environmental criticality values combine the frequency of effects that have an environmental
implication with the severity of the effect.

Automatically assign criticality rankings


If this option is selected then the RCMCost module will automatically assign criticality rankings to all
locations in the project immediately after a full system simulation has been performed. Rankings will be
assigned according to the AWB assignment criteria specified in the Criticality Rankings dialog.

Spare optimization unavailability target


The target unavailability when optimizing spares by cost. If this value is set to a non-zero value the
recommended optimum spare holding represents the minimum cost that meets the unavailability target.

No. of sites served by level 2 spares


If this value is set greater than one spares optimizations will model the consumption of level 2 spares
due to other site demands. The other sites are assumed to have the same frequency of spare demand
as the project site.

60
Project Options

Project Simulation Options – AvSim Module


Simulation options are accessed from the Simulation tab of the Project Options dialog.

Number of simulations [1-1000000]


The Monte Carlo simulation process must be repeated a sufficient number of times to produce accurate
statistical results. The user should set the number of simulations such that a significant number of
system failures are generated. This may involve a certain amount of trial and error for a new project.
One way to estimate how many simulations are required is to repeat the simulation run with different
values for the number of simulations. As more simulations are performed, the system unavailability and
other parameters should begin to converge. When they have converged sufficiently, use this value for
future runs. Note that you can stop a simulation run before the requested number of simulations has
been reached. Results will be presented in terms of the number of simulations completed.

Random number seed


Modifying the random number seed changes the series of random numbers generated for a simulation
or optimization run. The random number seed must be between 1 and 10000.

Base buffer depletion rate on capacity requirement


The buffer depletion rate may be based on the current capacity requirement at a given time in the
simulation. By setting the Base buffer depletion rate on capacity requirement check-box on, the
program will determine the required capacity from the buffer based on the node or gate operational
capacity target. The required capacity will be taken as a proportion of the buffer’s maximum capacity to
determine how quickly the buffer should empty. The Time to empty buffer entered by the user
therefore refers to the time to empty the buffer when the maximum capacity is required.

Equate capacity in results & diagrams


This facility allows users to equate 100% capacity with a quantity and unit, such as 80 bpm. Dialogs
and results will then reflect this new unit. For example, the user could enter a maximum capacity for a
block of 40 bpm rather than 50% capacity. When entering a unit, such as bpm, ensure that you leave a
space between the number and unit.

Rules
Project rules allow the user to change the failure and maintenance characteristics of a system during
different phases. These rules apply to all equipments defined in the project RBD or fault tree structure.
Project rules allow the user to change the load on all equipments (effectively increasing their failure rate)
and set all equipments to non-operational or non-maintainable during certain phases.

The Rules list shows the currently defined rules that govern the project. Items can be added to the list
by choosing the Add button beneath the list. This action will reveal the Rule Properties Dialog. Rules
are then created by selecting the rule type and phase. If the Set load by phase rule type is selected
then the load factor to be applied must be entered. In each case, a description of the rule is generated
automatically from the data input by the user. Clicking on the OK button will dismiss the dialog and place
the information in the Rules List. There is no limit to the number of rules that may be applied to a
project.

Existing rules may be modified by selecting the rule in the list and then selecting the Edit button.
Existing rules may be removed by selecting the rule in the list and then selecting the Remove button.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Project Net Present Value Options – RCMCost, AvSim


Modules
The NPV tab of the Project Options dialog allows the user to specify parameters for Net Present Value
(NPV) calculations. NPV and escalation costs are calculated per time profile interval. Time profile
intervals are set in the Lifetime tab of the Project Options dialog. AWB will only perform NPV
calculations if the Map to lifetime option is selected for time profiles in the Lifetime tab of the Project
Options dialog.

Where escalation costs are zero the net cost of each time interval is discounted to produce a present
value. The Net Present Value cost is the sum of each interval’s present value over the whole lifetime of
the project.

where
the number of time intervals
NPV Yield % per time interval

the relevant cost in this time interval

For example, the NPV lifetime cost when two intervals are specified would be calculated as

where NPV Yield % per Time Interval

So if the NPV Yield was 10% and the Total Lifetime cost was 6050 evenly spread over the 2 intervals,
the present value for interval 1 would be 2750 and the present value for interval 2 would be 2500, giving
a NPV Total Lifetime cost of 5250.

Escalation costs increase the cost of the item per time interval, so the NPV for non-zero escalation costs
is calculated as

where
the number of time intervals
NPV Yield % per time interval
Escalation cost %

the relevant cost in this time interval

For example over one time interval, if the miscellaneous costs were 1000, the NPV Yield % was zero
but the Miscellaneous escalation cost was 5%, the NPV miscellaneous cost would be 1050. Whereas, if
both NPV and Escalation costs were 5%, they would cancel out and the NPV Miscellaneous cost would
be 1000.

Apply NPV and escalation calculations to simulated life costs


Select this check-box to use the NPV and escalation values set in this dialog to provide lifetime NPV
costs.

NPV Yield % per interval

62
Project Options

NPV percentage to be used per profile time interval.

Labor escalation %
Escalation percentage to be used for all labor costs (per profile time interval)

Equipment escalation %
Escalation percentage to be used for all equipment costs (per profile time interval)

Spare purchase & repair escalation %


Escalation percentage to be used for all spares purchase and repair costs (per profile time interval)

Spare storage escalation %


Escalation percentage to be used for all spares storage costs (per profile time interval)

Operational escalation %
Escalation percentage to be used for all operational costs (per profile time interval)

Outage escalation %
Escalation percentage to be used for all outage costs (per profile time interval)

Alarm escalation %
Escalation percentage to be used for all alarm costs (per profile time interval)

Commissioning escalation %
Escalation percentage to be used for all commissioning costs (per profile time interval)

Redesign escalation %
Escalation percentage to be used for all redesign costs (per profile time interval)

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Project Spares Options – RCMCost, AvSim Modules


The Spares tab of the Project Options Dialog enables the user to set various options that affect the
way spares are modelled during the simulation process in the RCMCost and AvSim modules. Note that
some options are only applicable to simulations in the AvSim module.

Multiple sites (AvSim module)


Selection of the Multiple sites option indicates that each system defined in the AvSim module is
associated with a different spare storage site. This will affect the availability of spares obtained from site
(echelon level 1) during the simulation process. AWB will assume that each system block in the RBD is
associated with a different site spare storage facility if the Multiple sites check-box is selected.
Similarly, each TOP gate in a fault tree diagram will be considered to be a separate system, associated
with a different site, if the Multiple sites check-box is selected.

AWB will split spares at echelon level 1 into 3 sites for the 3 systems above if the Multiple sites check-
box is selected.

Distribution of spare parts with the ‘multiple sites’ option selected.

Distribution of spare parts without the ‘multiple sites’ option selected.

Include initial spare purchase costs


Setting this check-box includes the cost of the initial procurement of stored spares (at echelon levels 1
and 2) in the calculations. The default setting is on.

Replenish level 1 spares stocks at fixed intervals (AvSim module)

64
Project Options

The level 1 spares will be replenished at regular intervals during a simulation if the Replenish level 1
spares stocks at fixed intervals check-box is set.

Spares replenishment interval (AvSim module)


The Spares replenishment interval must be set if the Replenish level 1 spares stocks at fixed
intervals check-box is set.

Storage costs
Spare storage costs may be assigned by weight or volume. Select whether storage costs should be set
individually (as per details in the individual Spare Properties dialog), by weight or by volume. If weight
is chosen, enter the Level 1 storage cost per unit weight and the Level 2 storage cost per unit weight. If
volume is chosen, enter the Level 1 storage cost per unit volume and the Level 2 storage cost per unit
volume.

Logistic Delays
Spare logistic delays may be assigned to all spares globally for echelon levels 1, 2 and 3. Tick one or
more check-boxes as appropriate to your system and specify the logistic delay time for the appropriate
levels.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Project Importance Options – AvSim Module


The Importance tab of the Project Options Dialog enables the user to set various options that affect
the importance calculations results produced by the AvSim module.

Consequence
The consequence that will be used when calculating importance rankings.

Spare importance cut-off


The Spare Importance cut-off value is used when a spare importance ranking run is performed. RBD
blocks and fault tree events with importance values less than the cut-off will not be shown in the ranking
list.

Base capacity importance on initial capacity


If this option is set capacity importance values (the contribution to capacity loss) are based on reduced
capacity compared to the initial capacity at time zero in the simulation process.

66
Project Options

Project Capacity Availability Options – AvSim Module


Capacity availability is the probability that a capacity value will be met or exceeded for a given time
interval. Results are shown in the form of a Capacity Availability Profile for each interval.

For example, if the capacity exceeds 40% throughout the duration of the time interval, but only exceeds
70% capacity for a quarter of the duration of the time interval, the capacity availability graph will show 1
for 40%, and 0.25 for 70%.

The Capacity Availability tab of the Project Options Dialog enables the user to set various options
that affect the capacity availability results produced by the AvSim module.

System
The system used to determine the probability that a capacity value will be met or exceeded for a given
time interval.

Number of intervals
The number of intervals to be used in the capacity availability calculation.

Map to lifetime
If the Map to lifetime option is checked the program will automatically set the start time to zero and the
interval length will be set to the project lifetime divided by the specified number of intervals.

Start time
The start of the period to be used in the capacity availability calculation.

Interval length
The interval length to be used in the capacity availability calculation.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Project View Options


View options determine the data that is to be displayed in diagrams and the project tree control.

View options are specified in the View tab of the Project Options dialog.

68
Project Options

Project Precision Options


Precision options are specified in the Precision tab of the Project Options dialog.

The user may specify a floating point precision value of 2, 3, 4, 6 or 9 and a floating point format type of
automatic or exponent. The precision value determines the number of significant figures displayed in
calculated floating point values. Selection of the automatic format will result in floating point numbers
being displayed either in standard numerical format or as a number followed by an exponent. The
format chosen by the program will depend on the absolute value of the individual floating point number.
If the exponent option is chosen then floating point numbers will be followed by an exponent, unless the
exponent value is zero. Consider the floating-point number

0.123456789

The table below illustrates how the number will be displayed for a variety of format and precision
combinations.

Format Precision Displayed Number


Automatic 6 0.123456
Automatic 3 0.123
Exponent 6 1.23456E-1
Exponent 3 1.23E-1

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Project Notes Options


Notes options are specified in the Notes tab of the Project Options dialog.

Many of the tables in an AWB project have ‘Notes’ columns associated with them. For example four
different notes may be applied to each labor category defined, each spare and each RBD block. Note
headers are used to label note fields in dialogs and note columns in the grid control.

AWB allows users to customize the headers applied to these note columns. Note header customization
is performed in the Notes tab of the Project Options dialog.

To modify a note header click on the current header text in the tree control. The text should become
highlighted. Click again over the highlighted text. You should now be able to edit the text to specify the
header you require.

70
Project Options

Project Fonts Options – AvSim Module


Fonts options are specified in the Fonts tab of the Project Options dialog.

The fonts associated with RBD and fault tree diagrams may be modified by selecting the current font
setting in the tree control and then selecting the Change selected font button. A Font dialog will appear
allowing you to set the new font name, style, size and color.

Fonts may be reset to their default values using the Reset selection to default or Reset all to default
buttons.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Project Colors Options – RCMCost, AvSim Modules


Color options are specified in the Colors tab of the Project Options dialog.

The colors associated with strategy labels, RBD and fault tree diagrams may be modified by selecting
the current color label in the tree control and then selecting the Change selected color button. A Color
dialog will appear allowing you to set the new color.

Colors may be reset to their default values using the Reset selection to default or Reset all to default
buttons.

72
Project Options

Project RBD/FT Drag Options – AvSim Module


AvSim RBD and fault tree drag and drop options may be set in the RBD/FT Drag tab of the Project
Options dialog.

The options selected in this tab will affect how dependent objects are transferred between a library and
a project when copying a RBD or fault tree structure.

A group of check boxes enable the user to specify which dependent objects are to be renamed when a
transfer takes place between a project and a library. Renaming will only take place if a transferred object
has a matching ID to an existing object in the target project or library.

For example, if Rename failure models with matching IDs is checked Availability Workbench will
rename all dependent failure models transferred with the RBD or fault tree structure that encounter a
matching failure model in the target project or library.

Note that RBD blocks, nodes and labels are always renamed when they encounter a matching object in
the target project or library. Similarly matching fault tree gates and primary events are also renamed.

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Common Resources and Data
Labor
Labor - Overview
Labor categories are a shared resource between the RCMCost and AvSim modules and are used to
determine the contribution of labor to life cycle costs. Labor categories are assigned to both corrective
and scheduled tasks and may cause logistic delays in performing corrective actions.

An Availability Workbench project may be populated with labor data by:

 Adding a labor category to the tree control


 Extracting a labor category from a library
 Using the Import facility

See Also

General Properties
Notes

75
Availability Workbench V3.0

Labor - General Properties


Labor general properties may be accessed from the General tab of the Labor Properties dialog.

ID
A unique identifier for the labor category of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Type
The type assigned to the labor category. Labor types are used to organize labor categories into groups.
If a project contains many labor categories then this will greatly assist in locating a labor category in the
tree control structure.

Description
A description for the labor category of no more than 255 characters.

Number available (AvSim Module)


The number of this labor category available at any time to perform maintenance operations. This value
will affect the likelihood of a delay in repairing a component due to other tasks being undertaken at the
same time on other components. This value only affects the results of an Avsim simulation. RCM
module results are not affected.

Corrective logistic delay


The expected delay between the failure occurring and the start of corrective maintenance due to the
labor category.

Corrective call-out cost


The cost incurred each time one member of the labor category is called to perform a corrective
maintenance task.

Scheduled call-out cost


The cost incurred each time one member of the labor category is called to perform a scheduled
maintenance task.

Cost rate
The cost per unit time incurred when employing one member of the labor category to perform a
maintenance task.

See Also

Overview
Notes

76
Common Resources and Data

Labor - Notes
Labor notes properties may be accessed from the Notes tab of the Labor Properties dialog.

Up to 4 descriptive notes may be assigned to each labor category. Users may customize note headers
(the labels used to identify a note category) using the Notes tab in the Project Options dialog.

See Also

Overview
General Properties

77
Availability Workbench V3.0

Equipment
Equipment - Overview
Equipment categories are a shared resource between the RCMCost and AvSim modules and are used
to determine the contribution of equipment to life cycle costs. Equipment categories are assigned to both
corrective and scheduled tasks and may cause logistic delays in performing corrective actions.

An Availability Workbench project may be populated with equipment data by:

 Adding an equipment to the tree control


 Extracting a equipment from a library
 Using the Import facility

See Also

General Properties
Notes

78
Common Resources and Data

Equipment - General Properties


Equipment general properties may be accessed from the General tab of the Equipment Properties
dialog.

ID
A unique identifier for the equipment of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Type
The type assigned to the equipment. Equipment types are used to organize equipments into groups. If a
project contains many equipments then this will greatly assist in locating an equipment in the tree control
structure.

Description
A description for the equipment of no more than 255 characters.

Number available
The number of this equipment available at any time to perform maintenance operations. This value will
affect the likelihood of a delay in repairing a component due to other tasks being undertaken at the
same time on other components. This value only affects the results of an AvSim simulation. RCM
module results are not affected.

Corrective logistic delay


The expected delay between the failure occurring and the start of corrective maintenance due to the
equipment.

Corrective call-out cost


The cost incurred each time the equipment is used to perform a corrective maintenance task.

Scheduled call-out cost


The cost incurred each time the equipment is used to perform a scheduled maintenance task.

Cost rate
The cost per unit time incurred when using the equipment to perform a maintenance task.

See Also

Overview
Notes

79
Availability Workbench V3.0

Equipment - Notes
Equipment note properties may be accessed from the Notes tab of the Equipment Properties dialog.

Up to 4 descriptive notes may be assigned to each equipment category. Users may customize note
headers (the labels used to identify a note category) using the Notes tab in the Project Options dialog.

See Also

Overview
General Properties

80
Common Resources and Data

Tasks
Tasks - Overview
Maintenance tasks are a shared resource used by both the RCMCost and AvSim modules. Tasks
defined in Availability Workbench are categorized into one of three possible types – corrective tasks,
planned maintenance tasks and inspection tasks.

Corrective tasks are performed when a random failure takes place or when an inspection reveals a
hidden failure.

Planned maintenance tasks may be performed at fixed intervals, when the age of an equipment reaches
a given value or when an opportunity arises. Planned maintenance may involve the replacement of
ageing equipment or minor tasks such as lubrication. Planned maintenance may also be performed
when an inspection predicts that a failure is about to occur (predictive maintenance).

Inspection tasks may be performed at fixed intervals, when the age of an equipment reaches a given
value or when an opportunity arises. Inspection tasks are performed to detect an imminent failure (and
hence allow a planned maintenance task to be scheduled to prevent the failure) or to detect a dormant
(hidden) failure. Hidden failures are normally associated with standby equipment.

See Also

Corrective Maintenance Tasks - General Properties


Corrective Maintenance Tasks - Advanced Properties
Corrective Maintenance Tasks - Rules
Planned Maintenance Tasks - General Properties
Planned Maintenance Tasks - Advanced Properties
Planned Maintenance Tasks - Rules
Planned Maintenance Tasks - Optimization
Inspection Tasks - General Properties
Inspection Tasks - Advanced Properties
Inspection Tasks - Predictive Data
Inspection Tasks - Rules
Inspection Tasks - Optimization

81
Availability Workbench V3.0

Corrective Maintenance Tasks


Corrective Tasks - General Properties
Task general properties may be accessed from the General tab of the Task Properties dialog.

Description
A description for the corrective maintenance task of no more than 255 characters.

Task ID
An identifier for the task of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Task duration
The task duration is the time taken to repair a component. It does not include any logistic delays in
procuring spares, labor and equipment or any equipment start-up delays in bringing the equipment back
‘on-line’. If individual labor and equipment resources are required for shorter or longer periods than the
task duration then the Active time field may be specified when assigning the resource.

Operational cost
The operational cost field provides a method of specifying any costs incurred in the repair other than the
labor, equipment and spare costs assigned to the task.

Ramp time
The ramp time is the time required to bring the equipment back 'on-line' over and above the specified
task duration.

Resources
The Resources list shows the labor categories, equipment and spares required to perform the
corrective maintenance task. The quantity of each resource is also displayed in the list. The user can
add items to the list by choosing the appropriate Add button beneath the list. The user may modify
existing resource assignments in the list by selecting the Edit button. These actions will reveal the
Assigned Resource Properties dialog. For example, a resource may be selected from the list
extracted from the labor, equipment or spares table and the number of the resource can be entered into
the Quantity text box. In addition, an active time may be entered for labor and equipment resources.
The Active time field indicates the time period for which the resource is required. If the Set to task
duration option is not checked, the active time will be displayed in brackets to the right of the resource if
it differs from the task duration. If the resource is not already defined in the project then the New button
may be used to create a new labor category, equipment or spare. Clicking on the OK button will dismiss
the dialog and place the information in the Resources list.

Note that when adding or editing a spare resource, if a BOM is attached to a parent cause (RCMCost
module) or a parent block or gate (AvSim module), then the spares list displayed in the Assigned
Resource Properties dialog will only contain spares assigned to the appropriate BOM. If the spare is
not already defined in the project then the New button may be used to create a new spare. The New
button will only be enabled if Disable Bom filter is checked or there is no BOM associated with the
task.

See Also

Advanced Properties
Rules
Notes

82
Common Resources and Data

Corrective Tasks - Advanced Properties


Additional task parameters may be accessed from the Advanced tab of the Task Properties dialog.

Condition after repair


The condition after repair may be specified As good as new, Intermediate or As good as old. If
Intermediate is chosen, the user must specify the associated age reduction factor. Choose As good as
new if the equipment will be replaced by new equipment on failure. Choose As good as old if a minimal
repair is to be carried out to restore the equipment to service.

Age reduction factor


The Age reduction factor, c , determines the effective age of a component after maintenance is
completed. A factor of 1 indicates the component is as good as new (age = 0) after repair, whereas a
factor of 0 indicates the component is as good as old (age not changed) after repair. Intermediate
values are used as an approximate means of representing partial rejuvenation of a component. AWB
uses the following expression to determine a component's age after maintenance:

Age after repair = Age before repair. ( 1 - c )

Weibull set
The task duration can be obtained directly from historical data analyzed in a Weibull set. A maintenance
task that is linked to a Weibull set will obtain the distribution type and parameters directly from the
Weibull set. As historical data is updated, Availability Workbench (AWB) will automatically update the
distribution parameters for associated maintenance tasks.

Distribution
AWB samples the task duration from the distribution chosen in the Distribution pull-down menu. The
four options are exponential, lognormal, normal and Weibull.

Standard deviation (Normal and Lognormal Distributions)


The Standard deviation of the mean task duration for normal and lognormal distributions.

Beta (Weibull Distribution)


The task duration beta parameter for the Weibull distribution.

Gamma (Weibull Distribution)


The task duration gamma parameter for the Weibull distribution.

Operation No
An operation number for the task of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

See Also

General Properties
Rules
Notes

83
Availability Workbench V3.0

Corrective Tasks - Rules


Task rules may be accessed from the Rules tab of the Task Properties dialog.

Rules (AvSim module only)


If no rules are applied to a corrective task then the task will be performed as soon as a failure occurs
and all resources required to perform the task have been procured. In certain circumstances you may
wish to delay the task until a specified event occurs or until entering or exiting a particular operational
phase. In such cases you can assign rules to a task to indicate when corrective maintenance may be
performed.

The Rules list shows the rules that govern the corrective maintenance task. Items can be added to the
list by choosing the Add button beneath the list. This action will reveal the Rule Properties dialog. A
rule can be selected from the list of four possible types - Trigger task by phase, Trigger task by state,
Inhibit task by phase and Inhibit task by state. For example, if Trigger task by phase is selected a
phase can be chosen from the Phase list to act as a trigger for the corrective maintenance task. If
Trigger task by state is selected, a state dependency type may be chosen of RBD block or Fault tree
gate and the identity of the block or gate selected. The state of the block or gate required to trigger the
task must also be selected. In each case a description of the rule is generated automatically from the
data input by the user. For rules that inhibit a task by phase or state the input data is the same. Clicking
on the OK button will dismiss the dialog and place the information in the Rules list. There is no limit to
the number of rules that may be applied to a task.

Trigger task rules will have no effect if the component is non-maintainable during the phase of operation
during which the trigger event takes place. Also, for corrective tasks, trigger rules will not affect a
dormant failure. Trigger tasks are used with corrective tasks to override an inhibit rule associated with
the same task.

See Also

General Properties
Advanced Properties
Notes

84
Common Resources and Data

Corrective Tasks - Notes


Corrective task notes properties may be accessed from the Notes tab of the Task Properties dialog.

Up to 24 descriptive notes may be assigned to each task. Users may customize note headers (the
labels used to identify a note category) using the Notes tab in the Project Options dialog.

See Also

General Properties
Advanced Properties
Rules

85
Availability Workbench V3.0

Planned Maintenance Tasks


Planned Tasks - General Properties
Task general properties may be accessed from the General tab of the Task Properties dialog. Note
that users may initially populate many of the task properties by selecting the Copy Corrective Properties
button. Corrective properties will be taken from the corrective task associated with the same cause,
block or event.

Task enabled
If checked the planned maintenance task is enabled. Enabling a task indicates that the task will be
performed as part of a routine maintenance schedule at regular intervals. Disabled tasks will only be
performed as a secondary action task or as a result of a trigger rule initiating the task.

Interval
The time interval between each planned maintenance task. If a fixed maintenance interval has been
specified the planned maintenance task will be performed at regular intervals irrespective of the age of
the equipment. Otherwise maintenance will be performed when the age of the equipment matches the
interval value.

Offset
The time offset for the first application of the task during a simulation run. The first task will be performed
at T + To where T is the task interval and To is the interval offset.

Fixed interval
If checked the planned maintenance task will be performed at regular intervals irrespective of the age of
the equipment. If not checked then maintenance will be performed when the age of the equipment
matches the interval value.

Description
A description for the planned maintenance task of no more than 255 characters.

Task ID
An identifier for the planned maintenance task of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Task duration
The task duration is the time taken to repair a component. It does not include any logistic delays in
procuring spares, labor and equipment or any equipment start-up delays in bringing the equipment back
‘on-line’. If individual labor and equipment resources are required for shorter or longer periods than the
task duration then the Active time field may be specified when assigning the resource.

Operational cost
The operational cost field provides a method of specifying any costs incurred in the repair other than the
labor, equipment and spare costs assigned to the task.

Ramp time
The ramp time is the time required to bring the equipment back 'on-line' over and above the specified
task duration.

Minimum age
The minimum age at which the task will be performed for fixed interval tasks. For example, specifying an
interval of 2000 hours for a task with minimum age of 8000 hours will indicate the task is not to be
performed until the associated component has aged to 8000 hours. If the task does not result in a
reduction in the age of the associated component then subsequent tasks will be performed at the
specified interval of 2000 hours.

Task group

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Common Resources and Data

The task group to which the planned maintenance task is assigned. If a task group is assigned to the
task some data fields may be populated from the properties of the task group.

Resources
The Resources list shows the labor categories, equipment and spares required to perform the planned
maintenance task. The quantity of each resource is also displayed in the list. The user can add items to
the list by choosing the appropriate Add button beneath the list. The user may modify existing resource
assignments in the list by selecting the Edit button. These actions will reveal the Assigned Resource
Properties dialog. For example, a resource may be selected from the list extracted from the labor,
equipment or spares table and the number of the resource can be entered into the Quantity text box.
In addition, an active time may be entered for labor and equipment resources. The Active time field
indicates the time period for which the resource is required. If the Set to task duration option is not
checked, the active time will be displayed in brackets to the right of the resource if it differs from the task
duration. If the resource is not already defined in the project then the New button may be used to create
a new labor category, equipment or spare. Clicking on the OK button will dismiss the dialog and place
the information in the Resources list.

Note that when adding or editing a spare resource, if a BOM is attached to a parent cause (RCMCost
module) or a parent block or gate (AvSim module), then the spares list displayed in the Assigned
Resource Properties dialog will only contain spares assigned to the appropriate BOM. If the spare is
not already defined in the project then the New button may be used to create a new spare. The New
button will only be enabled if Disable Bom filter is checked or there is no BOM associated with the
task.

See Also

Advanced Properties
Rules
Notes
Optimization

87
Availability Workbench V3.0

Planned Tasks - Advanced Properties


Task parameters may be accessed from the Advanced tab of the Task Properties dialog. Note that
users may initially populate many of the task properties by selecting the Copy Corrective Properties
button. Corrective properties will be taken from the corrective task associated with the same cause,
block or event.

Condition after maintenance


The condition after maintenance may be specified As good as new, Intermediate or As good as old.
If Intermediate is chosen, the user must specify the associated age reduction factor. Choose As good
as new if the equipment will be replaced by new equipment. Choose As good as old if, for example, a
lubrication task is to be performed that has no effect on the equipment age.

Age reduction factor


The Age reduction factor, c , determines the effective age of a component after the maintenance task is
completed. A factor of 1 indicates the component is as good as new (age = 0) after maintenance,
whereas a factor of 0 indicates the component is as good as old (age not changed) after maintenance.
Intermediate values are used as an approximate means of representing partial rejuvenation of a
component. AWB uses the following expression to determine a component's age after maintenance:

Age after repair = Age before repair. ( 1 - c )

Weibull set
The task duration can be obtained directly from historical data analyzed in a Weibull set. A maintenance
task that is linked to a Weibull set will obtain the distribution type and parameters directly from the
Weibull set. As historical data is updated, Availability Workbench (AWB) will automatically update the
distribution parameters for associated maintenance tasks.

Distribution
AWB samples the task duration from the distribution chosen in the Distribution pull-down menu. The
four options are exponential, lognormal, normal and Weibull.

Standard deviation (Normal and Lognormal Distributions)


The Standard deviation of the mean task duration for normal and lognormal distributions.

Beta (Weibull Distribution)


The task duration beta parameter for the Weibull distribution.

Gamma (Weibull Distribution)


The task duration gamma parameter for the Weibull distribution.

Operation No
An operation number for the task of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Non-operational during maintenance


If checked indicates that the equipment will be out of service for the duration of the task.

Mandatory task
If checked indicates that the task is mandatory. This setting will not affect the results of a simulation. It is
provided for identification purposes only.

Secondary action task


If checked indicates that the task will be performed as a result of a predictive inspection task revealing a
potential failure. When assigning predictive inspection tasks users must indicate the planned
maintenance task that will be performed to prevent the potential failure by assigning this flag.

See Also

88
Common Resources and Data

General Properties
Rules
Notes
Optimization

89
Availability Workbench V3.0

Planned Tasks - Rules


Task rules may be accessed from the Rules tab of the Task Properties dialog.

Rules (AvSim module only)


In some circumstances you may wish to inhibit or trigger a task according to the state of the system or
the current operational phase. For example, planned maintenance may not be possible during certain
operational phases. Alternatively you may wish to perform opportunistic maintenance when a particular
system fails.

The Rules list shows the rules that govern the planned maintenance task. Items can be added to the
list by choosing the Add button beneath the list. This action will reveal the Rule Properties dialog. A
rule can be selected from the list of four possible types - Trigger task by phase, Trigger task by state,
Inhibit task by phase and Inhibit task by state. For example, if Trigger task by phase is selected a
phase can be chosen from the Phase list to act as a trigger for the planned maintenance task and a
value can be entered for the minimum elapsed time since the task was last performed (or minimum age
of the component if it is not a fixed interval task). If Trigger task by state is selected, a state
dependency type may be chosen of RBD block or Fault tree gate and the identity of the block or gate
selected. The state of the block or gate required to trigger the task must also be selected. In each case
a description of the rule is generated automatically from the data input by the user. For rules that inhibit
a task by phase or state the input data is the same except that no minimum elapsed time need be
specified. Clicking on the OK button will dismiss the dialog and place the information in the Rules list.
There is no limit to the number of rules that may be applied to a task.

Trigger task rules will have no effect if the component is non-maintainable during the phase of operation
during which the trigger event takes place.

See Also

General Properties
Advanced Properties
Notes
Optimization

90
Common Resources and Data

Planned Tasks - Notes


Planned maintenance task notes properties may be accessed from the Notes tab of the Task
Properties dialog.

Up to 24 descriptive notes may be assigned to each task. Users may customize note headers (the
labels used to identify a note category) using the Notes tab in the Project Options dialog.

See Also

General Properties
Advanced Properties
Rules
Optimization

91
Availability Workbench V3.0

Planned Tasks - Optimization


Task optimization properties may be accessed from the Optimization tab of the Task Properties
dialog.

Number of intervals
The total number of trial intervals during an optimization run.

First interval
The minimum interval to be used in the interval optimization calculation.

Interval increment
The interval increment to be used in the interval optimization calculation.

See Also

General Properties
Advanced Properties
Rules
Notes

92
Common Resources and Data

Inspection Tasks
Inspection Tasks - General Properties
Task general properties may be accessed from the General tab of the Task Properties dialog.

Task enabled
If checked the inspection task is enabled. Enabling a task indicates that the task will be performed as
part of a routine maintenance schedule at regular intervals. Disabled inspection tasks will only be
performed if a trigger rule initiates the task.

Interval
The time interval between each inspection task. If a fixed maintenance interval has been specified the
inspection task will be performed at regular intervals irrespective of the age of the equipment. Otherwise
maintenance will be performed when the age of the equipment matches the interval value.

Offset
The time offset for the first application of the task during a simulation run. The first inspection will be
performed at T + To where ‘T’ is the inspection interval and ‘To’ is the interval offset.

Fixed interval
If checked the inspection task will be performed at regular intervals irrespective of the age of the
equipment. If not checked then maintenance will be performed when the age of the equipment matches
the interval value.

Description
A description for the inspection task of no more than 255 characters.

Task ID
An identifier for the inspection task of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Task duration
The task duration is the time taken to perform the inspection task. It does not include any equipment
start-up delays in bringing the equipment back ‘on-line’. If individual labor and equipment resources are
required for shorter or longer periods than the task duration then the Active time field may be specified
when assigning the resource.

Operational cost
The operational cost field provides a method of specifying any costs incurred other than the labor and
equipment costs assigned to the task.

Ramp time
The ramp time is the time required to bring the equipment back 'on-line' over and above the specified
task duration.

Minimum age
The minimum age at which the task will be performed for fixed interval tasks. For example, specifying an
interval of 2000 hours for a task with minimum age of 8000 hours will indicate the task is not to be
performed until the associated component has aged to 8000 hours. If the task does not result in a
reduction in the age of the associated component then subsequent tasks will be performed at the
specified interval of 2000 hours.

Task group
The task group to which the inspection task is assigned. If a task group is assigned to the task some
data fields may be populated from the properties of the task group.

Resources

93
Availability Workbench V3.0

The Resources list shows the labor categories and equipment required to perform the inspection task.
The quantity of each resource is also displayed in the list. The user can add items to the list by
choosing the appropriate Add button beneath the list. The user may modify existing resource
assignments in the list by selecting the Edit button. These actions will reveal the Assigned Resource
Properties dialog. For example, a resource may be selected from the list extracted from the labor or
equipment table and the number of the resource can be entered into the Quantity text box. In
addition, an active time may be entered for both labor and equipment resources. The Active time field
indicates the time period for which the resource is required. If the Set to task duration option is not
checked, the active time will be displayed in brackets to the right of the resource if it differs from the task
duration. If the resource is not already defined in the project then the New button may be used to create
a new labor category or equipment. Clicking on the OK button will dismiss the dialog and place the
information in the Resources list.

See Also

Advanced Properties
Predictive Data
Rules
Notes
Optimization

94
Common Resources and Data

Inspection Tasks - Advanced Properties


Task parameters may be accessed from the Advanced tab of the Task Properties dialog.

Condition after maintenance


The condition after maintenance may be specified As good as new, Intermediate or As good as old.
If Intermediate is chosen, the user must specify the associated age reduction factor. Choose As good
as new if the equipment will be replaced by new equipment. Choose As good as old if, for example, a
lubrication task is to be performed that has no effect on the equipment age.

Age reduction factor


The Age reduction factor, c , determines the effective age of a component after the maintenance task is
completed. A factor of 1 indicates the component is as good as new (age = 0) after maintenance,
whereas a factor of 0 indicates the component is as good as old (age not changed) after maintenance.
Intermediate values are used as an approximate means of representing partial rejuvenation of a
component. AWB uses the following expression to determine a component's age after maintenance:

Age after repair = Age before repair. ( 1 - c )

Weibull set
The task duration can be obtained directly from historical data analyzed in a Weibull Set. A maintenance
task that is linked to a Weibull set will obtain the distribution type and parameters directly from the
Weibull set. As historical data is updated, Availability Workbench (AWB) will automatically update the
distribution parameters for associated maintenance tasks.

Distribution
AWB samples the task duration from the distribution chosen in the Distribution pull-down menu. The
four options are exponential, lognormal, normal and Weibull.

Standard deviation (Normal and Lognormal Distributions)


The standard deviation of the mean task duration for normal and lognormal distributions.

Beta (Weibull Distribution)


The beta parameter for the Weibull distribution.

Gamma (Weibull Distribution)


The gamma parameter for the Weibull distribution.

Operation No
An operation number for the task of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Non-operational during maintenance


If checked indicates that the equipment will be out of service for the duration of the task.

Mandatory task
If checked indicates that the task is mandatory. This setting will not affect the results of a simulation. It is
provided for identification purposes only.

See Also

General Properties
Predictive Data
Rules
Notes
Optimization

95
Availability Workbench V3.0

Inspection Tasks - Predictive Data


Task predictive data properties may be accessed from the Predictive Data tab of the Task Properties
dialog.

P-F curve
The P-F curve, in combination with the P-F interval and detection probability, determines whether the
inspection task will predict a future failure. Specifying the time difference between the potential failure
and inspection point as t and the P-F interval as tPF , the probability of detecting the potential failure, P,
is given by:

Step Distribution:

where = detection probability

Exponential Distribution:

Linear Distribution:

for
for

Normal Distribution:

for

for and

Otherwise

= P-F standard deviation.

P-F interval
If a non-zero P-F interval is specified then potential failures may be identified before they actually occur.
If a failure is recognized as about to occur during the simulation process then the program will assume
that a planned maintenance task is to be employed rather than corrective maintenance. If the time
difference between the potential failure point and inspection point is greater than the P-F interval then
potential failure will not be recognized. If the time difference is less than the P-F interval, the failure may
be recognized, depending on the P-F detection probability and P-F curve selection specified by the user.

Detection probability
The probability that the failure will be detected.

P-F std
The standard deviation for a normal distribution P-F curve.

Baseline

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Common Resources and Data

The physical baseline value for a test. This setting will not affect the results of a simulation. It is provided
for identification purposes only.

Trigger
The physical value that will trigger a planned maintenance action. This setting will not affect the results
of a simulation. It is provided for identification purposes only.

See Also

General Properties
Advanced Properties
Rules
Notes
Optimization

97
Availability Workbench V3.0

Inspection Tasks - Rules


Task rules may be accessed from the Rules tab of the Task Properties dialog.

Rules (AvSim Module Only)


In some circumstances you may wish to inhibit or trigger a task according to the state of the system or
the current operational phase. For example, inspections may not be possible during certain operational
phases. Alternatively you may wish to perform an inspection when a particular system fails.

The Rules list shows the rules that govern the inspection task. Items can be added to the list by
choosing the Add button beneath the list. This action will reveal the Rule Properties dialog. A rule can
be selected from the list of four possible types - Trigger task by phase, Trigger task by state, Inhibit
task by phase and Inhibit task by state. For example, if Trigger task by phase is selected a phase
can be chosen from the Phase list to act as a trigger for the inspection task and a value can be entered
for the minimum elapsed time since the task was last performed (or minimum age of the component if it
is not a fixed interval task). If Trigger task by state is selected, a state dependency type may be chosen
of RBD block or Fault tree gate and the identity of the block or gate selected. The state of the block or
gate required to trigger the task must also be selected. In each case a description of the rule is
generated automatically from the data input by the user. For rules that inhibit a task by phase or state
the input data is the same except that no minimum elapsed time need be specified. Clicking on the OK
button will dismiss the dialog and place the information in the Rules List. There is no limit to the number
of rules that may be applied to a task.

Trigger task rules will have no effect if the component is non-maintainable during the phase of operation
during which the trigger event takes place.

See Also

General Properties
Advanced Properties
Predictive Data
Notes
Optimization

98
Common Resources and Data

Inspection Tasks - Notes


Inspection task notes properties may be accessed from the Notes tab of the Task Properties dialog.

Up to 24 descriptive notes may be assigned to each task. Users may customize note headers (the
labels used to identify a note category) using the Notes tab in the Project Options dialog.

See Also

General Properties
Advanced Properties
Predictive Data
Rules
Optimization

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Inspection Tasks - Optimization


Task optimization properties may be accessed from the Optimization tab of the Task Properties
dialog.

Number of intervals
The total number of trial intervals during an optimization run.

First Interval
The minimum interval to be used in the interval optimization calculation.

Interval Increment
The interval increment to be used in the interval optimization calculation.

See Also

General Properties
Advanced Properties
Predictive Data
Rules
Notes

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Common Resources and Data

Task Groups
Task Groups - Overview
Task groups are a shared resource between the RCMCost and Avsim modules. They are used to assign
a common scheduled maintenance interval to a group of tasks. They may also be used to assign a
common predictive maintenance strategy to a group of tasks.

Task group intervals may be optimized by selecting the Apply & optimize interval button. The
Optimization Plot dialog will be revealed allowing the user to perform an interval optimization run.

Task groups contain a sub-set of the properties associated with individual tasks. The user may select
whether to assign interval data, predictive data and rules (Avsim module only) to the associated tasks.
For example, a predictive task might involve the inspection of all pumps of a specific kind for excessive
vibration using specialized monitoring equipment. The predictive task parameters could be entered just
once as a task group and then the task group could be assigned to the individual pumps. Any change in
the task group parameters would then be reflected in the individual tasks for each pump.

See Also

General Properties
Predictive Data Properties
Rules
Notes
Tasks
Optimizing Scheduled Task Intervals (RCMCost Module)
Optimizing Scheduled Task Intervals (AvSim Module)

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Task Groups - General Properties


Task group general properties may be accessed from the General tab of the Task Group Properties
dialog.

ID
A unique identifier for the task group category of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Type
The type assigned to the task group category. Task Group types are used to organize task groups into
groups. If a project contains many task groups then this will greatly assist in locating a task group in the
tree control structure.

Description
A description for the task group category of no more than 255 characters.

Assign description
If checked the program will transfer the task group description to each individual task associated with
the task group.

Enable associated tasks


If checked the program will enable all tasks associated with the task group. If not checked the program
will disable all tasks associated with the task group.

Assign interval to associated tasks


If checked the program will assign the specified interval to all tasks associated with the task group. It will
also assign the Fixed interval and Interval offset parameters when checked.

Interval
The task group interval.

Fixed interval
When checked indicates that tasks associated with the task group will be performed at a fixed time
interval after the previous application of the scheduled task. If not checked indicates that the interval is
age-related, i.e. the task will be performed when the age of the equipment reaches the value specified
as the interval.

Interval offset
The interval offset specifies the time of the first task during a simulation. The first task will be performed
at T + To where ‘T’ is the task interval and ‘To’ is the task offset.

Efficiency factor
The efficiency factor indicates the reduction in individual task durations achieved by performing
associated tasks as part of a task group. During a simulation, associated task durations will be modified
by multiplying the specified individual task duration by the task group efficiency factor. Efficiency factors
may be determined using the Task Group Efficiency dialog.

Operational cost
The operational cost associated with the task group. This group cost is apportioned amongst all the
associated tasks. The apportioned value is added to operational costs specified to any individual tasks.

See Also

Overview
Predictive Data Properties
Rules
Notes
Tasks

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Common Resources and Data

Task Groups - Predictive Data Properties


Task group predictive data may be accessed from the Predictive Data tab of the Task Group
Properties dialog.

Assign predictive data to associated tasks


If checked indicates that all the predictive data properties are to be assigned to the associated tasks.
Predictive data will only be effective if the individual tasks assigned to the task group are inspection
tasks.

P-F curve
The P-F curve, in combination with the P-F interval and detection probability, determines whether the
inspection task will predict a future failure. If we specify the time difference between the potential failure
and inspection point as t and the P-F interval as tPF then the probability of detecting the potential
failure, P , is given by:

Step Distribution:

Exponential Distribution:

Linear Distribution:

Normal Distribution:

P-F interval
If a non-zero P-F interval is specified then potential failures may be identified before they actually occur.
If a failure is recognized as about to occur during the simulation process then the program will assume
that a planned maintenance is to be employed rather than corrective maintenance. If the time difference
between the potential failure point and inspection point is greater than the P-F interval then potential
failure will not be recognized. If the time difference is less than the P-F interval, the failure may be
recognized, depending on the P-F detection probability and P-F curve selection specified by the user.

Detection probability
Indicates the probability that the failure will be detected.

P-F std
The standard deviation for the P-F Normal Distribution.

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Baseline
The physical baseline value for a test. This setting will not affect the results of a simulation. It is provided
for identification purposes only.

Trigger
The physical value that will trigger a planned maintenance action. This setting will not affect the results
of a simulation. It is provided for identification purposes only.

See Also

Overview
General Properties
Rules
Notes
Tasks

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Common Resources and Data

Task Groups - Rules


Task group rule properties may be accessed from the Rules tab of the Task Group Properties dialog.

Rules are only applied in the AvSim module. Task group rules are identical to the rule types permitted
for planned maintenance and inspection tasks in the AvSim module. These rules are described in the
topics

Planned Maintenance Tasks - Rules


Inspection Tasks - Rules

Assign rules to associated tasks


If checked indicates that the specified rules are to be copied to each associated task. Any existing rules
associated with individual tasks will be overwritten.

Add
Used to add a rule.

Edit
Used to edit a rule.

Remove
Used to remove a rule.

See Also

Overview
General Properties
Predictive Data Properties
Notes
Tasks

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Task Groups - Notes


Task group note properties may be accessed from the Notes tab of the Task Group Properties dialog.

Up to 4 descriptive notes may be assigned to each task group category. Users may customize note
headers (the labels used to identify a note category) using the Notes tab in the Project Options dialog.

See Also

Overview
General Properties
Predictive Data Properties
Rules
Tasks

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Common Resources and Data

Task Groups - Tasks


The tasks associated with the task group are displayed in the Tasks tab of the Task Group Properties
dialog.

Each associated task is displayed along with the location (RCMCost module) or failure model (AvSim
module) ID.

See Also

Overview
General Properties
Predictive Data Properties
Rules
Notes

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Spares
Spares - Overview
Spare parts are a shared resource between the RCMCost and AvSim modules and are used to
determine the contribution of spares to life cycle costs. Spares may be assigned to both corrective and
planned maintenance tasks and may cause logistic delays in performing corrective actions.

The AvSim module contains a powerful spare part tracking algorithm that allows spare parts to be traced
through three echelon levels. Echelon level 1 is nearest to the system and may represent spares stored
‘on site’ for a process plant, or ‘on board’ for a ship etc. Level 2 is the next available level and may
represent spares stored at a ‘depot’, for example. Level 3 is used to represent the source of the spare
(e.g. factory) from which the other echelon levels and system are re-supplied. The repair shop may be
used to re-cycle spares into the echelon hierarchy.

The RCMCost module uses a simpler spare algorithm that assumes that spare allocation delays due to
close successive failures of similar equipments are negligible.

See Also

General Properties
Level 1 Properties
Level 2 Properties
Level 3 Properties
Repair Shop Properties
Notes
Optimization

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Common Resources and Data

Spares - General Properties


Spare general properties may be accessed from the General tab of the Spare Properties dialog.

ID
A unique identifier for the spares category of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Type
The type assigned to the spare. Spare types are used to organize spares into groups. If a project
contains many spares then this will greatly assist in locating a spare in the tree control structure.

Description
A description for the spare of no more than 255 characters.

Unit cost
The unit cost represents the capital cost of a spare part. Each time a new spare is used as part of a
corrective or planned maintenance action, the program will add the capital cost of the part to the lifetime
purchase cost for spares.

If the Include initial spare purchase costs check-box is selected in the Project Options dialog
(Spares tab) then the initial purchase cost of spare parts held at levels 1 and 2 will be included in the
lifetime costs calculated by the program.

Unit volume
The volume taken up by the spare. The volumes associated with spares are summated for the first two
echelon levels during a simulation run.

Unit weight
The weight of the spare. The weights associated with spares are summated for the first two echelon
levels during a simulation run.

See Also

Overview
Level 1 Properties
Level 2 Properties
Level 3 Properties
Repair Shop
Notes
Optimization

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Spares - Level 1 Properties


Spare level 1 properties may be accessed from the Level 1 tab of the Spare Properties dialog.

Capacity
The Capacity field indicates the number of the current spare parts that are held at level 1.

Storage cost rate per unit


The Storage cost rate per unit is the cost of storing the spare part per unit per unit time. Alternatively,
the storage cost may be assigned by weight or volume. This facility is accessed via the Project
Options dialog (Spares tab).

Logistic delay time


The Logistic delay time is the time delay in moving the spare part from level 1 storage to the location
of the repair or maintenance task. Alternatively, the Logistic delay time may be assigned to all spares
globally. This facility is accessed via the Project Options dialog (Spares tab).

See Also

Overview
General Properties
Level 2 Properties
Level 3 Properties
Repair Shop
Notes
Optimization

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Common Resources and Data

Spares - Level 2 Properties


Spare level 2 properties may be accessed from the Level 2 tab of the Spare Properties dialog.

Capacity
The Capacity field indicates the number of the current spare parts that are held at level 2.

Storage cost rate per unit


The Storage cost rate per unit is the cost of storing the spare part per unit per unit time. Alternatively,
the storage cost may be assigned by weight or volume. This facility is access via the Project Options
dialog (Spares tab).

Logistic delay time


The Logistic delay time is the time delay in moving the spare part from level 2 storage to the level 1
storage. Alternatively, the Logistic delay time may be assigned to all spares globally. This facility is
accessed via the Project Options dialog (Spares tab).

Transportation cost
The spare transport cost for unscheduled demands on level 2 spares.

See Also

Overview
General Properties
Level 1 Properties
Level 3 Properties
Repair Shop
Notes
Optimization

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Spares - Level 3 Properties


Spare level 3 properties may be accessed from the Level 3 tab of the Spare Properties dialog.

Limited manufacturing capacity (AvSim module)


If checked indicates that there is a limit to the number of spares that may be manufactured at the same
time.

Manufacturing capacity (AvSim module)


The Manufacturing capacity indicates how many spares may be manufactured at the same time.

Logistic delay time


This value indicates how long it takes to transfer a spare from level 3 to level 2. If spares are not
available at level 1 or at level 2 during a simulation then they will be obtained from level 3.

Logistic delay distribution (AvSim module)


If the default Fixed distribution is selected, logistic delays from the manufacturing source will be set at
the fixed logistic delay time. If any of the other distributions (normal, log-normal or exponential) are
selected then the logistic delay time will be randomly sampled from the appropriate distribution. If the
normal or lognormal distribution is chosen then the standard deviation must be entered.

Standard deviation
The standard deviation for normal and lognormal logistic delay distributions.

Minimum reorder quantity (AvSim module)


During a simulation, Availability Workbench will only begin the transfer of a spare part type from level 3
to level 2 if the minimum reorder quantity condition is met, or if system parts need to be replaced due to
failure and existing level 1 and level 2 stocks cannot satisfy this requirement.

Batch reorder % discount (AvSim module)


This value indicates the percentage discount obtained due to specifying a minimum reorder quantity
greater than 1.

See Also

Overview
General Properties
Level 1 Properties
Level 2 Properties
Repair Shop
Notes
Optimization

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Common Resources and Data

Spares - Repair Shop - AvSim Module


Spare repair shop properties may be accessed from the Repair Shop tab of the Spare Properties
dialog.

Repair level
Specifies the level at which repaired parts will be returned to the echelon hierarchy. If a level is selected
then, during simulations, Availability Workbench will return spare parts that have been replaced to the
repair shop. Repaired parts will then either be discarded (if they are beyond repair) or returned to the
specified echelon level after a repair has been completed. They are assumed to be as good as new
once repaired. Specifying repair shop repairs allows the spares usage costs for new parts to be
reduced during the lifetime of the system.

Cost of repair
The Cost of repair is the cost of repairing a single part.

Mean time to repair


The Mean time to repair is the time taken to remove the part from the operating system, repair the item
and then return it to site or the depot.

Discard %
The Discard % is the percentage of parts that are non-repairable and are therefore discarded.

See Also

Overview
General Properties
Level 1 Properties
Level 2 Properties
Level 3 Properties
Notes
Optimization

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Spares - Notes
Spare notes may be accessed from the Notes tab of the Spare Properties dialog.

Up to 4 descriptive notes may be assigned to each spare. Users may customize note headers (the
labels used to identify a note category) using the Notes tab in the Project Options dialog.

See Also

Overview
General Properties
Level 1 Properties
Level 2 Properties
Level 3 Properties
Repair Shop
Optimization

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Common Resources and Data

Spares - Optimization - AvSim Module


Spare optimization properties may be accessed from the Optimization tab of the Spare Properties
dialog.

Level 1 Capacity Range for Optimization Runs


This range stipulates the minimum and maximum capacity values to try during spares holding
optimization runs for level1.

Level 2 Capacity Range for Optimization Runs


This range stipulates the minimum and maximum capacity values to try during spares holding
optimization runs for level 2.

Availability Workbench (AWB) will only compare capacity levels within the specified limits during
optimization.

See Also

Overview
General Properties
Level 1 Properties
Level 2 Properties
Level 3 Properties
Repair Shop
Notes

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BOMs
BOMs - Overview

A Bill of Materials (BOM) is simply a list of parts. The parts assigned to a BOM must first be defined in
the project Spares table. BOMs may be assigned to locations in the RCM module and blocks or gates in
the AvSim module. Their functionality is to assist users in selecting the required spares for a corrective
or planned maintenance task in the Resources tab of the Task dialog. For example, if a BOM is
assigned to a location in the RCM module, then tasks attached to causes appearing below the location
in the hierarchy will show spares associated with the BOM. If no BOM is associated with any of the
locations above a cause in the location hierarchy, then the program will show all spares currently
defined in the project when selecting resources for maintenance.

See Also

General Properties
Spares
Notes

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Common Resources and Data

BOMs - General Properties


BOM general properties may be accessed from the General tab of the Bom Properties dialog.

ID
A unique identifier for the BOM category of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Type
The type assigned to the BOM category. BOM types are used to organize BOMs into groups. If a project
contains many BOM categories then this will greatly assist in locating a BOM category in the tree control
structure.

Description
A description for the BOM category of no more than 255 characters.

See Also

Overview
Spares
Notes

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BOMs - Spares
BOM spares may be accessed from the Spares tab of the Bom Properties dialog.

Add
The user may associate spares with a BOM by selecting the Add button in the Spares Properties tab
of the Bom Properties dialog. On selecting the Add button the Assigned Resource Properties dialog
will appear allowing the user to specify the spare and quantity to be added to the list. The quantity
property determines the number of spares to be assigned to a maintenance task when selecting from
lists in the Resources tab of the Task Properties dialog.

Edit
Used to modify the assigned spare.

Delete
Used to delete the assigned spare.

See Also

Overview
General Properties
Notes

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Common Resources and Data

BOMs - Notes
BOM notes may be accessed from the Notes tab of the Bom Properties dialog.

Up to 4 descriptive notes may be assigned to each BOM category. Users may customize note headers
(the labels used to identify a note category) using the Notes tab in the Project Options dialog.

See Also

Overview
General Properties
Spares

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Using Types
Many of the objects that constitute an Availability Workbench project may be organized into types.
Object types are provided to allow the user to build an object hierarchy based on type IDs. There is no
limit to the number of levels in the type hierarchy. Organizing objects into types allows the user to easily
navigate to an individual object in the project tree control. AWB provides facilities for creating the
following object types:

 Effect Type
 Spare Type
 Labor Type
 Equipment Type
 Task Group Type
 Bom Type
 Weibull Set Type
 Failure Model Type
 Consequence Type
 Bitmap Type
 Global Variable Type

The example tree structure below shows two spare types ('Mechanical' and 'Assemblies') defined below
the Spares node in the tree control. Two spares are then defined below the 'Assemblies' type.

Each object type has the following properties.

ID
A unique identifier for the object type of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Parent
The parent assigned to the type. The parent is also a type.

Description
A description for the type of no more than 255 characters.

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Common Resources and Data

The Failure Distribution Wizard


The Failure Distribution Wizard allows users to define the appropriate distributions representing
equipment failures by answering a few simple questions relating to the failure characteristics of the
equipment. The Failure Distribution Wizard should generally be used when there is insufficient
historical data available and engineering experience needs to be employed. The Failure Distribution
Wizard may be accessed by selecting the Wizard button in the Failure tab of the Cause Properties
(RCMCost module) or Failure Model Properties (AvSim Module) dialogs.

The Failure Distribution Wizard allows the user to specify a series of parameters relating to the infant
mortality (wear-in), random failure (mid-life) and wear-out (ageing) phases for a failure. These three
phases define the well-known failure rate bath tub curve.

The first tab of the Failure Distribution Wizard dialog requests the user to specify whether the failure
exhibits random failure, wear-out and infant mortality characteristics. One or more of these categories
may be selected. Depending on the selections made new tabs will appear in the dialog. The new tabs
will relate to random failures, wear-out or infant mortality depending on which of these phases were
selected in the first tab. Each tab is described in turn below.

Random Failures
The user is requested to enter the failure rate for random failures.

Random failures exhibit constant failure rate characteristics. That is a random failure is just as likely to
occur in the first year of operation as it is in the second or third years of operation. Random failures
exhibit no infant mortality or wear-out characteristics. The failure rate value is simply the inverse of the
mean time to failure:

If the user has specified that there are no wear-out or infant mortality characteristics then the program
uses the exponential distribution and sets the failure rate to the rate specified by the user. Otherwise the
Failure Distribution Wizard sets the Weibull distribution parameters according to the following
expression:

where are the Weibull eta, beta and gamma parameters respectively.

Wear-out
The user is requested to enter the operating age at which wear-out begins and how long after wear-out
begins that the majority of components of this type will have failed. The Failure Distribution Wizard
assumes the rate at which the failure rate increases is linear. The Failure Distribution Wizard sets the
Weibull distribution parameters according to the following expressions.

= time after wear-out begins that the majority of components of this type are expected to have failed
due to wear-out

= operating age at which wear-out begins

Infant Mortality
The user is requested to enter the infant mortality period and the mean failure rate during that period.
The mean failure rate must be greater than the random failure rate if one was specified. The Failure
Distribution Wizard sets the Weibull distribution parameters according to the following expressions.

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where = difference between the infant mortality rate and random failure rate
= infant mortality period

Example
Consider the following example. Suppose that you consider that there is a 10% probability that a
random (non-age-related) failure of the component will occur during each year of operation. After two
years of operation, however, the component begins to age and from your previous experience most
components of this type will fail by the end of the third year of operation due to ageing. Using the Wizard
you should select the Random failure and Wear-out phases in the Characteristics tab. For the
random failure phase you would specify a failure rate of 0.1 failures per year in the Random Failures
tab. For the wear-out phase you would set At what operating age does wear-out begin to 2 years and
How long after the start of wear-out will the majority of components of this type have failed to 1
year in the Wear-out tab.

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Converting and Linking to Different Formats
Converting Location, RBD And Fault Tree Structures
Availability Workbench (AWB) provides facilities for automatically converting a RCMCost location
hierarchy structure to an AvSim RBD or fault tree structure and vice versa. In addition, users may also
convert an AvSim RBD structure to an AvSim fault tree structure.

Conversion facilities are accessed via the Tools, Convert pull-down menu.

During a conversion between the RCMCost and AvSim modules the program will automatically link
cause data to failure models. For example, after converting the RCMCost location hierarchy to RBD
format, the newly created block failure models will be linked to the associated cause in the location
hierarchy.

Links may be accessed via the Edit, Data Links pull-down menu option.

See Also

Linking Causes to Failure Models

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Linking Causes To Failure Models


Data links provide a method to link certain parameters in a RCMCost location hierarchy to the equivalent
parameters in an AvSim RBD or fault tree model. More specifically, data links connect data between
RCMCost causes and AvSim failure models.

Once a data link is created between a failure model and a cause any changes in matching parameters
(parameters that exist for the failure model and the cause) can be automatically updated via the link. For
example, if a new planned maintenance task is added to a failure model, this new task will also be
added to the linked cause when the data links are next updated.

Data links may be created and updated by selecting the Edit, Data Links pull-down menu option. Note
that when you convert between a RCMCost hierarchy and a RBD or fault tree structure using the AWB
conversion facilities, data links will automatically be created.

Data Links Dialog

Break selected link(s)


When selected the link or links highlighted in the table view will be broken.

Break all links


When selected all the links defined in the project will be broken.

Update data left to right


When selected the data for each RCM cause (right-hand side of the table view) will be updated with the
data from the linked AvSim failure model (left-hand side of table view).

Update data right to left


When clicked the data for each AvSim failure model (left-hand side of the table view) will be updated
with the data from the linked RCMCost cause (right-hand side of table view).

Failure model
In this drop-down menu the AvSim failure model to be linked is selected.

Cause
In this drop-down menu the RCMCost cause to be linked is selected.

Create link
When selected a link is created between the failure model and cause specified in the adjacent drop-
down menus.

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RCMCost Module
Building The Location Hierarchy
The location hierarchy represents the logical hierarchy of sub-systems and equipments within a system.
The location hierarchy is displayed in the RCMCost project tree in the left-hand window. The location
hierarchy is also used to identify equipment functions, functional failure modes and causes. Causes are
alternatively referred to as failure modes.

In the context of the RCMCost module of Availability Workbench (AWB) the term location is used to
represent both the location of sub-systems and equipments. Intermediate locations in the location
hierarchy (those which have other locations underneath them) represent sub-systems, whereas
locations that form the roots of the hierarchy diagram represent a distinct item of equipment such as a
pump or a valve, which are the smallest items of equipment considered from an operational point of
view. These equipment locations will have one or more functions, functional failures and causes. Each
cause will be associated with a maintenance policy.

Each distinct equipment location will have one or more functions. Usually an equipment will have a
primary function (such as stopping flow in the case of a valve) and one or more secondary functions
(such as containment) that may be safety related.

Each equipment function will have one or more functional failure. A functional failure may be defined as
the inability of the equipment to perform a function to the required standard. More than one functional
failure mode may be associated with the same function. For example total loss of function and partial
loss of function may be considered as 2 distinct functional failures.

Each functional failure may have one or more root cause. These causes are referred to as engineering
failure modes in some standards and constitute the actual physical causes of failure. Some examples of
causes (engineering failure modes) are:

 seal leakage
 piping cracked
 motor burnt out
 insulation breakdown
 corrosion

The system locations, equipment locations, functions, functional failures and causes are all defined and
connected in the location hierarchy which is displayed in the project tree when the RCMCost module is
selected.

Adding Locations
A location may be added to the hierarchy by selecting the Add, Resource, Location pull-down menu
option or by using the equivalent toolbar button. A location may also be added by copying and pasting or
dragging and dropping a location from elsewhere in the hierarchy or from a library.

The Location Properties dialog will be displayed allowing the following properties to be modified.

ID
A unique identifier for the location of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Description
A description for the location of no more than 255 characters.

Quantity
The quantity of the equipment associated with the location. Quantity values will affect simulated project
costs and availability values.

Bom
The Bom with which the location is associated.

Location type

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Users may specify a location type for the location. Location types can be assigned different symbols so
the different location types may be easily identified in the location hierarchy.

Equipment type
The type or class of equipment associated with the location. Equipment types will normally only be
assigned at the lowest level in the location hierarchy. In RCMCost equipment types are used to identify
a class of equipment tool used for repair (e.g. cranes) or a class of operating or standby equipment
contained within the location hierarchy (e.g. centrifugal pumps). Identifying equipment types in the
location hierarchy is often useful when uploading data to ERP systems using one of the ERP portals.

Criticality ranking
The criticality ranking assigned to the location.

Notes Fields
Each notes field allows the user to enter up to 2000 characters of text. Note field headers are defined by
the user in the Project Options dialog.

Adding Functions
A function may be added to the hierarchy by selecting the Add, Resource, Function pull-down menu
option or by using the equivalent toolbar button. A function may also be added by copying and pasting
or dragging and dropping a function from elsewhere in the hierarchy or from a library.

The Function Properties dialog will be displayed allowing the following properties to be modified.

ID
A unique identifier for the function of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Description
A description for the function of no more than 255 characters.

Adding Functional Failures


A functional failure may be added to the hierarchy by selecting the Add, Resource, Functional Failure
pull-down menu option or by using the equivalent toolbar button. A functional failure may also be added
by copying and pasting or dragging and dropping a functional failure from elsewhere in the hierarchy or
from a library.

The Functional Failure Properties dialog will be displayed allowing the following properties to be
modified.

ID
A unique identifier for the functional failure of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Description
A description for the functional failure of no more than 255 characters.

Adding Causes
A cause may be added to the hierarchy by selecting the Add, Resource, Cause pull-down menu option
or by using the equivalent toolbar button. A cause may also be added by copying and pasting or
dragging and dropping a cause from elsewhere in the hierarchy or from a library.

For further information regarding causes see the section entitled Assigning Causes.

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RCMCost Module

Location Types
Location types are used to identify different types of location in the location hierarchy diagram. The
location hierarchy diagram is part of the tree control displayed in the left-hand window. Location types
may be assigned to a location in the Location Properties dialog.

ID
A unique identifier for the location type of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Description
A description for the location type of no more than 255 characters.

Image
The image to display in the tree control for locations associated with the location type.

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Assigning Criticality Rankings


Criticality Rankings - Overview
Criticality rankings are used to grade locations and equipments according to their associated costs and
safety, operational and environmental impact. Ranking locations and equipments in this way allows
users to prioritize the RCM process.

Criticality rankings may be assigned manually to locations and equipments or they may be assigned
automatically based on the results of a system simulation. They may also be downloaded from the
user's ERP system using one of the ERP Portals (using direct criticality assignments in the ERP system
or by analyzing maintenance notifications in the ERP system). Ideally the RCM process will include the
following steps:

Download location, equipment and resource data from the ERP system
Analyze maintenance work order data in the ERP system to identify critical equipments
Refine the RCMCost system model and perform optimization studies on critical equipments
Upload new maintenance plans
Re-assign criticality rankings based on RCMCost simulations where appropriate

Criticality rankings must be created in a project before assigning them to locations. You can create them
manually or assign default rankings from the Criticality Rankings dialog. This dialog is revealed when
the Edit, Criticality Rankings pull-down menu option is selected in the RCMCost module. Alternatively,
you can download existing criticality rankings from your ERP system using one of the ERP portals.

Criticality rankings may then be assigned to locations at any level from within the Location Properties
dialog. They may also be assigned automatically from within one of the ERP portals or after a full
system simulation has been performed (if the Automatically assign criticality rankings option is set
on in the Simulation tab of the Project Options dialog).

See Also

Properties

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RCMCost Module

Criticality Rankings - Properties


Criticality rankings may be created from the Criticality Rankings dialog. Their properties may also be
changed from within this dialog. The Criticality Rankings dialog is revealed when the Edit, Criticality
Rankings pull-down menu option is selected in the RCMCost module. The Criticality Rankings dialog
is described below.

New criticality rankings may be added to a project by selecting the Add New Ranking button. The Add
Defaults button will automatically create a default set of rankings. Rankings are removed from a project
by selecting the Delete Selected Ranking(s) button. Rankings should be ordered with the most severe
ranking in the first row of the grid and the least severe ranking on the last row of the grid. The order of
criticality rankings may be changed by selecting a single ranking and then selecting the Move Up or
Move Down buttons.

The properties of existing criticality rankings may be changed by selecting the appropriate grid cell and
typing the new property value. A highlight font may be assigned to each ranking. The highlight font will
be used to identify the criticality of locations in the project tree control. To modify a highlight font select
the appropriate criticality ranking in the grid and then select the Change Highlight Font button. To
revert to the default font select the Set Font to Default button.

ID and Description Properties


Criticality rankings are uniquely identified by their ID. A description should also be specified for each
ranking.

AWB Assignment Criteria


The AWB assignment criteria properties are used to determine which criticality ranking to automatically
assign to a location after a system simulation has been performed. Criticality rankings will only be
automatically assigned in this way if the Automatically assign criticality rankings option is set on in
the Simulation tab of the Project Options dialog. The cost and criticality values entered in the grid
control are lower-bound values that determine the ranking for an individual equipment. If any of these
values are met or exceeded by an equipment then it will be assigned that ranking. The values are
checked starting with the first row of the grid. The first row of the grid should therefore represent the
most severe criticality ranking and subsequent rows should have cost and severity values that decrease
from one row to the next.

ERP Assignment Criteria


The AWB assignment criteria properties are used to determine which criticality ranking to automatically
assign to a location when analyzing maintenance work order data from within an ERP portal. A ranking
will be assigned to an equipment if the effect specified matches the ID of an effect attached to an
equipment in the ERP system. The other values entered in the grid control are lower-bound values that
determine the ranking for an individual equipment. If any of these values are met or exceeded by an
equipment in the ERP system then it will be assigned that ranking int the AWB project. The values are
checked starting with the first row of the grid. The first row of the grid should therefore represent the
most severe criticality ranking and subsequent rows should have values that decrease from one row to
the next.

See Also

Overview

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Assigning Causes
Causes - Overview
The properties of each cause (a cause is often referred to as the failure mode of an equipment) define
the likelihood that the cause will occur and the resources and costs associated with maintaining the
equipment in relation to the cause. Cause properties also indicate the effects associated with a
functional failure when initiated by the specified cause.

Typical examples of causes of an equipment failure might be ‘seal leakage’, ‘worn brushes’, and ‘valve
stuck open’.

Causes are attached to functional failures in the location hierarchy. To assign a cause select a
functional failure symbol from the tree control followed by selection of the Add, Resource, Cause pull-
down menu option or equivalent toolbar option. Alternatively, right click on a functional failure in the tree
control and select Add Cause from the pop-up menu. A dialog will appear allowing the user to edit the
cause properties. Note that the program will only allow causes to be created underneath functional
failure symbols in the location hierarchy of the project tree control.

See Also

General Properties
Failure
Maintenance
Alarm
Commission
Redesign
Notes
Strategy

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RCMCost Module

Causes - General Properties


Cause general properties may be accessed from the General tab of the Cause Properties dialog.

ID
A unique identifier for the cause of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Description
A description for the cause of no more than 255 characters.

Detection method
This field describes the method used to detect the failure. Up to 2000 characters of text are allowed.

Compensating provisions
This field describes the compensating provisions for the failure. Up to 2000 characters of text are
allowed.

Remarks
This is a descriptive field of up to 2000 characters.

Highlight text
Setting the Highlight text check box will result in the highlight font being used for the text appearing
alongside the cause in the location hierarchy in the tree control. The highlight font may be set in the
Fonts tab of the Application Options dialog.

See Also

Overview
Failure
Maintenance
Alarm
Commission
Redesign
Notes
Strategy

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Causes - Failure
Cause failure properties may be accessed from the Failure tab of the Cause Properties dialog.

Weibull set
Users may link a failure model to a Weibull set created in the Weibull Analysis Module of Availability
Workbench (AWB). A cause that is linked to a Weibull set will obtain the distribution type and
parameters directly from the Weibull set. This allows users to analyze historical failure data and directly
connect this data to the cause failure model. As historical data is updated, AWB will automatically
update the distribution parameters for the associated causes.

Distribution
The Distribution combo-box specifies the failure distribution to be associated with the cause. Options
are

 Exponential
 Weibull
 Bi-Weibull
 Tri-Weibull
 Fixed
 Lognormal
 Normal
 Buffer [should not be used in RCMCost module – included for AvSim module compatibility only]
 Phased Bi-Weibull
 Phased Tri-Weibull

These distributions are used in the Monte Carlo simulation to sample times to failure of the component.

The exponential distribution represents the case where the failure rate is constant over time. The user
inputs the inverse of the failure rate in the Mean time to failure text box. The cumulative failure
distribution at time t is given by

where  = constant failure rate

The Weibull options relate to the number of three-parameter Weibull distributions to be used to sample
the time to failure of the component. The user can choose to have one, two or three distributions that
are then combined to represent the three failure modes in the well-known bathtub curve for the failure
rate of a component. The first mode represents early failures during the 'burn-in' period, the second
mode is the 'useful-life' period when the failures are random and the final mode is the 'wear-out' mode
for which the failure rate rises. In the RCMCost module the user has the option of choosing to model
one, two or three of the bathtub periods. The user can input the values for the three-parameter Weibull
distribution for the chosen modes. The cumulative failure distribution at time t for the three-parameter
Weibull distribution is given by

where  = characteristic life parameter (Eta in the dialog)


 = shape parameter (Beta in the dialog)
 = location parameter (Gamma in the dialog)

The fixed distribution is intended for use when the time to failure is definitely known. The user is required
to enter a fixed time to failure if this distribution is selected.

If the user chooses the lognormal or normal distributions then the user will be expected to enter a mean
time to failure and standard deviation.

The buffer distribution model is included for data transfer compatibility with the AvSim module. It should
not be used in the RCMCost module.

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RCMCost Module

For the exponential, lognormal and normal distributions the user must supply the value of the mean time
to failure.

Distribution Wizard Button


Selection of the Distribution Wizard Button will reveal the Failure Distribution Wizard dialog.

Distribution Wizard Button :

Standard deviation
If either a lognormal or normal distribution is selected then the standard deviation must be entered.

Eta, Beta and Gamma


The characteristic lifetime (eta), shape (beta) and the time shift (gamma) parameters need to be entered
if a Weibull distribution has been chosen for the task.

Non-operating failure apportionment (%)


The non-operating failure apportionment indicates how the failure rates of components associated with
the failure model will be adjusted when they are not operational. An apportionment value of 50%
indicates that the failure rate should be halved or mean time to failure doubled when it is non-
operational. The Operating time factor parameter indicates the fraction of the system lifetime during
which the component is operational.

Non-operating ageing apportionment (%)


The non-operating ageing apportionment indicates how the age of components associated with the
failure model will be adjusted when they are not operational. An apportionment value of 50% indicates
that the component ages at only half the normal rate when it is non-operational. The Operating time
factor parameter indicates the fraction of the system lifetime during which the component is operational.

Initial age
The initial age indicates the age of the equipment at the beginning of the simulation life cycle. If the
RCMCost project represents a system that is currently in operation, then items which show ageing
characteristics should have their initial age (at the beginning of the simulation life cycle) specified.

Operating time factor


The operating time factor indicates the fraction of the system lifetime during which the component is
operational. Specified failure effects will only be applicable when the component is operational. If the
failure mode will always result in the specified effects then this factor should be set to 1. If the system
operates in different phases, and the effects of failure are only applicable during certain phases then this
value should indicate the ratio of applicable phase time lengths to the total lifetime:

where 0 = operating time factor


A = sum of applicable phase time lengths
L = system lifetime

Dormant failure
If the Dormant failure check box is selected, failed equipments will not be repaired until after an
inspection or planned maintenance task takes place. This flag should be set for standby components
that are only required to operate on demand and whose failures remain hidden until an inspection takes
place.

Demand frequency

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This parameter is only used if the Dormant failure check box is selected. Hidden failures will only
produce the specified effects when a demand is placed upon the associated component. In order to
determine the frequency of these effects the program needs to know the demand frequency.

See Also

Overview
General Properties
Maintenance
Alarm
Commission
Redesign
Notes
Strategy

134
RCMCost Module

Causes - Maintenance
Cause maintenance properties may be accessed from the Maintenance tab of the Cause Properties
dialog.

The maintenance tasks assigned to a cause are categorized into one of three possible types –
corrective tasks, planned maintenance tasks and inspection tasks.

Corrective tasks are performed when a random failure takes place or when an inspection reveals a
hidden failure.

Planned maintenance tasks may be performed at fixed intervals or when the age of an equipment
reaches a given value. Planned maintenance may involve the replacement of ageing equipment or
minor tasks such as lubrication. Planned maintenance may also be performed when an inspection
predicts that a failure is about to occur (predictive maintenance).

Inspection tasks may be performed at fixed intervals or when the age of an equipment reaches a given
value. Inspection tasks are performed to detect an imminent failure (and hence allow a planned
maintenance task to be scheduled to prevent the failure) or to detect a dormant (hidden) failure. Hidden
failures are normally associated with standby equipment.

Copying Tasks from a Task Library


You may copy tasks from an attached library by selecting the Copy Task From Library button. If you
wish to copy a task from elsewhere in the current project select the Use current project option and then
select the Copy Task From Project button. If you prefer to filter tasks using the task group hierarchy
then first select the Use task group hierarchy button. If you have multiple libraries attached you will
also need to select the appropriate library from the Task library combo-box.

For more information on how to create task libraries see the Task Library section.

See Also

Overview
General Properties
Failure
Alarm
Commission
Redesign
Notes
Strategy

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Causes - Alarm
Cause alarm properties may be accessed from the Alarm tab of the Cause Properties dialog.

Monitoring equipment may be installed to automatically indicate a failure is about to occur without
relying on an inspection by a maintenance crew.

Install condition alarm


Indicates that a condition alarm has been installed

P-F curve
The P-F curve, in combination with the P-F interval and detection probability, determines whether the
condition alarm will predict a future failure, and if so, when. The P-F curve determines the warning time
provided by the alarm before the actual failure. The probability density function for the detection warning
time is given by:

Exponential Distribution:

Linear Distribution:

for

for

Step Distribution:

for

for

P-F interval
The P-F interval for the alarm. The P-F interval provides a measure of the warning time given by the
alarm for a future random failure of the component.

Detection probability
Indicates the probability that the alarm will detect the failure.

Capital cost
The capital cost of the alarm for the system lifetime.

Cost rate
The cost rate associated with the alarm over the system lifetime.

Description
A description of the alarm of up to 2000 characters may be entered.

SCADA tag ID
A SCADA tag identifier of up to 40 alpha-numeric characters.

See Also

Overview

136
RCMCost Module

General Properties
Failure
Maintenance
Commission
Redesign
Notes
Strategy

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Causes - Commission
Cause commission properties may be accessed from the Commission tab of the Cause Properties
dialog.

Commissioning a component eliminates wear-in failures and is appropriate where the Weibull
distribution indicates high failure rates during the early life of a component. Commissioning effectively
sets the age of the component to the commissioning interval when it is installed in the system.

Commission
Indicates that commissioning will be performed.

Period
Indicates the length of the commissioning interval.

Cost per commission


The cost every time a component is commissioned.

Cost rate
The cost rate associated with the commissioning interval.

Description
A description of the commissioning details of up to 2000 characters may be entered.

See Also

Overview
General Properties
Failure
Maintenance
Alarm
Redesign
Notes
Strategy

138
RCMCost Module

Causes - Redesign
Cause redesign properties may be accessed from the Redesign tab of the Cause Properties dialog.

Redesign
Indicates that redesign is required.

Redesign Capital Cost


The capital cost of redesign.

Cost Rate
The cost rate associated with redesign over the system lifetime.

Description
A description of the redesign details of up to 2000 characters may be entered.

See Also

Overview
General Properties
Failure
Maintenance
Alarm
Commission
Notes
Strategy

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Causes - Notes
Cause notes may be accessed from the Notes tab of the Cause Properties dialog.

Each notes field allows the user to enter up to 2000 characters of text. Users may customize note
headers (the labels used to identify a note category) using the Notes tab in the Project Options dialog.

See Also

Overview
General Properties
Failure
Maintenance
Alarm
Commission
Redesign
Strategy

140
RCMCost Module

Causes - Strategy
Cause strategy properties may be accessed from the Strategy tab of the Cause Properties dialog.

The Strategy tab is used to record maintenance strategies and design decisions. Before these
decisions are made you may obtain advisory information by selecting the Evaluate button.

The evaluate button:

On selecting this button Availability Workbench will perform a lifetime simulation to determine the cost,
safety, operational and environmental consequences directly associated with the cause. These costs
and consequences take into account the current strategy specified by the Enabled check boxes and
failure and maintenance parameters associated with the cause. You may therefore experiment with
various options to determine the associated costs and consequences.

The results of a simulation are displayed as

 Cost
 Cost Benefit Ratio (CBR)
 Safety Criticality
 Safety Benefit Ratio (SBR)
 Operational Criticality
 Operational Benefit Ratio (OBR)
 Environmental Criticality
 Environmental Benefit Ratio (EBR)
 Failure down time
 Number Lifetime Failures
 PM down time
 Number Lifetime PMs
 Inspection down time
 Number Lifetime Inspections
 Statistical Error in TDT
 Statistical Error in Cost
 Mean Unavailability
 Outage Frequency

Criticality values represent the severity of the effects associated with the cause combined with its
frequency of occurrence. The cost, safety, environmental and operational benefit ratios are defined as
follows:

A cost benefit ratio less than 1 indicates that the tasks/alarms specified are worthwhile from a cost point
of view.

A safety benefit ratio less than 1 indicates that the tasks/alarms specified are worthwhile from a safety
point of view.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

An operational benefit ratio less than 1 indicates that the tasks/alarms specified are worthwhile from an
operational point of view.

An environmental benefit ratio less than 1 indicates that the tasks/alarms specified are worthwhile from
an environmental point of view.

You may abort a simulation at any time by selecting the Stop button.

The Stop button:

See Also

Overview
General Properties
Failure
Maintenance
Alarm
Commission
Redesign
Notes

142
RCMCost Module

Assigning Effects
Effects - Overview
In RCM terminology an effect specifies the consequences of a failure. Typical examples of effects might
be

 50% loss of production


 Hazardous material released into the atmosphere
 Loss of mission
 Fire starts

Effects are assigned to the causes (failure modes) defined in an RCMCost project. Some effects
(usually hazardous effects) will require more than one failure to occur before the effect will take place as
protective systems will usually be provided in the system design. Where this is the case redundancy
factors may be associated with the effect when assigning the effect to a cause.

One of the powerful features of the RCMCost module is its ability to evaluate the collective effects of a
cause when providing advisory information to the user. These effects may have cost, safety,
environmental or operational consequences and the same effect may be repeated for many of the
different causes defined in the location hierarchy diagram.

Effects may be assigned within the Cause Properties dialog (Effects tab). The Cause Properties
dialog is revealed when adding a new cause to the location hierarchy or by selecting the Edit,
Properties pull-down menu option for an existing cause. This dialog contains a list of effects already
assigned to the cause. Effects may be assigned by selecting the Add button. A list of available effects
will be revealed in a second dialog. These effects may be selected and assigned to the cause.

See Also

Effects Properties
Assigning Effects to Causes

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Effects Properties
Effect properties may be accessed from the Effect Properties dialog.

ID
A unique identifier for the effect of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Type
The type assigned to the effect. Effect types are used to organize effects into groups. If a project
contains many effects then this will greatly assist in locating an effect in the tree control structure.

Description
A text description of up to 255 characters

Cost per occurrence


The cost per occurrence indicates the fixed cost incurred every time the effect takes place.

Safety severity per occurrence


The safety severity per occurrence is represented by a positive number that indicates the relative
severity weighting of different effects. A value of zero may be entered to indicate that the effect has no
safety consequences.

Operational severity per occurrence


The operational severity per occurrence is represented by a positive number that indicates the relative
severity weighting of different effects. A value of zero may be entered to indicate that the effect has no
operational consequences.

Operational consequences do not include direct cost consequences which are covered by the cost rate
and cost per occurrence parameters but may be used to represent product quality consequences in a
manufacturing plant or loss of a weapons system on a military aircraft or passenger discomfort due to
the unavailability of an air-conditioning system etc.

Environmental severity per occurrence


The environmental severity per occurrence is represented by a positive number that indicates the
relative severity weighting of different effects. A value of zero may be entered to indicate that the effect
has no environmental consequences.

Cost rate
The cost rate indicates the estimated cost per unit time due to the occurrence of the effect.

Safety severity rate


The safety severity rate is represented by a positive number that indicates the relative severity weighting
of different effects per unit time. A value of zero may be entered to indicate that the effect has no safety
consequences.

Operational severity rate


The operational severity rate is represented by a positive number that indicates the relative severity
weighting of different effects per unit time. A value of zero may be entered to indicate that the effect has
no operational consequences.

Operational consequences do not include direct cost consequences which are covered by the cost rate
and cost per occurrence parameters but may be used to represent product quality consequences in a
manufacturing plant or loss of a weapons system on a military aircraft or passenger discomfort due to
the unavailability of an air-conditioning system etc.

Environmental severity rate

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RCMCost Module

The environmental severity rate is represented by a positive number that indicates the relative severity
weighting of different effects per unit time. A value of zero may be entered to indicate that the effect has
no environmental consequences.

Notes Fields
Each notes field allows the user to enter up to 2000 characters of text. Note field headers are defined by
the user in the Project Options dialog.

See Also

Overview
Assigning Effects to Causes

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Assigning Effects To Causes


Effects are assigned to causes by selecting the Add button in the Effects tab of the Cause Properties
dialog. The Assigned Effect Properties dialog will be revealed allowing an existing effect to be chosen.
Alternatively, a new effect can be created using the New button. The dialog also allows the user to
specify redundancy factors if the effect only takes place if other events occur (e.g. protective system
failures). Redundancy factors are usually required when defining safety-related or environmental effects.
Users may also specify whether an effect applies to failures, planned maintenance and inspections.

Applies to failures
Select this check-box if the effect will apply when a failure takes place.

Applies to planned maintenance


Select this check-box if the effect will apply when a planned maintenance task takes place.

Applies to inspections
Select this check-box if the effect will apply when an inspection task takes place.

Redundancy factor
One of the restrictions of using standard FMECA techniques to predict the frequency and duration of
system effects is the difficulty in modelling the effects of redundancy. Other techniques, such as RBD
and fault tree analysis, are more adapted to analyzing redundancy and the associated complications
such as common cause failures. However, the RCMCost module has a powerful feature that allows the
effects of redundancy to be modelled via the use of redundancy factors.

When assigning effects to a cause the RCMCost module allows the user to specify a redundancy factor
for each effect. The redundancy factor indicates whether a cause will produce the assigned effect on its
own or whether other concurrent failures will need to occur for the effect to take place. A redundancy
factor often needs to be determined if the effect is a hazardous effect as there will almost certainly be
protective systems in place to mitigate against failures which would lead to a hazard.

If the cause will produce the assigned effect without other concurrent failures taking place then the
default value of 1 should be assigned to the redundancy factor. If the cause will only produce the
assigned effect when other concurrent failures occur (e.g. a protective component is unavailable) then a
factor of between 0 and 1 should be applied.

A redundancy factor represents the probability that the cause will produce the assigned effect. For
example, suppose we were analyzing the failure cause ‘pump failure’ in a production system. This
failure might lead to a system outage. There may be standby pumps available to perform the same
function as the failed pump. Only if the standby pumps were to fail would there be a system outage. In
such a case the unavailability redundancy factor should be set to the estimated probability that the
standby pumps would not work on demand. So, if the probability of failure of the standby pumps was
estimated to be 0.0001, the redundancy factor should be set to 0.0001.

Redundancy factor wizard


If there is more than one standby component in place, then the redundancy factor must represent the
probability that all the standby components fail to mitigate against the failure. The RCMCost module
provides a Redundancy Factor Wizard for automatically determining the redundancy factors to be
assigned to an effect in such circumstances. The Redundancy Factor Wizard requires the user to enter
the following parameters:

 Number of additional components in parallel


 Number required to be operating
 Fractional down-time of each additional component

Not that the Redundancy Factor Wizard only provides the redundancy factor for components with the
same failure probability.

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RCMCost Module

To illustrate the use of the Redundancy Factor Wizard consider the example sub-system illustrated by
the block diagram above. The sub-system consists of three identical pumps. For the sub-system to be
available two out of the three pumps must be working. Each pump fails on average every 10000 hours
and remains out of service for 10 hours. The fractional down-time for each pump is therefore 10/10000 =
0.001. Therefore the Number of additional components in parallel value should be set to 2, the
Number required to be operating should be set to 1 (only one of the additional pumps needs to be
working) and the Fractional down-time of each additional component should be set to 0.001.

See Also

Overview
Effects Properties

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Performing a Simulation
Performing a Simulation - Overview
To obtain system profiles relating to all the causes in the RCMCost location hierarchy you will first need
to perform a system simulation run. To start a system simulation run select the Simulation, Start pull-
down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. As the simulation run progresses Availability Workbench
will display a progress bar at the bottom of the main window. You may terminate a simulation run
prematurely by selecting the Simulation, Stop pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. In
order to view the system results, however, you must complete all the simulations for all the causes in
the location hierarchy.

Once a system simulation is completed you may view cost, labor, equipment, spare and effect profiles
by selecting the Plot option in the Right window mode selector list above the right-hand window

A summary of life cycle costs and other parameters may be viewed by selecting the Simulation,
Results Summary pull-down menu option.

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RCMCost Module

Model Integrity Validation


Before performing a system simulation run in the RCMCost module, Availability Workbench (AWB) will
validate data to ensure that the model data specified by the user is valid.

If any fatal errors are encountered then AWB will display the Model Integrity Verification dialog which
lists the errors. Objects directly associated with an error may be edited by selecting the error message in
the list and then selecting the Edit button.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Simulation Results
Simulation Results - Life Costs
Life costs are available for the RCMCost module once a system simulation has been completed. Life
costs are determined from all the causes in the location hierarchy.

To view a summary of life costs select the Simulation, Results Summary pull-down menu option or
equivalent toolbar button. The Results Summary dialog will be displayed. Select the Life Costs tab
from within this dialog.

If net present value (NPV) cost calculations have been applied during the simulation (users may request
a NPV calculation in the NPV tab of the Project Options dialog) then NPV life cost values will be
displayed.

By default life cost totals are displayed in the Results Summary dialog. To obtain more detailed cost
information select the Detailed life costs check-box.

Detailed life costs also include calculated criticality values summated over all causes. Criticality values
represent the severity of the effects associated with the cause combined with its frequency of
occurrence.

Availability Workbench (AWB) provides the following summary lifetime cost parameters:

 Total labor costs


 Total corrective labor costs
 Total planned labor costs
 Total inspection labor costs
 Total equipment costs
 Total corrective equipment costs
 Total planned equipment costs
 Total inspection equipment costs
 Total spare purchase costs
 Corrective spare purchase costs
 Planned spare purchase costs
 Spare storage costs
 Total effect costs
 Corrective effect costs
 Planned effect costs
 Inspection effect costs
 Alarm costs
 Total operational costs
 Corrective operational costs
 Planned operational costs
 Inspection operational costs
 Commission costs
 Redesign costs
 Total costs
 Safety criticality
 Operational criticality
 Environmental criticality
 Spares volume level 1
 Spares volume level 2
 Spares weight level 1
 Spares weight level 2

Parameters at the first level above appear in the life costs summary regardless of whether the Detailed
life costs box is checked. Those listed at the second level only appear when the box is checked.

Each of the above parameters are mean values calculated from repeated lifetime simulations.

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RCMCost Module

Labor and equipment costs are determined from the call-out cost and cost rate parameters specified by
the user for each labor category and equipment type.

Spares purchase costs are determined by applying the capital cost of each spare type to the number of
spares required during corrective and planned maintenance tasks. In addition, this will include the initial
purchase cost of the spares held in storage if the Include initial spare purchase costs check-box is
selected in the Project Options dialog (Spares tab).

Spares storage costs are determined by applying the storage costs of spares to the storage capacity
values entered by the user at site and at depot.

Operational costs are determined by applying the operational costs specified by the user for
maintenance tasks to the number of tasks performed during the simulation.

Effect costs are computed by summating the costs originating from all effects. Effects costs are
determined from the following expressions:

where C = effect cost over lifetime


CR = effect cost rate
C0 = effect cost per occurrence
T = total effect duration over lifetime
N = expected number of occurrences for effect over the lifetime

Total costs are a simple summation of all the costs described above.

Spares volumes and weights represent the total volume and weight of all spares stored at the
appropriate echelon level.

See Also

Performing a Simulation - Overview

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Simulation Results - Causes


Individual cause prediction data is available once a system simulation has been completed. This data
includes the down time due to corrective and scheduled maintenance as well as cost contributions due
to the use of labor, equipment and spares. Benefit ratios are also displayed indicating the effectiveness
of the assigned maintenance strategy.

To view a summary of predicted cause data select the Simulation, Results Summary pull-down menu
option or equivalent toolbar button. The Results Summary dialog will be displayed. Select the Causes
tab from within this dialog. Then select one of the causes in the top list to view results for that cause.

Definitions for each of the parameters are given below.

Mean unavailability
The mean unavailability is defined as the expected fractional time the component will be out-of-service
over its lifetime (the total time it is out-of-service divided by the total system lifetime).

Number of failures
This is the total number of failures of the component over the system lifetime.

Number of PMs
This is the total number of planned maintenance tasks performed on the component over the system
lifetime.

Number of inspections
This is the total number of inspection tasks performed on the component over the system lifetime.

Total failure down time


This is the total down time of the component due to failures.

Total PM down time


The total PM down time for a component is defined as the portion of the total down time for that
component caused by planned maintenance actions.

Total inspection down time


The total inspection down time for a component is defined as the portion of the total down time for that
component caused by inspection tasks.

Cost benefit ratio


The cost benefit ratio is defined as

A cost benefit ratio less than 1 indicates that the tasks/alarms specified for the cause are worthwhile
from a cost point of view.

Safety criticality
Safety and other criticality values are determined from the frequency and duration of the effects of the
cause. They are calculated from the expression below.

where
= criticality
=severity rate
= severity per occurrence

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= mean duration of effect over lifetime


= number of effect occurrences over lifetime

Safety benefit ratio


The safety benefit ratio is defined as

A safety benefit ratio less than 1 indicates that the tasks/alarms specified are worthwhile from a safety
point of view.

Operational criticality
Operational and other criticality values are determined from the frequency and duration of the effects of
the cause. See the expression described above for Safety criticality.

Operational benefit ratio


The operational benefit ratio is defined as

An operational benefit ratio less than 1 indicates that the tasks/alarms specified are worthwhile from an
operational point of view.

Environmental criticality
Environmental and other criticality values are determined from the frequency and duration of the effects
of the cause. See the expression described above for Safety criticality.

Environmental benefit ratio


The environmental benefit ratio is defined as

An environmental benefit ratio less than 1 indicates that the tasks/alarms specified are worthwhile from
an environmental point of view.

Spare cost contribution


The contribution to spare costs from corrective and scheduled maintenance associated with the cause.

Labor cost contribution


The contribution to labor costs due to corrective and scheduled maintenance tasks associated with the
cause.

Equipment cost contribution


The contribution to equipment costs due to corrective and scheduled maintenance tasks associated with
the cause.

Operational cost contribution


The contribution to operational costs due to corrective and scheduled maintenance tasks associated
with the cause.

Alarm cost contribution


The contribution to alarm costs due to the alarm assigned to the cause.

Commission cost contribution

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The contribution to commissioning costs due to commissioning activities associated with the cause.

Redesign cost contribution


The contribution to redesign costs due to redesign activities associated with the cause.

Effect cost contribution


The contribution to costs due to the effects associated with the cause.

Total cost contribution


The total contribution to costs due to the cause.

See Also

Performing a Simulation - Overview

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RCMCost Module

Simulation Results - Effects


Individual effect prediction data is available once a system simulation has been completed. This data
includes the duration of the effect due to corrective and scheduled maintenance associated with all the
causes as well as cost data. Criticality values are also displayed. Criticality values represent the severity
of the effect combined with its frequency of occurrence.

To view a summary of predicted effect data select the Simulation, Results Summary pull-down menu
option or equivalent toolbar button. The Results Summary dialog will be displayed. Select the Effects
tab from within this dialog. Then select one of the effects in the list to view results for that effect.

Definitions for each of the effect parameters are given below.

Duration due to corrective tasks


This is the effect duration over the lifetime due to corrective task outages.

Duration due to planned tasks


This is the effect duration over the lifetime due to planned task outages.

Duration due to inspection tasks


This is the effect duration over the lifetime due to inspection task outages.

Occurrences due to corrective tasks


This is the number of occurrences due to corrective task outages.

Occurrences due to planned tasks


This is the number of occurrences due to planned task outages.

Occurrences due to inspection tasks


This is the number of occurrences due to inspection task outages.

Total cost
The total cost over the lifetime for effects is given by:

where C = effect cost over the lifetime


CR = effect cost rate
C0 = effect cost per occurrence
= effect duration over the lifetime
= number of occurrences of the effect over the lifetime

Criticality

where X = effect criticality over the lifetime


SR = effect severity rate
S0 = effect severity per occurrence
= effect duration over the lifetime
= number of occurrences of the effect over the lifetime

The above expression applies to safety, operational and environmental criticality values.

See Also

Performing a Simulation - Overview

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Simulation Results - Spares


Individual spare prediction data is available once a system simulation has been completed. This data
includes usage numbers due to corrective and planned maintenance as well as cost data.

To view a summary of predicted spare data select the Simulation, Results Summary pull-down menu
option or equivalent toolbar button. The Results Summary dialog will be displayed. Select the Spares
tab from within this dialog. Selection of a spare part in the list will result in the appropriate summary
information being displayed.

Definitions for each of the spare parameters are given below.

Total number used


The mean number of the spare used during the lifetime of the system.

Number used for corrective tasks


The mean number of the spare used for corrective maintenance tasks during the lifetime of the system.

Number used for planned tasks


The mean number of the spare used for planned maintenance tasks during the lifetime of the system.

Total cost
This is the total cost incurred by the system due to spare usage and storage.

Total purchase cost


The mean capital purchase cost of the spare during the lifetime of the system. This value is obtained by
multiplying the mean number used by the capital cost of the spare part. In addition, this will include the
initial purchase cost of the spares held in storage if the Include initial spare purchase costs check-
box is selected in the Project Options dialog (Spares tab).

Corrective purchase cost


The mean capital purchase cost of the spare for corrective maintenance tasks during the lifetime of the
system. This value is obtained by multiplying the mean number used for corrective tasks by the capital
cost of the spare part. In addition, this will include the initial purchase cost of the spares held in storage
if the Include initial spare purchase costs check-box is selected in the Project Options dialog
(Spares tab).

Planned purchase cost


The mean capital purchase cost of the spare for planned maintenance tasks during the lifetime of the
system. This value is obtained by multiplying the mean number used for planned tasks by the capital
cost of the spare part.

Storage cost
The cost of storing the spare at echelon levels 1 and 2 during the lifetime of the system.

See Also

Performing a Simulation - Overview

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RCMCost Module

Simulation Results - Labor


Individual labor category prediction data is available once a system simulation has been completed. This
data includes the active time due to corrective and scheduled maintenance as well as labor costs. The
number of tasks performed using the labor category over the system lifetime is also predicted.

To view a summary of predicted labor data select the Simulation, Results Summary pull-down menu
option or equivalent toolbar button. The Results Summary dialog will be displayed. Select the Labor
tab from within this dialog. Selection of a labor category in the list will result in the appropriate summary
information being displayed.

Definitions for each of the labor parameters are given below.

Total active time


The estimated total time the labor category will be active during the system lifetime.

Corrective active time


The estimated time the labor category will be active for corrective maintenance tasks during the system
lifetime.

Planned active time


The estimated time the labor category will be active for planned maintenance tasks during the system
lifetime.

Inspection active time


The estimated time the labor category will be active for inspection maintenance tasks during the system
lifetime.

Total no of tasks
The estimated number of tasks for which the labor category is called out over the system lifetime.

No of corrective tasks
The estimated number of corrective tasks for which the labor category is called out over the system
lifetime.

No of planned tasks
The estimated number of planned tasks for which the labor category is called out over the system
lifetime.

No of inspection tasks
The estimated number of inspection tasks for which the labor category is called out over the system
lifetime.

Total cost
The total cost associated with calling out the selected labor category over the system lifetime.

Corrective cost
The cost associated with calling out the selected labor category for corrective tasks over the system
lifetime.

Planned cost
The cost associated with calling out the selected labor category for planned tasks over the system
lifetime.

Inspection cost
The cost associated with calling out the selected labor category for inspection tasks over the system
lifetime.

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See Also

Performing a Simulation - Overview

158
RCMCost Module

Simulation Results - Equipment


Individual equipment prediction data is available once a system simulation has been completed. This
data includes the active time due to corrective and scheduled maintenance as well as equipment usage
costs. The number of tasks associated with the equipment over the system lifetime is also predicted.

To view a summary of predicted equipment data select the Simulation, Results Summary pull-down
menu option or equivalent toolbar button. The Results Summary dialog will be displayed. Select the
Equipment tab from within this dialog. Selection of an equipment in the list will result in the appropriate
summary information being displayed.

Definitions for each of the equipment parameters are given below.

Total active time


The estimated total time the equipment will be active during the system lifetime.

Corrective active time


The estimated time the equipment will be active for corrective maintenance tasks during the system
lifetime.

Planned active time


The estimated time the equipment will be active for planned maintenance tasks during the system
lifetime.

Inspection active time


The estimated time the equipment will be active for inspection maintenance tasks during the system
lifetime.

Total no of tasks
The estimated number of tasks for which the equipment is called out over the system lifetime.

No of corrective tasks
The estimated number of corrective tasks for which the equipment is called out over the system lifetime.

No of planned tasks
The estimated number of planned tasks for which the equipment is called out over the system lifetime.

No of inspection tasks
The estimated number of inspection tasks for which the equipment is called out over the system lifetime.

Total cost
The total cost associated with calling out the selected equipment over the system lifetime.

Corrective cost
The cost associated with calling out the selected equipment for corrective tasks over the system lifetime.

Planned cost
The cost associated with calling out the selected equipment for planned tasks over the system lifetime.

Inspection cost
The cost associated with calling out the selected equipment for inspection tasks over the system
lifetime.

See Also

Performing a Simulation - Overview

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Optimizing Scheduled Task Intervals


Availability Workbench (AWB) provides facilities for optimizing planned maintenance and inspection
intervals either for individual tasks or for groups of tasks identified by a task group. To access these
facilities click the Interval Optimization button in the Cause Properties dialog, Strategy tab (for
individual tasks) or click the Apply & optimize interval button in the Task Group Properties dialog (for
groups of tasks identified by the same task group). On selecting either of these options AWB will open
the PM Optimization Plot dialog. On selecting the yellow traffic light toolbar button in the dialog AWB
will simulate the behavior of the task or task group and predict unavailability values, costs and criticality
values associated with the task or task group for a variety of different planned maintenance or
inspection intervals. If these options are being selected from the Cause Properties dialog then intervals
will be varied for a single task only. If these options are being selected from the Task Group dialog then
intervals will be varied for all the tasks associated with the task group. A plot will be displayed showing
the simulation results.

Comparison plots will reveal whether planned and inspection tasks are worthwhile. In addition the plots
allow the user to compare costs and criticality values at the same time. The decision on which interval to
employ can therefore be based on minimum cost whilst also meeting safety or operational requirements.

The accuracy of the simulation results may be increased by increasing the number of simulations
performed. This may be done via the Project Options dialog (Simulation tab).

Note that the optimization curves for planned maintenance tasks take into consideration any additional
strategies currently specified in the Strategy tab of the Cause Properties dialog. For example, if an
inspection task is defined and enabled in the Maintenance and design strategy list it will be assumed
that the inspection task will be performed in addition to the planned task. Similarly, optimization curves
for inspection tasks will also take into account the current strategy settings for other scheduled tasks.

Interval Range Specification


The scale of the optimization plot x-axis may be modified by the user by selecting the Interval Range
Specification button in the Optimization Plot dialog. A dialog will be revealed allowing the user to
specify

 Number of intervals (2 to 50)


 Initial interval
 Interval Increment

The initial interval will determine the first task interval that the program will ‘trial’. The interval increment
determines subsequent trial task intervals. For example suppose an initial interval of 8000 is specified
with an increment of 1000 and the number of intervals equal to 5. AWB will then trial the following task
intervals:

Trial Task Interval Used in Trial


1 8000
2 9000
3 10000
4 11000
5 12000

Viewing Strategy Results in the Right-Hand Window


The optimization plot for a selected cause or task group may be viewed in the right-hand window. First
select the cause or task group in the tree control. Next select Plot from Right Window Mode Selector
pull-down menu and then select Maintenance Optimization from the Plot Type Selector pull-down
menu. Plots for each of the tasks associated with a cause may be viewed by selecting the task of
interest from the Task selector drop-down menu.

The chosen maintenance strategy for the selected cause or task group may be viewed in the grid control
by selecting Grid from the Right window mode selector pull-down menu and then selecting Tasks,
Scheduled Tasks from the Current grid table pull-down menu.

The corresponding plot and grid displays may be viewed simultaneously by selecting Plot & Grid from
the Right window mode selector pull-down menu.

See Also

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RCMCost Module

Interval Optimization Plots

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Optimizing Spares Holdings in the RCMCost Module


The RCMCost module of Availability Workbench (AWB) may be used to simulate the effects of different
spares holding levels on lifetime costs and therefore optimize the spare holding policy.

During a spare optimization run, AWB will use the simulated demand frequency on different spares to
emulate the flow of spares between stocking locations at level 1 and level 2. When a demand on a
spare is made, and the spare is unavailable, the mean effect of any delay will be determined from the
cost rates of effects assigned to the appropriate causes in the RCMCost location hierarchy. Optimization
is achieved by considering the cost of spare logistical delays and the cost of storing spares at level 1
and level 2. If the Include initial spare purchase costs flag is set on in the Project Options dialog
(Spares tab) then the initial spare purchases will be included in the storage costs.

RCMCost allows spares optimization to take account of demands on level 2 spares from external
systems similar to the system modeled in the current project. Set the No. of sites served by level 2
spares option in the Project Options dialog (Spares tab) to indicate how many sites are to be
considered.

This facility may be accessed via the Simulation, Optimize Spares pull-down menu option. This option
will only be enabled if the system simulation results are up to date (select the Simulation, Start pull-
down menu option if your system results are not up to date). After selecting this option, the Spare
Optimization dialog will appear. The functionality of the dialog is described below.

The top left area of the dialog displays the spare types defined in the project. If there are no spare types
defined you will just see the Spares node. Selecting a spare type will just show the spares belonging to
that spare type at the bottom of the dialog if the Toggle Spare Filter by Tree Control button is selected
(below the spare type tree). Selecting the Spares node will display all the spares in the project.

A further filter facility is available so that you can identify the spares you wish to optimize. The first row
of the grid that displays the spares at the bottom of the dialog is reserved for entering filter text. You may
filter on spare ID or Description by entering text in the appropriate grid cell and then selecting the Filter
Spares Using Text button above the grid.

You may select the spares you wish to optimize individually in the grid control or you can select them all
using the Select all button.

Optimization is performed for an individual spare by determining the summated cost of storage and
demand unavailability for every combination of spares holdings within a specified range. You may set
the range of holdings by selecting the Set range for selected spare(s) button. A dialog will be
displayed allowing you to set the range for all the currently selected spares.

When spare optimization is performed, AWB will simulate the cost associated with each combination of
levels within the range. For example, if a range of 0 to 2 is specified for level 1, and 1 to 2 for level 2,
then the following combinations will be simulated:

Level 1 Holding Level 2 Holding


0 1
0 2
1 1
1 2
2 1
2 2

Select the Optimize Selected Spares button to start the optimization process. Once optimization is
complete the recommended optimum levels will be displayed in the grid. You may view a plot of the
simulated costs for an individual spare in the top right area of the dialog by selecting an individual spare.
The Plot Options button may be selected to change the appearance of the plot.

The recommended optimum spares holding will be the combination of level 1 and 2 capacity levels that
produces the lowest simulated cost unless the user specifies an unavailability target which is not met by
that combination. The calculated unavailability represents the mean fractional downtime due to spare
logistic delays. The unavailability target is set at the project level in the Project Options dialog,
Simulation tab.

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RCMCost Module

Once an optimization run has been completed you may opt to accept the recommended spares holdings
by selecting the Accept recommendations for selected spare(s) button. The recommended levels
will then be transferred to the level 1 and level 2 capacity fields for the spare(s).

Note that if the demand frequency on the spare changes significantly after accepting the
recommendation it may be necessary to perform the optimization run again based on the new demand
frequency. This is most likely to occur if the original capacity at level 1 is set to zero and there is a
significant delay in acquiring spares from level 2.

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RCMCost Plots
Cost Profile Plots
Cost profile plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode
menu above the right-hand window. Then select the Cost Profile option on the Plot type selector
menu above the right-hand window.

Cost profiles display the costs incurred over the time intervals specified in the Lifetime tab of the Project
Options dialog. Users may select different cost categories to display in the plot by selecting the Tools,
Options, Plot pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. The Plot Options dialog will be
displayed allowing different cost options to be selected as well as allowing the user to modify the plot
type and appearance.

The Cost tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Cost types
The various cost types that are to be displayed in the plot.

Plot style
The style of plot.

Show grid
If checked the plot will display a background grid.

Automatic cost axis scaling


If checked the cost axis minimum and maximum values will be automatically set by the program.

Cost min
If the Automatic cost scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the minimum value for the cost
axis.

Cost max
If the Automatic cost scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the maximum value for the cost
axis.

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RCMCost Module

Labor Profile Plots


Labor profile plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode
menu above the right-hand window. Then select the Labor Profile option on the Plot type selector
menu above the right-hand window.

Labor profiles display the active time spent over the time intervals specified in the Lifetime tab of the
Project Options dialog. Users may set different plot options by selecting the Tools, Options, Plot pull-
down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. The Plot Options dialog will be displayed allowing
different options to be selected as well as allowing the user to modify the plot type and appearance.

The Labor tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Labor
The labor category to which the plot data will apply. Users may select All to display summated data for
all labor categories.

Plot style
The style of plot.

Automatic active time axis scaling


If checked the active time axis minimum and maximum values will be automatically set by the program.

Active time min


If the Automatic active time axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the minimum value
for the active time axis.

Active time max


If the Automatic active time axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the maximum value
for the active time axis.

Show grid
If checked the plot will display a background grid.

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Equipment Profile Plots


Equipment profile plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window
mode menu above the right-hand window. Then select the Equipment Profile option on the Plot type
selector menu above the right-hand window.

Equipment profiles display the active equipment usage over the time intervals specified in the Lifetime
tab of the Project Options dialog. Users may set different plot options by selecting the Tools, Options,
Plot pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. The Plot Options dialog will be displayed
allowing different options to be selected as well as allowing the user to modify the plot type and
appearance.

The Equipment tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Equipment
The equipment to which the plot data will apply. Users may select All to display summated data for all
equipments.

Plot style
The style of plot.

Automatic active time axis scaling


If checked the active time axis minimum and maximum values will be automatically set by the program.

Active time min


If the Automatic active time axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the minimum value
for the active time axis.

Active time max


If the Automatic active time axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the maximum value
for the active time axis.

Show grid
If checked the plot will display a background grid.

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RCMCost Module

Spares Profile Plots


Spares profile plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode
menu above the right-hand window. Then select the Spares Profile option on the Plot type selector
menu above the right-hand window.

Spares profiles display the number of spares used over the time intervals specified in the Lifetime tab of
the Project Options dialog. Users may set different plot options by selecting the Tools, Options, Plot
pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. The Plot Options dialog will be displayed allowing
different options to be selected as well as allowing the user to modify the plot type and appearance.

The Spares tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Spare
The spare to which the plot data will apply. Users may select All to display summated data for all
spares.

Plot style
The style of plot.

Automatic number used axis scaling


If checked the 'number used' axis minimum and maximum values will be automatically set by the
program.

Number used min


If the Automatic number used axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the minimum
value for the 'number used' axis.

Number used max


If the Automatic number used axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the maximum
value for the 'number used' axis.

Show grid
If checked the plot will display a background grid.

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Effect Profile Plots


Effect profile plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode
menu above the right-hand window. Then select the Effect Profile option on the Plot type selector
menu above the right-hand window.

Effects profiles display the number of effect occurrences over the time intervals specified in the Lifetime
tab of the Project Options dialog. Users may set different plot options by selecting the Tools, Options,
Plot pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. The Plot Options dialog will be displayed
allowing different options to be selected as well as allowing the user to modify the plot type and
appearance.

The Effect tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Effect
The effect to which the plot data will apply. Users may select All to display summated data for all
effects.

Plot style
The style of plot.

Automatic number of occurrences axis scaling


If checked the 'number of occurrences' axis minimum and maximum values will be automatically set by
the program.

Number of occurrences min


If the Automatic number of occurrences axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the
minimum value for the 'number of occurrences' axis.

Number of occurrences max


If the Automatic number of occurrences axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the
maximum value for the 'number of occurrences' axis.

Show grid
If checked the plot will display a background grid.

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RCMCost Module

Interval Optimization Plots


Availability Workbench (AWB) provides facilities for optimizing preventive maintenance and inspection
intervals either for individual tasks or for groups of tasks identified by a task group. Interval optimization
plots may be accessed by selecting the Interval Optimization button in the Cause dialog, Strategy Tab
(for individual causes) or selecting the Apply & Optimize button in the Task Group Properties dialog
(for groups of tasks identified by the same task group). Alternatively, interval optimization plots may be
displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode menu above the right-hand
window. Then select the Maintenance Optimization option on the Plot type selector menu above the
right-hand window.

Interval optimization plots display cost or availability values for different task or task group intervals. In
addition they display a recommendation for a suitable interval to employ based on these interval values.
These plots also display criticality values for these same intervals.

Users may set different plot options by selecting the Tools, Options, Plot pull-down menu option or
equivalent toolbar button. The Plot Options dialog will be displayed allowing different options to be
selected as well as allowing the user to modify the plot type and appearance.

The Maintenance tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Individual task
Selection of this radio button indicates that the plot will display optimization data for an individual task.

Task group
Selection of this radio button indicates that the plot will display optimization data for a task group.

Set cause or task group by tree selection


If checked the plot will reflect the task or task group associated with the currently selected object in the
project tree in the left-hand window.

Individual task specification


If Individual task optimization is selected then users may select the individual task by specifying the
cause and task ID.

Task group specification


If Task group optimization is selected then users may select the task group.

Show grid
If checked the plot will display a background grid.

Show error bars


If checked the plot will display error bars for each interval value. Error bars help the user determine
whether variations in cost or availability are due to statistical errors ('noise') due to the limited number of
simulations performed.

Show safety target


If checked the plot will display a single horizontal line representing the safety target value. The safety
target value is set in the Simulation tab of the Project Options dialog.

Show operational target


If checked the plot will display a single horizontal line representing the operational target value. The
operational target value is set in the Simulation tab of the Project Options dialog.

Show environmental target


If checked the plot will display a single horizontal line representing the environmental target value. The
environmental target value is set in the Simulation tab of the Project Options dialog.

Automatic

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If checked the program will set the associated axis scale automatically.

Cost and criticality min/max values


If the associated Automatic check-box is not checked then minimum and maximum axis values must be
set by the user.

See Also

Optimizing Scheduled Task Intervals

170
RCMCost Module

Contribution Plots
Contribution plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode
menu above the right-hand window. Then select the Contributions option on the Plot type selector
menu above the right-hand window.

Contribution plots display the contribution made by individual causes to system cost, failure and
criticality parameters. Users may set different plot options by selecting the Tools, Options, Plot pull-
down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. The Plot Options dialog will be displayed allowing
different options to be selected.

The Contributions tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Contribution Type Buttons


These radio buttons allow the user to select the type of contribution to be displayed.

Automatic
If checked the program will automatically set the minimum and maximum values of the contribution axis.

Minimum/Maximum
If Automatic is not checked then the user must enter the minimum and maximum contribution axis
values.

Show grid
If checked the plot will display a background grid.

Maximum no. of causes


The maximum number of causes to display in the plot. Causes will be ordered to show those with the
highest contributions.

Only display causes under tree selection


If checked the program will only display causes that are connected to the current selection in the project
tree location hierarchy.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Spares Optimization Plots


Availability Workbench (AWB) provides facilities for optimizing spares holding levels. Spare optimization
plots may be accessed by selecting the Optimize Spares option on the Simulation pull-down menu.
Alternatively, spare optimization plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right
window mode menu above the right-hand window. Then select the Spares Optimization option on the
Plot type selector menu above the right-hand window.

Spares optimization plots display the cost and unavailability values for different spare holdings at level 1
and level 2. In addition they display a recommendation for a suitable optimum holding policy based on
minimum cost (that optionally meets an unavailability target).

Users may set different plot options by selecting the Tools, Options, Plot pull-down menu option or
equivalent toolbar button. The Plot Options dialog will be displayed allowing different options to be
selected as well as allowing the user to modify the plot appearance.

The Spares Optimization tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Set spare by tree selection


Selection of this option will cause the program to display the optimization results for a spare when it is
selected in the project tree control.

Spare
The spare for which optimization results are to be displayed

Show grid
If checked the plot will display a background grid.

Show error bars


If checked the plot will display error bars for each unavailability value. Error bars help the user determine
whether variations in unavailability are due to statistical errors ('noise') due to the limited number of
simulations performed.

Show unavailability target


If checked the plot will display a single horizontal line representing the unavailability target value. The
unavailability value is set in the Simulation tab of the Project Options dialog.

Automatic
If checked the program will set the associated axis scale automatically.

Cost and unavailability min/max values


If the associated Automatic check-box is not checked then minimum and maximum axis values must be
set by the user.

Show legend
If checked a legend will be shown to the right of the plot identifying the cost bars and unavailability line
plots.

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RCMCost Module

Project Comparison
Project comparison plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window
mode menu above the right-hand window. Then select the Project Comparison option on the Plot
type selector menu above the right-hand window.

Project comparison plots display the simulated lifetime costs or task data from two or more projects. The
results for all the projects must be up-to-date for plots based on simulated results. Users must attach the
projects to be compared with the current project as libraries. The data compared in each plot is the
system cost or task data for the current project and all attached libraries.

Users may set different plot options by selecting the Tools, Options, Plot pull-down menu option or
equivalent toolbar button. The Plot Options dialog will be displayed allowing different options to be
selected.

The Project Comparison tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Plot Type
The plot type to be displayed. Options are Cost, Tasks Assigned, Tasks Performed and Cumulative
Cost Profile. Cost plots show simulated lifetime costs. Tasks Assigned plots show the number of
tasks assigned to causes in the project. Tasks Performed plots show the simulated number of tasks
performed during the lifetime of the system. Cumulative Cost Profile plots show the accumulation of
costs over the lifetime of the system.

Stack plot
If checked the values for different cost or task categories will be stacked in the plot.

Show grid
If checked the plot will display a background grid.

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AvSim Module
Modelling System Availability With RBD Diagrams
Modelling System Failures
Availability Workbench (AWB) recognizes the system failure logic from the reliability block diagram
(RBD) or fault tree diagram entered by the user. In either case, the diagram represents how different
components within the system interact to produce system failures. This topic examines the use of the
RBD approach.

RBDs consist of blocks and nodes connected together in parallel and series arrangements. The blocks
in a RBD usually represent component or sub-system failures, although they may also be used to
represent other events, such as operator actions, which may affect the reliability of the system under
study. The nodes in a RBD are used to position connecting lines (either horizontal/vertical or diagonal),
indicate voting arrangements, set operational capacity targets and apply NOT logic where appropriate.
A complete system RBD will consist of either a single node or block on the left-hand side of the diagram
(input node or block) connected via intermediate nodes and blocks to a single node or block on the right-
hand side of the diagram (output node or block). Note that a complete system RBD can only have one
input node or block and one output node or block. In addition, all the intermediate nodes and blocks
must be connected. The entire system RBD represents the ways in which component and sub-system
failures will interact to cause the system to fail. AWB allows more than one system RBD to be defined in
the same project.

During the simulation process, AWB will be able to determine whether the system is failed or not by
examining the RBD entered by the user. The program does this by determining whether there are any
open paths from the input node or block to the output node or block. An open path is a path that does
not cross any failed component or sub-system blocks. This logic has to be extended slightly for voting
arrangements and NOT logic. Voting arrangements and the application of NOT logic are defined within
the Node Properties dialog and are described in more detail below.

Simple Series Arrangement


Let us first consider the simplest possible RBD - a single block connected between the input and output
nodes. Clearly, in this simple case, the system will fail if the single component represented by block A
were to fail. If this block fails, there is no path open between the input and output nodes.

Now let us extend our system RBD to contain three blocks in series. In this example diagram if any of
the components represented by blocks A, B or C were to fail, or if all components failed together, or if
two out of three components failed, then the system would fail as there would be no open path between
the input and output nodes. A truth table can be constructed to illustrate the different failure
combinations that will cause the system to fail.

Component A Component B Component C System


Working Working Working Working
Failed Working Working Failed
Working Failed Working Failed
Working Working Failed Failed
Working Failed Failed Failed

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Failed Working Failed Failed


Failed Failed Working Failed
Failed Failed Failed Failed

Simple Parallel Arrangement


Now let us modify our system RBD to contain three blocks in parallel. Now if any of the components
represented by blocks A, B or C were to fail individually, the system would not fail, as a path would still
be left open between the input and output nodes. Similarly, if only two of the three components were to
fail, a path would still be left open. It would require all three components to fail at the same time for the
system to fail. This type of parallel arrangement of blocks represents redundancy in a system.

Component A Component B Component C System


Working Working Working Working
Failed Working Working Working
Working Failed Working Working
Working Working Failed Working
Working Failed Failed Working
Failed Working Failed Working
Failed Failed Working Working
Failed Failed Failed Failed

Combined Series and Parallel Arrangements


Now let us look at a slightly more complicated example. In this system RBD, we have both parallel and
series arrangements. The truth table for the system indicates the ways in which the system can fail.

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Component A Component B Component C Component D System


Working Working Working Working Working
Failed Working Working Working Working
Working Failed Working Working Working
Working Working Failed Working Working
Working Working Working Failed Working
Working Working Failed Failed Working
Working Failed Working Failed Working
Working Failed Failed Working Working
Failed Working Working Failed Working
Failed Working Failed Working Working
Failed Failed Working Working Failed
Working Failed Failed Failed Working
Failed Working Failed Failed Failed
Failed Failed Working Failed Failed
Failed Failed Failed Working Failed
Failed Failed Failed Failed Failed

Simple 2-out-of-4 Vote Arrangement


RBDs may also be used to represent voting arrangements. Nodes to the right of a parallel arrangement
may be given a vote number to indicate how many success paths must be available through the parallel
arrangement (if a vote number is not specified only one path need be available). A simple parallel
arrangement of 4 blocks A, B, C and D with a vote number (number of available paths required for
success) of 2 would result in the following truth table:

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Component A Component B Component C Component D System


Working Working Working Working Working
Failed Working Working Working Working
Working Failed Working Working Working
Working Working Failed Working Working
Working Working Working Failed Working
Working Working Failed Failed Working
Working Failed Working Failed Working
Working Failed Failed Working Working
Failed Working Working Failed Working
Failed Working Failed Working Working
Failed Failed Working Working Working
Working Failed Failed Failed Failed
Failed Working Failed Failed Failed
Failed Failed Working Failed Failed
Failed Failed Failed Working Failed
Failed Failed Failed Failed Failed

Applying not logic


For some systems, it is necessary to apply NOT logic in part of the RBD. NOT logic is applied by
placing a node in the diagram and then setting the Apply not logic flag in the Node Properties dialog.
NOT logic nodes will be drawn as a circle in the diagram. A NOT logic node reverses the logic of the
path passing through it. If a path is available through to the NOT node then the path will be cut at the
NOT node. If there is no path through to the NOT node then the path will be opened at the NOT node.

System Diagram, Sub-System Diagram and Truth Table


It would be possible to construct all system RBDs using blocks that only represent component failures.
However, for large and complex systems this may lead to RBDs which are difficult for the user to
understand and which could not be easily printed on a single page of a report. For these reasons, AWB
provides a powerful paging facility which allows the user to define blocks which represent sub-systems.
Each sub-system block may itself be defined in terms of a complete RBD which is drawn on a different
page. It is highly recommended that users decide on how to break up larger systems into sub-systems
before constructing the RBD. An example of a very simple system and sub-system RBD is given below,
together with the truth table.

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Component A Component B Component C System


Working Working Working Working
Failed Working Working Failed
Working Failed Working Working
Working Working Failed Working
Working Failed Failed Failed
Failed Working Failed Failed
Failed Failed Working Failed
Failed Failed Failed Failed

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Modelling Loss Of Production


In addition to modelling the ways in which component failures may lead to system failures, a reliability
block diagrams (RBD) may also be used to model intermediate production levels. That is, rather than
just model failure or success, we may use a RBD to model 70% production, 50% production, 800 bpm
etc. Modelling loss of production is particularly applicable to certain types of systems (e.g.
manufacturing, oil and gas production). Note that NOT nodes (nodes with the Apply not logic flag set
on) have no effect on capacity calculations.

Availability Workbench (AWB) allows loss of production to be modelled, as well as simply failure or
success (i.e. whether the system is available or not at any time). Production flow is modelled by
specifying maximum capacity values for component blocks in the RBD. To illustrate the simulation of
production flow, we will consider the following series and parallel RBD arrangements.

Series Arrangements
For a series arrangement where all the constituent blocks are in service, the production flow is
determined by comparing the maximum capacity value of the constituent blocks with the input flow into
the series arrangement. The smallest value is taken as the production flow out of the series
arrangement. If any of the constituent blocks are out-of-service then the production flow through the
series arrangement is zero.

Parallel Arrangements
The production flow out of a parallel arrangement is determined by summating the production flow
through each parallel line. If this sum exceeds 100%, the flow is reduced to 100%. If this sum exceeds
the input production flow to the parallel arrangement then the output flow is set equal to the input flow.

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Parallel Voting Arrangements


If you specify a vote arrangement at the output node of a parallel arrangement, AWB will apply a special
logic when performing production flow calculations. If the number of lines operating in the parallel
arrangement equals or exceeds the vote number, AWB will apply normal parallel logic when calculating
the output flow from the parallel arrangement. If the number of lines operating is less than the vote
number then output flow will be set to zero. This allows users to model the effect of control system
failures, which are based on a logical voting arrangement.

In addition, nodes have a property Operational capacity target. In conjunction with the vote number,
this parameter determines when standby equipment (buffers and cold or warm standby blocks) will be
made operational. If the required capacity is not achieved (due to direct or indirect failures etc.) then
standby components will be switched on in top to bottom order.

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Modelling System Availability With Fault Trees


Modelling System Failures
Availability Workbench (AWB) recognizes the system failure logic from the reliability block diagram
(RBD) or fault tree diagram entered by the user. In either case, the diagram represents how different
components within the system interact to produce system failures. This topic examines the use of the
fault tree approach.

Fault trees graphically represent the interaction of failures and other events within a system. Basic
events at the bottom of the fault tree are linked via logic symbols (known as gates) to one or more TOP
events. These TOP events represent identified hazards or system failure modes for which predicted
reliability or availability data is required. Typical TOP events might be:

 Total loss of production


 Safety system unavailable
 Explosion
 Loss of mission
 Toxic emission

Basic events at the bottom of the fault tree generally represent component failures, although they may
also represent other events such as operator actions. Typical basic events are:

 Pump failure
 Temperature controller failure
 Operator does not respond

Fault trees may be used to analyze large and complex systems. They are particularly adept at
representing and analyzing redundancy arrangements. In addition, common cause events are easily
handled.

The small fault tree below illustrates how gate and event symbols are connected together to represent
the logical interaction of faults in a system. The TOP event of this arrangement represents the ‘LOSS
OF BOARD A SUPPLY’. This event is broken down into its causes via logic gate symbols. The
immediate causes are ‘NO SUPPLY FROM GRID’ and ‘NO SUPPLY FROM DIESEL’. These two
causes must occur together for the TOP event to occur (as indicated by the AND gate symbol). These
two system events are broken down into their immediate causes. In this example, these causes are
basic events (for which failure and repair data is available), which are linked to the system events above
with OR gate logic.

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Fault tree gate types are listed below, together with their causal relations. Note that the NULL gate type
is not included in this list. NULL gates (which have a single input only) have no effect on the logic of the
fault tree. They are used to allow additional descriptions to be added within the fault tree structure.

Symbol Name Causal Relation Valid


No of
Inputs
OR Output event occurs if any
one of the input events occurs

AND Output event occurs if all


input events occur

VOTE Output event occurs if m of


the input events occur

TRANSFER Indicates that this part of the 0


fault tree is developed in a
different part of the diagram
or on a different page.
NOT Output event occurs if the 1
input event does not occur.

Other standard symbols are used to represent events in the fault trees. These symbols are illustrated
below, together with their meanings.

Symbol Name Meaning

BASIC Basic event for which failure and


repair data is available.

UNDEVELOPED Represents a system event,


which is yet to be developed.

CONDITIONAL Similar to basic event but


represents a conditional
probability.

HOUSE Represents definitely operating


or definitely not operating
events.

DORMANT Similar to basic event but


indicates that the event
represents a dormant failure.

AWB does not differentiate between basic, undeveloped, conditional and dormant events during a
simulation. These different symbols are used to provide visual impact in the fault tree diagram only. For
example, a user may wish to use the dormant event symbol to highlight that a particular failure remains
hidden until an inspection takes place. AWB, however, treats house events differently to the other
events. The program will insist that all house events are set to a logic mode of 'False' or ‘True’. If you
are unsure which event symbol to use in your fault tree diagrams, simply select the standard ‘Basic’
event symbol type which is the most commonly used symbol for representing component failures.

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The component and system events that constitute a fault tree are described in rectangular boxes above
the gate and event symbols which link the fault tree together. System (or ‘state-of-system’) events are
events for which we cannot specify a particular component which is the entire cause of the event.
System events will generally represent system or sub-system failure modes. Component (or ‘state-of-
component’) events represent failures which are entirely caused by a given component and are
represented by a component OR gate as illustrated below.

Primary component failures represent failures under normal conditions of operation for which the
component was designed to operate.

Command faults are events which will cause the component to be unavailable due to incorrect
command signals or the unavailability of another component or sub-system. For example, the
command fault ‘LOSS OF ELECTRICAL POWER’ could cause the failure of an electric pump.

Secondary component failures may also be represented as a separate event under the ‘COMPONENT
FAILURE’ OR gate. Secondary component failures represent failures under conditions of operation for
which the component was not designed. For example, a component may be placed under an increased
stress due to failures of other components in the system. Note that secondary failures are often not
explicitly included in fault trees, due to either the lack of data relating to this type of failure or their
negligible effect compared to primary component failures.

Construction Rules
The following rules provide a framework for constructing fault trees:

 Define the bounds of the system to be analyzed and the level of complexity to which failures
will be resolved.
 Identify the TOP event of the system to be analyzed. The TOP events of the system represent
those events for which reliability and availability predictions are required.
 Using a top-down approach, identify all the immediate causes of the TOP events.
 Now define the immediate causes of the new system events. It is important that intermediate
system events are not missed out when defining the immediate causes. In this way, the levels
of the fault tree progress systematically from major system events, through intermediate levels
of complexity, to the basic events representing component failures at the roots of the fault tree.
 Continue this process of defining the immediate causes of system events until all the roots of
the fault tree are terminated by basic, conditional, undeveloped, dormant and transfer events.
Remember the definitions of system and component events when constructing the tree.
Resolve system events into their immediate causes. Resolve component events into primary
component failures and command faults (and secondary failures if data is available).
 Identify all the distinct causes for an event.
 Resolve an event into more elementary events. For example, resolve ‘TANK EXPLOSION' into
‘EXPLOSION DUE TO OVERHEATING’ OR ‘EXPLOSION DUE TO OVER-
PRESSURIZATION.
 Always provide a complete description of the system or component event in the rectangular
boxes above each fault tree symbol.

Cooling System Fault Tree


To illustrate the fault tree construction process, consider the following example. The schematic diagram
below illustrates a simple cooling system consisting of pumps, valves, control and instrumentation
equipment and a heat exchanger. The function of the system is simply to provide continuous cooling to
another system.

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The cooling system operates in the following manner. Under normal conditions of operation, coolant will
be provided via leg 1 (containing pump EP1). If this leg is unavailable for any reason, the flow sensor
FS1 is designed to detect the decreased flow rate and the controller will close valve EV1, open valve
EV2, shut down pump EP1 and start pump EP2.

The pumps and valves EP1, EP2, EV1 and EV2 are all electrically operated and so we must also
consider the electrical supply system, which is illustrated below.

These two schematic diagrams effectively define the bounds of the fault tree study. The overall TOP
event for the fault tree is ‘TOTAL LOSS OF COOLING’. For convenience, we will paginate the fault tree
so that individual pages will have local TOP events such as ‘LOSS OF BOARD A SUPPLY’. The fault
tree below illustrates the overall system TOP event and its immediate causes. The system events
‘LOSS OF COOLING LEG 1’ and ‘LOSS OF COOLING LEG 2’ are represented by transfer symbols as
they are developed on separate pages for convenience.

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The two fault tree pages below develop the overall fault tree further. Note that the local TOP events for
the two pages are given the same identification code as the transfer symbols in the fault tree page
above (SYS2 and SYS3). Basic events such as ‘PUMP 1 PRIMARY FAILURE’ are now beginning to
appear in the fault tree. The system event ‘CONTROL SIGNAL FAULT' will cause the electrical valves
and electrical pumps to be unavailable. This common cause failure is a command fault for the pumps
and valves.

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We may now construct the fault trees representing failures in the electrical systems:

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Modelling Loss Of Production


In addition to modelling the ways in which component failures may lead to system failures, fault tree
diagrams may also be used to model intermediate production levels. That is, rather than just model
failure or success, we may use fault tree diagrams to model 70% production, 50% production, 800 bpm
etc. Modelling loss of production is particularly applicable to certain types of systems (e.g.
manufacturing, oil and gas production).

Availability Workbench (AWB) allows loss of production to be modelled, as well as simply failure or
success (i.e. whether the system is available or not at any time). Production flow is modelled by
specifying maximum capacity values for basic events in the fault tree diagram. To illustrate the
simulation of production flow, we will consider the following OR gate and AND gate fault tree
arrangements.

For an OR gate where all the input basic events are in service, the production flow is determined by
comparing the maximum capacity value of the input basic events with the input flow for any gate inputs.
The smallest value is taken as the production flow out of the OR gate. If any of the constituent basic
events are out-of-service then the production flow out of the OR gate is zero.

The production flow out of an AND gate arrangement is determined by summating the production flow
values for each input basic event and input gate respectively. If a basic event input is operational then
the production flow associated with the basic event is its maximum capacity. If it is out-of-service then
the production flow value for the basic event is zero. If the sum of all inputs exceeds 100%, the flow is
reduced to 100%.

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If you include a VOTE gate within a fault tree diagram AWB will apply a special logic when performing
production flow calculations. If fewer than 'm' of the inputs to the VOTE gate are out-of-service, or have
zero production flow, then AWB will apply normal AND logic when calculating the output flow from the
VOTE gate. If 'm' or more of the inputs are out-of-service or have zero production flow, then the output
flow from the VOTE gate will be set to zero. This allows users to model the effect of control system
failures, which are based on a logical voting arrangement.

In addition, gates have a property Operational capacity target. In conjunction with the vote number,
this parameter determines when standby equipment (buffers and cold or warm standby events) will be
made operational. If the required capacity is not achieved (due to direct or indirect failures etc.) then
standby components will be switched on in left to right order.

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Comparing RBDs and Fault Trees


Both RBD and fault tree diagrams are widely used to represent the interaction of failures within
systems. For this reason, the AvSim module of Availability Workbench (AWB) provides both formats.
Although AWB allows a user to create both RBD systems and independent fault tree systems in the
same project, it is recommended that users choose one or other of the two formats.

If you are familiar with only one of the two formats then you may wish to choose that format for defining
the failure logic. Both formats may be used to create identical logical arrangements. That is, for every
RBD there is a logically equivalent fault tree diagram. RBDs often resemble the schematic diagrams
that represent the system and that may be a good reason for choosing RBDs to represent the failure
logic of smaller systems. However, if the system under study is large or complex, constructing the RBD
might become difficult. In comparison, constructing fault tree diagrams to represent the failures of
complex systems (particularly system failures which may be caused by combinations of mechanical,
power supply and control system faults) is relatively easy.

As an illustration of the logical equivalence of RBD and fault tree diagrams, consider the following pairs
of equivalent diagrams.

Series RBD Equivalent to ‘OR’ Fault Tree Gate

Parallel RBD Equivalent to Fault Tree ‘AND’ Gate

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Equivalent Parallel and Series Arrangements

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Building a RBD
Building a RBD - Overview
Availability Workbench (AWB) recognizes the system failure logic from the Reliability Block Diagram
(RBD) entered by the user. The diagram represents how different components within the system interact
to produce system failures.

RBDs consist of blocks and nodes connected together in parallel and series arrangements. The blocks
in a RBD usually represent component or sub-system failures, although they may also be used to
represent other events, such as operator actions, which may affect the reliability of the system under
study. The nodes in a RBD are used to position connecting lines (either horizontal/vertical or diagonal),
indicate voting arrangements, set operational capacity targets and apply NOT logic where appropriate.
A complete system RBD will consist of either a single node or block on the left-hand side of the diagram
(input node or block) connected via intermediate nodes and blocks to a single node or block on the right-
hand side of the diagram (output node or block). Note that a complete system RBD can only have one
input node or block and one output node or block. In addition, all the intermediate nodes and blocks
must be connected. The entire system RBD represents the ways in which component and sub-system
failures will interact to cause the system to fail. AWB allows more than one system RBD to be defined in
the same project.

The facilities to add elements to a RBD are accessed either through Add, To Diagram pull-down menu
options or the equivalent buttons on the toolbar.

Each AWB project can contain one or more systems. The Add, New System pull-down menu option
can be used to create new systems when Diagram and RBD are selected from the pull-down menus
above the right-hand window.

Once the system logic has been entered for the system, consequences may be assigned to blocks in
the diagram. Consequences are usually assigned to system level blocks and represent the effects of
failure (financial, safety, operational and environmental) on the system.

See Also

Adding Blocks
Adding Connections
Adding Labels, Notes and Hyperlinks
Using Pages
Assigning Consequences

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Adding Blocks
New blocks may be added in the diagram area by selecting the Add, To Diagram, Block pull-down
menu option or the equivalent toolbar button. The cursor will change to a block symbol and should be
positioned where the top left corner of the new block is to appear. When the left mouse button is
clicked, the new block will be created. Each block will be named automatically by the program. This
name may be changed later by the user. The program default is to name the blocks ‘1.1’, ‘1.2’, etc.
Block IDs may be reset at any time by selecting the appropriate option on the Tools, Rename pull-down
menu. All blocks will be placed at the nearest grid position, even if the grid is not visible. Each block will
initially be given some default attributes that can be edited at a later stage. Whilst the program is in new
block placement mode, further blocks can be added. This mode can be terminated by selecting the
Add, To Diagram, Clear Add Mode pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button or by selecting
another menu option.

Existing blocks may be repeated in the RBD by selecting the block to be repeated and then using the
copy and paste facilities. The selected block can be copied by choosing the Edit, Copy pull-down menu
option. The repeated block is created by choosing the Edit, Paste pull-down menu option. Repeat
blocks represent repeat occurrences of the same component failure in the RBD logic are given identical
IDs to the original block.

The properties of existing blocks may be copied to create a new block by first selecting the block to be
copied and then selecting the Edit, Copy pull-down menu option. The copy can then be created by
choosing the Edit, Paste Special pull-down menu option. Copied blocks are given unique block names
and therefore do not represent the same event as the original block but are given the same properties.

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Editing Block Properties


To edit the properties of a block either double-click on the block in the diagram, or select the block in the
diagram and choose the Edit, Properties pull-down menu option.

When editing a block, the user will be presented with the Block Properties dialog, allowing block
attributes to be modified.

General Tab

ID
The block ID is a unique name identifying the block. A block will usually represent a component or sub-
system failure. The block ID consists of up to 40 alphanumeric characters. Block IDs are automatically
assigned when creating new blocks using a hierarchical scheme. However, users may subsequently
change the block ID. Block IDs may be reset at any time by selecting one of the options under the
Tools, Rename pull-down menu option.

Description
The block description appears within the block in the diagram if there is no bitmap associated with the
block. If a bitmap is associated with the block, the description appears below the block in the diagram if
the Show RBD descriptions with bitmaps option is selected in the View tab of the Project Options
dialog. Up to 255 characters are permitted for the block description.

Failure Model
The failure model associated with the block provides all the quantitative failure and maintenance data for
the block. Users may create a new failure model or edit the currently assigned failure model by
selecting the New and Edit buttons respectively.

Consequence
Users may select a single outage or capacity consequence to be associated with any system or sub-
system block. During a simulation, if the block is out-of-service (or running at reduced capacity) due to
failure or scheduled maintenance, the consequence will apply. Users may create a new consequence or
edit the currently assigned consequence by selecting the New and Edit buttons respectively.

Bom
A Bom may optionally be assigned to a block. Assigned Boms will affect the choice of spares presented
to the user when assigning spare resources to tasks associated with the block.

Initial Age
The age of the component at the beginning of the simulation.

Switching Delay
If a non-zero switching delay time is specified then Availability Workbench (AWB) will simulate the
specified delay whenever the component is required to switch from a standby condition to an operating
condition. In effect, the component will be unavailable for the specified delay time.

Rules Tab

Logic mode
The Logic Mode combo-box indicates one of three modes for the block:

 Probabilistic
 False
 True

If the logic mode is set to Probabilistic (the default), block failures will be randomly sampled using the
specified failure model. If the logic mode is set to False, the block will remain in service throughout the
lifetime of the system unless a rule overrides the logic mode during a given phase of operation. If the

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logic mode is set to True, the block will remain out-of-service throughout the lifetime of the system
unless a rule overrides the logic mode during a given phase of operation.

Standby mode
The Standby mode setting indicates whether the standby mode for the block is Hot, Cold or Warm
Standby. This setting only affects the reliability performance of the block if it is not required to be
operating during a simulation.

If Hot standby is specified, the failure characteristics do not change when the block is non-operational.
If Cold standby is specified then the block cannot fail when it is non-operational and no ageing takes
place. If Warm standby is specified then the failure rate of the block is reduced by the Non-operating
failure apportionment % for the failure model associated with the block whilst it is non-operational. In
addition, the rate of ageing is reduced according to the Non-operating ageing apportionment %
associated with the block whilst it is non-operational.

Maximum capacity
Maximum capacity values are only applicable if you are interested in production flow as well as standard
unavailability calculations. These values are used to determine the production flow through a system
when 'loss of capacity' consequences have been defined. The maximum capacity indicates the
maximum production flow through the block and is usually defined as a percentage. The user may
equate 100% capacity with a quantity and unit, such as 80 bpm. This alternative capacity value can be
set in the Simulation tab of the Project Options dialog.

Load factor
Load factors may be assigned to individual blocks. The load factor allows users to model additional or
reduced stress conditions during different operational phases. For example, during launch a satellite
might experience additional stresses due to high vibration and high temperature, which might affect the
components associated with the failure model during this period. A load factor of 2 will increase the
failure rate by 2 for the exponential distribution. This is equivalent to halving the MTTF. This is
described by the general expression

where = load factor

Inhibit all tasks (non-repairable and non-maintainable)


If checked the default setting will be for all maintenance tasks associated with the component will be
disabled unless a rule overrides the inhibit condition.

Non-operational
If checked the component will be non-operational throughout the lifetime of the system unless a rule
overrides this condition.

Rules
AWB allows the user to define rules that can be used to set the logic, standby mode, maximum capacity,
load factor, non-maintainable and non-operational status of a component by phase. The load factor,
non-maintainable and non-operational status may also be set by the state of another block in the
project. Clicking the Add button will open the Rule Properties dialog. Here the user may select the type
of phase or state dependency required using the Type drop-down menu. If it is a phase-related rule then
the phase may be selected using the Phase drop-down menu. If phase dependency is selected for the
logic, standby mode, maximum capacity or load factor then a further field or drop-down menu will
appear where the user may enter an appropriate parameter. If it is a state-related rule then the user will
be able to select the reference block and the required state of the reference block.

Rules that have been defined will appear in the Rules list. Each rule is identified by an ID and
description that are automatically generated by AWB. The properties of an existing rule may be edited
by selecting the rule from the list and clicking the Edit button. The Rule Properties dialog will appear
allowing the user to edit the data entered when the rule was created.

A rule may be deleted by selecting it from the list and clicking the Remove button.

Appearance Tab

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Background color
RBD blocks may be color coded. Select the << button to open the Windows Color dialog where you
can choose the new color for the block. Select the Set to default button to return the block color to the
default setting.

Bitmap
If a bitmap is associated with the block then the bitmap will be drawn inside the block rectangle in the
RBD. Text, which would normally appear within the block, will be drawn below the block.

Description font
To modify the font used for descriptive text select the Change font button to open the Font dialog.
Select the Set to default button to return the description font to the default setting.

Width
The width of the block in diagram coordinates. The default width is 100.

Height
The height of the block in diagram coordinates. The default height is 60.

Notes Tab
Each notes field allows the user to enter up to 2000 characters of text. Note field headers are defined by
the user in the Project Options dialog.

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Adding Nodes
Nodes have four purposes. Firstly, they are used to position connection lines if the default connection
line positions are not acceptable to the user. Secondly, they are used to indicate vote logic at the output
of a parallel block arrangement. Thirdly, they are used to indicate a local standby flag, to control when a
standby block is required to ‘start-up’ to replace the functionality of a failed block in the RBD. Finally,
they are used to set an operational capacity target. In conjunction with the vote number, this parameter
determines when standby equipment (buffers etc.) will be made operational. If the required capacity is
not achieved (due to direct or indirect failures etc.) then standby components will be switched on in top
to bottom order.

New nodes may be added in the RBD drawing area by selecting the Add, To Diagram, Node pull-down
menu option or the equivalent toolbar button and then clicking the left mouse button at the top left of the
required position of the node. All nodes will be placed at the nearest grid position, even if the grid is not
visible. Whilst the program is in new node placement mode, the mouse cursor will appear with a node
icon. This mode can be terminated by selecting the Add, To Diagram, Clear Add Mode pull-down
menu option or the equivalent toolbar button, or by selecting another menu option.

Nodes may be color coded. To color code a node, modify the Background color in the Node
Properties dialog.

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Editing Node Properties


To edit the properties of a node either double-click on the node in the diagram, or select the node in the
diagram and choose the Edit, Properties pull-down menu option.

When editing a node, the user will be presented with the Node Properties dialog, allowing node
attributes to be modified.

ID
The node ID uniquely identifies a node in the RBD. It has a maximum of 40 alphanumeric characters.

Vote number
The node vote number indicates the number of connected inputs required to be available to ensure
availability of the sub-system defined to the left of the node in the RBD.

Operational capacity target


In conjunction with the vote number, this parameter determines when standby equipment (buffers and
cold or warm standby blocks) will be made operational. If the required capacity is not achieved (due to
direct or indirect failures or scheduled maintenance activities) then standby blocks will be switched on in
top to bottom order.

Local standby
Local standby flags are used to control when a standby block is required to ‘start-up’ to replace the
functionality of a failed block in the RBD. Local standby flags are normally only needed when modelling
throughput capacity. Consider the small system below. Unless the user sets a local standby flag,
Availability Workbench (AWB) will assume that block C will be in standby when Block A is working and
block B is failed. This is because, from a traditional availability point of view, the system is ‘UP’ with just
A working. However, if we were modelling throughput, this behavior would result in the system
operating at 60% capacity only. If we set the local standby flag on for node ‘X’, the program will treat the
lower parallel arrangement (block B and block C) as if it was independent from block A from the point of
view of determining the standby status of C. Now when block B fails, block C will start-up to replace the
lost capacity.

Apply not logic


In RBDs NOT logic is assigned by selecting the Apply not logic check-box for a node. During a
simulation, if no success path can be found through to a given node, the equipment represented by the
node is deemed to be unavailable. However, if NOT logic were applied at the node, the equipment
would be deemed to be available.

Background color

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Nodes may be color coded. Click the << button to open the Windows Color dialog where you can
choose the new color for the node. Click the Set to default button to return the node color to the default
setting.

Rules
AWB allows the user to define rules which can be used to set the vote number and rotate the inputs to a
node by phase or by the trigger of an out-of-service event for one of the inputs to the node. Selecting the
Add button will open the Rule Properties dialog. Here the user may select the type of dependency
required using the Type drop-down menu and the phase (for a phase-dependent rule) using the Phase
drop-down menu. If phase dependency is selected for the vote number then a further field will appear
where the user may enter the vote number.

Rules that have been defined will appear in the Rules list. Each rule is identified by an ID and
description that are automatically generated by AWB. The properties of an existing rule may be edited
by selecting the rule from the list and clicking the Edit button. The Rule Properties dialog will appear
allowing the user to edit the data entered when the rule was created.

A rule may be deleted by selecting it from the list and clicking the Remove button.

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Adding Connections
Selection of the Add, To Diagram, Horizontal/Vertical Connection or Add, To Diagram, Diagonal
Connection pull-down menu option allows the user to connect nodes and blocks in a RBD. The user
will be asked to first select the input node or block, followed by the output node or block, by clicking the
left mouse button when the cursor is over the node or block.

RBDs must be constructed such that flow from input to output is maintained in a left to right direction.

Diagonal connections will be a single line between the right-hand side of the input node or block to the
left-hand side of the output node or block. The shape of horizontal/vertical connecting lines depends on
the position of the input node or block relative to the output node or block. Where connecting lines join
two objects in a different horizontal plane with horizontal/vertical connections, the first corner of the
jagged connection line is positioned at the first grid line (or mid-way between the connected objects if
they are only one grid line apart).

Whilst the program is in connection placement mode, the mouse cursor will appear with a connection
icon. The operation may be aborted at any time by selecting the Add, To Diagram, Clear Add Mode
pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button or by selecting another menu option.

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Editing Connection Properties


To edit the properties of a connection either double-click on the connection in the diagram, or select the
connection in the diagram and choose the Edit, Properties pull-down menu option.

When editing a connection, the user will be presented with the Connection Properties dialog, allowing
connection attributes to be modified.

Horizontal/vertical
When selected the connection lines between blocks and nodes will only follow horizontal and vertical
trajectories.

Diagonal
When selected the connection lines between blocks and nodes will follow the shortest possible
trajectory between the source and target.

Background color
Connections may be color coded. Click the << button to open the Windows Color dialog where you can
choose the new color for the connection. Click the Set to default button to return the connection color to
the default setting.

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Adding Labels, Notes and Hyperlinks (RBDs)


New labels can be added to a RBD by choosing the Add, To Diagram, Label pull-down menu option or
equivalent toolbar button. The cursor will change to a label symbol and it should be positioned at the
required point in the diagram before clicking on the left mouse button to create the label. The user can
continue to add labels whilst in this mode. To terminate this mode, select the Add, To Diagram, Clear
Add Mode pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar option, or select another menu option.

New notes can be added to a RBD by choosing the Add, To Diagram, Note pull-down menu option or
equivalent toolbar button. The cursor will change to a note symbol and it should be positioned at the
required point in the diagram before clicking on the left mouse button to create the note. The user can
continue to add notes whilst in this mode. To terminate this mode, select the Add, To Diagram, Clear
Add Mode pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar option, or select another menu option.

New hyperlinks can be added to a RBD by choosing the Add, To Diagram, Hyperlink pull-down menu
option or equivalent toolbar button. The cursor will change to a hyperlink symbol and it should be
positioned at the required point in the diagram before clicking on the left mouse button to create the
hyperlink. The user can continue to add hyperlinks whilst in this mode. To terminate this mode, select
the Add, To Diagram, Clear Add Mode pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar option, or select
another menu option.

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Editing Label Properties


To edit the properties of a label either double-click on the label in the diagram, or select the label in the
diagram and choose the Edit, Properties pull-down menu option.

When editing a label, the user will be presented with the Label Properties dialog, allowing label
attributes to be modified.

Type
Here the user may change a label to a note or hyperlink.

Horizontal alignment
The Horizontal alignment option allows the user to choose how text will be aligned within the label
frame in the RBD. Options are left, center and right alignment.

Border
The Border check-box determines whether the label has a border.

Width
The width of the label in diagram coordinates. The default width is 100.

Height
The height of the label in diagram coordinates. The default height is 60.

Bitmap label
If the Bitmap label check-box is selected then the specified bitmap will be displayed within the label
frame in the RBD.

Bitmap
The Bitmap combo-box will only be enabled if the Bitmap label option is checked. The combo-box
allows the user to select the bitmap to appear in the label.

Label text
Label text will appear inside the label frame in the RBD. If a bitmap label is specified then the text will
be replaced by the bitmap.

Change font
Selection of the Change font button will prompt Availability Workbench (AWB) to display a standard
Windows Font dialog, allowing the user to choose the required font for the label. Select the Set font to
default button to return the label font to the default setting.

Background color
The background color of a label may be customized by a user. Select the << button to open the
Windows Color dialog where you can choose the new color for the label background. Select the Set to
default button to return the label color to the default setting.

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Editing Note Properties


To edit the properties of a note either double-click on the note in the diagram, or select the note in the
diagram and choose the Edit, Properties pull-down menu option.

When editing a note, the user will be presented with the Note Properties dialog, allowing note attributes
to be modified.

Type
Here the user may change a note to a label or hyperlink.

Note
Note text that will appear when you hover the mouse cursor over the note in the RBD.

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Editing Hyperlink Properties


To edit the properties of a hyperlink either double-click on the hyperlink in the diagram, or select the
hyperlink in the diagram and choose the Edit, Properties pull-down menu option.

When editing a hyperlink, the user will be presented with the Hyperlink Properties dialog, allowing
hyperlink attributes to be modified.

Type
Here the user may change a hyperlink to a label or note.

Hyperlink
The link to the chosen web page or file.

Browse
Click either the Browse file or Browse web page button to browse for the link you require.

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Using Pages (RBD)


Availability Workbench (AWB) allows the user to divide a RBD into pages. This facility is particularly
useful for large RBDs, which may be split up into hierarchical levels.

For very simple block diagrams, the user need not be concerned with paging but may construct the full
RBD within the top-level page.

The Page Down pull-down menu option and a sub system block

For larger RBDs, the user may wish to specify certain blocks as sub-system blocks. Sub-system blocks
are simply blocks that are represented by reliability block diagrams on different pages. A sub-system
block may be created by selecting a block in the top page and selecting the Diagram, Page Down pull-
down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. A new RBD may be constructed in the new page. The
user must ensure that each page of the RBD has only one input and one output. Selection of the
Diagram, Page Up pull-down menu option will return the user to the page at the next level up. The
RBD page selector combo-box above the right-hand diagram window allows users to navigate directly
to a new page.

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Moving Diagram Objects


The position of blocks, nodes and labels in a RBD can be modified after the initial positioning during
their creation. Any connections in the diagram will be modified to account for the changing position of
end point blocks or nodes.

The first method of moving the objects is to select an object or group of objects and then use the mouse
to drag the object to a new position. When an object is selected it is highlighted in red and may be
dragged around the diagram area. When the cursor is moved over the 'drag' icon at the top left corner
of the selected objects it changes to the familiar 'drag' cursor. If the left button is kept pressed down, the
objects will move around with the cursor. When the left button is released, the objects will remain in
their new position.

The second method of moving objects is to use the options on the Shift pull-down menu or their
equivalent keyboard combinations.

A selected group of blocks showing the drag icon at the top left of the selections

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Diagram Cut, Copy, Paste and Delete


The cut and copy facilities transfer the selected objects to the clipboard. The cut facility also removes
the selections from the diagram.

There are two distinct paste facilities. The standard paste facility makes an exact copy of the clipboard
contents, whilst 'paste special' copies the structure below system blocks and creates unique names for
the copied objects.

These features can be accessed from the Edit pull-down menu or the equivalent keyboard
combinations.

Selected objects can be deleted by choosing the Edit, Delete pull-down menu option or its equivalent
keystroke.

The undo facility allows the user to override the last edit action. The maximum number of undos that
may be performed can be set in the Undo tab of the Application Options dialog.

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Finding Blocks and Nodes


You can locate a particular block or node in the RBD by selecting the appropriate option on the Find
pull-down menu.

On selection of the Find option AWB will display the Find dialog. This dialog contains a list of the blocks
or nodes in the current project. Blocks may be filtered by their failure model associations by selecting a
failure model from the list at the top of the dialog.

Select the block or node in the displayed list and then select one of the following options.

Show First
On selection of this option AWB will display the first occurrence of the selected block or node in the
diagram. If necessary, AWB will automatically change the displayed RBD page.

Show Next
On selection of this option AWB will display the next occurrence of the selected block in the diagram. If
necessary, AWB will automatically change the displayed RBD page.

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Building a Fault Tree Diagram


Building a Fault Tree Diagram - Overview
A fault tree diagram consists of gates and basic events. Availability Workbench (AWB) also allows the
user to add labels, notes and hyperlinks to the diagram for purely illustrative purposes. More than one
fault tree can be constructed in a single AWB project. The facilities for adding fault tree elements to an
AWB project are on the Add pull-down menu or the equivalent buttons on the toolbar.

A new fault tree can be constructed during an AWB session by selecting the Add, New Top Gate pull-
down menu option when Diagram and Fault Tree are selected from the pull-down menus above the
right-hand window.

Once the system logic has been entered for the system consequences may be assigned to gates in the
diagram. Consequences are usually assigned to system level gates (Top gates) and represent the
effects of failure (financial, safety, operational and environmental) on the system.

See Also

Adding Gates
Adding Events
Adding Labels, Notes and Hyperlinks
Using Pages
Assigning Consequences

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Adding Gates
New gates can be added to a fault tree by choosing the Add, Gate pull-down menu option or the
equivalent toolbar button when Diagram and Fault Tree are selected from the pull-down menus above
the diagram area. The cursor will change to a gate symbol and it should be positioned over an existing
gate before clicking on the left mouse button to create the gate at the next lower position in the tree.
The program will automatically name each gate. This name can be edited at a later stage. In a similar
way, each gate will be assigned some default attributes, which can be modified by the user, if required.
The user can continue to add gates whilst in this mode. To terminate this mode select the Add, To
Diagram, Clear Add Mode pull-down menu option or the equivalent toolbar button.

Existing gates can be repeated in a fault tree by first copying the gate to the clipboard and then pasting
it to the required position in the tree. The copy operation can be carried out by first selecting the gate
and then using the Edit, Copy pull-down menu option, or pressing Ctrl+C. The paste operation can be
carried out by first selecting the gate below which the copied gate is to be inserted and then choosing
the Edit, Paste pull-down menu option or pressing Ctrl+V.

Existing gates can be copied without retaining the original gate name but retaining other properties.
This is accomplished by using the Edit, Paste Special pull-down menu option for the paste operation.
The fault tree structure below the copied gate will be retained, although any gates or basic events
below the copied gate will be given unique names.

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Editing Gate Properties


To edit the properties of a gate either double-click on the gate in the diagram, or select the gate in the
diagram and choose the Edit, Properties pull-down menu option.

When editing a gate, the user will be presented with the Gate Properties dialog, allowing gate attributes
to be modified.

General Tab

ID
The gate ID uniquely identifies a gate in the fault tree. If the same gate ID is repeated in the fault tree
structure, this represents the same gate in the fault tree logic. A maximum of 40 alphanumeric
characters are permitted for the gate ID.

Description
The description appears in the rectangle above the gate in the fault tree diagram. Descriptions may be
up to 255 characters in length.

Type
Valid gate types are OR, AND, VOTE, TRANSFER, NULL and NOT. OR gates indicate that the gate
event will occur if any of the inputs occur. AND gates indicate that the gate event will occur if all the
inputs occur together. VOTE gates indicate that the gate event will occur if 'm' (vote number) out of the
inputs occur. If a VOTE gate type is specified then the user will be required to enter a vote number.
TRANSFER gates are used to represent a gate that has not been defined in terms of its inputs. NULL
gates have a single input and do not affect the failure logic of the system in any way. NOT gates
indicate that the gate event will occur if the input event does not occur.

Tag
The user may set one of three tag options: Auto, On or Off. If the Auto option is selected, a transfer
tag is drawn just below the gate description rectangle if the gate is at the top of a page and feeds into
another page in the project. Selecting On or Off will override the automatic setting.

Consequence
Users may select a single outage or capacity consequence to be associated with any gate. During a
simulation, if the gate is out-of-service (or running at reduced capacity) due to failure or scheduled
maintenance, the consequence will apply. Users may create a new consequence or edit the currently
assigned consequence by selecting the New and Edit buttons respectively.

Bom
A Bom may optionally be assigned to a gate. Assigned Boms will affect the choice of spares presented
to the user when assigning spare resources to tasks associated with primary events below the gate.

Page
Setting the Page flag will result in the gate appearing at the top of a new page. A transfer symbol
surrounded by a rectangle will be drawn in the diagram where the gate feeds into other pages.

Operational capacity target

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In conjunction with the vote number, this parameter determines when standby equipment (buffers and
cold or warm standby blocks) will be made operational. If the required capacity is not achieved (due to
direct or indirect failures or scheduled maintenance activities) then standby primary events below the
gate will be switched on in left to right order.

Extend label
Setting the Extend label flag on will increase the width of the gate name label in the fault tree diagram.
This feature is useful if you are using long gate names (say more than 20 characters in length).

Rules Tab

Vote number
The vote number is only required for VOTE gates and specifies the number of input failures required for
the VOTE gate event to occur.

Rules
AWB allows the user to define rules that can be used to set the vote number and rotate the inputs to a
gate by phase or by the trigger of an out-of-service event for one of the inputs to the gate. Selecting the
Add button will open the Rule Properties dialog. Here the user may select the type of phase
dependency required using the Type drop-down menu and the phase using the Phase drop-down
menu. If phase dependency is selected for the vote number then a further field will appear where the
user may enter the vote number.

Rules that have been defined will appear in the Rules list. Each rule is identified by an ID and
description that are automatically generated by Availability Workbench. The properties of an existing
rule may be edited by selecting the rule from the list and clicking the Edit button. The Rule Properties
dialog will appear allowing the user to edit the data entered when the rule was created.

A rule may be deleted by selecting it from the list and clicking the Remove button.

Appearance Tab

Background color
Gates may be color coded. Select the << button to open the Windows Color dialog where you can
choose the new color for the gate. Select the Set to default button to return the gate color to the default
setting.

Description font
To modify the font used for descriptive text select the Change font button to open the Font dialog.
Select the Set to default button to return the description font to the default setting.

Notes Tab
Each notes field allows the user to enter up to 2000 characters of text. Note field headers are defined by
the user in the Project Options dialog.

Hyperlink Tab
The user may associate hyperlinks with gates in a fault tree.

Hyperlink
The link to the chosen web page or file.

Browse
Select either the Browse for file or Browse for web page button to browse for the link you require.

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Adding Events
New primary events may be added to a fault tree by choosing the Add, To Diagram, Event pull-down
menu option or the equivalent toolbar button when Diagram and Fault Tree are selected in the pull-
down menus above the diagram area. The cursor will change to an event symbol and it should be
positioned over a gate before clicking on the left mouse button to create the event at the next lower
position in the tree. Each event will be automatically named by the program. This name can be edited
at a later stage. In a similar way, each event will be assigned some default attributes, which can be
modified by the user, if required. The user can continue to add events whilst in this mode. To terminate
this mode select the Add, To Diagram, Clear Add Mode pull-down menu option or the equivalent
toolbar button.

Existing events can be repeated in a fault tree by first copying the event to the clipboard and then
pasting it to the required position in the tree. The copy operation can be carried out by first selecting the
event and then using the Edit, Copy pull-down menu option, or pressing Ctrl+C. The paste operation
can be carried out by first selecting a gate below which the copied event is to be inserted and then
choosing the Edit, Paste pull-down menu option or pressing Ctrl+V. Note that events copied in this
way will be given the same event name and will be treated as common failures.

An existing event can be copied without retaining the original event name but retaining other properties.
This is accomplished by using the Edit, Paste Special pull-down menu option for the paste operation.

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Editing Event Properties


To edit the properties of a primary event either double-click on the event in the diagram, or select the
event in the diagram and choose the Edit, Properties pull-down menu option.

When editing an event, the user will be presented with the Primary Event Properties dialog, allowing
event attributes to be modified.

General Tab

ID
The event ID is a unique name identifying the event. An event will usually represent a component or
sub-system failure. A given event, with the same ID, may be repeated more than once within the fault
tree diagram. The event ID consists of up to 40 alphanumeric characters. Event IDs are automatically
assigned using a hierarchical scheme when they are first created. Event IDs may be reset at any time
in the Primary Event Properties dialog or by selecting one of the options under the Tools, Rename
pull-down menu option.

Description
The description appears in the rectangle above the event in the fault tree diagram. Descriptions may be
up to 255 characters in length.

Failure model
The failure model associated with the event provides all the quantitative failure and maintenance data
for the event. Users may create a new failure model or edit the currently assigned failure model by
selecting the New and Edit buttons respectively.

Consequence
Users may select a single outage or capacity consequence to be associated with the event. During a
simulation, if the component represented by the event is out-of-service (or running at reduced capacity)
due to failure or scheduled maintenance, the consequence will apply. Users may create a new
consequence or edit the currently assigned consequence by selecting the New and Edit buttons
respectively.

Initial age
The age of the component associated with the event at the beginning of the simulation.

Switching delay
If a non-zero switching delay time is specified then Availability Workbench (AWB) will simulate the
specified delay whenever the component is required to switch from a standby condition to an operating
condition. In effect, the component will be unavailable for the specified delay time.

Type
The type of primary event symbol to display in the diagram. Valid types are Basic, Undeveloped,
Conditional, House and Dormant. These symbol types, except for the House type, only affect the
appearance of the symbols in the fault tree diagram. The House type requires that the user sets the
Logic Mode to True or False in the Rules tab

Rules Tab

Logic mode
The Logic Mode combo-box indicates one of three modes for the event:

 Probabilistic
 False
 True

If the logic mode is set to Probabilistic (the default), event failures will be randomly sampled using the
specified failure model. If the logic mode is set to False, the event will remain in service throughout the
lifetime of the system unless a rule overrides the logic mode during a given phase of operation. If the

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logic mode is set to True, the event will remain out-of-service throughout the lifetime of the system
unless a rule overrides the logic mode during a given phase of operation.

Standby mode
The Standby mode setting indicates whether the standby mode for the event is Hot, Cold or Warm
Standby. This setting only affects the reliability performance of the event if it is not required to be
operating during a simulation.

If Hot standby is specified, the failure characteristics do not change when the event is non-operational.
If Cold standby is specified then the event cannot fail when it is non-operational and no ageing takes
place. If Warm standby is specified then the failure rate of the event is reduced by the Non-operating
failure apportionment % for the failure model associated with the event whilst it is non-operational. In
addition, the rate of ageing is reduced according to the Non-operating ageing apportionment %
associated with the event whilst it is non-operational.

Maximum capacity
Maximum capacity values are only applicable if you are interested in production flow as well as standard
unavailability calculations. These values are used to determine the production flow through a system
when 'loss of capacity' consequences have been defined. The maximum capacity indicates the
maximum production flow through the event and is usually defined as a percentage. The user may
equate 100% capacity with a quantity and unit, such as 80 bpm. This alternative capacity value can be
set in the Simulation tab of the Project Options dialog.

Load factor
Load factors may be assigned to individual events. The load factor allows users to model additional or
reduced stress conditions during different operational phases. For example, during launch a satellite
might experience additional stresses due to high vibration and high temperature, which might affect the
components associated with the failure model during this period. A load factor of 2 will increase the
failure rate by 2 for the exponential distribution. This is equivalent to halving the MTTF. This is
described by the general expression

where = load factor

Inhibit All Tasks (non-repairable and non-maintainable)


If checked the default setting will be for all maintenance tasks associated with the component to be
disabled.

Non-operational
If checked the component will be non-operational throughout the lifetime of the system unless a rule
overrides this condition.

Rules
AWB allows the user to define rules that can be used to set the logic, standby mode, maximum capacity,
load factor, non-maintainable and non-operational status of a component by phase. The load factor,
non-maintainable and non-operational status may also be set by the state of a gate in the project.
Clicking the Add button will open the Rule Properties dialog. Here the user may select the type of
phase or state dependency required using the Type drop-down menu. If it is a phase-related rule then
the phase may be selected using the Phase drop-down menu. If phase dependency is selected for the
logic, standby mode, maximum capacity or load factor then a further field or drop-down menu will
appear where the user may enter an appropriate parameter. If it is a state-related rule then the user will
be able to select the reference gate and the required state of the reference gate.

Rules that have been defined will appear in the Rules list. Each rule is identified by an ID and
description that are automatically generated by AWB. The properties of an existing rule may be edited
by selecting the rule from the list and clicking the Edit button. The Rule Properties dialog will appear
allowing the user to edit the data entered when the rule was created.

A rule may be deleted by selecting it from the list and clicking the Remove button.

Appearance Tab

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Background color
Events may be color coded. Select the << button to open the Windows Color dialog where you can
choose the new color for the event. Select the Set to default button to return the event color to the
default setting.

Description font
To modify the font used for descriptive text select the Change font button to open the Font dialog.
Select the Set to default button to return the description font to the default setting.

Notes Tab
Each notes field allows the user to enter up to 2000 characters of text. Note field headers are defined by
the user in the Project Options dialog.

Hyperlink Tab
The user may associate hyperlinks with events in a fault tree.

Hyperlink
The link to the chosen web page or file.

Browse
Select either the Browse for file or Browse for web page button to browse for the link you require.

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Adding Labels, Notes and Hyperlinks (Fault Trees)


New labels can be added to the fault tree diagram by choosing the Add, To Diagram, Label pull-down
menu option or equivalent toolbar button. The cursor will change to a label symbol and it should be
positioned at the required point in the diagram before clicking on the left mouse button to create the
label. The user can continue to add labels whilst in this mode. To terminate this mode, select the Add,
To Diagram, Clear Add Mode pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar option, or select another
menu option.

New notes can be added to the fault tree diagram by choosing the Add, To Diagram, Note pull-down
menu option or equivalent toolbar button. The cursor will change to a note symbol and it should be
positioned at the required point in the diagram before clicking on the left mouse button to create the
note. The user can continue to add notes whilst in this mode. To terminate this mode, select the Add,
To Diagram, Clear Add Mode pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar option, or select another
menu option.

New hyperlinks can be added to the fault tree diagram by choosing the Add, To Diagram, Hyperlink
pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. The cursor will change to a hyperlink symbol and it
should be positioned at the required point in the diagram before clicking on the left mouse button to
create the hyperlink. The user can continue to add hyperlinks whilst in this mode. To terminate this
mode, select the Add, To Diagram, Clear Add Mode pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar
option, or select another menu option.

Hyperlinks may also be directly assigned to gates and primary events in the diagram using the Gate
Properties and Primary Event Properties dialogs. To view directly assigned hyperlinks in the diagram
users must set the FT Pop-up mode to Hyperlink in the View tab of the Project Options dialog.

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Editing Label Properties


To edit the properties of a label either double-click on the label in the diagram, or select the label in the
diagram and choose the Edit, Properties pull-down menu option.

When editing a label, the user will be presented with the Label Properties dialog, allowing label
attributes to be modified.

Type
Here the user may change a label to a note or hyperlink.

Horizontal alignment
The Horizontal alignment option allows the user to choose how text will be aligned within the label
frame in the RBD. Options are Left, Center and Right alignment.

Border
The Border check-box determines whether the label has a border.

Width
The width of the label in diagram coordinates. The default width is 100.

Height
The height of the label in diagram coordinates. The default height is 60.

Bitmap label
If the Bitmap label check-box is selected then the specified bitmap will be displayed within the label
frame in the RBD.

Bitmap
The Bitmap combo-box will only be enabled if the Bitmap label option is checked. The combo-box
allows the user to select the bitmap to appear in the label.

Label text
Label text will appear inside the label frame in the RBD. If a bitmap label is specified then the text will
be replaced by the bitmap.

Change font
Selection of the Change font button will prompt Availability Workbench (AWB) to display a standard
Windows Font dialog, allowing the user to choose the required font for the label. Select the Set font to
default button to return the label font to the default setting.

Background color
The background color of a label may be customized by a user. Select the << button to open the
Windows Color dialog where you can choose the new color for the label background. Select the Set to
default button to return the label color to the default setting.

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AvSim Module

Editing Note Properties


To edit the properties of a note either double-click on the note in the diagram, or select the note in the
diagram and choose the Edit, Properties pull-down menu option.

When editing a note, the user will be presented with the Note Properties dialog, allowing note attributes
to be modified.

Type
Here the user may change a note to a label or hyperlink.

Note
Note text that will appear when you hover the mouse cursor over the note in the RBD.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Editing Hyperlink Properties


To edit the properties of a hyperlink either double-click on the hyperlink in the diagram, or select the
hyperlink in the diagram and choose the Edit, Properties pull-down menu option.

When editing a hyperlink, the user will be presented with the Hyperlink Properties dialog, allowing
hyperlink attributes to be modified.

Type
Here the user may change a hyperlink to a label or note.

Hyperlink
The link to the chosen web page or file.

Browse
Click either the Browse file or Browse web page button to browse for the link you require.

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AvSim Module

Using Pages (Fault Tree)


Large fault trees can become difficult to view and understand and therefore a paging facility is available
in the AvSim module of Availability Workbench (AWB). This facility allows the user to split the tree into
manageable parts and to place each part on a separate page.

To create a new page, the user should select a gate in the diagram below which any lower parts of the
diagram are required to appear on a new page. Use the Edit, Properties pull-down menu option or
double-click on the gate to access the Gate Properties dialog.

The Page check-box should then be set on and, when the OK button is selected, the dialog will be
dismissed and the new page will be created. The name of the gate at the top of the new page will be
added to the list in the Fault tree page selector above the right-hand window. The new page will also
be added below the Fault Tree Pages node in the project tree control.

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Moving Diagram Objects


The position of gates, events and labels in a fault tree diagram can be modified after the initial
positioning during their creation. Any connections in the diagram will be modified to account for the
changing position of gates and events.

The first method of moving the objects is to select an object and then use the mouse to drag the object
to a new position. When an object is selected, a 'drag' cursor icon appears at the top left corner of the
object. This icon may be used to drag the object around the diagram. When the cursor is moved over
the icon, it too changes to the familiar 'drag' cursor. If the left button is then pressed down, the object
will move around with the cursor. When the left button is released, the object will remain in its current
position.

The second method of moving objects is to use the options on the Shift pull-down menu, or their
equivalent keyboard combinations.

These options move the selected object or group of objects by a fixed amount.

It is possible to restore any offsets that have been manually incorporated into the diagram by choosing
either the Clear Visible Offsets or Clear All Offsets options. The former will remove any offsets
currently visible on the screen, whilst the latter removes all offsets in the diagram. The Auto Compress
with Offsets option will reduce the offsets to fit as much of the fault tree into the visible diagram area as
possible, without allowing objects to overlap.

A selected gate showing the drag icon at the top left of the selection

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AvSim Module

Diagram Cut, Copy, Paste and Delete


The cut and copy facilities transfer the selected objects to the clipboard. The cut facility also removes
the selections from the diagram.

There are two distinct paste facilities. The standard paste facility makes an exact copy of the clipboard
contents, whilst 'paste special' copies the structure below gates and creates unique names for the
copied objects.

These features can be accessed from the Edit pull-down menu or the equivalent keyboard
combinations.

Selected objects can be deleted by choosing the Edit, Delete pull-down menu option or its equivalent
keystroke.

The undo facility allows the user to override the last edit action. The maximum number of undos that
may be performed can be set in the Undo tab of the Application Options dialog.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Finding Gates and Events


You can locate a particular gate or event in the fault tree diagram by selecting the appropriate option on
the Find pull-down menu.

On selection of the Find option Availability Workbench (AWB) will display the Find dialog. This dialog
contains a list of the gates or events in the current project. Events may be filtered by their failure model
associations by selecting a failure model from the list at the top of the dialog.

Select the gate or event in the displayed list and then select one of the following options.

Show First
On selection of this option AWB will display the first occurrence of the selected gate or event in the
diagram. If necessary, AWB will automatically change the displayed fault tree page.

Show Next
On selection of this option AWB will display the next occurrence of the selected gate or event in the
diagram. If necessary, AWB will automatically change the displayed fault tree page.

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AvSim Module

Common Cause Failures


A common cause failure is the failure of more than one component, sub-system or system due to the
same common cause. Availability Workbench (AWB) allows users to specify common cause failures in
RBD and fault tree diagrams simply by copying and pasting the appropriate RBD block or fault tree gate
or event to the affected part of the diagram. RBD blocks and fault tree gates and events with the same
name will be treated as the same failure event during the simulation.

It is important to represent common cause failures correctly in the RBD or fault tree diagram as they
often make a substantial contribution to the unavailability of systems that contain redundancy. For
example, suppose that a common electrical supply is used to power 2 pumps in a standby arrangement.
Failure of the common electrical supply would render both pumps unavailable at the same time. If the
reliability of the electrical supply were comparable to the reliability of each pump then the beneficial
effects of employing a redundant configuration would be almost completely negated.

To illustrate how AWB may be used to model common cause failures of this type, let us consider the 2-
pump example described above. In order to represent the correct logical behavior of the common cause
failure, we could use the following RBD or fault tree diagrams:

In the diagrams above, the common cause failure is given the same block or event ID (use copy and
paste to achieve this result). AWB recognizes that the two blocks or events labelled POWER represent
the same failure event, simply because they have the same ID. Alternatively, we could model the same
logical behavior in the following way.

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There is no logical difference between the two sets of diagrams as they both indicate that failure of the
power supply on its own will render the two-pump sub-system unavailable. However, in more
complicated examples, say where the power supply affects many diverse systems, it is more convenient
to repeat the common cause event.

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AvSim Module

Standby Arrangements
Parallel RBD arrangements or fault tree AND gates may be used to represent standby systems of
components. Availability Workbench (AWB) also allows the user to specify hot, cold or warm standby
parameters that permit the modelling of increased mean time to failures for components that are not
operating at any given time.

For example, consider a 2-pump sub-system where the secondary pump remains in standby if the
primary pump is operating. The failure logic of this sub-system may be represented by a RBD or a fault
tree diagram:

Both the RBD and fault tree diagrams indicate that both pumps must fail for the sub-system to fail.

If the mean time to failure (MTTF) of the secondary pump (pump B) is increased when it is in standby to
pump A then there is a dependency between the failure characteristics of the two pumps which must be
taken into account when calculating the unavailability of the sub-system. The simulation process
automatically takes this dependency into account by increasing the MTTF (and hence reducing the
failure rate) of the secondary pump when it is not required to operate.

In order for AWB to take account of cold (non-operating infinite MTTF which is equivalent to a failure
rate of zero) and warm (non-operating MTTF greater than operating MTTF) standby arrangements, the
program must first know which of the two pumps is the primary (normally operating) pump and which
pump is the secondary (normally in standby) pump. This is done simply by placing the primary pump
above the secondary pump in a RBD. In a fault tree diagram, the event representing the primary pump
failure must appear to the left of the event representing the secondary pump failure.

AWB also needs to know whether a component will be in hot, cold or warm standby and the MTTF to
apply in warm standby situations. For RBDs, this may be done by first selecting the appropriate option
from the Standby mode option list in the Rules tab of the Block Properties dialog representing the
secondary component. The Block Properties dialog is revealed by double-clicking the left mouse
button with the cursor over the block representing the secondary component failure. For fault trees, this
may be done by first selecting the appropriate option, from the Standby mode option list in the Rules
tab of the Event Properties dialog, representing the secondary component. The Primary Event
Properties dialog is revealed by double-clicking the left mouse button with the cursor over the event
representing the secondary component failure. If the warm standby option is selected for a secondary
standby component, the standby MTTF must also be specified. This is done by modifying the Non-
operating failure apportionment property for the failure model associated with the secondary
component. This parameter may be accessed in the Failure Model Properties dialog (Failure tab).
This parameter is expressed as a percentage value. For example, indicating a value of 20% will result
in AWB applying a failure rate that is 20% of the normal failure rate when the component is not
operating. This increases the mean time to failure by a factor of 5. This may be expressed as a general
expression:

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Availability Workbench V3.0

where = warm standby failure apportionment %

AWB models more complicated standby arrangements using the same methods. For example, the
following 2 out of 3 voting arrangement indicates that the lower line of blocks (C1 and C2) will be in
standby if the components represented by the first two lines of blocks (A1, A2, B1, B2) are all operating.
If C1 and C2 have different MTTFs when they are not operating then the user should modify their
standby types and apply the appropriate warm standby failure apportionment to the failure models
associated with the two blocks.

In addition to specifying a different mean time to failure for a component when it is in standby, it may
also be appropriate to reduce the speed at which it ages when it is in standby. This would only be
appropriate if the component exhibits ageing characteristics, i.e. the Weibull model has been chosen to
represent its failure characteristics. AWB allows this to be done by allowing the user to specify a Non-
operating ageing apportionment value for a given failure model. This parameter may be accessed in
the Failure Model Properties dialog (Failure tab). This value is expressed as a percentage value and
reduces the age of a component when it is in standby. For example, if a value of 60% is specified, the
age of the component will only be increased by 60% of the actual elapsed time during a simulation when
it is in standby.

Local Standby
Local standby flags are used to control when a standby block is required to ‘start-up’ to replace the
functionality of a failed block in the RBD. Local standby flags are normally only needed when modelling
throughput capacity. Consider the small system below. Unless the user sets a local standby flag, AWB
will assume that block C will be in standby when Block A is working and block B is failed. This is
because, from a traditional availability point of view, the system is ‘in service’ with just A working.
However, if we were modelling throughput, this behavior would result in the system operating at 60%
capacity only. If we set the local standby flag on for node ‘X’, the program will treat the lower parallel
arrangement (block B and block C) as if it was independent from block A from the point of view of
determining the standby status of C. Now when block B fails, block C will start-up to replace the lost
capacity.

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AvSim Module

Operational Capacity Target


Alternatively, if a specific operational capacity has been set for a node or gate, the standby blocks or
events will be switched on in order to reach the specified capacity level. The standby components will
be switched on in top to bottom order for RBD blocks and left to right order for fault tree gates.

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Failure Models
Failure Models - Overview
Failure models describe the basic failure and maintenance characteristics of components. They are
assigned to individual component blocks in a RBD or primary events in a fault tree diagram.

Failure models may be added to a project using the Add, Resources, Failure Model pull-down menu
option. Alternatively they may be created in the Block Properties dialog (for RBDs) or the Primary
Event Properties dialog (for fault trees).

Selected failure models in the project tree may be modified via the Edit, Properties pull-down menu or
in the Block Properties dialog or the Primary Event Properties dialog.

See Also

General Properties
Failure
Maintenance
Alarm
Commission
Redesign
Notes
Strategy

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AvSim Module

Failure Models - General Properties


Failure model general properties may be accessed from the General tab of the Failure Model
Properties dialog.

ID
A unique identifier for the failure model of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Type
The type assigned to the failure model. Failure model types are used to organize failure models into
groups. If a project contains many failure models then this will greatly assist in locating a failure model in
the project tree.

Description
A description for the failure model of no more than 255 characters.

Detection method
This field describes the method used to detect the failure. Up to 2000 characters of text are allowed.

Compensating provisions
This field describes the compensating provisions for the failure. Up to 2000 characters of text are
allowed.

Remarks
This is a descriptive field of up to 2000 characters.

See Also

Overview
Failure
Maintenance
Alarm
Commission
Redesign
Notes
Strategy

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Failure Models - Failure


Failure model failure properties may be accessed from the Failure tab of the Failure Model Properties
dialog.

Weibull set
Users may link a failure model to a Weibull set created in the Weibull module of Availability Workbench
(AWB). A failure model that is linked to a Weibull set will obtain the distribution type and parameters
directly from the Weibull set. This allows users to analyze historical failure data and directly connect this
data to the failure model. As historical data is updated, AWB will automatically update the distribution
parameters for the associated failure models.

Distribution
The Distribution combo-box specifies the failure distribution to be associated with the failure model.
Options are

 Exponential
 Weibull
 Bi-Weibull
 Tri-Weibull
 Fixed
 Lognormal
 Normal
 Buffer
 Phased Bi-Weibull
 Phased Tri-Weibull

These distributions are used in the Monte Carlo simulation to sample times to failure of the component.

The exponential distribution represents the case where the failure rate is constant over time. The user
inputs the inverse of the failure rate in the Mean time to failure field. The cumulative failure distribution
at time t is given by

where  = constant failure rate

The Weibull options relate to the number of three-parameter Weibull distributions to be used to sample
the time to failure of the component. The user can choose to have one, two or three distributions that
are then combined to represent the three failure modes in the well-known bathtub curve for the failure
rate of a component. The first mode represents early failures during the 'burn-in' period, the second
mode is the 'useful-life' period when the failures are random and the final mode is the 'wear-out' mode
for which the failure rate rises. In the AvSim module the user has the option of choosing to model one,
two or three of the bathtub periods. The user can input the values for the three-parameter Weibull
distribution for the chosen modes. The cumulative failure distribution at time t for the three-parameter
Weibull distribution is given by

where  = characteristic life parameter (Eta in the dialog)


 = shape parameter (Beta in the dialog)
 = location parameter (Gamma in the dialog)

The fixed distribution is intended for use when the time to failure is definitely known. The user is required
to enter a fixed time to failure if this distribution is selected.

If the user chooses the lognormal or normal distributions then the user will be expected to enter a mean
time to failure and standard deviation.

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AvSim Module

The buffer distribution model has been added to allow users to model stored capacity during a
simulation. For example, a tank may hold enough liquid to supply flow in a process plant when the
normal pumped supply is unavailable due to a fault in the system. The tank can only supply liquid for a
limited period of time. In the AvSim module, you may add a block in parallel to the normal supply route
to represent the tank in the RBD. The new block would be associated with the buffer failure distribution.
When the buffer option is selected, two fields will appear. One will allow the user to enter the Time to
empty buffer. Another will allow the user to specify the Time to fill buffer. By setting the Base buffer
depletion rate on capacity requirement check-box on in the Simulation tab of the Project Options
dialog, the program will determine the required capacity from the buffer, based on the node or gate
operational capacity target. The required capacity will be taken as a proportion of the buffer’s maximum
capacity to determine how quickly the buffer should empty. The Time to empty buffer entered by the
user for a buffer therefore refers to the time to empty the buffer when the maximum buffer capacity is
required.

For the exponential, lognormal and normal distributions the user must supply the value of the mean time
to failure.

Buffer fill mode


This combo-box will be displayed if the buffer distribution is selected. If the Buffer fill rate independent
of system state option is selected the buffer fill rate will not be affected by the system state. If the
Buffer fill prohibited if system out-of-service option is selected the buffer will not fill when the
immediate system that contains the block or event is out-of-service. If the Buffer fill rate dependent on
system capacity option is selected the buffer will fill at a reduced rate proportional to the capacity of the
immediate system that contains the block or event. If the Buffer fill rate dependent on reverse system
capacity option is selected the buffer will fill at a reduced rate inversely proportional to the capacity of
the immediate system that contains the block or event.

Standard deviation
If either a lognormal or normal distribution is selected then the standard deviation must be entered.

Eta, Beta and Gamma


The characteristic lifetime (eta), shape (beta) and the time shift (gamma) parameters need to be entered
if a Weibull distribution has been chosen for the task.

Non-operating failure apportionment %


The non-operating failure apportionment indicates how the failure rates of components associated with
the failure model will be adjusted when they are not operational. An apportionment value of 50%
indicates that the failure rate should be halved or mean time to failure doubled when it is non-
operational.

Non-operating ageing apportionment %


The non-operating ageing apportionment indicates how the age of components associated with the
failure model will be adjusted when they are not operational. An apportionment value of 50% indicates
that the component ages at only half the normal rate when it is non-operational.

Dormant failure
If the dormant failure check box is selected, failed equipments will not be repaired until after an
inspection or planned maintenance task takes place. This flag should be set for standby components
that are only required to operate on demand and whose failures remain hidden until an inspection takes
place.

Start-up failure probability


The probability that a failure will occur when the component is switching from a non-operational to an
operational state.

See Also

Overview
General Properties
Maintenance
Alarm

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Commission
Redesign
Notes
Strategy

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AvSim Module

Failure Models - Maintenance


Failure model maintenance properties may be accessed from the Maintenance tab of the Failure
Model Properties dialog.

The maintenance tasks assigned to a failure model are categorized into one of three possible types –
corrective tasks, planned maintenance tasks and inspection tasks.

Corrective tasks are performed when a random failure takes place or when an inspection reveals a
hidden failure.

Planned maintenance tasks may be performed at fixed intervals, when the age of an equipment reaches
a given value or when an opportunity arises. Planned maintenance may involve the replacement of
ageing equipment or minor tasks such as lubrication. Planned maintenance may also be performed
when an inspection predicts that a failure is about to occur (predictive maintenance).

Inspection tasks may be performed at fixed intervals, when the age of an equipment reaches a given
value or when an opportunity arises. Inspection tasks are performed to detect an imminent failure (and
hence allow a planned maintenance task to be scheduled to prevent the failure) or to detect a dormant
(hidden) failure. Hidden failures are normally associated with standby equipment.

Copying Tasks from a Task Library


You may copy tasks from an attached library by selecting the Copy Task From Library button. If you
wish to copy a task from elsewhere in the current project select the Use current project option and then
select the Copy Task From Project button. If you prefer to filter tasks using the task group hierarchy
then first select the Use task group hierarchy button. If you have multiple libraries attached you will
also need to select the appropriate library from the Task library combo-box.

For more information on how to create task libraries see the Task Library section.

See Also

Overview
General Properties
Failure
Alarm
Commission
Redesign
Notes
Strategy

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Failure Models - Alarm


Failure model alarm properties may be accessed from the Alarm tab of the Failure Model Properties
dialog.

Monitoring equipment may be installed to automatically indicate a failure is about to occur without an
inspection by a maintenance crew.

The following parameters constitute the data for condition monitoring equipment.

Install condition alarm


Indicates that a condition alarm has been installed

P-F curve
The P-F curve, in combination with the P-F interval and detection probability, determines whether the
condition alarm will predict a future failure, and if so, when. The P-F curve determines the warning time
provided by the alarm before the actual failure. The probability density function for the detection warning
time is given by:

Exponential Distribution:

Linear Distribution:

for

for

Step Distribution:

for

for

P-F interval
The P-F interval for the alarm. The P-F interval provides a measure of the warning time given by the
alarm for a future random failure of the component.

Detection probability
Indicates the probability that the alarm will detect the failure.

Capital cost
The capital cost of the alarm for the system lifetime.

Cost rate
The cost rate associated with the alarm over the system lifetime.

Description
A description of the alarm of up to 2000 characters may be entered.

SCADA tag ID
A SCADA tag identifier of up to 40 alpha-numeric characters.

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AvSim Module

See Also

Overview
General Properties
Failure
Maintenance
Commission
Redesign
Notes
Strategy

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Failure Models - Commission


Failure model commission properties may be accessed from the Commission tab of the Failure Model
Properties dialog.

Commissioning a component eliminates wear-in failures and is appropriate where the Weibull
distribution indicates high failure rates during the early life of a component. Commissioning effectively
sets the age of the component to the commissioning interval when it is installed in the system.

Commission
Indicates that commissioning will be performed.

Period
Indicates the length of the commissioning interval.

Cost per commission


The cost every time a component is commissioned.

Cost rate
The cost rate associated with the commissioning interval.

Description
A description of the commissioning details of up to 2000 characters may be entered.

See Also

Overview
General Properties
Failure
Maintenance
Alarm
Redesign
Notes
Strategy

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AvSim Module

Failure Models - Redesign


Failure model redesign properties may be accessed from the Redesign tab of the Failure Model
Properties dialog.

Redesign
Indicates that redesign is required.

Redesign capital cost


The capital cost of redesign.

Cost rate
The cost rate associated with redesign over the system lifetime.

Description
A description of the redesign details of up to 2000 characters may be entered.

See Also

Overview
General Properties
Failure
Maintenance
Alarm
Commission
Notes
Strategy

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Failure Models - Notes


Failure model notes may be accessed from the Notes tab of the Failure Model Properties dialog.

Each notes field allows the user to enter up to 2000 characters of text. Users may customize note
headers (the labels used to identify a note category) using the Notes tab in the Project Options dialog.

See Also

Overview
General Properties
Failure
Maintenance
Alarm
Commission
Redesign
Strategy

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AvSim Module

Failure Models - Strategy


Failure model strategy properties may be accessed from the Strategy tab of the Failure Model
Properties dialog.

Maintenance and design strategy


The Maintenance and design strategy list allows users to view and modify the current strategy
associated with the failure model. Scheduled maintenance tasks associated with the failure model are
listed together with the status of the alarm, commission and redesign strategies. The list allows users to
quickly set the enabled status and specify intervals for tasks. More detailed information must be
specified in the appropriate tabs of the Failure Model Properties dialog.

Edit task
Users may quickly navigate to the Task Properties dialog for an existing task by selecting the task in
the list and then selecting the Edit task button.

See Also

Overview
General Properties
Failure
Maintenance
Alarm
Commission
Redesign
Notes

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Phases
Phases - Overview
Availability Workbench (AWB) does not require the user to define any phases unless special conditions
need to be applied for different time intervals during the simulation process. However, by defining
phases the user may

 Prohibit maintenance activities during certain periods


 Specify components as being non-operational during certain time periods
 Modify failure rates during certain time periods
 Modify consequences during certain time periods
 Change the RBD or fault tree diagram logic during certain time periods
 Rotate equipment when crossing a phase boundary

For example, maintenance activities may need to be prohibited if the system becomes non-repairable
and non-maintainable during different phases of its lifetime. Take the case of aircraft systems, which will
generally not be repairable during a flight. As a further example, scheduled and unscheduled
maintenance crews for a manufacturing plant safety system may only be available during certain shifts.

Note that if a given phase is specified as being non-maintainable at project level (rules may be assigned
under the Simulation tab of the Project Options dialog), AWB will prohibit all scheduled and
unscheduled maintenance activities during that phase (corrective and planned maintenance and
inspections) for every component in the project.

During certain phases of a system’s lifetime, components or even an entire system might be considered
to be non-operational. For example, during winter months the air conditioning system in a car might not
be required to operate. During such periods, the components are effectively in standby. If the standby
mean times to failure (MTTF) for the system components differ significantly from the normal operational
MTTFs, the overall reliability predictions for the air conditioning system would need to take these phase
differences into account. AWB allows the user to specify that either individual components or the entire
system is operational (the default) or non-operational during a given phase. If a component is specified
to be non-operational during a given phase then AWB takes note of the Standby type setting for the
associated RBD block or fault tree event. If cold standby is specified, the component will not fail during
non-operational phases. If warm standby is specified, the MTTF for the component is increased using
the Non-operating failure apportionment property for the failure model associated with the
component. This property may be accessed in the Failure Model Properties dialog (Failure tab). This
parameter is expressed as a percentage value. Indicating a value of 20% will result in AWB applying a
failure rate that is 20% of the normal failure rate when the component is not operating. This increases
the mean time to failure by a factor of 5. This may be expressed as a general expression:

where = warm standby failure apportionment %

Project rules (set in the Simulation tab of the Project Options dialog) allow users to specify an overall
load factor that will be applied to all failure rates in the project during a specified phase. This factor is
used to effectively reduce or extend the mean time to failures (MTTFs) for all components in the project
during that phase. This load factor allows users to model additional or reduced stress conditions during
different operational phases. For example, during launch, a satellite might experience additional
stresses, due to high vibration and high temperature, that might affect the MTTFs of certain components
during this period. This may be modelled by defining a phase representing the launch period and
applying a load factor greater than 1 using the project rules. An adjustment factor of 2 will increase the
failure rate by 2 for the exponential distribution. This is equivalent to halving the MTTF. This is
described by the general expression:

where = load factor

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AvSim Module

Phases may be defined as belonging to different phase groups. Phase groups run concurrently. For
example, let us assume we define two phase groups, named A and B, and assign 3 phases to group A
and 2 phases to Group B. The 3 phases in group A are mutually exclusive of one another and will be
traversed cyclically during the simulation. Group A phases will be totally independent from the 2 group
B phases that will also be traversed cyclically during the simulation.

Phase groups appear underneath the Phases node in the project tree. You may change the description
of a phase group by double-clicking the mouse over the phase group in the project tree, or highlighting
the phase group and choosing Edit Properties from the right click pop-up menu.

See Also

Phase Properties
Phase Groups

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Phase Properties
Phase properties may be accessed from the Phase Properties dialog.

ID
The phase ID uniquely identifies the phase. Up to 40 alphanumeric characters are permitted.

Group
Phase group to which the phase belongs. Phase groups may run concurrently with one another.

Description
Descriptive text may be entered for the phase. Up to 255 characters are allowed.

Duration
The Duration is the time length of the phase. If the sum of the duration of all phases is less than the
system lifetime then phases will be repeated cyclically. Take as an example a project with two phases
each with duration of 1000 time units and a system lifetime of 5000 time units. The simulation would
start in the first phase, switch to second phase after 1000 time units and then switch back to the first
phase after 1000 time units, after which the cycle would be repeated until the system lifetime was
reached.

Notes
Each notes field allows the user to enter up to 2000 characters of text. Users may customize note
headers (the labels used to identify a note category) using the Notes tab in the Project Options dialog.

See Also

Overview
Phase Groups

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AvSim Module

Phase Groups
Phase group properties may be accessed from the Phase Group Properties dialog.

Phase groups are used to group together mutually exclusive phases that run cyclically over the system
lifetime. A phase that belongs to a phase group may run concurrently with a phase from a different
phase group.

ID
The phase group ID uniquely identifies the phase group. Up to 40 alphanumeric characters are
permitted.

Description
Descriptive text may be entered for the phase group. Up to 255 characters are allowed.

See Also

Overview
Phase Properties

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Consequences
Consequences - Overview
In addition to predicting system failure parameters such as unavailability, unreliability, number of
expected failures etc., Availability Workbench (AWB) also allows the user to define consequences that
quantify the impact of system failures on safety, costs, operations and the environment.

Consequences may be defined and assigned to system failures in a RBD or a fault tree. If you are
using a RBD to represent the failure logic of your system, you will be able to assign consequences to
system and component failures by double-clicking on a block in the RBD. This will reveal the Block
Properties dialog that contains a Consequence selection list. If you are using a fault tree diagram to
represent the failure logic of your system, you can assign consequences to any of the gates or events in
the fault tree by selecting the appropriate consequence in the Gate Properties or Event Properties
dialog.

There are two different types of consequences:

 Total outage consequences


 Loss of capacity consequences

Total outage consequences should be used when performing a traditional availability study using RBD
or fault tree diagrams. Events in the RBDs represent failure or success (out-of-service or in-service).

Loss of capacity consequences are appropriate where the RBD or fault tree diagram is being used to
model production flow at intermediate levels (e.g. 10%, 20%, 40%, 70% etc.). This is a special use of
RBD and fault tree diagrams.

Total Outage Consequences


When defining a total outage consequence, the user must specify the financial cost of the consequence,
together with severity values for safety, operational and environmental impact. Severity values are
weighting values whose precise meaning will depend on the type of system being analyzed. It is up to
the user to decide what these weightings should actually represent. For example, the safety weighting
might represent ‘probable number of deaths’ or ‘probable number of injuries’. The environmental
weighting might represent ‘amount of toxic material released’. The operational weighting might
represent ‘total loss of mission’ or ‘partial loss of mission’. Many consequences will not have any safety,
operational or environmental implications. Where this is the case, the severity values should be given
the default value of zero.

As the same total outage consequence may be assigned to more than one RBD system failure or more
than one fault tree gate, the results provided for each consequence after a simulation is performed
represent the accumulation of the data for all failures resulting in that consequence.

Relevant results for outage consequences are presented in the form of the following parameters:

 Total duration over lifetime


 Total number of occurrences over the lifetime
 Cost over lifetime
 Safety criticality over lifetime
 Operational criticality over lifetime
 Environmental criticality over lifetime

These parameters are determined from

where
= total consequence duration over lifetime

= total down time over lifetime of the ith system associated with the consequence

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Note that the total duration may be greater than the system lifetime if a single consequence is assigned
to more than one system failure.

where
= expected number of occurrences for consequence over the lifetime
= expected number of occurrences over lifetime of the ith system associated with consequence

where
= total outage consequence cost over lifetime

= total outage consequence cost rate

= total outage consequence cost per occurrence

where
= consequence criticality over lifetime

= consequence severity rate

= consequence severity per occurrence

The above expression applies to safety, operational and environmental criticality values.

Loss of Capacity Consequences


Loss of capacity consequences respond to the production flow through the RBD block or fault tree gate
associated with the consequence. If a consequence is assigned to a sub-system block then the mean
capacity values calculated for the consequence will represent the mean production capacity output from
the sub-system block. The mean production capacity flow into the sub-system block will therefore
influence the flow out of the sub-system block.

The cost of lost production is determined from the following expressions:

if

if

Where

= Cost rate per % loss of capacity

= Current production level %


= time at production level

= Additional cost rate per % loss of capacity below target production level

= Target production level

Relevant results for capacity consequences are presented in the form of the following parameters:

 Mean Capacity over lifetime


 Capacity standard deviation over lifetime
 Estimated mean capacity error

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Extended Outage Cost Penalties


In certain practical situations, the cost penalty rate associated with a consequence may vary with the
duration of an individual outage. AWB allows you to specify up to 4 step rate changes for a
consequence. For total outage consequences you may specify the change in cost rate directly at
different time points. For capacity consequences, the rate per % loss is specified at different time
points. Note that the time values specified relate to the duration of an individual outage or capacity loss
occurrence during a simulation.

Creating and Editing Consequences


Consequences can be added to a project by selecting the Add, Resource, Consequence pull-down
menu option. Selected consequences can be modified by highlighting them in the project tree and
choosing the Edit, Properties pull-down menu option, or removed by choosing the Edit, Delete pull-
down menu option. The Add and Edit options result in the Consequence Properties dialog being
displayed. This dialog allows the user to specify the attributes associated with a consequence and
specify rules to modify these parameters during different phases.

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AvSim Module

Consequences - General Properties


Consequence general properties may be accessed from the General tab of the Consequence
Properties dialog.

ID
The ID uniquely defines the consequence. Up to 40 alphanumeric characters may be specified.

Type
The type assigned to the consequence. Consequence types are used to organize consequences into
groups. If a project contains many consequences then this will greatly assist in locating a consequence
in the project tree.

Description
A text description of up to 255 characters may be associated with each consequence.

Total outage consequence


Total outage consequences should be used when performing a traditional availability study using RBD
or fault tree diagrams. Events in the RBD represent failure or success (out-of-service or in-service).

Loss of capacity consequence


Loss of capacity consequences are appropriate where the RBD or fault tree diagram is being used to
model production flow at intermediate levels (e.g. 10%, 20%, 40%, 70% etc.). This is a special use of
RBD and fault tree diagrams.

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Consequences - Cost
Consequence cost properties may be accessed from the Cost tab of the Consequence Properties
dialog.

Cost rate (Total outage consequences)


The cost per unit time incurred over the duration of the consequence

Cost per occurrence (Total outage consequences)


The cost incurred on each occurrence of an event that results in the consequence.

Cost rate per unit loss of capacity (Loss of capacity consequences)


The cost per unit time for each unit loss of capacity.

Additional cost rate per unit loss below target (Loss of capacity consequences)
The cost per unit time for each unit loss below the value specified in the Target production level field.

Target production level (Loss of capacity consequences)


The target production level below which the additional cost rate will be applied.

Extended outage cost penalties


In certain practical situations, the cost penalty associated with a consequence may vary with the
duration of an individual outage. Availability Workbench (AWB) allows you to specify up to 4 step rate
changes for a consequence. For total outage consequences you may specify the change in cost rate
directly at different time points. For capacity consequences, the rate per % loss is specified at different
time points. Note that the time values specified relate to the duration of an individual outage or capacity
loss occurrence during a simulation.

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AvSim Module

Consequences - Severity
Consequence severity properties may be accessed from the Severity tab of the Consequence
Properties dialog.

Severity values apply to total outage consequences only.

Safety severity
The safety severity rate and severity per occurrence for the consequence.

Operational severity
The operational severity rate and severity per occurrence for the consequence.

Environmental severity
The environmental severity rate and severity per occurrence for the consequence.

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Consequences - Rules
Consequence rule properties may be accessed from the Rules tab of the Consequence Properties
dialog.

Consequence rules are used to modify consequence parameters during different phases. Currently
defined rules for the consequence are displayed in the Rules list.

Add
Used to add a rule. Selecting the Add button will open the Rule Properties dialog.

Edit
Used to edit a rule. By selecting an existing rule in the list and clicking the Edit button users may open
the Rule Properties dialog.

Remove
Used to remove a selected rule.

Consequence Rules
Consequence rules may be defined in the Rule Properties dialog accessed by selecting the Add or
Edit buttons in the Rules tab of the Consequence Properties dialog. Consequence rules modify
consequence properties during different phases. To define a new rule in the Rule Properties dialog
select the rule type, phase and modified property value followed by selection of the OK button. The rule
will then be displayed in the Rules list of the Consequence Properties dialog.

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AvSim Module

Consequences - Notes
Consequence notes may be accessed from the Notes tab of the Consequence Properties dialog.

Each notes field allows the user to enter up to 2000 characters of text. Users may customize note
headers (the labels used to identify a note category) using the Notes tab in the Project Options dialog.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Bitmaps
Bitmaps - Overview
Bitmaps are used to enhance the display in RBD and fault tree diagrams. They may be assigned to
labels and then moved or resized. They may also be assigned to individual blocks in a RBD.

The bitmap image must reside in a bitmap file. Availability Workbench does not store the actual bitmaps
in a project. It stores a reference to the bitmap file.

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Bitmap Properties
Bitmap properties may be accessed from the Bitmap Properties dialog.

ID
Bitmaps are identified by a unique name consisting of up to 40 characters. New bitmaps are created
with a default name that can be changed by the user.

Type
The type assigned to the bitmap. Bitmap types are used to organize bitmaps into groups. If a project
contains many bitmaps then this will greatly assist in locating a bitmap in the project tree.

Description
Users may enter a description for the bitmap of up to 255 characters.

File
The full path of the bitmap file. The file name is specified by selecting the Browse button.

Resize Frame
When selected the block or label in which the bitmap is displayed will be automatically resized to
accommodate the image.

Stretch to Frame
When selected the bitmap will be automatically resized to fit the label or block in which it is to be
displayed.

Clip to Frame
When selected the bitmap will be automatically cropped to fit the label or block in which it is to be
displayed.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Performing a Simulation
Model Integrity Validation
Before performing a system simulation run in the AvSim module, Availability Workbench (AWB) will
validate data to ensure that the model data specified by the user is valid.

If any fatal errors are encountered then AWB will display the Model Integrity Verification dialog which
lists the errors. Users may also request a validation by selecting the Simulation, Verify Model Integrity
pull-down menu option. Objects directly associated with an error may be edited by selecting the error
message in the list and then selecting the Edit button.

The following integrity checks are made:

Check for circular logic


Circular logic errors are produced when the user constructs an invalid logical arrangement in the RBD or
fault tree diagram under construction.

For RBDs, circular logic errors will occur if a block is copied within itself. For example, if a block named
XYZ is copied to the clipboard and the Page Down facility is then selected to define the blocks that
constitute the sub-system XYZ followed by selection of the paste facility to draw block XYZ on its own
sub-system page, the verification process would flag a circular logic error.

For fault tree diagrams, a circular logic error will occur if a gate is repeated in the tree structure so that it
feeds into itself. For example, if a gate G1 has 2 inputs G2 and G3, and in turn G2 has 2 inputs G1 and
G4, G1 is effectively feeding into itself in the diagram.

Check for multiple RBD inputs and outputs


Each page of the RBD must have a single input node or block and a single output node or block.

Check for component blocks and primary events with failure models not set
A warning message is produced if no failure model is associated with a component block or primary
event.

Check for systems with no constituent blocks


A warning message is given if top-level systems exist in the RBD with no constituent blocks.

Check capacity values


Warnings are given if capacity values exceed 100% capacity.

Check for invalid vote numbers


Invalid vote numbers are not permitted. For example a node in the RBD might be assigned a vote
number greater than the number of input connections feeding into the node.

Check for transfer gates


A warning message is given if transfer gates are located in a fault tree with no logical inputs.

Check for gates having an invalid number of inputs


Gates with an invalid number of inputs for the gate type are not permitted

Check for capacity consequences not connected to a single object


Capacity consequences must be connected to a single block, gate or primary event.

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AvSim Module

Full Simulation Run


To perform a full simulation run in the AvSim module of Availability Workbench (AWB) select the
Simulation, Start pull-down menu option or the equivalent toolbar button. If you have made any fatal
errors when constructing the project (for example, not connecting blocks in a page), AWB will display
the error messages and halt the simulation. Otherwise, the simulation will proceed. A message will also
be displayed at the bottom of the AWB window, indicating the progress of the simulation run.

If you wish to halt the simulation run before the program has reached the number of simulations
requested then select the Simulation, Stop pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. A
dialog will appear asking if you wish to complete the current simulation in order to retain results. The
user may select Yes to finish the current simulation and obtain a set of results for the partially completed
run, No to terminate the simulation run without retaining any results, or Cancel to resume the simulation
run and continue until it is complete.

See Also

Simulation Parameters

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Simulation Watch
The simulation watch facility may be accessed by selecting the Simulation, Start & Watch pull-down
menu option or equivalent toolbar button. A dialog will be displayed, allowing you to specify the type of
‘simulation watch’ you wish to perform and various other parameters.

The simulation watch facility is designed to allow you to check the logic of your system model. For
example, you may have included a parallel arrangement in your RBD diagram with warm standby
components and switching delays. You may want to check that the standby components begin to
operate when you would expect them to and that the switching delays are implemented at the correct
time.

During a ‘simulation watch’, the program proceeds with the simulation on a ‘step by step’ basis and lets
you view the status of the system at each step. The simulation process moves forward in time but halts
when there is a change of event. Information regarding the event change is displayed in the Simulation
Watch dialog (Events tab). In addition, the RBD or fault tree diagram is modified to reflect the change
of component and system status. The Spares tab of the Simulation Watch dialog shows changes in
selected spare levels through the echelon hierarchy.

Once the simulation watch process has been initiated, you may step to the next event by selecting the
Next button in the Simulation Watch dialog.

Criteria
Selection of the Total Outage criterion will prompt the program to display availability information for the
selected system. Selection of the Capacity criterion will prompt the program to display throughput levels
for the selected system.

Mode
Selection of the RBD mode will prompt the program to watch the status of the RBD system. Selection of
the Fault Tree mode will prompt the program to watch the status of the fault tree system.

System to watch
The system to be watched.

Spare to watch
The spare part to be watched.

Start time
The simulation time to start the simulation watch.

Point of failure events only


You may request the watch profile to skip events other than failure events by selecting this check-box.

System related events only


You may request the watch profile to skip events other than those relating to the specified system by
selecting this check-box.

Track RBD events in diagram


You may choose this option to track events by changing the visible diagram. In addition, the diagram
will reflect the current simulation phase.

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AvSim Module

Simulation Record
In some circumstances, you may wish to perform special calculations based on the simulated events
produced by the AvSim module of Availability Workbench (AWB). These special calculations could be
performed by an external application such as Microsoft Excel. AWB provides a special simulation
recording facility to enable users to do this. By selecting the Start & Record option from the
Simulation pull-down menu, you can specify a file to receive event data as a simulation progresses.
The ASCII data file that is then produced by AWB may be analyzed by an external application.

File to receive data


Use the Browse button to select the directory and filename that you wish the information to be stored in.

Criteria
Selection of the Total Outage criterion will prompt the program to record availability information for the
selected system. Selection of the Capacity criterion will prompt the program to record throughput levels
for the selected system.

Mode
Selection of the RBD mode will prompt the program to record the status of the RBD system. Selection of
the Fault Tree mode will prompt the program to record the status of the fault tree system.

System to record
The system for which data is to be recorded.

Start time
Define the start time of the interval you wish to record.

End time
Define the end time of the interval you wish to record.

Point of failure events only


You may request the record profile to skip events other than failure events by selecting this check-box.

System related events only


Select the System-related events only check-box to record only events affecting the chosen system.

System status change events only


Select the System status change events only check-box, to only record events affecting the status of
the chosen system.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Performance Simulation
Availability Workbench (AWB) includes a performance facility that allows users to monitor which
simulation functions are the dominant contributors to the overall simulation time. This feature is
accessed via the Simulation, Performance Run and Simulation, Performance Summary pull-down
menu options. Performance results will not be retained if the program is closed or a new project is
opened. A performance run will take longer than a normal simulation run.

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Batch Run
The AvSim module of Availability Workbench (AWB) includes a batch run facility that allows users to
define a group of project files that will be opened and analyzed in succession. This feature is accessed
via the Simulation, Batch Run menu option. On selecting this option the Batch Analysis dialog will be
displayed.

Users may add projects to the batch list by selecting the Add Project button. Once the projects to be
analyzed have been defined selection of the Start Simulations button will prompt the program to open
each project in turn, perform a simulation and then save the project together with the results of the
simulation.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Simulation Results
Simulation Results - Overview
Results Summary
Availability Workbench (AWB) computes a wide range of useful parameters during the simulation
process. These parameters may be reviewed, once a simulation is completed, by selecting the
Simulation, Results Summary pull-down menu option. Selection of this menu option will result in the
Results Summary dialog being displayed.

The summary information is split into the following categories:

Life Costs
Systems
Components
Consequences
Phases
Spares
Labor
Equipment

Summary information for each of these categories may be obtained by selecting the appropriate tab in
the Results Summary dialog.

Profiles
Results may also be viewed in the form of profiles by selecting the Plot option from the Current right
window mode menu above the right-hand window.

Viewing Results in Diagrams


You may choose to view calculated results for system blocks in a RBD diagram and gates in a fault tree
diagram. Various view options relating to calculated results may be accessed in the View tab of the
Project Options dialog.

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Simulation Results - Life Costs


Availability Workbench (AWB) provides the following summary lifetime cost parameters:

 Total labor costs


 Total corrective labor costs
 Total planned labor costs
 Total inspection labor costs
 Total equipment costs
 Total corrective equipment costs
 Total planned equipment costs
 Total inspection equipment costs
 Total spare purchase costs
 Corrective spare purchase costs
 Planned spare purchase costs
 Spare storage costs
 Spare repair costs
 Total consequence costs
 Corrective consequence costs
 Planned consequence costs
 Inspection consequence costs
 Alarm costs
 Total operational costs
 Corrective operational costs
 Planned operational costs
 Inspection operational costs
 Commission costs
 Redesign costs
 Total costs
 Safety criticality
 Operational criticality
 Environmental criticality
 Spares volume level 1
 Spares volume level 2
 Spares weight level 1
 Spares weight level 2

Parameters at the first level above appear in the life costs summary regardless of whether the Detailed
life costs box is checked. Those listed at the second level only appear when the box is checked.

Each of the above parameters are mean values calculated from repeated lifetime simulations.

Labor and equipment costs are determined from the call-out cost and cost rate parameters specified by
the user for each labor category and equipment type.

Spares purchase and repair costs are determined by applying the capital cost of each spare type to the
number of spares required during corrective and planned maintenance tasks. In addition, this will
include the initial purchase cost of the spares held in storage if the Include initial spare purchase
costs check-box is selected in the Project Options dialog (Spares tab). It also includes the
transportation cost.

Spares storage costs are determined by applying the storage costs of spares to the storage capacity
values entered by the user at site and at depot.

Miscellaneous costs are determined by applying the miscellaneous costs specified by the user for
maintenance tasks to the number of tasks performed during the simulation.

Consequence costs are only applicable where the user has associated consequences with system
failures in the RBD or fault tree model. Consequence costs are computed by summating the costs
originating from all consequences. Consequence costs are determined from the following expressions:

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For total outage consequences:

where C = consequence cost over lifetime


CR = consequence cost rate
C0 = consequence cost per occurrence
T = total consequence duration over lifetime
N = expected number of occurrences for consequence over the lifetime

For loss of capacity consequences:

if

if

where CP = cost rate per % loss of capacity


PL = Current production level %
t = time at production level
CB = additional cost rate per % loss of capacity below target production level
PT = target production level

Note that cost rates are adjusted if extended outage cost penalties have been specified.

Total costs are a simple summation of all the costs described above.

NPV Costs
If net present value (NPV) cost calculations have been applied during the simulation (users may request
a NPV calculation in the NPV tab of the Project Options dialog) then NPV life cost values will be
displayed.

Spares Volume and Weight Calculations


Spares volumes and weights represent the total volume and weight of all spares stored at the
appropriate echelon level. If Multiple sites has been checked in the Project Options dialog (Spares
tab) then the volume and weight at echelon 1 will represent the total volume and weight per site.

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AvSim Module

Simulation Results - Systems


Availability Workbench (AWB) provides system data for any of the systems or sub-systems defined in
the current project. RBD sub-systems are RBD pages that constitute a super-block at a higher level.
Fault tree sub-systems are gates that appear at the top of fault tree diagram pages. Selection of the
Systems tab of the Simulation Results dialog will reveal a list of all systems and sub-systems.
Selection of a system or sub-system in the list will result in the appropriate summary information being
displayed.

The Availability/reliability preference setting in the View tab of the Project Options dialog
determines whether availability and reliability values are displayed instead of unavailability and
unreliability values.

Definitions for each of the system parameters are given below. Note that AWB uses the term 'outage'
rather than failure in many instances. This is due to the fact that the system may be out-of-service due
to scheduled maintenance actions (if specified in the input parameters for failure models by the user) as
well as failures. If you specify that scheduled maintenance tasks do not cause an outage then you can
read 'failure' for 'outage'.

Total down time


The total down time is defined as the expected total time that the system will be out-of-service during its
lifetime.

Std total down time


This is the standard deviation of total down time values computed for different simulations.

Error % total down time


This is the estimated error in the system total down time value due to statistical variance. It is calculated
from the expression

where = standard deviation of the total down time


= number of simulations completed
= total down time

Mean capacity
The mean capacity is defined as the expected throughput that the system will be able to accommodate
over its lifetime. This may be presented as a percentage of the total input to the RBD system or in terms
of a unit defined by the user in the 'Project Options' dialog (Analysis tab).

Std mean capacity


This is the standard deviation of mean capacity values computed for different simulations.

Error % mean capacity


This is the estimated error in the mean capacity value due to statistical variance. It is calculated from
the expression

where = standard deviation of mean capacity


= number of simulations completed
= mean capacity

Mean unavailability
The mean unavailability is defined as the expected fractional time the system will be out-of-service over
its lifetime (the total time it is out-of-service divided by the total system lifetime).

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Mean availability
The mean availability is defined as the expected fractional time the system will be in service during its
lifetime (the total time it is in service divided by the total system lifetime).

Unavailability at lifetime
The unavailability at lifetime is defined as the probability that the system will be out-of-service at the end
of its lifetime.

Availability at lifetime
The availability at lifetime is defined as the probability that the system will be in service at the end of its
lifetime.

No of outages
The number of outages is defined as the expected total number of system outages that will occur
throughout the life of the system.

Std no of outages
This is the standard deviation of expected number of outages values computed for different simulations.

Error % no of outages
This is the estimated error in the number of outages value due to statistical variance. It is calculated
from the expression

where = standard deviation of number of outages


= number of simulations completed
= number of outages

F
The probability of 1 or more outages over the lifetime (F) is defined as the probability that the system will
have been out-of-service at least once during its lifetime. If outages can only be caused by failure then
this value represents the unreliability of the system.

R
The probability of zero outages over the lifetime (R) is defined as the probability that the system will not
have been out-of-service at anytime during its lifetime. If outages can only be caused by failure then
this value represents the reliability of the system.

MTTO
This is the mean time between initial system start-up and the first system outage.

MTBO
This is the mean time between consecutive system outages.

MTTR
This is the mean time it takes to restore the system to service after an outage has occurred.

Accuracy
The accuracy of simulation results is very much dependent on the number of simulations performed. As
the number of simulations is increased then the results converge in accuracy. Users may find that, for
very reliable systems, the ‘unavailability at lifetime’ value may be inaccurate unless a very large number
of simulations are performed. This is not a failing in the computer program, merely a fact of life for
calculations based on simulation methods. To illustrate the problem, consider that we are modelling a
system whose exact point unavailability at lifetime is 0.0001. Another way of expressing this is to say
that at the end of the system lifetime there is a one in ten thousand chance that the system is failed (not
that it has failed before then but that it is actually failed at that time – this is the definition of point

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AvSim Module

unavailability). We would need to perform many more than ten thousand simulations, therefore, to get
enough system lifetime failures to provide a good statistical estimate for this parameter. Fortunately, for
most analyses, the point unavailability at system lifetime is of far less interest to the end-user than the
other system parameters, such as the mean unavailability over the system lifetime. The mean
unavailability represents the fractional down-time of the system over its lifetime. During the lifetime
simulation of a repairable system there may be many system failures, even if the mean unavailability is
as low as 0.0001. Hence the statistical accuracy of this parameter would be far greater than the
accuracy of the point unavailability.

To summarize, it is important to note that the statistical accuracy of the point unavailability value for
reliable systems may be much less than the accuracy for the other predicted system parameters, unless
an extremely large number of simulations are performed. However, this parameter is generally far less
useful than the other parameters, including the mean unavailability over the system lifetime.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Simulation Results - Components


Availability Workbench (AWB) provides component data for all the non-system blocks in a RBD or all the
events in a fault tree. Selection of the Components tab of the Simulation Results dialog will reveal a
list of all the components in the current project. Selection of a component in the list will result in the
appropriate summary information being displayed.

Definitions for each of the component parameters are given below.

Total down time


The total down time is defined as the expected total time that the component will be out-of-service
during its lifetime.

Mean unavailability
The mean unavailability is defined as the expected fractional time the component will be out-of-service
over its lifetime (the total time it is out-of-service divided by the total system lifetime).

Mean availability
The mean availability is defined as the expected fractional time the component will be in service during
its lifetime (the total time it is in service divided by the total system lifetime).

Unavailability at lifetime
The unavailability at lifetime is defined as the probability that the component will be out-of-service at the
end of its lifetime.

Availability at lifetime
The availability at lifetime is defined as the probability that the component will be in service at the end of
its lifetime.

No of outages
The number of outages is defined as the expected total number of component outages that will occur
throughout the life of the system.

F
The probability of 1 or more outages over the lifetime (F) is defined as the probability that the
component will have been out-of-service at least once during its lifetime. If outages can only be caused
by failure then this value represents the unreliability of the component.

R
The probability of zero outages over the lifetime (R) is defined as the probability that the component will
not have been out-of-service at anytime during its lifetime. If outages can only be caused by failure then
this value represents the reliability of the component.

MTTO
This is the mean time between initial component start-up and the first component outage.

MTBO
This is the mean time between consecutive component outages.

MTTR
This is the mean time it takes to restore the component to service after an outage has occurred.

Time queuing for spares


The total time queuing for spares is defined as the expected total time that the component will be
unavailable purely due to the fact it is waiting for one or more spares to be delivered. The total time
queuing for spares will always be less than or equal to the total down time for the component.

Time queuing for labor or equipment

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AvSim Module

The total time queuing for labor or equipment is defined as the expected total time that the component
will be unavailable purely due to the fact it is awaiting for labor or equipment to perform a corrective
maintenance task. The total time queuing for labor or equipment will always be less than or equal to the
total down time for the component.

Total PM down time


The total PM down time for a component is defined as the portion of the total down time for that
component caused by planned maintenance actions.

Total inspection down time


The total inspection down time for a component is defined as the portion of the total down time for that
component caused by inspection tasks.

Total failure down time


This is the total down time of the component due to failures.

Number of PMs
This is the total number of planned maintenance tasks performed on the component over the system
lifetime.

Number of inspections
This is the total number of inspection tasks performed on the component over the system lifetime.

No of failures
This is the total number of failures of the component over the system lifetime.

Spare purchase costs


The spare purchase costs for a component are defined as the total capital costs of spares used for both
corrective and planned maintenance tasks during the system lifetime.

Labor costs
The labor costs for a component are defined as the total call-out and man-time costs associated with
performing corrective, planned and inspection maintenance tasks.

Equipment costs
The equipment costs for a component are defined as the total equipment costs associated with
performing corrective, planned and inspection maintenance tasks.

Operational costs
The operational costs for a component are defined as the total operational costs associated with
performing corrective, planned and inspection maintenance tasks.

Alarm costs
The alarm costs for a component are defined as the total costs associated with installing an alarm.

Commission costs
The commission costs for a component are defined as the total costs associated with commissioning.

Redesign costs
The redesign costs for a component are defined as the total costs associated with performing a
redesign.

Accuracy
The accuracy of simulation results is very much dependent on the number of simulations performed. As
the number of simulations is increased then the results converge in accuracy. Users may find that, for
very reliable components, the ‘Point unavailability at lifetime’ value may be inaccurate unless a very
large number of simulations are performed. This is not a failing in the computer program, merely a fact

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of life for calculations based on simulation methods. To illustrate the problem, consider that we are
modelling a component whose exact point unavailability at lifetime is 0.0001. Another way of expressing
this is to say that at the end of the system lifetime there is a one in ten thousand chance that the
component is failed (not that it has failed before then but that it is actually failed at that time – this is the
definition of point unavailability). We would need to perform many more than ten thousand simulations,
therefore, to get enough component lifetime failures to provide a good statistical estimate for this
parameter. Fortunately, for most analyses, the point unavailability at system lifetime is of far less
interest to the end-user than the other component parameters, such as the mean unavailability over the
system lifetime. The mean unavailability represents the fractional down-time of the component over the
system lifetime. During the lifetime simulation of a repairable component there may be many
component failures, even if the mean unavailability is as low as 0.0001. Hence the statistical accuracy
of this parameter would be far greater than the accuracy of the point unavailability.

To summarize, it is important to note that the statistical accuracy of the point unavailability value for
reliable components may be much less than the accuracy for the other predicted component
parameters, unless an extremely large number of simulations are performed. However, this parameter
is generally far less useful than the other parameters, including the mean unavailability over the system
lifetime.

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AvSim Module

Simulation Results - Consequences


Availability Workbench (AWB) provides data for the consequences defined in the current project.
Selection of the Consequences tab in the Simulation Results dialog will reveal a list of all the currently
defined project consequences. Selection of a consequence in the list will result in the appropriate
summary information being displayed.

Definitions for each of the consequence parameters are given below.

Total duration
This parameter is determined from

where T = total consequence duration over lifetime


TDTi = total down time over lifetime of the ith block associated with the consequence

Note that T may be greater than the system lifetime if more than a single consequence is assigned to
more than one system failure.

Std total duration


This is the standard deviation of total consequence duration over lifetime.

Error % total duration


The estimated total duration error provides an indicator of the accuracy of total consequence duration
due to the number of simulations performed. It is calculated from the expression

where = standard deviation of total duration


= number of simulations completed
= total duration

Mean capacity
This parameter only applies to loss of capacity consequences. Loss of capacity consequences are
attached to a system or sub-system RBD block or fault tree gate. The mean capacity over lifetime
represents the mean capacity for the associated system or sub-system.

Std mean capacity


This parameter only applies to loss of capacity consequences. Loss of capacity consequences are
attached to a system or sub-system RBD block or fault tree gate. The capacity standard deviation over
lifetime represents the likely variation of production capacity over the system lifetime.

Error % mean capacity


This parameter only applies to loss of capacity consequences. Loss of capacity consequences are
attached to a system or sub-system RBD block or fault tree gate. The estimated mean capacity error
provides an indicator of the accuracy of mean production capacity due to the number of simulations
performed. It is calculated from the expression

where = standard deviation of mean capacity


= number of simulations completed
= mean capacity

Duration due to corrective tasks

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This is the consequence duration over the lifetime due to corrective task outages. Note that
consequences attached to system blocks and gates always record durations under the corrective
category.

Duration due to planned tasks


This is the consequence duration over the lifetime due to planned task outages. Note that
consequences attached to system blocks and gates always record durations under the corrective
category.

Duration due to inspection tasks


This is the consequence duration over the lifetime due to inspection task outages. Note that
consequences attached to system blocks and gates always record durations under the corrective
category.

Total no of occurrences

where N = Total number of occurrences for consequence over the lifetime


Wi = total number of occurrences over lifetime of the ith block associated with consequence

Std total no of occurrences


This is the standard deviation of the total number of occurrences over lifetime.

Error % total no of occurrences


The estimated total number of occurrences error provides an indicator of the accuracy of the total
number of occurrences due to the number of simulations performed. It is calculated from the expression

where = standard deviation of number of occurrences


= number of simulations completed
= number of occurrences

Occurrences due to corrective tasks


This is the number of occurrences due to corrective task outages. Note that consequences attached to
system blocks and gates always record occurrences under the corrective category.

Occurrences due to planned tasks


This is the number of occurrences due to planned task outages. Note that consequences attached to
system blocks and gates always record occurrences under the corrective category.

Occurrences due to inspection tasks


This is the number of occurrences due to inspection task outages. Note that consequences attached to
system blocks and gates always record occurrences under the corrective category.

Total cost
The total cost over lifetime for total outage consequences is given by:

where C = consequence cost over lifetime


CR = consequence cost rate
C0 = consequence cost per occurrence

For loss of capacity consequences, a different calculation is performed. Loss of capacity consequences
respond to the production flow through the RBD block or fault tree gate associated with the
consequence. The cost of lost production is determined from the following expressions:

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if

if

where CP = cost rate per % loss of capacity


PL = Current production level %
t = time at production level
CB = additional cost rate per % loss of capacity below target production level
PT = target production level

Criticality

where X = consequence criticality over lifetime


SR = consequence severity rate
S0 = consequence severity per occurrence

The above expression applies to safety, operational and environmental criticalities.

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Simulation Results - Phases


Availability Workbench (AWB) provides phase data for all the phases defined by the user. Selection of
the Phases tab of the Simulation Results dialog will reveal a list of all the phases in the current project.
Selection of a phase in the list will result in the appropriate summary information being displayed.

Definitions for each of the phase parameters are given below.

Total cost
This is the total cost incurred by the system during the phase.

Labor cost
The labor cost for a phase is defined as the total call-out and man-time costs associated with performing
corrective, planned and inspection tasks during the phase.

Equipment cost
The equipment cost for a phase is defined as the total call-out and equipment costs associated with
performing corrective, planned and inspection tasks during the phase.

Spare purchase cost


The mean capital purchase and repair cost of all spare part types during the phase. In addition, for the
first phase in each phase group, this will include the initial purchase cost of the spares held in storage if
the Include initial spare purchase costs check-box is selected in the Project Options dialog (Spares
tab).

Spare storage cost


The total cost, for the chosen phase, to store all spares at echelon levels 1 and 2.

Operational cost
The total of the operational costs specified by the user for maintenance tasks undertaken during the
specified phase.

Alarm cost
The total of the alarm costs specified by the user for maintenance tasks undertaken during the specified
phase.

Commissioning cost
The total of the commissioning costs specified by the user for maintenance tasks undertaken during the
specified phase.

Redesign cost
The total of the redesign costs specified by the user for maintenance tasks undertaken during the
specified phase.

Consequence cost
Consequence costs are only applicable where the user has associated consequences with system
failures in the RBD or fault tree model. Consequence costs for the specified phase are calculated by
summating all consequence costs for that phase.

For total outage consequences:

where
C = consequence cost over all repeats of the specified phase
CR = consequence cost rate
C0 = consequence cost per occurrence
T = total consequence duration over all repeats of the specified phase
N = expected number of occurrences for consequence during the phase

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For loss of capacity consequences:

if

if

where
CP = cost rate per % loss of capacity
PL = Current production level %
t = time at production level
CB = additional cost rate per % loss of capacity below target production level
PT = target production level

Note that cost rates are adjusted if extended outage cost penalties have been specified.

Total costs are a simple summation of all the costs described above.

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Simulation Results - Spares


Selection of the Spares tab in the Simulation Results dialog will reveal a list of all the spares in the
current project. Selection of a spare in the list will result in the appropriate summary information being
displayed.

Definitions for each of the spare parameters are given below.

Total number used


The mean number of the spare used during the lifetime of the system.

Number used for corrective tasks


The mean number of the spare used for corrective maintenance tasks during the lifetime of the system.

Number used for planned tasks


The mean number of the spare used for planned maintenance tasks during the lifetime of the system.

Total cost
This is the total cost incurred by the system due to spare usage and storage.

Total purchase cost


The mean capital purchase cost of the spare during the lifetime of the system. This value is obtained by
multiplying the mean number used by the capital cost of the spare. In addition, this will include the
transportation cost and the initial purchase cost of the spares held in storage if the Include initial spare
purchase costs check-box is selected in the Project Options dialog (Spares tab).

Corrective purchase cost


The mean capital purchase cost of the spare for corrective maintenance tasks during the lifetime of the
system. This value is obtained by multiplying the mean number used for corrective tasks by the capital
cost of the spare. In addition, this will include the transportation cost and the initial purchase cost of the
spares held in storage if the Include initial spare purchase costs check-box is selected in the Project
Options dialog (Spares tab).

Planned purchase cost


The mean capital purchase cost of the spare for planned maintenance tasks during the lifetime of the
system. This value is obtained by multiplying the mean number used for planned tasks by the capital
cost of the spare.

Repair cost
The cost of repairing the specified proportion of failed units of the spare for return to storage at echelon
levels 1 and 2. The proportion of failed units that are discarded is set in the Spare Properties dialog
(Repair Shop tab).

Storage cost
The cost of storing the spare at echelon levels 1 and 2 during the lifetime of the system.

Number recycled
The mean number of the spare recycled through the repair shop facility during the system lifetime.

Level 1 demand unavailability


The probability that the required number of spares were unavailable at echelon level 1 when required for
a corrective maintenance task.

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AvSim Module

Simulation Results - Labor


Selection of the Labor tab in the Simulation Results dialog will reveal a list of all the labor categories in
the current project. Selection of a labor category in the list will result in the appropriate summary
information being displayed.

Definitions for each of the labor parameters are given below.

Total active time


The estimated total time the labor category will be active during the system lifetime.

Corrective active time


The estimated time the labor category will be active for corrective maintenance tasks during the system
lifetime.

Planned active time


The estimated time the labor category will be active for planned maintenance tasks during the system
lifetime.

Inspection active time


The estimated time the labor category will be active for inspection maintenance tasks during the system
lifetime.

Total no of tasks
The estimated number of tasks for which the labor category is called out over the system lifetime.

No of corrective tasks
The estimated number of corrective tasks for which the labor category is called out over the system
lifetime.

No of planned tasks
The estimated number of planned tasks for which the labor category is called out over the system
lifetime.

No of inspection tasks
The estimated number of inspection tasks for which the labor category is called out over the system
lifetime.

Total cost
The total cost associated with calling out the selected labor category over the system lifetime.

Corrective cost
The cost associated with calling out the selected labor category for corrective tasks over the system
lifetime.

Planned cost
The cost associated with calling out the selected labor category for planned tasks over the system
lifetime.

Inspection cost
The cost associated with calling out the selected labor category for inspection tasks over the system
lifetime.

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Simulation Results - Equipment


Selection of the Equipment tab in the Simulation Results dialog will reveal a list of all the equipments
in the current project. Selection of an equipment in the list will result in the appropriate summary
information being displayed.

Definitions for each of the equipment parameters are given below.

Total active time


The estimated total time the equipment will be active during the system lifetime.

Corrective active time


The estimated time the equipment will be active for corrective maintenance tasks during the system
lifetime.

Planned active time


The estimated time the equipment will be active for planned maintenance tasks during the system
lifetime.

Inspection active time


The estimated time the equipment will be active for inspection maintenance tasks during the system
lifetime.

Total no of tasks
The estimated number of tasks for which the equipment is called out over the system lifetime.

No of corrective tasks
The estimated number of corrective tasks for which the equipment is called out over the system lifetime.

No of planned tasks
The estimated number of planned tasks for which the equipment is called out over the system lifetime.

No of inspection tasks
The estimated number of inspection tasks for which the equipment is called out over the system lifetime.

Total cost
The total cost associated with calling out the selected equipment over the system lifetime.

Corrective cost
The cost associated with calling out the selected equipment for corrective tasks over the system lifetime.

Planned cost
The cost associated with calling out the selected equipment for planned tasks over the system lifetime.

Inspection cost
The cost associated with calling out the selected equipment for inspection tasks over the system
lifetime.

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AvSim Module

Importance Rankings
Component Importance Rankings
Performing a component importance analysis enables us to identify the components in our system that
are the main contributors to the following parameters:

 Cost
 No of expected outages
 Safety severity
 Operational severity
 Environmental severity
 Total down time
 Inherent down time
 PM down time
 Inspection down time
 Spare down time
 Labor/equipment down time
 Capacity
 Inherent capacity
 PM capacity
 Inspection capacity
 Spare capacity
 Labor/equipment capacity

Importance rankings will indicate where we might make design changes or modify maintenance policies
to reduce lifetime costs and improve availability. Importance rankings are performed on a per
consequence basis, chosen in the Project Options dialog (Importance tab). For example, this means
that the cost importance ranking will indicate the main contributors to a given consequence cost.
Component Importance rankings are calculated during the simulation process.

Component importance rankings are expressed as an absolute contribution to the appropriate


parameter. For example, the capacity importance value represents the contribution to loss of capacity
from the component and the TDT importance is the contribution to TDT from the component. Events
that occur at exactly the same time for different components (e.g. outages due to regular inspections)
are randomly ordered to ensure importance values are shared between the components.

To access the component importance ranking facility, select the Simulation, Component Importance
Ranking pull-down menu option. This dialog displays the importance rankings in a list. You may
determine the importance categories to be displayed in the list by selecting the appropriate check boxes
in the Importance categories area.

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Spare Importance Rankings


Spare importance rankings provide an indication of how improving the availability of spares can affect
the following system parameters:

 Cost
 Number of expected outages
 Safety criticality
 Operational criticality
 Environmental criticality
 Total down time
 Capacity

Improving the availability of spares by storing more spares at the first echelon level may have a
significant effect on system availability and throughputs. Increasing the number of spares stored at
echelon level 1 for those spares with high importance rankings provides a method of optimizing the
sparing strategy for the appropriate system parameter (cost, total down time, etc.).

Availability Workbench (AWB) determines spare importance rankings by evaluating the effect of
increasing the number of spares at echelon level 1. For example, if we obtain a TDT (total down time)
importance ranking of 0.1 for spare Y, this indicates that a reduction in system TDT (the system
attached to the specified consequence) of 10% may be achieved by increasing the number of spare Y
stored at echelon level 1.

To access the spare importance ranking facility, select the Simulation, Spare Importance Ranking
pull-down menu option. Importance rankings are performed on a per consequence basis, chosen in the
Project Options dialog (Importance tab). To run a spare importance ranking, select the Rank button.
AWB will now perform simulation runs for each spare (the progress is indicated in the message area at
the bottom of the AWB window). When the importance ranking is complete, the results will be displayed
in the dialog. If you wish to abort the simulation process then simply select the Abort button in the
dialog.

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AvSim Module

Optimizing Spares Holdings in the AvSim Module


The AvSim module of Availability Workbench (AWB) may be used to simulate the effects of different
spares holding levels on lifetime costs. This facility may be accessed via the Simulation, Spare Cost
Optimization pull-down menu option. After selecting this option, the Spare Cost Optimization dialog
will appear. The functionality of the dialog is described below.

Set range for selected spare(s)


You may set minimum and maximum range values for optimization runs by selecting the Set range for
selected spare(s) button. A dialog will appear, allowing you to set Level 1 and Level 2 minimum and
maximum values for all selected spares in the list. Minimum and maximum range values may also be
set in the Spare Properties dialog. When performing a spares optimization run AWB will try spares
holding values within the specified range only.

Optimize selected spare(s)


When the Optimize selected spare(s) button is selected in the dialog, the program will perform
simulation runs for each combination of spare part holdings (between the range values) for each spare
selected in the list. Progress will be indicated in the message box at the bottom of the screen. Once all
the simulation runs have been completed, AWB will display the optimum spare holdings from a cost
viewpoint at site and depot.

Sensitivity
After spares optimization has been performed, AWB will display sensitivity values alongside each
spare. Sensitivity values are calculated by applying the expression

where

= Minimum lifetime cost for all spare range combinations

= Maximum lifetime cost for all spare range combinations

The sensitivity value gives an indication of the sensitivity in lifetime costs by applying different spares
holdings.

Accept recommendations for selected spare(s)


If you wish to assign the recommended spares holdings (Level 1 Opt and Level 2 Opt values in the
dialog) then select the appropriate spares in the list, followed by selection of the Accept
recommendations for selected spare(s) button.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Optimizing Scheduled Task Intervals


Availability Workbench (AWB) may be used to determine whether it is worthwhile performing planned
maintenance or inspections on components, and if so, what the optimum maintenance interval should
be. If a component exhibits ageing characteristics then planned maintenance may be effective in
reducing the probability of a system outage and hence reduce outage costs. However, the planned
maintenance task may have labor, spares and other costs associated with it. Planned maintenance
costs must be balanced against reduced outage costs. Similarly, performing inspections for hidden or
potential failures will often reduce costs due to unscheduled outages. However, the benefits of reducing
the costs of unscheduled maintenance need to be weighed against the additional costs of performing
more frequent inspections. AWB locates the optimum interval for planned maintenance and inspection
tasks by varying the maintenance interval and repeatedly simulating the lifetime costs.

Note that during the optimization process, AWB will temporarily enable a disabled task purely for the
purpose of determining whether the task might be of benefit. Users must ensure that maintenance data
(such as the spare parts needed and miscellaneous costs) are all defined for tasks that are to be
optimized. The only parameter that need not be entered is the planned maintenance or inspection
interval (as this is being automatically varied by the program during optimization).

To access this facility, select the Simulation, Interval Optimization pull-down menu option. The
Interval Optimization dialog will appear. The functionality of this dialog is described below.

Optimization mode
The drop-down list at the top of the dialog allows the user to select the optimization mode. Three
options are available. You may optimize intervals for planned maintenance, inspections or task groups.
If the Task groups option is selected then currently defined task groups will be displayed in the list.
Otherwise, a list of currently defined tasks will be displayed. If the Task groups option is selected the
program will vary the intervals of all tasks associated with a task group together.

ID
The ID of the failure model.

Task
The ID of the task associated with the failure model.

Task worthwhile
After an interval optimization run is completed, AWB will indicate in the dialog whether a maintenance
task is worthwhile. A worthwhile task is considered to be one where there will be a cost benefit in
performing maintenance.

Interval
If the optimization run indicates that a task is worthwhile, AWB will display the optimum maintenance
interval from a cost viewpoint.

Cost benefit
The cost benefit value is the estimated reduction in lifetime costs by applying the maintenance task.

Cost benefit ratio


The cost benefit ratio (CBR) is given by:

A cost benefit ratio less than one indicates that the task is worthwhile.

Set interval range for selected object(s)


Selection of this option will result in the Interval Range Specification dialog being displayed. This
dialog allows the user to specify the number of intervals, minimum interval and interval increment to be
used during the optimization process.

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Optimize selected object(s)


If the Planned maintenance or Inspections optimization mode is selected this option prompts the
program to optimize the scheduled maintenance policy for all selected tasks in the list. Tasks are
optimized individually. Each task is taken in turn and the program simulates lifetime costs for a variety
of task intervals. If the failure model associated with an individual task is assigned to more than one
RBD block or fault tree event then this has the effect of changing the interval for a group of components.

If the Task groups optimization mode is selected this option prompts the program to optimize the
scheduled maintenance policy for all selected task groups in the list. Each task group will normally be
assigned to more than one maintenance task. During optimization therefore, varying the interval for a
task group will vary the interval of all associated tasks.

Accept recommendations for selected object(s)


Once a simulation run has been performed, you may select tasks or task groups from the list and
request AWB to assign the recommended maintenance policy.

Select all
The Select all button in the dialog allows users to select all the tasks or task groups in the list.

Abort
Selection of the Abort button will terminate the optimization simulation that is currently running.

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AvSim Plots
Cost Profile Plots
Cost profile plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode
menu above the right-hand window. Then select the Cost Profile option on the Plot type selector
menu above the right-hand window.

Cost profiles display the costs incurred over the time intervals specified in the Lifetime tab of the Project
Options dialog. Users may select different cost categories to display in the plot by selecting the Tools,
Options, Plot pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. The Plot Options dialog will be
displayed allowing different cost options to be selected as well as allowing the user to modify the plot
type and appearance.

The Cost tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Cost types
The various cost types that are to be displayed in the plot.

Plot style
The style of plot.

Show grid
If checked the plot will display a background grid.

Automatic cost scaling


If checked the cost axis minimum and maximum values will be automatically set by the program.

Cost min
If the Automatic cost scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the minimum value for the cost
axis.

Cost max
If the Automatic cost scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the maximum value for the cost
axis.

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AvSim Module

Labor Profile Plots


Labor profile plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode
menu above the right-hand window. Then select the Labor Profile option on the Plot type selector
menu above the right-hand window.

Labor profiles display the active time spent over the time intervals specified in the Lifetime tab of the
Project Options dialog. Users may set different plot options by selecting the Tools, Options, Plot pull-
down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. The Plot Options dialog will be displayed allowing
different options to be selected as well as allowing the user to modify the plot type and appearance.

The Labor tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Labor
The labor category to which the plot data will apply. Users may select All to display summated data for
all labor categories.

Plot style
The style of plot.

Automatic 'active time' axis scaling


If checked the active time axis minimum and maximum values will be automatically set by the program.

Active time min


If the Automatic 'active time' axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the minimum value
for the active time axis.

Active time max


If the Automatic 'active time' axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the maximum
value for the active time axis.

Show grid
If checked the plot will display a background grid.

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Equipment Profile Plots


Equipment profile plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window
mode menu above the right-hand window. Then select the Equipment Profile option on the Plot type
selector menu above the right-hand window.

Equipment profiles display the active equipment usage over the time intervals specified in the Lifetime
tab of the Project Options dialog. Users may set different plot options by selecting the Tools, Options,
Plot pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. The Plot Options dialog will be displayed
allowing different options to be selected as well as allowing the user to modify the plot type and
appearance.

The Equipment tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Equipment
The equipment to which the plot data will apply. Users may select All to display summated data for all
equipments.

Plot style
The style of plot.

Automatic 'active time' axis scaling


If checked the active time axis minimum and maximum values will be automatically set by the program.

Active time min


If the Automatic 'active time' axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the minimum value
for the active time axis.

Active time max


If the Automatic 'active time' axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the maximum
value for the active time axis.

Show grid
If checked the plot will display a background grid.

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AvSim Module

Spares Profile Plots


Spare profile plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode
menu above the right-hand window. Then select the Spares Profile option on the Plot type selector
menu above the right-hand window.

Spares profiles display the number of spares used over the time intervals specified in the Lifetime tab of
the Project Options dialog. Users may set different plot options by selecting the Tools, Options, Plot
pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. The Plot Options dialog will be displayed allowing
different options to be selected as well as allowing the user to modify the plot type and appearance.

The Spares tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Spare
The spare to which the plot data will apply. Users may select All to display summated data for all
spares.

Plot style
The style of plot.

Automatic number used axis scaling


If checked the 'number used' axis minimum and maximum values will be automatically set by the
program.

Number used min


If the Automatic number used axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the minimum
value for the 'number used' axis.

Number used max


If the Automatic number used axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the maximum
value for the 'number used' axis.

Show grid
If checked the plot will display a background grid.

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Consequence Profile Plots


Consequence profile plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window
mode menu above the right-hand window. Then select the Consequence Profile option on the Plot
type selector menu above the right-hand window.

Consequences profiles display the number of consequence occurrences over the time intervals
specified in the Lifetime tab of the Project Options dialog. Users may set different plot options by
selecting the Tools, Options, Plot pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. The Plot
Options dialog will be displayed allowing different options to be selected as well as allowing the user to
modify the plot type and appearance.

The Consequences tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Consequence
The consequence to which the plot data will apply. Users may select All to display summated data for
all consequences.

Plot style
The style of plot.

Automatic number of occurrences axis scaling


If checked the 'number of occurrences' axis minimum and maximum values will be automatically set by
the program.

Number of occurrences min


If the Automatic number of occurrences axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the
minimum value for the 'number of occurrences' axis.

Number of occurrences max


If the Automatic number of occurrences axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the
maximum value for the 'number of occurrences' axis.

Show grid
If checked the plot will display a background grid.

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AvSim Module

Contributions Plots
Contributions plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode
menu above the right-hand window. Then select the Contributions option on the Plot type selector
menu above the right-hand window.

Contribution plots display the contribution made by individual components to system cost, failure and
criticality parameters. Users may set different plot options by selecting the Tools, Options, Plot pull-
down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. The Plot Options dialog will be displayed allowing
different options to be selected.

The Contributions tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Contribution Type Buttons


These radio buttons allow the user to select the type of contribution to be displayed.

Automatic
If checked the program will automatically set the minimum and maximum values of the contribution axis.

Minimum/Maximum
If Automatic is not checked then the user must enter the minimum and maximum contribution axis
values.

Show grid
If checked the plot will display a background grid.

Maximum no. of components


The maximum number of components to display in the plot. Components will be ordered to show those
with the highest contributions.

Only display components under tree selection


If checked the program will only display components that are connected to the current selection in the
project tree location hierarchy.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

System Profile Plots


System profile plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode
menu above the right-hand window. Then select the System Profile option on the Plot type selector
menu above the right-hand window.

System profile plots display unavailability, outage frequency, unreliability or capacity values for systems
over the time profile specified by the user. Users may set different plot options by selecting the Tools,
Options, Plot pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. The Plot Options dialog will be
displayed allowing different options to be selected.

The Systems tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Inclusion lists
The inclusion lists allow you to specify which systems you wish to be included in the system profile plot.
Move systems between the Included and Not included lists by selecting the appropriate systems and
clicking the arrow buttons in between the lists.

Variable
The variable list allows you to select the variable to be displayed in the system profile. Uses may choose
between Mean unavailability, Mean outage frequency, F (unreliability) and Mean capacity, Mean
availability and R (reliability).

Plot style
The style of plot.

Bars
This drop-down list allows you to choose whether you wish to display error or standard deviation bars in
the plot. If the Std option is selected the profile will display vertical bars through every plot point
representing the standard deviation of the variable value for each profile interval. This standard
deviation provides a measure of the likely variance of the actual variable compared to the mean during
the profile interval for a single system. If the Error % option is selected the profile will display vertical
bars through every plot point representing the potential error for the variable value for each profile
interval. The error indicator value is calculated from

It represents the likely error in the profile values due to the limited number of simulations performed.

Show grid
If checked the plot will display a background grid.

Automatic
If checked the program will automatically set the minimum and maximum values of the variable axis.

Minimum/Maximum
If Automatic is not checked then the user must enter the minimum and maximum variable axis values.

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AvSim Module

Capacity Availability Plots


Capacity availability plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window
mode menu above the right-hand window. Then select the Capacity Availability option on the Plot
type selector menu above the right-hand window.

Capacity availability plots display the probability that a capacity value will be met or exceeded for a
given time interval. Users may set different plot options by selecting the Tools, Options, Plot pull-down
menu option or equivalent toolbar button. The Plot Options dialog will be displayed allowing different
options to be selected.

The Capacity Availability tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Interval index
The index of the interval to be displayed in the plot. Capacity availability intervals must be defined before
performing a simulation in the Capacity Availability tab of the Project Options dialog.

Plot style
The style of plot.

Show grid
If checked the plot will display a background grid.

Automatic
If checked the 'availability' axis minimum and maximum values will be automatically set by the program.

Availability min
If the Automatic availability axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the minimum value
for the 'availability' axis.

Availability max
If the Automatic availability axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the maximum value
for the 'availability' axis.

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Project Comparison
Project comparison plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window
mode menu above the right-hand window. Then select the Project Comparison option on the Plot
type selector menu above the right-hand window.

Project comparison plots display the simulated lifetime costs or task data from two or more projects. The
results for all the projects must be up-to-date for plots based on simulated results. Users must attach the
projects to be compared with the current project as libraries. The data compared in each plot is the
system cost or task data for the current project and all attached libraries.

Users may set different plot options by selecting the Tools, Options, Plot pull-down menu option or
equivalent toolbar button. The Plot Options dialog will be displayed allowing different options to be
selected.

The Project Comparison tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Plot Type
The plot type to be displayed. Options are Cost, Tasks Assigned, Tasks Performed and Cumulative
Cost Profile. Cost plots show simulated lifetime costs. Tasks Assigned plots show the number of
tasks assigned to causes in the project. Tasks Performed plots show the simulated number of tasks
performed during the lifetime of the system. Cumulative Cost Profile plots show the accumulation of
costs over the lifetime of the system.

Stack plot
If checked the values for different cost or task categories will be stacked in the plot.

Show grid
If checked the plot will display a background grid.

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Weibull Module
Weibull Module - Overview
The Weibull module of Availability Workbench (AWB) analyzes historical failure data by assigning
probability distributions that represent the failure characteristics of a given failure mode. The failure
distribution assigned to a given set of times to failure (known as a Weibull set) may then be assigned to
causes in the RCMCost location hierarchy diagram or failure models in the AvSim module. By assigning
failure distributions to historical data in this way enables the AWB simulation engine to emulate the
effects of failures on systems. Historical data is usually extracted from the Computerized Maintenance
Management System (CMMS) or Failure Reporting and Corrective Action System (FRACAS) database
using the AWB import or Dynamic Link Library (DLL) facilities.

Weibull sets may also represent collections of actual historical repair times for a given task. The Weibull
module can assign distributions that represent possible fluctuations in repair times. Repair Weibull sets
can be assigned to tasks associated with causes in the RCMCost module or failure models in the AvSim
module.

The historical times in a failure Weibull set will represent the age of an equipment at the point of its first
failure. Times in a repair Weibull set represent the time it takes to repair an equipment.

In summary, the Weibull module of AWB analyzes sets of historical data and assigns appropriate
distributions for use in simulations by the RCMCost and AvSim modules.

The Weibull module analyzes times-to-failure data using the following distributions:

 Exponential Distribution
 1-Parameter Weibull Distribution
 2-Parameter Weibull Distribution
 3-Parameter Weibull Distribution
 Bi-Weibull
 Tri-Weibull
 Lognormal Distribution
 Normal Distribution
 Weibayes
 Phased Bi-Weibull
 Phased Tri-Weibull

AWB automatically fits the selected distribution to the data provided and displays the results graphically
in the form of cumulative probability plots, failure rate plots and probability density function plots.

Data may be entered manually by the user or imported from other packages or transferred via the
Windows clipboard.

New data can be analyzed and assigned in 3 simple steps:

 Enter or import the data


 Select a distribution type or use the 'Select Distribution Automatically' method
 Assign the Weibull Set to the appropriate causes in the RCMCost module or the failure models
in the AvSim module

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Weibull Module - User Interface


To access the Weibull module in Availability Workbench (AWB) select the Weibull pull-down option at
the top of the left-hand window.

If you have already defined one or more Weibull sets in your project you can display the associated data
(Weibull set items) by selecting the appropriate Weibull set node in the tree control. Ensure that either
the Plot, Grid or Plot & Grid option is selected above the right-hand window. To add a new Weibull set
select the Weibull Sets node in the tree control and use the right-button pop-up menu to add a new set.

The grid in the right-hand window is used to display historical data. Data may be imported using the
Windows clipboard (copy and paste) or may be typed into the grid by hand. The grid representing
Weibull set items has several columns. One column is used to specify the time value (the time to failure
or time to suspension for a Weibull set representing historical failure data or the repair time for a Weibull
set representing a repair task). Other columns indicate whether the data is a failure or suspension
(censored), whether the data item is currently disabled and how many components were failed or
suspended at this time. Two further columns are optional fields that may contain the installation and
failure/suspension dates of the component. If the date fields are populated, and the user selects the Life
Calculation Method 2 option for the Weibull set (in the Weibull Set Properties dialog), AWB will
calculate the time value based on these dates. Another column optionally records a reference ID for the
data (this will often be a work order number).

As data items are entered into the grid, points will be plotted in the cumulative probability graph. These
points represent the estimated cumulative probability values at each time point for failed data.

A typical Weibull module screen display. The left window displays Weibull sets in the project tree
control. The top right window displays a Weibull plot with calculated Weibull parameters. The bottom
right window displays times to failure and other input parameters.

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Weibull Module

Weibull Sets
Weibull Sets - Overview
A Weibull set is a collection of times to failure or repair times that has been compiled from maintenance
records. Weibull set information may be automatically analyzed using Availability Workbench (AWB) to
produce an appropriate distribution that is later used by the program during the simulation process.

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Defining or Importing Weibull Set Items


Users may assign Weibull set items to a Weibull set by typing in the data to a grid control or importing
the data from an external source.

Manual Data Definition


If you have already defined one or more Weibull sets in your project you can display the associated data
(Weibull set items) by selecting the appropriate Weibull set node in the project tree control. Ensure that
either the Plot, Grid or Plot & Grid option is selected above the right-hand window.

To modify existing data simply type the new data into the grid control or select the appropriate check
boxes. If you wish to enter installation and failure or suspension dates, rather than directly enter times to
first failure, then you will need to first set the Life Calculation Method 2 property for the Weibull set (in
the Weibull Set Properties dialog). Availability Workbench will then calculate the time value based on
these dates.

To add a new item you will need to access the Items tab of the Weibull Set Properties dialog. One way
of accessing this tab is to click the right mouse button over the grid area to reveal the grid pop-up menu.
Then select the Add Record option. Alternatively, press the Ins key when the grid is displaying Weibull
set items. The Items tab of the Weibull Set Properties dialog displays a grid control and a Delete
button. To delete existing items select them in the grid control and then select the Delete button. To add
new items type in the new data into the empty last row of the grid control. After selecting the OK button
of the Weibull Set Properties dialog new points will be plotted in the cumulative probability graph.
These points represent the estimated cumulative probability values at each time specified by a Weibull
set item.

Importing Data
Weibull set data may be imported directly from external databases or the Windows clipboard. To import
data you will need to use the AWB import facility. The import facility may be accessed from the File,
Import pull-down menu option. If you are importing data from the Windows clipboard you can quickly
access the import facility by selecting the Paste from Clipboard option from the grid control right-button
pop-up menu. The import facility will then enable you to match data on the clipboard to the appropriate
columns in the Weibull set items table.

See Also

Import

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Weibull Module

Weibull Sets - General Properties


Weibull set general properties may be accessed from the General tab of the Weibull Set Properties
dialog.

ID
A unique identifier for the Weibull set of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Type
The type assigned to the Weibull set. Weibull set types are used to organize Weibull sets into groups. If
a project contains many Weibull sets then this will greatly assist in locating a Weibull set in the tree
control structure.

Description
A description for the Weibull set of no more than 255 characters.

No. of regions in rate plot


The estimated mean failure rate is displayed on rate graphs as a guide for users manually fitting
distributions to historical data. The mean failure rate is displayed on a region-by-region basis. This
parameter specifies how many regions are required.

Include multiple Weibulls in automatic distribution selection


Check this option if you wish multiple Weibulls to be included when automatically selecting the best-fit
distribution

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Weibull Sets - Analysis Options


Weibull set analysis options may be accessed from the Analysis Options tab of the Weibull Set
Properties dialog.

B Life
When a Weibull Analysis is performed Availability Workbench (AWB) calculates the time for the
specified 'B' life. If a ‘B’ life of 10 is specified by the user (the default) then the program calculates the
time by which 10% of component failures would have occurred. Another way of expressing this is that
the program will calculate the time at which the unreliability of the component is 0.1. A ‘B’ life of 30%
would prompt the program to determine the time by which 30% of component failures are likely to have
occurred or the time at which the unreliability is 0.3. Times calculated for B values are shown to the right
of the cumulative probability graph. Note that this parameter does not affect RBD or fault tree
simulations in any way. It is merely provided as information for the Weibull set. AWB allows the user to
specify 3 different ‘B’ life values.

P parameter
The P parameter indicates the time at which the unreliability is to be calculated during a Weibull
analysis. For example, if a value of 8760 hours is specified then the program will calculate the
unreliability at 8760 hours. The calculated value is shown to the right of the cumulative probability graph.
Note that this parameter does not affect RBD or fault tree simulations in any way. It is merely provided
as information for the data set.

Reliability estimation
Users may choose the Median rank, 90% rank, 95% rank or Nelson methods for estimating reliability
values from times to failure.

Median Rank Method


Median ranks may be used to obtain estimates of unreliability at the time point represented by each
failure.

This method first calculates rank numbers for each failure based on the following expression:

Median ranks may then be obtained by applying

where j = rank number, N = population

The table below illustrates how unreliability is estimated by the median rank number.

Time Status Rank No. Median


Rank,

5000 Failure 1 0.13


9600 Suspended 4 -
15042 Failure 2.25 0.36
22500 Suspended 2 -
40030 Failure 4.125 0.71

90% and 95% Rank Methods


The 90% and 95% rank methods are alternative ways of estimating the component unreliability. They
provide a more conservative estimate (higher unreliability) than the median rank method to 90% and
95% confidence levels respectively.

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Weibull Module

Nelson’s Method

At any time at which a failure occurs a hazard rate function, , is calculated by dividing the number
of failures occurring at that time by the number of survivors immediately before that time:

where = number of failures


= number of survivors

The cumulative sum of these values gives a sample estimate of the cumulative hazard function, .

An estimate of the unreliability, , is then given by

The table below illustrates how the hazard rate function and cumulative hazard function are calculated
with some example data.

Time x S

5000 1 5 0.2 0.2


9600 Suspended 4 -
15042 1 3 0.3333 0.5333
22500 Suspended 2 - -
40030 1 1 1.0 1.5333

Life Calculation Method


There are two methods by which life times (times to failure or suspension) are determined by the
program:

Method 1 – User Specified Life


Method 2 – F/S Date (n) – Install Date (n)

If the user chooses Method 1 (default) the program simply uses the life values provided by the user to
estimate reliability values.

If the user chooses Method 2 the program calculates the life values based on the dates and times
entered for F/S (failure or suspension) date and the installation date.

Parameter precision
The user may specify a parameter precision value of 2, 3, 4, 6 or 9. The precision value determines the
number of significant figures calculated when determining the parameters of the Weibull and other
distributions. This facility is required to prevent unnecessarily high precision values being transferred to
causes and failure models that are associated with a Weibull set. Consider a beta parameter that has
been generated with the value

0.923456789

The table below illustrates how the beta parameter will be rounded for a variety of precision values.

Precision Rounded Number


6 0.923456
3 0.923

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Weibull Sets - Notes


Weibull set notes may be accessed from the Notes tab of the Weibull Set Properties dialog.

Up to 4 descriptive notes may be assigned to each Weibull set. Users may customize note headers (the
labels used to identify a note category) using the Notes tab in the Project Options dialog.

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Weibull Module

Weibull Sets - Fitting a Distribution


Availability Workbench (AWB) allows the user to choose from a number of different calculation methods
for fitting an appropriate distribution to the historical time to failure or time to repair data associated with
a Weibull set. To select a different method simply choose the appropriate option from the Distribution
drop-down list in the main toolbar. Alternatively use the Select Distribution Automatically option on
the Analysis pull-down menu to prompt the program to automatically select the 'best-fit' distribution.
AWB determines 'best-fit' by taking the smallest goodness of fit indicator for all the available 'single'
distributions (unless the Include multiple Weibulls in automatic distribution selection option is
checked in the General tab of the Weibull Set Properties dialog in which case multiple distributions are
included). The goodness of fit is determined from the following expression:

where and are the fitted unreliability values and estimated unreliability point values respectively.
N is the total number of points plotted.

AWB allows the user to fit a distribution to a Weibull set manually as well as using automatic data fitting
algorithms. To access this facility select the Analysis, Set Distribution Parameters Manually pull-
down menu option in the Weibull module. A Distribution Parameters dialog will be revealed allowing
the appropriate parameters to be modified by the user. As the parameters are modified, the graph will
change to reflect the changing shape of the distribution.

When fitting data manually, users may find it useful to first display the failure rate graph. It is often easier
to fit data manually to the estimated regionalized rate in this graph.

Exponential Distribution
The exponential distribution may be associated with component failures or maintenance tasks (for
sampling times to failure and time to repair respectively). This distribution should be used to model the
failure characteristics of components that do not exhibit any ageing. The distribution represents a
constant failure rate (or repair rate). The expressions below represent the use of the distribution for
failures. For repairs the failure rate should be replaced by the repair rate and the mean time to failure by
the mean time to repair.

Probability Density Function,

Unreliability,

Failure Rate,

Mean Time to Failure, MTTF

1-Parameter Weibull
The Weibull distribution is used to model the failure characteristics of components with time-dependent
failure rates. A common use is to model the ageing characteristics of mechanical components. The 1-
Parameter Weibull calculation method requires the user to specify the shape parameter of the

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distribution. When fitting the Weibull distribution to historical data AWB varies the characteristic life
parameter to obtain the best fit.

Probability Density Function for 1-Parameter Weibull,

where

= characteristic life parameter


= shape parameter

Unreliability,

Failure Rate,

Mean Time to Failure, MTTF

where

2-Parameter Weibull
Expressions for the 2-Parameter Weibull are identical to the expression given above for the 1-Parameter
Weibull method. The only difference is that the user does not specify the value of the shape parameter.
The program will assign the shape parameter as well as the characteristic life when fitting the
distribution to data.

3-Parameter Weibull

Probability Density Function for 3-Parameter Weibull,

where

= characteristic life parameters


= shape parameter
= location parameter

Unreliability,

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Weibull Module

Failure Rate,

Mean Time to Failure, MTTF

where

= gamma function

Bi-Weibull
If the time to failure data originates from two independent failure modes, AWB may be requested to fit
two Weibull distributions to the data. The total failure rate for the two failure modes is given by:

Tri-Weibull
If the time to failure data originates from three independent failure modes, AWB may be requested to fit
three Weibull distributions to the data. The total failure rate for the three failure modes is given by:

Lognormal
The lognormal distribution is defined by the following expressions.

Probability Density Function,

Mean Time to Failue, MTTF

Standard deviation, Std

Median (peak of distribution)

Mode (most probable value)

Normal
The normal distribution is defined by the following expressions.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Probability Density Function,

where

= mean time to failure


= standard deviation of mean time to failure

Weibayes
If the Weibayes calculation method is selected then the following expression is applied to estimate the
characteristic life of the Weibull distribution. Note that the shape parameter is specified by the user.

where

= 2-parameter Weibull characteristic life


= 2-parameter Weibull shape parameter
= number of failed units
= total number of failures and suspensions

If there are no failures then an assumption is made that a failure is imminent. Hence is set to 1.

Phased Bi-Weibull
The phased Bi-Weibull is, in effect, two Weibull distributions with different sets of Weibull parameters.
The first Weibull is only valid up to the time specified by the gamma parameter of the second Weibull.
The second Weibull is only valid from the time specified by its gamma parameter. In effect the time axis
is split into two distinct phases. Each phase is associated with a different Weibull distribution. The failure
rate in the first phase is given by

for and

The failure rate in the second phase is given by

for

Phased Tri-Weibull
The phased Tri-Weibull is, in effect, three Weibull distributions with different sets of Weibull parameters.
The first Weibull is only valid up to the time specified by the gamma parameter of the second Weibull.
The second Weibull is only valid from the time specified by its gamma parameter and up to the gamma
parameter of the third Weibull. In effect the time axis is split into three distinct phases. Each phase is
associated with a different Weibull distribution. The failure rate in the first phase is given by

for and

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Weibull Module

The failure rate in the second phase is given by

for and

The failure rate in the third phase is given by

for

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Weibull Sets - Goodness of Fit and Correlation Coefficients


When assigning distribution parameters using the straight line fit method, Availability Workbench (AWB)
calculates a correlation coefficient. The correlation coefficient is a measure on how well the linear model
fits the data. The closer the absolute value is to 1, the better the fit.

The correlation coefficient is calculated from

where and are the x and y values of points in the cumulative probability plot. N is the total number
of points plotted.

Goodness of Fit Indicator


AWB calculates a goodness of fit indicator for the Bi-Weibull and Tri-Weibull (phased and non-phased)
calculation methods. The expression below indicates how the goodness of fit indicator is calculated.

where and are the fitted Weibull unreliability values and estimated unreliability point values
respectively. N is the total number of points plotted.

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Weibull Module

Weibull Plots
Weibull plots will be displayed when you have the Plot or Plot & Grid option selected above the right-
hand window. There are three different Weibull plot types. The Cumulative Probability plot displays
estimated unreliability values versus time. The Failure Rate plot displays estimated and distribution-
derived failure rate values over time. The Probability Density Function plot displays distribution-
derived probability density function values.

Cumulative Probability Plot


The cumulative probability plot displays estimated unreliability values versus time. Estimated values are
determined using the reliability estimation method specified by the user in the Weibull Set Properties
dialog and are displayed as red dots in the diagram. Each dot represents an enabled and non-
suspended item in the Weibull set.

Availability Workbench (AWB) automatically fits the selected distribution to the estimated unreliability
points and displays the distribution-derived unreliability as a continuous red line. For the 3-parameter
Weibull distribution a set of blue points and a continuous blue line are also displayed. These represent
the time-normalized estimated unreliability values and distribution respectively.

Unreliability is defined as the probability that a first failure has occurred before or at the specified point in
time. Time corresponds to the age of an equipment relative to its installation into the system in an ‘as
good as new’ condition.

Failure Rate Plot


The failure rate plot displays estimated and distribution-derived failure rate values over time. The
continuous red line represents the distribution-related failure rate value. The blue line represents mean
estimated failure rate values over different time regions. These failure rate values are estimated directly
from the Weibull set item time values.

The failure rate is defined as the probability of first failure per unit time conditional on the equipment
being operational at a given time. Time corresponds to the age of an equipment relative to its installation
into the system in an ‘as good as new’ condition.

Probability Density Function


The probability density function plot displays distribution-derived probability density function values.

The probability density is defined as the probability of first failure per unit time. Time corresponds to the
age of an equipment relative to its installation into the system in an ‘as good as new’ condition.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Assigning Weibull Sets


Weibull sets may be assigned to causes in the RCMCost module (Cause Properties dialog) and failure
models in the AvSim module (Failure Model Properties dialog). These dialogs are revealed when
adding a new cause or failure model to a project or when selecting the Edit, Properties pull-down menu
option for an existing cause or failure model.

Weibull sets may be assigned to represent the failure characteristics of a component from within the
Failure tab of the Cause Properties and Failure Model Properties dialogs. Weibull sets may be
assigned to represent the repair characteristics of a component from within the Parameters tab of the
Task Properties dialog.

310
Process Reliability Module
Process Reliability Module - Overview
The Process Reliability module allows users to analyze daily production data using Weibull analysis
plots. These plots identify systematic and reliability losses by recognizing trends in the production data.
Nameplate production ratings may be specified (similar to concepts originating from six-sigma
methodology) and compared with demonstrated production data. Losses can therefore be identified for
corrective action.

The Process Reliability module allows production data to be compared from different plants or different
time periods. Production data may also be transferred from simulated production profiles created from
within the AvSim module. This allows production data from potential plant improvements to be
compared with existing production data.

The Process Reliability module of Availability Workbench analyzes daily plant production data to
distinguish between systematic production losses and reliability losses. The method allows users to
quickly analyze whether a production process is efficient and distinguish reliability losses from
production losses.

Daily production data is analyzed using Weibull and other types of plots. The Cumulative Probability
plot is used to identify trends in the data. Cusps in the plot are marked to identify regions (of daily
product capacity ranges). The right-most cusp on the Cumulative Probability plot identifies the point at
which reliability problems begin to occur (lower daily capacity values to the left of this cusp will be
influenced more strongly by reliability problems rather than controlled process losses). The points to the
right of the cusp will normally form a reasonably straight line and are fitted (automatically by the program
once the cusp has been defined by the user) to a Weibull distribution. These points represent production
losses for a controlled process. A steep line is preferred as it indicates a very tight process with little
variation in production from day to day.

Users may define a theoretical Nameplate Weibull distribution which is also displayed on the
Cumulative Probability plot. The ‘nameplate’ represents the desired or maximum achievable
production capacity from a controlled process with no reliability losses. It is not based on the actual plant
data but is defined by the user.

In some cases defining a single cusp to mark the onset of reliability losses is sufficient. All data values to
the left of the cusp (lower daily production capacities) are assumed to have a reliability loss element.
However, in many cases, the reliability loss region may display one or more additional cusps in the
Cumulative Probability plot indicating that there are distinct reliability problems in the process. Users
may mark such cusps resulting in the program splitting the reliability loss region into two or more
regions.

When cusps are defined on the Cumulative Probability plot, Availability Workbench calculates various
parameters associated with the entire Process Set (all the daily capacity losses recorded in the set).
Principal parameters are Actual Losses, Production Losses and Reliability Losses (all expressed as
an average loss per day). Production Losses are determined from the Weibull distribution fitted to the
data points to the right of the right-most cusp. Reliability Losses are determined by subtracting
Production Losses from Actual Losses. Production Losses are extrapolated into the reliability loss
regions to the left of the right-most cusp on the basis that there will be some contribution to actual losses
from a controlled production process even though the reliability losses become more dominant when
daily losses are more severe. Actual Losses, Production Losses and Reliability Losses are also
calculated for each reliability loss region defined to the left of the right-most cusp. Reliability Losses
are determined by subtracting Production Losses from Actual Losses in each region.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Process Reliability Module - User Interface


To access the Process Reliability module in Availability Workbench (AWB) select the Process
Reliability pull-down option at the top of the left-hand window.

If you have already defined one or more Process sets in your project you can display the associated
data (Process set items) by selecting the appropriate Process set node in the tree control. Alternatively
select the required Process set from the combo-box above the plot window. Ensure that either the Plot,
Grid or Plot & Grid option is selected above the right-hand window. To add a new Process set select
the Process Sets node in the tree control and use the right-button pop-up menu to add a new set.

The grid in the right-hand window is used to display production data. The data will normally be daily
production values but AWB does not restrict you to a particular time interval. Data may be imported
using the Windows clipboard (copy and paste) or may be typed into the grid by hand. The grid
representing Process set items has several columns. One column is used to specify the capacity value
(the average production capacity for the day). Other columns indicate whether the data item is currently
disabled, how many days were associated with the capacity level suspended at this time and the record
date.

As data items are entered into the grid, points will be plotted in the cumulative probability graph. These
points represent the estimated cumulative probability values for each recorded capacity value.

Cusps (identifying reliability loss regions) may be defined by hovering the mouse cursor over the item
point in the plot and then pressing the select mouse button. A cusp may be removed by hovering the
cursor over the inverted triangle that marks the cusp dividing line in the plot and pressing the mouse
select button.

A typical Process Reliability module screen display. The left window displays Process sets in the project
tree control. The top right window displays a Process Reliability plot with calculated Process Reliability
parameters. The bottom right window displays daily production capacity values and other input
parameters.

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Process Sets
Process Sets - Overview
A Process set is a collection of actual or simulated daily production values. Process set information is
analyzed using Availability Workbench (AWB) to produce estimates of systematic and reliability losses.
Data from different process sets may be compared using comparison plots.

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Defining or Importing Process Set Items


Users may assign Process set items to a Process set by typing in the data to a grid control or importing
the data from an external source.

Manual Data Definition


If you have already defined one or more Process sets in your project you can display the associated
data (Process set items) by selecting the appropriate Process set node in the project tree control.
Alternatively select the Process set from the combo-box above the plot area. Ensure that either the Plot,
Grid or Plot & Grid option is selected above the right-hand window.

To modify existing data simply type the new data into the grid control or select the appropriate check
boxes.

To add a new item you will need to access the Items tab of the Process Set Properties dialog. One
way of accessing this tab is to click the right mouse button over the grid area to reveal the grid pop-up
menu. Then select the Add Record option. Alternatively, press the Ins key when the grid is displaying
Process set items. The Items tab of the Process Set Properties dialog displays a grid control and a
Delete button. To delete existing items select them in the grid control and then select the Delete button.
To add new items type in the new data into the empty last row of the grid control. After selecting the OK
button of the Process Set Properties dialog new points will be plotted in the cumulative probability
graph. These points represent the estimated cumulative probability values at each capacity specified by
a Process set item.

Importing Data
Process set data may be imported directly from external databases or the Windows clipboard. To import
data you will need to use the AWB import facility. The import facility may be accessed from the File,
Import pull-down menu option. If you are importing data from the Windows clipboard you can quickly
access the import facility by selecting the Paste from Clipboard option from the grid control right-button
pop-up menu. The import facility will then enable you to match data on the clipboard to the appropriate
columns in the Process set items table.

Defining Cusps
Cusps are process set items that identify the start of a reliability loss region. The cusp flag may be set
for an item in the cumulative probability plot. Cusps may be defined by hovering the mouse cursor over
the item point in the plot and then pressing the select mouse button. A cusp may be removed by
hovering the cursor over the inverted triangle that marks the cusp dividing line in the plot and pressing
the mouse select button. Alternatively you may set the cusp flag for an item on or off using the grid
control in the lower right window or Process Set Properties dialog. The region to the right of the
highest capacity cusp item represents production (systematic) losses. The regions to the left of this cusp
item represent reliability losses.

See Also

Import

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Process Sets - General Properties


Process set general properties may be accessed from the General tab of the Process Set Properties
dialog.

ID
A unique identifier for the Process set of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Type
The type assigned to the Process set. Process set types are used to organize Process sets into groups.
If a project contains many Process sets then this will greatly assist in locating a Process set in the tree
control structure.

Description
A description for the Process set of no more than 255 characters.

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Process Sets - Analysis Options


Process set analysis options may be accessed from the Analysis Options tab of the Process Set
Properties dialog.

Nameplate Parameters
The Characteristic capacity (Eta) and Shape parameter (beta) define the Weibull distribution that
represents the nameplate capacity distribution. This distribution acts as a benchmark or target with
which to compare actual production losses. . If the Auto fit option is selected the characteristic capacity
will be automatically assigned. The auto fit functionality is only enabled if the maximum capacity auto set
option is selected and will determine the characteristic capacity by fitting the nameplate Weibull to pass
through the maximum capacity value.

Production Parameters
The Characteristic capacity (Eta) and Shape parameter (beta) define the Weibull distribution that
represents the demonstrated production capacity distribution. These parameters are normally obtained
by automatically fitting the Weibull distribution to data points at the high-capacity end of the cumulative
probability distribution. The automatic fit is determined for points to the right of the right-most cusp
identified by the user. An automatic fit will be performed if the Auto fit option is checked.

Maximum capacity
The maximum achievable capacity from the plant. If the Auto set option is checked this value will be set
to the highest capacity value for all items associated with the Process set.

Reliability estimation
Users may choose the Median rank, 90% rank, 95% rank or Nelson methods for estimating reliability
values from item capacity values. For a more detailed explanation of these methods see the section on
Weibull Set Analysis Options.

Parameter precision
The user may specify a parameter precision value of 2, 3, 4, 6 or 9. The precision value determines the
number of significant figures calculated when determining the parameters of the Weibull distribution.
This facility is required to prevent unnecessarily high precision values being generated Consider a beta
parameter that has been generated with the value

0.923456789

The table below illustrates how the beta parameter will be rounded for a variety of precision values.

Precision Rounded Number


6 0.923456
3 0.923

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Process Reliability Module

Process Sets - Notes


Process set notes may be accessed from the Notes tab of the Process Set Properties dialog.

Up to 4 descriptive notes may be assigned to each Process set. Users may customize note headers (the
labels used to identify a note category) using the Notes tab in the Project Options dialog.

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Process Plots
Process plots will be displayed when you have the Plot or Plot & Grid option selected above the right-
hand window. There are three different Process plot types. The Cumulative Probability plot displays
estimated reliability values versus capacity. The Probability Density Function plot displays probability
density function values. The Comparison plot displays estimated reliability values versus capacity for
different process sets.

Cumulative Probability Plot


The cumulative probability plot displays estimated reliability values versus capacity. Estimated values
are determined using the reliability estimation method specified by the user in the Process Set
Properties dialog and are displayed as red dots in the diagram. Each dot represents an enabled item in
the Process set.

The nameplate and production Weibull distributions are displayed as color-coded triangular areas.
Reliability loss regions (defined by cusps selected by the user) are also indicated as color-coded
regions.

Reliability is defined as the probability that daily capacity will be above a specified capacity value.

Defining Cusps
Cusps are process set items that identify the start of a reliability loss region in the cumulative probability
plot. Cusps may be defined by hovering the mouse cursor over the item point in the plot and then
pressing the select mouse button. A cusp may be removed by hovering the cursor over the inverted
triangle that marks the cusp dividing line in the plot and pressing the mouse select button.

Probability Density Function


The probability density is defined as the probability of a given daily capacity per unit capacity.

Comparison Plots
Comparison plots display estimated reliability values for a number of different process sets. Each
process set is color-coded.

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Process Reliability Module

Transferring AvSim Profiles to Process Sets


You may transfer existing AvSim capacity profiles into a Process set by selecting the Analysis,
Transfer Capacity Profile from AvSim Module pull-down menu option. The Transfer Profile dialog will
be revealed allowing you to select the RBD block or fault tree gate for which you require data to be
transferred. Data will only be transferred if the block or gate has an up-to-date simulated capacity profile
assigned.

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Sorting Process Set Items


You may permanently sort the items in a process set by selecting the Analysis, Sort Items by
Capacity pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button.

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Life Cycle Cost Module
Life Cycle Cost Module - Overview
The Life Cycle Cost module of Availability Workbench (AWB) provides the framework and functionality
to perform a full system life cycle cost analysis using a hierarchical cost breakdown structure.

Users may construct a hierarchical cost breakdown structure and assign cost equations to nodes in that
structure. Parent nodes in the structure may simply summate the costs of child nodes or apply a user-
defined equation. Nodes with no children of their own may be assigned a simple numerical cost or a
time-dependent cost equation. Equations associated with cost nodes may be linked to predicted cost
data originating from simulations performed in the RCMCost or AvSim modules.

Life cycle cost calculations are based on the time profile defined in the Lifetime tab of the Project
Options dialog. The time profile (the time span to be analyzed and interval length) is common to all
modules in AWB.

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Life Cycle Cost Module - User Interface


To access the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) module in Availability Workbench (AWB) select the Life cycle cost
pull-down option at the top of the left-hand window.

The project tree control in the left-hand window will display the data categories relevant to this module.
These categories are Cost Nodes (these define the cost breakdown structure), Global Variables
(these define variables to be used in more than one cost node) and Phases (phases may be used to
refine cost equations).

The right-hand window will display a grid control, plot, library structure or report depending on the mode
of display chosen by the user (by selecting the Current right window mode option above the window).

New cost nodes, global variables and phases may be added to the current project by selecting the
appropriate node in the tree control and selecting one of the Add options from the right button pop-up
menu.

Once data has been added to a project a calculation may be performed by selecting the Analysis,
Perform pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. Results may then be viewed in the Cost
Profile plot in the right-hand window.

A typical layout in the life cycle cost module. The left window displays the project tree with cost nodes,
global variables and phases. The right window display the calculated cost profile.

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Life Cycle Cost Module

Building a Life Cycle Cost Structure


To build a cost breakdown structure you need to add cost nodes to the project tree control in the left-
hand window. To add a new cost node select an existing node or the top node (labelled Cost Nodes)
and click the right mouse button. From the pop-up menu that appears select the Add Cost Node option.
The Cost Node Properties dialog will appear allowing you define the cost equation for that node and
specify a description and add notes. Select the OK button to add the node and continue this process to
build the structure.

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Cost Nodes
Cost Nodes - General Properties
Cost node general properties may be accessed from the General tab of the Cost Node Properties
dialog.

ID
A unique identifier for the cost node of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Interval cost
The cost to be assigned to each interval of the project time profile. The time profile is defined in the
Lifetime tab of the Project Options dialog. The interval cost may be specified in a number of different
formats. In effect it can be a simple number or a cost equation.

If you enter a simple number, Availability Workbench (AWB) will interpret that number to be the cost to
be assigned to each project time profile interval. For example, suppose we have defined a project time
profile of 10000 hours broken down into 10 intervals of 100 hours each. Entering a value of 500 would
indicate to AWB that the cost associated with the node was 500 currency units for each interval. So the
total cost for the entire time profile would be 5000 currency units evenly distributed over the lifetime.

Alternatively, you may wish to specify the cost as a capital sum to be incurred at a specific point in time.
This may be done by adding a square bracket containing the time value to the end of the cost value. For
example, specifying

600[0] + 800[7000]

would indicate that a cost of 600 currency units is to be incurred at the beginning of the project time
profile and a cost of 800 currency units is to be incurred at a time of 7000 hours. If you have defined any
phases in the project you can also specify a phase ID within the square brackets. AWB will then apply
the cost to all time profile intervals associated with the phase. If a specified phase ends part way
through an interval then only the relevant proportion of the cost will be applied. So the expression

600[Phase1] + 800[Phase3]

would indicate a cost of 600 currency units for each full interval associated with phase ‘Phase1’ and 800
currency units for each full phase associated with phase ‘Phase3’.

Global and reserved variables may be included in an expression for the interval cost. Global variables
are defined by the user and reserved variables are fixed variables that you cannot modify in the life
cycle cost module. Many of the reserved variables link data from the RCMCost or AvSim module
predictions. Global variables are preceded by the identifier G., RCMCost variables are preceded by the
identifier R. and AvSim variables are preceded by A. See the topic Reserved Variables for a full list of
these variables. The reserved variables preceded by the R or A identifier allow users to link to the most
commonly used high-level variables in the RCMCost and AvSim modules. However, you may also link
to a wide range of other project variables at object level using the identifier P. An individual object
variable is identified by the project table name, followed by the column name and then the object ID. For
example, P.Spares.UnitCost.ABC identifies the unit cost of a spare with an ID of 'ABC'. You will need
to surround the ID with single quotes if the object ID contains blanks or a character normally used as an
operator (e.g. *). There are three other reserved variables. These are T, dT and SumOfChildCosts. T
represents 'time', dT represents ‘time interval’ and SumOfChildCosts represents the sum of the costs
of all child nodes.

Variables may be used in expressions together with the standard operators +, -, *, /, ^ representing
addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and power respectively. Numbers may be integer or
exponential format. An example of exponential format is

1.74E-2

representing

1.74x10-2

The power operator raises the number to the left of the operator to the power specified to the right of the
operator. For example, the expression

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Life Cycle Cost Module

2^3

would evaluate to 8 (2 raised to the power 3).

Examples of the use of variables and operators in an expression for the interval cost are given below.

SumOfChildCosts + 1000 + 2.5 * dT

(R.TotalLaborCosts + R.TotalEquipmentCosts) * (1 + 0.01 * T)

23000 * G.CostPerUnitFloorSpace

Note that spaces must be used as delimiters between numbers and operators.

Description
A description for the cost node of no more than 255 characters

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Cost Nodes - Notes


Cost node notes may be accessed from the Notes tab of the Cost Node Properties dialog.

Up to 4 descriptive notes may be assigned to each cost node. Users may customize note headers (the
labels used to identify a note category) using the Notes tab in the Project Options dialog.

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Global Variables
Global Variables - General Properties
Global variable general properties may be accessed from the General tab of the Global Variable
Properties dialog.

ID
A unique identifier for the global variable of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Type
The type assigned to the global variable. Global variable types are used to organize global variables into
groups. If a project contains many global variables then this will greatly assist in locating a global
variable in the project tree control.

Value
The value of the global variable.

Global variable values may be defined by entering a single number or an expression into the Value field.
Global variable expressions may not contain reserved variables or other global variables.

If you enter a simple number, Availability Workbench (AWB) will interpret that number to be the cost
assigned to each project time profile interval. For example, suppose we have defined a project time
profile of 10000 hours broken down into 10 intervals of 100 hours each. Entering a value of 500 would
indicate to AWB that the global variable cost value was 500 currency units for each interval.

Alternatively, you may wish to specify the cost as a capital sum to be incurred at a specific point in time.
This may be done by adding a square bracket containing the time value to the end of the cost value. For
example, specifying

600[0] + 800[7000]

would indicate that a cost of 600 currency units is to be incurred at the beginning of the project time
profile and a cost of 800 currency units is to be incurred at a time of 7000 hours. If you have defined any
phases in the project you can also specify a phase ID within the square brackets. AWB will then apply
the cost to all time profile intervals associated with the phase. If a specified phase ends part way
through an interval then only the relevant proportion of the cost will be applied. So the expression

600[Phase1] + 800[Phase3]

would indicate a cost of 600 currency units for each full interval associated with phase ‘Phase1’ and 800
currency units for each full phase associated with phase ‘Phase3’.

Global variable expressions may contain the standard operators +, -, *, /, ^ representing addition,
subtraction, multiplication, division and power respectively. Numbers may be integer or exponential
format. An example of exponential format is

1.74E-2

representing

1.74x10-2

The power operator raises the number to the left of the operator to the power specified to the right of the
operator. For example, the expression

2^3

would evaluate to 8 (2 raised to the power 3).

Note that spaces must be used as delimiters between numbers and operators.

Description

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A description for the Global variable of no more than 255 characters.

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Life Cycle Cost Module

Reserved Variables

Reserved variables may be used within the cost node expressions used to define interval costs. They
may not be used to define a global variable value.

Reserved variables identifiers are listed below together with a description. Global variable identifiers are
not case-sensitive.

Reserved Variable Identifier Description


T The time value at the mid-point of each interval. Time
intervals are defined in the Lifetime tab of the Project
Options dialog and apply to the RCMCost, AvSim and Life
Cycle Cost modules.
dT The interval length.
SumOfChildCosts The sum of all child node costs
SumOfChildCumulativeCosts The cumulative sum of all child node costs.

R.AlarmCosts RCMCost alarm costs


R.CorrectiveEffectCosts RCMCost corrective effect costs
R.CorrectiveEquipmentCosts RCMCost corrective equipment costs
R.CorrectiveLaborCosts RCMCost corrective labor costs
R.CommissioningCosts RCMCost commissioning costs
R.CorrectiveOperationalCosts RCMCost corrective operational costs
R.CorrectiveSparePurchaseCosts RCMCost corrective spare purchase costs
R.InspectionEffectCosts RCMCost inspection effect costs
R.InspectionEquipmentCosts RCMCost inspection equipment costs
R.InspectionLaborCosts RCMCost inspection labor costs
R.InspectionOperationalCosts RCMCost inspection operational costs
R.PMEffectCosts RCMCost planned maintenance effect costs
R.PMEquipmentCosts RCMCost planned maintenance equipment costs
R.PMLaborCosts RCMCost planned maintenance labor costs
R.PMOperationalCosts RCMCost planned maintenance operational costs
R.PMSparePurchaseCosts RCMCost planned maintenance spare purchase costs
R.RedesignCosts RCMCost redesign costs
R.SpareRepairCosts RCMCost spare repair costs
R.SpareStorageCosts RCMCost spare storage costs
R.TotalEffectCosts RCMCost total effect costs
R.TotalCosts RCMCost total costs
R.TotalEquipmentCosts RCMCost total equipment costs
R.TotalLaborCosts RCMCost total labor costs
R.TotalOperationalCosts RCMCost total operational costs
R.TotalSpareCosts RCMCost total spare costs
R.TotalSparePurchaseCosts RCMCost total spare purchase costs

A.AlarmCosts AvSim alarm costs


A.CorrectiveConsequenceCosts AvSim corrective consequence costs
A.CorrectiveEquipmentCosts AvSim corrective equipment costs
A.CorrectiveLaborCosts AvSim corrective labor costs
A.CommissioningCosts AvSim commissioning costs
A.CorrectiveOperationalCosts AvSim corrective operational costs
A.CorrectiveSparePurchaseCosts AvSim corrective spare purchase costs
A.InspectionConsequenceCosts AvSim inspection consequence costs
A.InspectionEquipmentCosts AvSim inspection equipment costs
A.InspectionLaborCosts AvSim inspection labor costs
A.InspectionOperationalCosts AvSim inspection operational costs
A.PMConsequenceCosts AvSim planned maintenance Consequence costs
A.PMEquipmentCosts AvSim planned maintenance equipment costs
A.PMLaborCosts AvSim planned maintenance labor costs
A.PMOperationalCosts AvSim planned maintenance operational costs
A.PMSparePurchaseCosts AvSim planned maintenance spare purchase costs
A.RedesignCosts AvSim redesign costs

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A.SpareRepairCosts AvSim spare repair costs


A.SpareStorageCosts AvSim spare storage costs
A.TotalConsequenceCosts AvSim total consequence costs
A.TotalCosts AvSim total costs
A.TotalEquipmentCosts AvSim total equipment costs
A.TotalLaborCosts AvSim total labor costs
A.TotalOperationalCosts AvSim total operational costs
A.TotalSpareCosts AvSim total spare costs
A.TotalSparePurchaseCosts AvSim total spare purchase costs

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Life Cycle Cost Module

Performing an Analysis and Examining Results


To perform a life cycle cost analysis select the Analysis, Perform pull-down menu option or equivalent
toolbar button. Availability Workbench will automatically calculate life cycle costs through the cost node
structure.

Life cycle costs may be displayed in the Cost Profile plot in the right-hand window. By selecting the
Tools, Options, Plot pull-down menu option you can reveal the Plot Options dialog to display data for
specific cost nodes in the project.

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LCC Plots
Cost Profile Plots
Cost profile plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode
menu above the right-hand window. Then select the Cost Profile option on the Plot type selector
menu above the right-hand window.

Cost profile plots display interval or cumulative costs for the project and individual cost nodes over the
time profile specified by the user. Users may set different plot options by selecting the Tools, Options,
Plot pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. The Plot Options dialog will be displayed
allowing different options to be selected.

The Costs tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Inclusion lists
The inclusion lists allow you to specify which cost nodes you wish to be included in the cost profile plot.
Move cost nodes between the Included and Not included lists by selecting the appropriate cost nodes
and clicking the arrow buttons in between the lists.

Variable
The variable list allows you to select the variable to be displayed in the system profile. Users may
choose between Interval cost or Cumulative cost

Plot style
The style of plot.

Show grid
If checked the plot will display a background grid.

Include project costs


If checked project costs will be included in the plot. Project costs are a summation of the costs from all
the top level nodes.

Automatic
If checked the program will automatically set the minimum and maximum values of the variable axis.

Minimum/Maximum
If Automatic is not checked then the user must enter the minimum and maximum variable axis values.

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Accelerated Life Testing Module
Accelerated Life Testing - Overview
The Accelerated Life Testing (ALT) module of AWB provides the functionality to analyze accelerated
failure data and predict reliability characteristics under normal use conditions. The ALT module allows
data sets to be analyzed using a proportional hazards or accelerated failure time survival model.
Standard stress profile models are provided (Arrhenius, Eyring and Power Law) together with the ability
to define custom models. Constant, time-varying and multiple stress profiles may be specified for a
single data set.

The ALT module of AWB fits stressed data to exponential, Weibull, lognormal and normal distributions.
Calculated parameters are produced in the form of the distribution parameters at use stress, B life and P
parameter values and distribution plots (reliability, failure rate and pdf).

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Accelerated Life Testing - User Interface


To access the Accelerated Life Testing (ALT) module in Availability Workbench (AWB) select the
Accelerated life testing pull-down option at the top of the left-hand window.

If you have already defined one or more ALT sets in your project you can display the associated data
(ALT set items) by selecting the appropriate ALT set node in the tree control. Ensure that either the Plot,
Grid or Plot & Grid option is selected above the right-hand window. To add a new ALT set select the
ALT Sets node in the tree control and use the right-button pop-up menu to add a new set.

The grid in the right-hand window is used to display historical data. Data may be imported using the
Windows clipboard (copy and paste) or may be typed into the grid by hand. The grid representing ALT
set items has several columns. One column is used to specify the time value (the time to failure or time
to suspension for a test). Other columns indicate whether the data is a failure or suspension (censored),
whether the data item is currently disabled and how many components were failed or suspended at this
time.

As data items are entered into the grid, points will be plotted in the cumulative probability graph. These
points represent the estimated cumulative probability values at each time point for failed data under
stressed conditions.

A typical ALT module screen display. The left window displays ALT sets in the project tree control. The
top right window displays a stressed Weibull plot with calculated Weibull parameters at use stress. The
bottom right window displays times to failure and other input parameters.

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Accelerated Life Testing Module

ALT Sets
ALT Sets - Overview
An ALT set is a collection of times to failure or suspensions that has been compiled from an accelerated
life test. ALT set information may be automatically analyzed using Availability Workbench (AWB) to fit an
appropriate distribution.

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Defining or Importing ALT Set Items


Users may assign ALT set items to an ALT set by typing in the data to a grid control or importing the
data from an external source.

Manual Data Definition


If you have already defined one or more ALT sets in your project you can display the associated data
(ALT set items) by selecting the appropriate ALT set node in the project tree control. Ensure that either
the Plot, Grid or Plot & Grid option is selected above the right-hand window.

To modify existing data simply type the new data into the grid control or select the appropriate check
boxes.

To add a new item you will need to access the Items tab of the ALT Set Properties dialog. One way of
accessing this tab is to click the right mouse button over the grid area to reveal the grid pop-up menu.
Then select the Add Record option. Alternatively, press the Ins key when the grid is displaying ALT set
items. The Items tab of the ALT Set Properties dialog displays a grid control and a Delete button. To
delete existing items select them in the grid control and then select the Delete button. To add new items
type in the new data into the empty last row of the grid control. After selecting the OK button of the ALT
Set Properties dialog new points will be plotted in the cumulative probability graph. These points
represent the estimated cumulative probability values (under stress conditions) at each time specified by
an ALT set item.

Importing Data
ALT set data may be imported directly from external databases or the Windows clipboard. To import
data you will need to use the AWB import facility. The import facility may be accessed from the File,
Import pull-down menu option. If you are importing data from the Windows clipboard you can quickly
access the import facility by selecting the Paste from Clipboard option from the grid control right-button
pop-up menu. The import facility will then enable you to match data on the clipboard to the appropriate
columns in the ALT set items table.

See Also

Import

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Accelerated Life Testing Module

ALT Sets - General Properties


ALT set general properties may be accessed from the General tab of the ALT Set Properties dialog.

ID
A unique identifier for the ALT set of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Type
The type assigned to the ALT set. ALT set types are used to organize ALT sets into groups. If a project
contains many ALT sets then this will greatly assist in locating an ALT set in the tree control structure.

Description
A description for the ALT set of no more than 255 characters.

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ALT Sets - Analysis Options


ALT set analysis options may be accessed from the Analysis Options tab of the ALT Set Properties
dialog.

Survival Model
There are two survival model options available - Accelerated failure time and Proportional hazards.
The models indicate how applied stress factors affect the underlying failure probability distribution.

If the Accelerated failure time model is selected AWB will assume that the applied stress factor directly
affects the lifetime characteristic of the distribution.

For the exponential distribution:

For the Weibull distribution:

For the Normal and lognormal distributions:

If the Proportional hazards model is selected AWB will assume that the applied stress factor directly
affects the failure rate of the distribution:

If the Proportional hazards model is selected only exponential or Weibull distributions may be selected
as the underlying distribution.
For the exponential distribution:

For the Weibull distribution:

Fit model
The model used to fit test data to the assigned distribution. Two options are available – Least squares
and Maximum likelyhood.

The expression below indicates how the goodness of fit indicator is calculated for the Least squares
model.

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Accelerated Life Testing Module

where and are the fitted distribution unreliability values and estimated unreliability point values
respectively. N is the total number of points plotted.

The Maximum likelyhood fit model computes the Log Likelyhood function and selects the distribution
parameters that provide the highest likelyhood value. The Log Likelyhood (LL) value is given by

B Life
When an analysis is performed Availability Workbench (AWB) calculates the time for the specified 'B' life
at use stress. If a ‘B’ life of 10 is specified by the user (the default) then the program calculates the time
by which 10% of component failures would have occurred. Another way of expressing this is that the
program will calculate the time at which the unreliability of the component is 0.1. A ‘B’ life of 30% would
prompt the program to determine the time by which 30% of component failures are likely to have
occurred or the time at which the unreliability is 0.3. Times calculated for B values are shown to the right
of the cumulative probability graph.

P parameter
The P parameter indicates the time at which the unreliability (at use stress) is to be calculated during an
analysis. For example, if a value of 8760 hours is specified then the program will calculate the
unreliability at 8760 hours. The calculated value is shown to the right of the cumulative probability graph.

Reliability estimation
Users may choose the Median rank, 90% rank, 95% rank or Nelson methods for estimating reliability
values from times to failure.

Median Rank Method


Median ranks may be used to obtain estimates of unreliability at the time point represented by each
failure.

This method first calculates rank numbers for each failure based on the following expression:

Median ranks may then be obtained by applying

where j = rank number, N = population

The table below illustrates how unreliability is estimated by the median rank number.

Time Status Rank No. Median


Rank,

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5000 Failure 1 0.13


9600 Suspended 4 -
15042 Failure 2.25 0.36
22500 Suspended 2 -
40030 Failure 4.125 0.71

90% and 95% Rank Methods


The 90% and 95% rank methods are alternative ways of estimating the component unreliability. They
provide a more conservative estimate (higher unreliability) than the median rank method to 90% and
95% confidence levels respectively.

Nelson’s Method

At any time at which a failure occurs a hazard rate function, , is calculated by dividing the number
of failures occurring at that time by the number of survivors immediately before that time:

where = number of failures


= number of survivors

The cumulative sum of these values gives a sample estimate of the cumulative hazard function, .

An estimate of the unreliability, , is then given by

The table below illustrates how the hazard rate function and cumulative hazard function are calculated
with some example data.

Time x S

5000 1 5 0.2 0.2


9600 Suspended 4 -
15042 1 3 0.3333 0.5333
22500 Suspended 2 - -
40030 1 1 1.0 1.5333

Parameter precision
The user may specify a parameter precision value of 2, 3, 4, 6 or 9. The precision value determines the
number of significant figures calculated when determining the parameters of the Weibull and other
distributions. Consider a beta parameter that has been generated with the value

0.923456789

The table below illustrates how the beta parameter will be rounded for a variety of precision values.

Precision Rounded Number


6 0.923456
3 0.923

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Accelerated Life Testing Module

ALT Sets - Notes


ALT set notes may be accessed from the Notes tab of the ALT Set Properties dialog.

Up to 4 descriptive notes may be assigned to each ALT set. Users may customize note headers (the
labels used to identify a note category) using the Notes tab in the Project Options dialog.

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ALT Sets - Stress Profiles


A stress profile defines the stresses applied during an accelerated life test. Multiple stress profiles may
be assigned to a single test. Each stress profile may have a different stress model associated with it.

Select the Add Profile button in the ALT Set Properties dialog (Stress Profile tab) to define each
stress profile to be associated with a test. Select the Delete Current Profile button to delete the current
displayed profile.

Model
The Model list allows the user to select the appropriate model for the current stress profile. You may
select from four model options:

 Arrhenius
 Power
 Eyring
 Custom

Arrhenius

The Arrhenius model uses the following expression to determine the stress factor:

Power

The Power model uses the following expression to determine the stress factor:

Eyring

The Eyring model uses the following expression to determine the stress factor:

Custom

You may create your own single-parameter custom stress model using simple mathematical
expressions and library functions. The custom expression is provided in the Custom expression field.

Model parameter
For the Arrhenius model this is the value of the activation energy in units of eV (electron Volts). For the
Power model this is the exponent. For the Eyring model this is the exponential constant. For the custom
model this is the value of p in custom expressions.

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Accelerated Life Testing Module

Use stress
The value of the use stress. This value will be used by AWB to determine the underlying distribution
parameters at use stress conditions. Examples of use stresses are

 normal ambient temperature


 normal operating voltage

Custom expression
This field only applies when the Custom model is selected.

A custom expression may only use the variables (case-sensitive):

 stress
 useStress
 p

These variables are the ‘stress’, the ‘use stress’ and the ‘model parameter’ values respectively.

The operators

*
/
+
-

represent multiplication, division, addition and subtraction respectively.

An example of a simple expression for the stress factor is:

stress / (useStress - p)

A more complex example is

Math.Exp((p / 8.62E-05) * (1.0 / (useStress + 273) - 1.0 / (stress + 273)))

The second example uses a Math Library function. All Math Library functions must be preceded by
‘Math.’
Examples of common Math functions are:

Abs(x) Returns the absolute value of x.

Exp(x) Returns e raised to the power x.

Log(x) Returns the natural logarithm of x

Log10(x) Returns the base 10 logarithm of x

Pow(x,y) Returns x raised to the power y

Sqrt(x) Returns the square root of x

Description
A description of the stress profile

Time and stress value grid


The values entered in the time and stress values grid define the stress profile. If the accelerated life test
was performed at a single elevated stress then you need only enter the single stress value with a time
value equal to the length of the test. If the stress was varied during the test, enter the different stress
values with the time values indicating the end of each stress period. For example, the table below
indicates that the stress applied (temperature in Kelvin) was 353 from the beginning of the test until 96

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hours, was then increased to 373 from 96 to 120 hours and finally increased to 393 from 120 to 144
hours. Note that AWB assumes the stress falls to the use stress after the final specified time.

Time Stress
96 353
120 373
144 393

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Accelerated Life Testing Module

ALT Sets - Fitting a Distribution


Availability Workbench (AWB) allows the user to choose from a number of different fit distributions for
the test data associated with an ALT set. To select a different distribution simply choose the appropriate
option from the Distribution drop-down list in the main toolbar. Alternatively use the Select
Distribution Automatically option on the Analysis pull-down menu to prompt the program to
automatically select the 'best-fit' distribution. AWB determines 'best-fit' by taking the smallest goodness
of fit indicator or highest likelyhood value for all the available distributions. The goodness of fit is
determined from the following expression:

where and are the fitted unreliability values and estimated unreliability point values respectively.
N is the total number of points plotted.

The Log Likelyhood (LL) value is given by

AWB allows the user to fit a distribution to an ALT set manually as well as using automatic data fitting
algorithms. To access this facility select the Analysis, Set Distribution Parameters Manually pull-
down menu option in the ALT module. A Distribution Parameters dialog will be revealed allowing the
appropriate parameters to be modified by the user. As the parameters are modified, the graph will
change to reflect the changing shape of the distribution.

When fitting data manually, users may find it useful to first display the failure rate graph. It is often easier
to fit data manually to the estimated regionalized rate in this graph.

Exponential Distribution
The exponential distribution should be used to model the failure characteristics of components that do
not exhibit any ageing. The distribution represents a constant failure rate. The expressions below
represent the use of the distribution for failures.

Probability Density Function,

Unreliability,

Failure Rate,

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Mean Time to Failure, MTTF

1-Parameter Weibull
The Weibull distribution is used to model the failure characteristics of components with time-dependent
failure rates. A common use is to model the ageing characteristics of mechanical components. The 1-
Parameter Weibull calculation method requires the user to specify the shape parameter of the
distribution. When fitting the Weibull distribution to historical data AWB varies the characteristic life
parameter to obtain the best fit.

Probability Density Function for 1-Parameter Weibull,

where

= characteristic life parameter


= shape parameter

Unreliability,

Failure Rate,

Mean Time to Failure, MTTF

where

2-Parameter Weibull
Expressions for the 2-Parameter Weibull are identical to the expression given above for the 1-Parameter
Weibull method. The only difference is that the user does not specify the value of the shape parameter.
The program will assign the shape parameter as well as the characteristic life when fitting the
distribution to data.

3-Parameter Weibull

Probability Density Function for 3-Parameter Weibull,

where

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Accelerated Life Testing Module

= characteristic life parameters


= shape parameter
= location parameter

Unreliability,

Failure Rate,

Mean Time to Failure, MTTF

where

= gamma function

Lognormal
The lognormal distribution is defined by the following expressions.

Probability Density Function,

Mean Time to Failue, MTTF

Standard deviation, Std

Median (peak of distribution)

Mode (most probable value)

Normal
The normal distribution is defined by the following expressions.

Probability Density Function,

where

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Availability Workbench V3.0

= mean time to failure


= standard deviation of mean time to failure

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Accelerated Life Testing Module

ALT Sets - Goodness of Fit, Log Likelyhood and Correlation


Coefficients
When assigning distribution parameters using the straight line fit method, Availability Workbench (AWB)
calculates a correlation coefficient. The correlation coefficient is a measure on how well the linear model
fits the data. The closer the absolute value is to 1, the better the fit.

The correlation coefficient is calculated from

where and are the x and y values of points in the cumulative probability plot. N is the total number
of points plotted.

Goodness of Fit Indicator


The expression below indicates how the goodness of fit indicator is calculated.

where and are the fitted Weibull unreliability values and estimated unreliability point values
respectively. N is the total number of points plotted.

Log Likelyhood
The Log Likelyhood (LL) value is given by

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Availability Workbench V3.0

ALT Plots
ALT plots will be displayed when you have the Plot or Plot & Grid option selected above the right-hand
window. There are three different ALT plot types. The Cumulative Probability plot displays estimated
unreliability values versus time under stress conditions. The Failure Rate plot displays estimated and
distribution-derived failure rate values over time at use stress and stress test conditions. The
Probability Density Function plot displays distribution-derived probability density function values at
use stress and stress test conditions.

Cumulative Probability Plot


The cumulative probability plot displays estimated unreliability values versus time under stress
conditions. Estimated values are determined using the reliability estimation method specified by the user
in the ALT Set Properties dialog and are displayed as red dots in the diagram. Each dot represents an
enabled and non-suspended item in the ALT set.

Availability Workbench (AWB) automatically fits the selected stressed distribution to the estimated
unreliability points and displays the distribution-derived unreliability as a continuous red line.

Unreliability is defined as the probability that a first failure has occurred before or at the specified point in
time. Time corresponds to the age of an equipment relative to its ‘as good as new’ condition.

Failure Rate Plot


The failure rate plot displays estimated and distribution-derived failure rate values over time at use
stress and stress condtions. The continuous red line represents the distribution-related failure rate value
under stress conditions. The blue line represents the distribution-related failure rate value under use
stress conditions.

The failure rate is defined as the probability of first failure per unit time conditional on the equipment
being operational at a given time. Time corresponds to the age of an equipment relative to its ‘as good
as new’ condition.

Probability Density Function


The probability density function (pdf) plot displays estimated and distribution-derived pdf values over
time at use stress and stress condtions. The continuous red line represents the distribution-related pdf
value under stress conditions. The blue line represents the distribution-related pdf value under use
stress conditions.

The probability density is defined as the probability of first failure per unit time. Time corresponds to the
age of an equipment relative to its ‘as good as new’ condition.

350
Reports
Reports - Overview
Availability Workbench (AWB) provides a sophisticated reporting facility called the Report Designer that
allows users to view and print standard reports provided with the installation and design custom text,
graph and diagram reports.

The Report Designer may be accessed by selecting Report from the Right window mode selector
pull-down menu (situated above the right-hand window).

The Report Designer enables the user to view and design text column, text row, graph and diagram
reports. Using the Report Designer users may modify existing reports, create their own reports based on
copies of the pre-defined reports, or create entirely new reports.

Report definitions are stored in XML files that are given the default extension awb-repx. Each report is
stored in a single file. Existing reports may be opened by selecting the Report Designer File, Open
Report pull-down menu option within the right-hand window. Once a report has been opened you may
print or preview the report by selecting the appropriate option from the Report Designer File pull-down
menu.

The reports obtain their source data from a SQL compatible database which is intelligently updated with
the application data when a report is opened. SQL queries ranging from simple single table queries to
complex union and multi-join queries can be used to interrogate the database. In addition to displaying
the actual report data, the user may display information ranging from the date, time and page numbers
to complex SQL queries using report macros.

The Report Designer print preview, print and export operations are multi-threaded. This means, for
example, that a user may continue with other tasks in the application whilst a report is re-paginating.

The Report Designer comprises an outline view, one or more document area tabs (corresponding to
the number of open reports), and its own menu bar and toolbars.

The facilities provided by the Report Designer are described in full in the Report Designer User
Guide.

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Diagram Report Settings
Diagram Report Settings - Overview
Diagram report settings affect all diagram reports produced by the Report Designer. Diagram report
settings are associated with the current user and are stored in each user’s Local Settings\Application
Data folder.

Start page number


The first page number to be used when assigning page references to RBD and fault tree diagrams in
reports. You may wish to set a page number other than 1 if your report is to be exported to an external
document (e.g. a Word document) where the diagram is preceded by pages of text. This will allow the
page referencing generated by Availability Workbench (AWB) to correspond to the page numbering in
the external document.

Maximum RBD symbol size


The maximum size to display RBD block symbols in reports. AWB will scale individual RBD pages to
ensure the diagram fits within the report page. If the page contains only a few symbols AWB will magnify
the page until the maximum symbol size is reached. The maximum symbol size represents the
maximum block width in inches.

Maximum fault tree symbol size


The maximum size to display fault tree symbols in reports. AWB will scale individual fault tree pages to
ensure the diagram fits within the report page. If the page contains only a few symbols AWB will magnify
the page until the maximum symbol size is reached. The maximum symbol size represents the
maximum gate width in inches.

Line width
The line width in units of 1/72 of an inch.

Metafile page width (inches)


The width in inches of metafile pages created when copying diagrams directly to the clipboard.

Metafile page height (inches)


The height in inches of metafile pages created when copying diagrams directly to the clipboard.

Show note symbols


If checked note symbols will be included in reports.

Show hyperlink symbols


If checked hyperlink symbols will be included in reports.

Show page numbers


If checked page numbers will be shown in reports.

Color diagrams
If checked the diagram will be displayed as a color diagram in reports.

Don’t repeat fault tree structures


If checked AWB will not repeat fault tree structures that have already been displayed on a previous
page. Repeated structures can occur if gates have been repeated on different pages of a fault tree
structure. This will typically occur where a fault tree gate represents a common cause failure that can
affect more than one part of the system.

Page Filter
Determines whether to print all pages of the RBD and fault tree diagrams in the project or whether to
print a sub-set of pages. If All pages is selected then all diagram pages will be printed. If Visible and

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Availability Workbench V3.0

below is selected the currently displayed RBD or fault tree page is printed together with all pages
logically connected below the displayed page. If Visible only is selected only the currently displayed
RBD or fault tree page is printed.

Report Rotation
Affects the orientation of the diagrams in reports. If No rotation is selected the report will remain in its
default orientation. If Rotate 90 degrees or Rotate 270 degrees is selected then the report will be
rotated through the appropriate angle.

See Also

RBD Page Order


Fault Tree Page Order

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Diagram Report Settings

Diagram Report Settings - RBD Page Order


Order by hierarchy
When checked the RBD pages are ordered by their position in the RBD hierarchy..

Order by ID
When checked the RBD pages are ordered alphabetically by their block ID.

User-defined order
When checked the user may edit the order of the RBD pages.

Move selections up
Selection of this button moves the selected RBD page up one position in the list order.

Move selections down


Selection of this button moves the selected RBD page down one position in the list order.

Select all pages connected below


Clicking selects all RBD pages connected below the selected RBD page.

See Also

Overview
Fault Tree Page Order

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Diagram Report Settings - Fault Tree Page Order


Order by hierarchy
When checked the fault tree pages are ordered by their position in the fault tree hierarchy..

Order by ID
When checked the fault tree pages are ordered alphabetically by their gate ID.

User-defined order
When checked the user may edit the order of the fault tree pages.

Move selections up
Clicking moves the selected fault tree page up one position in the list order.

Move selections down


Clicking moves the selected fault tree page down one position in the list order.

Select all pages connected below


Clicking selects all fault tree pages connected below the selected fault tree page.

See Also

Overview
RBD Page Order

356
Application Settings
Application Settings - Overview
Application settings are global options that may be modified by the user. Application settings are
associated with the current user and are stored in each user’s Local Settings\Application Data folder.

Application settings determine the default location of project, library and other files. They may also be
used to specify various user preferences for plot colors, number of undos allowed etc.

See Also

Files
Backup
Fonts
Colors
Plots
Undo
Import
Naming
Threads

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Application Settings - Files


XML file format for projects and libraries
By default AWB saves projects and libraries as compressed files with the extension 'awb'. However,
users may choose to save projects and libraries in XML file format with the extension 'awbx'. XML
projects and libraries may be significantly larger then the equivalent compressed file format. This option
does not affect the format of projects stored in the Enterprise System.

Default folder for projects


The default folder to be displayed when opening a project for the first time during a session. If a user
subsequently opens projects in a different folder then this folder will become the default folder for the
duration of the session only.

Default folder for libraries


The default folder to be displayed when opening a library for the first time during a session. If a user
subsequently opens libraries in a different folder then this folder will become the default folder for the
duration of the session only.

Default folder for bitmaps


The default folder to be displayed when opening a bitmap for the first time during a session. If a user
subsequently opens bitmaps in a different folder then this folder will become the default folder for the
duration of the session only.

Default folder for reports


The default folder to be displayed when opening a report for the first time during a session. If a user
subsequently opens reports in a different folder then this folder will become the default folder for the
duration of the session only.

Default folder for import/export templates


The default folder to be displayed when opening an import/export template for the first time during a
session. If a user subsequently opens import/export templates in a different folder then this folder will
become the default folder for the duration of the session only.

Default folder for import/export files


The default folder to be displayed when opening an import/export file for the first time during a session.
If a user subsequently opens import/export files in a different folder then this folder will become the
default folder for the duration of the session only.

See Also

Overview
Backup
Fonts
Colors
Plots
Undo
Import
Naming
Threads

358
Application Settings

Application Settings - Backup


Enable project backup
If checked Availability Workbench will automatically write the current project data to a backup project file
at the specified interval. Users are strongly advised to enable this option to avoid losing data during
network crashes. Backup project files are given the extension .awb-bakx.

Project backup interval


The time interval in minutes between writing the project to a backup file.

Default folder for non-enterprise project backups


The default folder to which non-enterprise backup files are saved. An existing folder may be selected
using the Browse button. Alternatively, the user may create a new folder by entering the file path
manually in the text field. Users should not choose a folder that may contain project files that have not
been created using the backup system.

See Also

Overview
Files
Fonts
Colors
Plots
Undo
Import
Naming
Threads

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Application Settings - Fonts


Tree control
Lists the fonts applied to text in the tree control.

Plots
Lists of the fonts applied to text in the screen plots.

Grid
Lists the fonts applied to text in the grid display.

Pop-up text
Lists the fonts applied to text used in pop-ups.

Change selected font


Selecting the Change selected font button will open the Font dialog and allow the user to modify the
font properties. Double-clicking the left mouse button with the cursor over the text type in the tree control
will also reveal the Font dialog.

Reset selection to default


Selecting the Reset selection to default button will reset the selected text type its default font.

Reset all to default


Selecting the Reset all to default button will reset all text types to their default fonts.

See Also

Overview
Files
Backup
Colors
Plots
Undo
Import
Naming
Threads

360
Application Settings

Application Settings - Colors


Tree control
The tree control displays the current color settings for plot backgrounds and plot lines, symbols and
bars.

Change selected color


Selecting the Change selected color button will open the Color dialog for the selected item in the tree
control. Alternatively the Color dialog can be opened by double clicking on a tree control item.

Reset selection to default


Selecting the Reset selection to default button will reset the selected tree control item its default color.

Reset all to default


Selecting the Reset all to default button will reset items in the tree control to their default colors.

See Also

Overview
Files
Backup
Fonts
Plots
Undo
Import
Naming
Threads

361
Availability Workbench V3.0

Application Settings - Plots


Minimum width (pixels)
The minimum width to be used for screen plots. If the plot will not fit into the available space in the right-
hand window Availability Workbench (AWB) will display scroll bars to allow the user to view hidden
areas of the plot.

Minimum height (pixels)


The minimum height to be used for screen plots. If the plot will not fit into the available space in the
right-hand window AWB will display scroll bars to allow the user to view hidden areas of the plot.

Enable pop-up text


If checked screen plots will display plot data values as the user moves the cursor over data points in the
plot.

Use gradient fill


Apply a gradient color scheme to filled plots such as bar charts.

Use hatch styles


Applies hatch styles to distinguish between variables in filled plots such as bar charts.

Enable profile time axis auto-scaling


If checked AWB will automatically set the profile plot time axis minimum and maximum values using an
automatic algorithm. If not checked time axis values will be determined from the analysis profile interval
set in the Project Options dialog.

See Also

Overview
Files
Backup
Fonts
Colors
Undo
Import
Naming
Threads

362
Application Settings

Application Settings - Undo


Maximum number of undos
The maximum number of undo operations to be allowed. Setting this value to zero will disable the undo
facility. Undo operations may take up a significant amount of memory for larger projects. Users are
advised to keep this number to a minimum value particularly for large projects.

See Also

Overview
Files
Backup
Fonts
Colors
Plots
Import
Naming
Threads

363
Availability Workbench V3.0

Application Settings - Import


Remove phonetics on import from Excel
If this flag is checked phonetics will not be imported from Excel even if they are visible in the Excel
spreadsheet.

Remove disable tasks when opening RCMCost V4 or AvSim V10 project files
If checked Availability Workbench (AWB) will remove scheduled tasks originating from older version
projects if the task is disabled in these projects unless the task is a dependent planned maintenance
task. A planned maintenance task is dependent if an inspection task is also defined for the cause or
failure model.

Non-standard character encoding for RCMCost V4 or AvSim V10 project files


This flag, when checked, indicates that RCMCost V4 and AvSim V10 project files are assumed to have
been created with non-standard character encoding. This would apply, for example, to projects created
using Chinese characters.

Code page
The code page number identifies the character set to be translated when reading RCMCost V4 and
AvSim V10 project files. Examples are 936 for simplified Chinese, 932 for Japanese and 949 for Korean.

Apply hold-for-repair rules to failure models when opening AvSim V10 project files
if this option is set then AWB will convert AvSim V10 hold-for-repair setting to inhibit task rules for the
appropriate failure models. If this option is not set then rules will be applied to blocks or primary events
rather than failure model tasks. This option should not be set if the AvSim V10 project uses common
failure models for different blocks or primary events that have a hold-for-repair setting.

See Also

Overview
Files
Backup
Fonts
Colors
Plots
Undo
Naming
Threads

364
Application Settings

Application Settings - Naming


Use CopyOf renaming scheme for RCMCost locations on paste
If checked, Availability Workbench (AWB) will use the 'CopyOf' prefix when renaming locations during a
paste operation. If not checked, AWB will rename locations using the name of the target location
followed by an automatically generated extension. If the target for the paste operation is the top level
Locations node then AWB will revert to the 'CopyOf' naming scheme.

Use CopyOf renaming scheme for AvSim RBD structure on paste special
If checked, Availability Workbench (AWB) will use the 'CopyOf' prefix when renaming RBD blocks during
a paste special operation. If not checked, AWB will rename blocks using the name of the target RBD
page followed by an automatically generated extension.

Use CopyOf renaming scheme AvSim fault tree structure on paste special
If checked, Availability Workbench (AWB) will use the 'CopyOf' prefix when renaming fault tree gates
and events during a paste special operation. If not checked, AWB will rename gates and events using
the name of the parent gate followed by an automatically generated extension.

Use CopyOf renaming scheme for LCC cost structure on paste


If checked, Availability Workbench (AWB) will use the 'CopyOf' prefix when renaming cost nodes during
a paste operation. If not checked, AWB will rename locations using the name of the target cost node
followed by an automatically generated extension. If the target for the paste operation is the top level
cost node then AWB will revert to the 'CopyOf' naming scheme.

See Also

Overview
Files
Backup
Fonts
Colors
Plots
Undo
Import
Threads

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Application Settings - Threads


Availability Workbench (AWB) can take advantage of parallel processing methods when performing
simulations in the RCMCost and AvSim modules. Using parallel processing can significantly reduce the
computing time for a simulation run. In order for AWB to take advantage of these methods the host
computer must be a multiple-processor machine. You will not necessarily achieve 100% efficiency in
reducing computing time with multiple-processor machines. Efficiency will depend on the number of total
simulations being performed and overheads associated with the operating system. For example, if your
host machine has 8 processors, the actual time taken to complete a simulation run might be reduced by
a factor of 6 rather than 8 due to the machine's multi-processor ability. AWB takes advantage of
multiple-processor machines by dividing the total number of simulations performed into separate
threads. Each thread runs its simulations independently from the other threads. Normally you would use
the same number of threads as processors so that the operating system will be able to allocate each
thread to a different processor to achieve maximum efficiency.

Number of processors detected


AWB will automatically indicate the number of processors on the host machine.

Automatically set threads by number of processors


If checked, the number of threads will be set to the number of processors detected. This will normally
achieve maximum efficiency during simulation calculations.

Number of simulation threads


If the Automatically set threads by number of processors option is not checked the user may set the
number of threads to be used during simulation runs.

See Also

Overview
Files
Backup
Fonts
Colors
Plots
Undo
Import
Naming

366
Application Settings

Application Settings - General


Display Portal Windows as Dialogs
If this option is selected the Ellipse Portal windows will be displayed as dialogs. Dialog windows must be
closed before returning to the main AWB application window.

Portal Windows on Top


If this option is selected the Ellipse Portal windows will always be displayed above the main AWB
application window.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Enterprise Application Settings


These options only apply to users accessing the Isograph Enterprise System.

Folder for local enterprise projects


The high level folder in which local enterprise projects will be saved. This folder is also used to store
enterprise backup projects.

Server and Differencing


The server settings provide connection details for the Enterprise System web service (containing
Enterprise projects and libraries). The differencing settings provide connection details for the Enterprise
Differencing web service. These settings will normally be specified in the application configuration file
and disabled in the Application Settings dialog

Binding configuration
The endpoint binding name. Typical binding names are netTcpBinding, basicHttpBinding and
wsHttpBinding

Scheme
The scheme name (set to blank for default)

Host
The host name

Port
The port number

User principal name


The user principal name

368
Application Settings

Plugins Application Settings


The plugins options are only available to users with a valid plugins license.

The plugins list identifies all plugins currently associated with the application.

Add
Select the Add button to create a new plugin.

Edit
Select the Edit button to edit the plugin selected in the plugin list

Copy
Select the Copy button to copy the plugin selected in the plugin list

Export
Select the Export button to export the plugin selected in the plugin list. Exported plugins are saved to a
file in XML format with the extension awb-plgx.

Import
Select the Import button to import a plugin from file.

Remove
Select the Remove button to permanently remove the plugin selected in the plugin list

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Importing and Exporting Data
Importing and Exporting Data - Overview
Availability Workbench (AWB) enables users to export and import data to and from a variety of different
external databases and file formats. In addition users may export and import data to and from the
Windows clipboard.

The import and export facilities connect to the following external formats:

 Access databases
 SQL Server databases
 Oracle databases
 Excel files
 XML files
 Text files
 Windows clipboard

In order to import or export data you must select and match the data to be transferred. AWB provides
facilities to quickly match the required data in the Import and Export dialogs. These dialogs are
accessed by selecting the File, Import or File, Export pull-down menus respectively.

Once you have selected and matched your data you can save this information in an import or export
template. This means that next time you wish to import or export the same type of data to the same
external source or target you can just retrieve the template and perform the import or export of data
without re-selecting and re-matching your data. AWB remembers your last import or export template so
that the next time you enter the import or export facilities your previous selections and matches will
already be set.

AWB automatically validates data as it is being imported into a project. Many import errors can be
automatically corrected on import. For example, an invalid negative number will be re-assigned the
minimum allowed numerical value for the data value being imported. Validation errors are displayed to
the user during the import process.

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Importing Data
Importing Data - Connecting to the External Data Source
The Availability Workbench (AWB) import function requires that the user defines the external data
source. On entering the import facility (by selecting the File, Import pull-down menu option) AWB will
display the Database tab of the Import dialog. The Database tab is used to define the connection to the
external source whether it is a database, file or the Windows clipboard.

Type
The database or file type.

Server
The server to connect to. This field need only be selected when connecting to a SQL Server database.
AWB will automatically populate the list of available servers when the database Type has been set to
SQL Server.

Service
The service to connect to. This field need only be completed when connecting to an Oracle database.

Login
The login fields only apply to SQL Server and Oracle databases. Select Use Windows authentication
or enter a user name and password. Then select the Connect button to connect to the database.

Database
The database file name for Access and SQL Server databases. The list of available database names
will be automatically populated once the server has been chosen for a SQL Server database.

File
The file name for XML, Excel and text file connections.

Browse
The Browse button enables users to browse the Windows directory structure for file names or Access
database files.

Mode
The use may choose between one of the following import modes

 Replace matching and append non-matching records


 Replace matching records only
 Append non-matching records only

An imported data record matches an existing project record if the object ID is identical. The object ID is
effectively the primary key. For example, if you are importing labor categories from an external database
you may be importing a row that contains ‘ELECTRICIAN’ as the ID (primary key). If the AWB project
already contains a labor category with ID ‘ELECTRICIAN’ then a match is found.

Column names in first row


If you are importing data from Excel, a text file or the clipboard you need to specify whether the first row
of the file or clipboard contains the column names.

Delimiter
The delimiter that is to be used to separate columns for a Text File – User Delimiter data source.

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Importing and Exporting Data

Importing Data - Matching Tables


When importing data from an external data source you need to indicate the match between external
table or worksheet names and the Availability Workbench (AWB) application database tables. AWB will
only permit import to application tables that are import-enabled.

Table matches are defined by accessing the Table Matches tab of the Import dialog.

If you are connected to the Windows clipboard or a text file then you can only match to a single table.

Matching Tables Individually


To match an external table to an application table (AWB table) first select a table in the external table
list. Then select the table to be matched in the application table list. The external table list will indicate
current matches by placing a tick to the left of the external table. The application table name will be
displayed in this list after an arrow symbol. For example, the application table list entry

WORKCREWS->Labor

Indicates that the external table ‘WORKCREWS’ is matched to the application table ‘Labor’.

Auto match
Selection of the Auto match button prompts AWB to automatically match external and application
tables that have the same name. Although Excel worksheet names are preceded by a ‘$’ symbol AWB
will recognize matching names if this is the only differentiating character.

Clear match
Selection of the Clear match button will clear the match selected in the external table list.

Clear all matches


Selection of this button will clear all table matches.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Importing Data - Matching Columns


After defining matches between external and application tables you then need to define column
matches. Column matches are defined by accessing the ‘Column Matches’ tab of the ‘Import’ dialog.

Availability Workbench (AWB) will only permit import to columns that are import-enabled. If the external
data source is a text file, an Excel file or the Windows clipboard then column names will be extracted
from the first row of the file if the Column names in first row option was selected in the Database tab.
If this option was not selected then AWB will assign the names ‘F1’, ‘F2’, ‘F3’ etc. to the external
columns list.

Table Match
The currently selected table match defines which columns are to be displayed in the external and
application column lists. You will be able to select any previously defined table match.

Matching Columns Individually


To match an external column to an application column (AWB column) first select a column in the
external column list. Then select the column to be matched in the application column list. The external
column list will indicate current matches by placing a tick to the left of the external column. The
application column name will be displayed in this list after an arrow symbol. For example, the application
column list entry

NUMBER->Quantity

indicates that the external column ‘NUMBER’ is matched to the application column ‘Quantity’.

Small icons are displayed to the left of column names in the lists to help identify the type of data
associated with the column.

The primary key column uniquely identifies an object. In AWB it is the ID column for that object.
Secondary keys provide a link to the primary key in other AWB tables. The ‘Boolean’ data type is
associated with values of ‘true’ and ‘false’.

Auto match
Selection of the Auto match button prompts AWB to automatically match external and application
columns that have the same name.

Clear match
Selection of the Clear match button will clear the match selected in the external column list.

Clear all matches


Selection of this button will clear all column matches.

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Importing and Exporting Data

Exporting Data
Exporting Data - Connecting to the External Database
The Availability Workbench (AWB) export function requires that the user defines the external data
source. On entering the export facility (by selecting the File, Export pull-down menu option) AWB will
display the ‘Database’ tab of the Export dialog. The Database tab is used to define the connection to
the external source whether it is a database, file or the Windows clipboard.

Type
The database or file type.

Server
The server to connect to. This field need only be selected when connecting to a SQL Server database.
AWB will automatically populate the list of available servers when the database Type has been set to
SQL Server.

Service
The service to connect to. This field need only be completed when connecting to an Oracle database.

Login
The login fields only apply to SQL Server and Oracle databases. Select Use Windows authentication
or enter a user name and password. Then select the Connect button to connect to the database.

Database
The database file name for Access databases. The database name for SQL Server databases. The list
of available database names will be automatically populated once the server has been chosen for a
SQL Server database. This field need only be completed for Access and SQL Server databases.

File
The file name for XML, Excel and text file connections.

Browse
The Browse button enables users to browse the Windows directory structure for file names or Access
database files.

Column names in first row


If you are exporting data from Excel, a text file or the clipboard you need to specify whether the first row
of the file or clipboard contains the column names.

Delimiter
The delimiter that is to be used to separate columns for a Text File – User Delimiter data source.

Export no match
If you wish to export AWB data to tables and columns with the same name as the AWB application
tables and columns then select this option. This option may also be selected for creating a new
database or file using AWB data. This option cannot be used, however, for exporting to SQL Server or
Oracle databases.

Note that if the Export no match option is selected the contents of existing tables that have the same
name as exported AWB tables will be deleted before the export of data takes place.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Exporting Data - Matching Tables


Tables may be matched for Access, SQL Server and Oracle databases. Tables and worksheets may
also be matched for Excel files. However, tables may not be matched for export to text files and the
Windows clipboard.

Table matches are defined by accessing the Table Matches tab of the Export dialog.

You will only need to match external tables to Availability Workbench (AWB) tables if the Export no
match option is switched off.

When exporting data to an external data source you need to indicate the match between external table
or worksheet names and the AWB application database tables.

If you are connected to the Windows clipboard or a text file then you can only match to a single table.

Matching Tables Individually


To match an external table to an application table (AWB table) first select a table in the external table
list. Then select the table to be matched in the application table list. The external table list will indicate
current matches by placing a tick to the left of the external table. The application table name will be
displayed in this list after an arrow symbol. For example, the application table list entry

WORKCREWS<-Labor

indicates that the external table ‘WORKCREWS’ is matched to the application table ‘Labor’.

Auto match
Selection of the Auto match button prompts AWB to automatically match external and application
tables that have the same name. Although Excel worksheet names are preceded by a ‘$’ symbol AWB
will recognize matching names if this is the only differentiating character.

Clear match
Selection of the Clear match button will clear the match selected in the external table list.

Clear all matches


Selection of this button will clear all table matches.

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Importing and Exporting Data

Exporting Data - Matching Columns


You will only need to match external columns to Availability Workbench (AWB) columns if the ‘Export no
match’ option is switched off. Column matches are defined by accessing the Column Matches tab of
the Export dialog.

After defining matches between external and application tables you then need to define column
matches. If the external data source is a text file, an Excel file or the Windows clipboard then column
names will be extracted from the first row of the file if the Column names in first row option was
selected in the Database tab. If this option was not selected then AWB will assign the names ‘F1’, ‘F2’,
‘F3’ etc. to the external columns list.

Table Match
The currently selected table match defines which columns are to be displayed in the external and
application column lists. You will be able to select any previously defined table match.

Matching Columns Individually


To match an external column to an application column (AWB column) first select a column in the
external column list. Then select the column to be matched in the application column list. The external
column list will indicate current matches by placing a tick to the left of the external column. The
application column name will be displayed in this list after an arrow symbol. For example, the application
column list entry

NUMBER<-Quantity

indicates that the external column ‘NUMBER’ is matched to the application column ‘Quantity’. Small
icons are displayed to the left of column names in the lists to help identify the type of data associated
with the column.

The primary key column uniquely identifies an object. In AWB it is the ID column for that object.
Secondary keys provide a link to the primary key in other AWB tables. The ‘Boolean’ data type is
associated with values of ‘true’ and ‘false’.

Auto match
Selection of the Auto match button prompts AWB to automatically match external and application
columns that have the same name.

Clear match
Selection of the Clear match button will clear the match selected in the external column list.

Clear all matches


Selection of this button will clear all column matches.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Export No Match - Specifying Tables for Export


If the Export no match option is selected under the Database tab of the Export dialog you will have
access to the Tables tab that allows you to define which tables are to be exported.

You may transfer tables to and from the Exported application table list by selecting the appropriate
table followed by selection of the appropriate arrow button. The buttons that contain three arrows will
transfer all tables from one list to another.

If you select more than one table and the target for export is a text file, Availability Workbench will create
multiple text files, one for each table. The files will be given the base file name specified in the Database
tab of the Export dialog with an extended name identifying the table. For example, a base text file name
of ‘demo.txt’ would result in files ‘demo_Labor.txt’ and ‘demo_Spares.txt’ being created if the tables
‘Labor’ and ‘Spares’ were exported together.

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Importing and Exporting Data

Export No Match - Specifying Columns for Export


If the Export no match option is selected under the Database tab of the Export dialog you will have
access to the Columns tab that allows you to define which columns are to be exported.

You may transfer columns to and from the Exported application column list by selecting the
appropriate column followed by selection of the appropriate arrow button. The buttons that contain three
arrows will transfer all columns from one list to another.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Importing and Exporting Data - Schema


The Schema tabs of the Import and Export dialogs display the table and column structure of the
connected database, file or Windows clipboard. In the case of text files, Excel files and the clipboard, the
displayed schema will simply be the first row of data.

Small icons are displayed to the left of column names in the schema tree to help identify the type of data
associated with the column.

The primary key column uniquely identifies an object. The ‘Boolean’ data type is associated with values
of ‘true’ and ‘false’.

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Importing and Exporting Data

Importing and Exporting Data - Filtering Data


You may set filtering parameters from within the Filters tab of the Import or Export dialog.

The filter function allows users to restrict the data that is imported from or exported to an external
database. The filter function is not available when importing data from the clipboard, text files or XML
files.

Table
You may set filter parameters for each matched table pair. The table list allows you to select the
matched table pair for which you wish to view or modify filter parameters.

Column
You may set filter parameters for each column in a matched table pair. The column list allows you to
select the column for which you wish to view or modify filter parameters.

Filter operation
The filter operation you wish to perform on incoming or outgoing data. Valid filter operations are

 Equals
 Does not equal
 Is greater than
 Is greater than or equal to
 Is less than
 Is less than or equal to
 Contains

Filter value
The filter value associated with the filter operation

Current filters
A list of the filters currently assigned for the import or export process.

Clear
Selecting the Clear button will remove the current filters.

Clear button icon:

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Importing and Exporting Data - Specifying Text File Column


Positions
If you have specified the Text File - Fixed Column Width database type the Column Positions tab will
be displayed in the Import or Export dialog. This tab allows you to specify the starting position of
columns in the text file.

Number of columns
This field indicates the number of columns in each row of the file

Column
This field indicates the column number for which the position is being specified

Position
The position of the column indicated in the Column field

Auto set
Selecting the Auto set button prompts the program to automatically assign column positions. Users may
later adjust automatically assigned positions.

Preview
The Preview list shows the current column positions by inserting column dividers (the symbol ^ is used)
between text in the file.

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Importing and Exporting Data

Importing and Exporting Data - Database Login


On entering the import or export facilities AWB will automatically open the last import or export
template. If the template defines a connection to a SQL Server or Oracle database then AWB will
display the Database Login dialog.

In this form the user may choose whether to use 'Windows authentication' to login or alternatively enter
a username and password.

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Tools
Renaming RCMCost Locations
RCMCost locations, functions, functional failures and causes may be renamed by selecting the
appropriate Rename option on the Tools pull-down menu. Objects will be renamed based on the name
of their parent and a numerical extension.

Objects will only be renamed under the current tree control selection.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Renaming AvSim Blocks and Nodes


AvSim blocks and nodes may be renamed by selecting the appropriate Rename option on the Tools
pull-down menu. Blocks and nodes may be renamed selectively by selecting a block and then selecting
the appropriate Rename under selection pull-down menu option.

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Tools

Sorting Data
Objects may be sorted in the Availability Workbench (AWB) project tables by selecting the Tools, Sort
pull-down menu option. A Sort dialog will appear allowing the user to specify the sort requirements. The
Sort dialog functionality is described below.

Table
Specifies the AWB project table to sort.

Sort by
Specifies the column to sort by.

Ascending/Descending
Specifies whether to sort the data by ascending value or descending value.

Then by
The Then by selections allow the user to define a second or third sort criteria.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Creating a Clipboard Image


Users may create a clipboard image of the current tree control, plot or diagram. To create an image
select one of the Tools, Create Clipboard Image pull-down menu options.

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Tools

Setting Task Group Efficiency Values


Task group efficiency values indicate the fractional reduction in task times due to organizing scheduled
maintenance into a task group. To aid the assignment of task group efficiency factors Availability
Workbench (AWB) provides a Task Group Efficiency dialog that may be accessed by selecting the
Tools, Task Group Efficiency pull-down menu option.

The dialog lists the task groups currently defined in the project together with the sum of their associated
individual task durations. Users may then enter the group task duration and AWB will automatically
calculate the efficiency factor for the task group. Selection of the OK button will remove the dialog and
apply the calculated efficiency factors to all task groups. Selection of the Cancel button will remove the
dialog without applying the factors.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Converting Data
Availability Workbench (AWB) provides facilities for converting RCMCost location hierarchy diagrams
and AvSim RBD and fault tree diagrams into different formats. The following automatic conversion
methods are available.

 Convert Locations to RBD


 Convert Locations to Fault Tree
 Convert RBD to Locations
 Convert Fault Tree to Locations
 Convert RBD to Fault Tree

The appropriate conversion option may be selected from the Tools, Convert pull-down menu.

Convert Locations to RBD


This conversion option produces a paginated RBD in the AvSim module based on the RCMCost location
hierarchy structure. Locations and causes are converted to RBD blocks. Functions and functional
failures are not converted. AWB automatically creates and assigns failure models to component blocks
in the RBD structure. These failure models contain failure and maintenance data corresponding to the
causes in the RCMCost location hierarchy. Failure models are automatically linked to their equivalent
causes using the AWB data links facility.

Note that the newly created RBD structure will not contain any parallel configurations as the location
hierarchy does not model redundancy arrangements between different location equipments. Location
quantities will not be transferred to the RBD structure.

Convert Locations to Fault Tree


This conversion option produces a fault tree diagram in the AvSim module based on the RCMCost
location hierarchy structure. Locations and causes are converted to fault tree gates and primary events.
Functions and functional failures are not converted. AWB automatically creates and assigns failure
models to primary events in the fault tree structure. These failure models contain failure and
maintenance data corresponding to the causes in the RCMCost location hierarchy. Failure models are
automatically linked to their equivalent causes using the AWB data links facility.

Note that the newly created fault tree structure will not contain any parallel configurations as the location
hierarchy does not model redundancy arrangements between different location equipments. Location
quantities will not be transferred to the fault tree structure.

Convert RBD to Locations


This conversion option produces a location hierarchy in the RCMCost module based on the RBD
structure in the AvSim module. RBD blocks are converted to locations. Functions, functional failures and
causes are automatically assigned by the program. The causes in the location diagram will contain data
that corresponds to the appropriate failure models in the AvSim module. Causes are automatically
linked to their equivalent failure models using the AWB data links facility.

Note that standby arrangement data and other dependency modelling cannot be transferred to the
RCMCost location hierarchy.

Convert Fault Tree to Locations


This conversion option produces a location hierarchy in the RCMCost module based on the fault tree
structure in the AvSim module. Fault tree gates and primary events are converted to locations.
Functions, functional failures and causes are automatically assigned by the program. The causes in the
location diagram will contain data that corresponds to the appropriate failure models in the AvSim
module. Causes are automatically linked to their equivalent failure models using the AWB data links
facility.

Note that standby arrangement data and other dependency modelling cannot be transferred to the
RCMCost location hierarchy.

Convert RBD to Fault Tree


This conversion option produces a fault tree structure that is equivalent to the current RBD structure.
Failure models assigned to RBD component blocks will now be automatically assigned to fault tree

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Tools

primary events. If you are using the RBD to model capacity arrangements you will need to check that
the automatically generated fault tree structure correctly mirrors the required capacity logic. Maintaining
this logic cannot be guaranteed during the conversion process.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Updating Special Reports


Special reports contain interval optimization plots for tasks and task groups in the current project. They
need to be created using the special report facility as they contain multiple plots that vary according to
the number of tasks and task groups that are currently defined in the project. Once a special report has
been generated it may be opened like any other report in the Availability Workbench Report window.

To generate special reports select one of the Tools, Update Special Reports pull-down menu options.

The special reports facility utilizes a template report file that should not be modified directly by the user.
This template file is provided in the default reports directory Auto-Generated Plots\Templates. Interval
optimization plots are generated from this file and are stored in the directory above the directory
containing the template.

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Tools

Project Statistics
The Project Statistic dialog provides a summary of how many rows are defined in the tables of the
current project. In addition it provides a summary of the memory being accessed by Availability
Workbench. To access the Project Statistic dialog select the Tools, Project Statistics pull-down menu
option.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Project Declassification
The project declassification facility removes descriptions and notes from the current project. This is
useful if you wish to send a project file to another Availability Workbench user but you do not wish them
to understand the logical meaning of objects in your system model. To declassify the current project
select the Tools, Declassify Project pull-down menu option.

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The Grid Control
The Grid Control - Overview
The grid control provides a method for viewing, filtering and editing data in a tabular format. To view the
grid control select the Grid or Diagram & Grid or Plot & Grid options from the Right window mode
selector pull-down menu. Once the grid control is displayed you can select the project table to be
displayed from the Grid table selector pull-down menu and the layout option from the Grid layout
selector pull-down menu. Both these menus are positioned above the right-hand window.

You can modify data in the grid control by clicking on a 'write enabled' text field or selecting a pull-down
menu option or selecting a check-box in the grid area. Data will only be modified once the focus has left
the grid field being edited. If you try to enter invalid data a message will be displayed and you will have
to re-enter some valid data or press the Escape key to abort the edit operation.

Many of the grid tables will allow you to edit data by double-clicking the mouse button with the cursor
positioned in the grey area to the left of each row in the grid. A dialog will displayed revealing the
properties of the object associated with the row in the grid.

Availability Workbench provides a number of custom grid layouts. These may be customized by the user
and new layouts may be created. Grid layouts created by the user are known as 'user layouts'.

The grid control may be used to filter and sort data and there is also a 'find and replace' function.

See Also

General Layout Options


Filter Layout Options
Sort Layout Options
Find and Replace
Statistics

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Availability Workbench V3.0

The Grid Control - General Layout Options


The General tab of the Grid Layout Options dialog allows users to customize a grid layout. The Grid
Layout Options dialog is revealed when the Grid, Layout Options or the Grid, New Layout pull-down
menu options are selected.

ID
An identifier for the grid layout. This ID will be displayed in the Grid layout selector pull-down menu
above the right-hand window.

Formatting [all layouts]


If the Wrap text check-box is selected then descriptive text will be line-wrapped. If the Auto-size rows
check-box is selected then the grid control will automatically adjust individual row height to
accommodate lengthy text descriptions.

Visible Columns
Shows the currently visible columns for the grid layout. The order of the list is the order the columns are
displayed in the grid. To change this order highlight the column using the left mouse button and click
the Up or Down button to shift the highlighted item one place. To transfer columns to the Hidden
columns list, highlight the item using the left mouse button and click on the right-hand arrow button.

Hidden Columns
Shows the currently hidden columns for the grid layout. To transfer fields to the Visible columns list,
highlight the item using the left mouse button and click on the left-hand arrow button.

Selected column width


The width of the column when displayed in the grid control.

Row Height
The default height of each row in the grid. If this value is set to 0 the height is set automatically. Note
that this value is ignored when the Auto-size rows check-box is selected.

Apply
Applies any changes to the grid layout but does not dismiss the dialog.

Export
Exports the grid layout to a XML file. The exported file is given the default extension awb-grdx.
Exported grid layouts may be sent to other users who may import the layout using the grid layout import
facilities.

Reset
To reset the grid layout to the default settings click the Reset button. This function is only available for
the default grid layouts.

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The Grid Control

The Grid Control - Filter Layout Options


The Filter tab of the Grid Layout Options dialog allows users to filter the data displayed in a grid
layout. The Grid Layout Options dialog is revealed when the Grid, Filter pull-down menu option is
selected.

Filter by tree control selection


Selecting this option will result in filtering the data in the grid according to the current selection in the
project tree control in the left-hand window. Availability Workbench will apply an intelligent filtering
algorithm that recognizes dependencies between different object types. For example, selection of a
location in the RCMCost project tree control will show dependent tasks if one of the task grid layouts is
displayed. Dependent tasks are those tasks that are assigned to causes that are in turn connected
below the selected location.

Row restriction
You may restrict the number of rows displayed in the grid for some of the project tables. This facility is
useful if you are editing very large projects and are continually changing the contents of the grid when
filtering by tree control selection. Limiting the number of rows reduces the grid refresh time. The Row
restriction may be set to All rows, Top 100 rows, Top 1000 rows or Top 10000 rows.

Where clause
Users may apply standard SQL expressions to filter rows to be displayed in the grid. SQL expressions
must use the column IDs associated with the current grid table. For example, if the grid is associated
with the FailureModels table the following expression may be used to filter models with either a eta
value or Mttf greater than 0.1:
FmEta1 > 0.1 OR FmMttf > 0.1

Column IDs may be inserted into the Where clause text box by clicking the right mouse button with the
cursor placed inside the text box.

Filter by Column
Choose from the drop down list the column the filter is to be applied to. In the next drop down list
choose the type of comparison to be made, for example equals.

Filter by Value
The value or text that the comparison applies to. If a second comparison is required, choose either OR
or AND from the next drop-down list and fill out the second comparison type and value.

And by
Users may optionally enter a second set of filtering criteria.

Clear
Selection of the Clear button clears the current filter parameters in the dialog.

Apply
Applies any changes to the grid layout but does not dismiss the dialog.

Export
Exports the grid layout to a XML file. The exported file is given the default extension awb-grdx.
Exported grid layouts may be sent to other users who may import the layout using the grid layout import
facilities.

Reset
To reset the grid layout to the default settings click the Reset button. This function is only available for
the default grid layouts.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

The Grid Control - Sort Layout Options


The Sort tab of the Grid Layout Options dialog allows users to sort the data displayed in a grid layout.
The Grid Layout Options dialog is revealed when the Grid, Sort pull-down menu option is selected.

Sort by
The column and criteria on which to sort. Select the column ID from the list and then Ascending or
Descending radio button. If the Alphanumeric text sort flag is set text data will be sorted taking into
account the numeric value at the end of each character string. This will result in a different order being
applied to objects that have identical character strings followed by a number. Consider the ordering of a
set of object IDs:

FM8, FM9, FM10, FM11, FM100

Standard text ordering (ascending) would result in:

FM10
FM100
FM11
FM8
FM9

Alphanumeric text ordering (ascending) would result in:

FM8
FM9
FM10
FM11
FM100

Then by
Users may specify two additional sort criteria in the Then by areas of the dialog.

Apply
Applies any changes to the grid layout but does not dismiss the dialog.

Export
Exports the grid layout to a XML file. The exported file is given the default extension awb-grdx.
Exported grid layouts may be sent to other users who may import the layout using the grid layout import
facilities.

Reset
To reset the grid layout to the default settings click the Reset button. This function is only available for
the default grid layouts.

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The Grid Control

The Grid Control - Find and Replace


The Find & Replace dialog is displayed when the Grid, Find & Replace pull-down menu option is
selected with the grid displayed in the right-hand window. This dialog enables users to find and replace
data associated with the project table displayed in the current grid.

Table
The project table associated with the current grid. This field is read-only.

Column
The column which is to be searched. The user may choose All columns to search all the columns in the
grid layout.

Find what
The text string, number or boolean variable (true/false) to locate.

Replace with
The new text string, number or boolean variable (true/false).

Match case
Indicates that the text string upper or lower case values specified in the Find what field must match
those in the grid control

Match entire cell


If checked then only data matching the entire cell will be changed.

Object/Column/Data list
Lists object columns and the associated data located during a search.

Find next
Selection of the Find next button prompts the program to find the next occurrence of the data in the grid
control.

Find first
Selection of the Find first button prompts the program to find the first occurrence of the data in the grid
control.

Replace
Selection of the Replace button prompts the program to replace the matching data located in the grid
control.

Replace all
Selection of the Replace all button prompts the program to replace all occurrences of matching data
located in the grid control.

Show in tree control


Once data has been located in the grid control, selection of the Show in tree control button will prompt
the program to locate and display the object in the project tree control in the left-hand window.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

The Grid Control - Statistics


The Grid Statistics dialog may be displayed by selecting the Grid, Statistics pull-down menu option.
This dialog displays the sum, average, minimum and maximum values of numerical columns displayed
in the current grid. These functions are only performed on the visible data. For example, if a filter
operation has been applied on the grid, the list in the Grid Statistics dialog will only display the sum,
average, minimum and maximum values of the filtered data.

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The Grid Control

The Grid Control - Importing and Exporting Grid Layouts


Users may wish to customize existing grid layouts and create their own layouts. These layouts may be
useful to other users and therefore Availability Workbench provides a facility to transfer these user
layouts between users. The transfer of layouts is accomplished using the grid layout import and export
facilities. Grid layouts are transferred in XML file format. These files are given the default extension
awb-grdx.

Grid layouts may be imported by selecting the Grid, Import Layouts pull-down menu option. A file
Open dialog will be revealed allowing the user to select one or more file to import. Once imported the
grid layouts will be associated with the current user stored in the user’s Local Settings\Application
Data folder.

Individual grid layouts may be exported from within the Grid Layout Options dialog for the current grid.
Users may also export all the existing grid layouts together by selecting the Grid, Export All Layouts
pull-down menu option. On selection of this option the Browse for Folder dialog will be displayed
allowing the user to select the folder that will receive the exported XML files. Each grid layout will be
defined in a separate file. Exported files are given the ID for the grid layout as the base name for the file.

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The Grid Control - Removing and Resetting Layouts


User layouts may be removed from the user's local settings by selecting the Remove Layout or
Remove All User Layouts pull-down menu options. The Remove Layout option will remove the
current layout and can only be applied if the current layout is a user layout. The Remove All User
Layouts option will remove all user layouts currently associated with the user's local settings.

Default layouts (layouts originally provided with the program) may be reset to their default settings. This
option is provided as users can modify the settings of a default layout even though they cannot delete it.
Individual layouts may be reset from within the Grid Layout Options dialog. Alternatively, users may
reset all default layout settings by selecting the Grid, Reset All Default Layouts pull-down menu
option.

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Miscellaneous Dialogs
The About Dialog
The About Availability Workbench dialog is displayed by selecting the Help, About Availability
Workbench pull-down menu option. This dialog displays version and copyright information and lists the
current license status of the program.

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The Prompt Dialog


The Availability Workbench Prompt dialog is displayed when the program requires the user to enter a
text or numerical value in response to a prompt. If a numerical value is required the Prompt dialog will
also display the valid range for the number to be entered.

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Miscellaneous Dialogs

Finding Objects
You may search for objects in a project using the Table dialog. This dialog may be accessed by
selecting the appropriate option on the Tables pull-down menu.

The Table dialog will display all the objects of a particular type. You may then search for an object in the
list by typing part of the ID or part of the description into the ID filter and Description filter text boxes. If
the Auto filter option is selected the list will be refined as you type characters into either of the text
boxes. If the Auto filter option is not selected the list will only be refined when you select the Apply
Filter button.

You may select an object in the list and then display it in the tree control or diagram (depending on the
type of object) by selecting the appropriate button at the bottom of the dialog.

The Table dialog also allows you to select an object in the list and

 Edit the properties of an object


 Delete an object from the project
 Delete all objects of the displayed type from the project
 Show the dependencies for an object

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Selecting Objects
Many property dialogs allow you to assign a secondary object to another object in the project using the
Object Selection dialog. This dialog is usually accessed by selecting the following button:

Object selection button

The Object Selection dialog displays a list of all the objects of the appropriate type. You may then
search for an object in the list by typing part of the ID or part of the description into the ID filter and
Description filter text boxes. If the Auto filter option is selected the list will be refined as you type
characters into either of the text boxes. If the Auto filter option is not selected the list will only be
refined when you select the Apply Filter button. You may select the appropriate object from the list
followed by selection of the OK button.

Note that if you are selecting a prediction block, you may also use part numbers rather than block IDs by
selecting the Use part numbers option.

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The SAP Portal
The SAP Portal - Overview
The SAP Portal allows users to connect directly to their SAP system from within Availability Workbench
(AWB). Historical maintenance data may be downloaded from SAP into AWB, analyzed, and then
uploaded back into SAP in the form of maintenance plans. If SAP has not yet been configured for plant
maintenance, the portal may also be used to upload a functional location hierarchy with installed
equipments, criticality rankings, effects and catalog profiles from the RCMCost module of AWB.
Alternatively, an existing SAP functional location and equipment hierarchy may be downloaded to
populate a new AWB project together with criticality rankings, labor resources, BOMs, effects and
maintenance plans.

The Sap Portal functions may be summarized as:

 Downloading master data from SAP


 Downloading existing maintenance plans and task lists from SAP
 Analyzing maintenance data downloaded from SAP
 Building RCM data in the RCMCost module
 Building new maintenance plans from the optimized RCM model
 Uploading new maintenance plans to SAP

Requirements
AWB can connect to SAP via the SAP connector for Microsoft .NET or using SAP NetWeaver Web
Services.

If you are connecting via the SAP connector for Microsoft .NET you will need to install the SAP GUI
(version 640 or later). If you are connecting via Web Services then you will need to create two services
in SAP to support the Portal.

On some SAP systems you may also need to install the ZISO_READ_TABLE function which is used as
an alternative to the standard RFC_READ_TABLE SAP function. This function only reads data from
SAP and does not upload any data to SAP. For more information on this function see the section
Custom Read Table Function.

SAP Portal Data


The SAP Portal data structure is organised to represent those elements of SAP PM that are required to
perform a RCM analysis. The data displayed in the tree control and dialogs within the SAP Portal is
similar to the data displayed by the SAP GUI and represents a subset image of the data in your SAP
system. Data downloaded from SAP (technical objects, maintenance plans, work orders etc.) is stored in
a standard AWB project. Once data is downloaded it may be analyzed, trimmed and viewed in the tree
control, grid control or plots. SAP portal data may be opened as a library for comparisons or for
extracting parts of a larger system for analysis in a 'sub-project'. Custom or standard reports may be
created based on any of the data elements of the SAP Portal.

SAP portal data elements may also represent data elements that do not currently exist in SAP but have
been generated from the RCMCost module. These data elements are typically new maintenance plans,
items and task lists. The SAP Portal may be used to upload this data into SAP.

SAP is a registered trademark of SAP AG in Germany and in several other countries.

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SAP Portal Options


SAP Portal Options and Templates
SAP Portal options may be accessed by selecting the SAP Options, Modify pull-down menu option.
The SAP Portal Options dialog will then be displayed allowing you to modify global settings that will
affect the way that data is transferred to and from SAP.

Portal options are saved in template files. If you are accessing more than one SAP system then you can
save separate template files to represent logon details and other options associated with each system.
SAP portal templates may be created, saved and opened by selecting the New Template, Open
Template, Save Template and Save Template As options on the SAP Options pull-down menu.

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The SAP Portal

SAP Portal General Options


Options displayed in the General tab of the SAP Portal Options dialog are described below.

Language
The SAP language identifier. The language identifier is used to ensure that descriptive text residing in
SAP is displayed in the correct language when downloaded from SAP to the SAP Portal.

AWB time unit


The time unit for data residing in the current AWB project. The SAP portal needs to know how to convert
time related parameters such as intervals when transferring these quantities to and from SAP.

Plant
The SAP plant identifier. A maximum of 4 characters is permitted.

Maintenance plant
The SAP maintenance plant identifier. A maximum of 4 characters is permitted.

Maintenance planning plant


The SAP maintenance planning plant identifier. A maximum of 4 characters is permitted.

Cause Catalog
The catalog to be used to represent causes when building master data. Typically users will choose '5' to
map SAP cause codes to RCMCost causes or 'B' to map object parts to RCMCost causes or 'C' to map
damage codes to RCMCost causes.

Use custom read function


Indicates that the custom function ZISO_READ_TABLE is to be used to read data from the SAP system.
The ZISO_READ_TABLE function is used as an alternative to the standard RFC_READ_TABLE SAP
function. This function only reads data from SAP and does not upload any data to SAP. For more
information on this function see the section Custom Read Table Function.

Convert floating point delimiters


If you are accessing a remote SAP system that uses a different format for floating point numbers to the
format used on your local machine you may need to request the Portal to convert the delimiters used
when uploading data to SAP. If this option is checked, the Portal will convert commas to dots and dots
to commas. For example, if the SAP system requires a floating point number in the format 543,7 but the
number is represented as 543.7 on your local machine in your current AWB project this option will need
to be selected.

Maximum general batch count


The maximum number of rows to be included in each batch download of data from SAP. It is
recommended this value is set to the default of 10000. Data is downloaded in batches to avoid time-outs
when downloading large volumes of data.

Maximum cost batch count


The maximum number of maintenance orders to be included in each batch download of cost data from
SAP. It is recommended this value is set to the default of 1000. Data is downloaded in batches to avoid
time-outs when downloading large volumes of data.

Upload pause (secs)


The pause time between separate upload operations to SAP. In some circumstances an individual
upload operation will cause an exception in a SAP function call if a previous function call has locked a
record in SAP for modification. If this problem occurs during upload increase the pause time.

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SAP Portal Download Options


Options displayed in the Download Options tab of the SAP Portal Options dialog are described
below.

Objects to download
The objects to download from the SAP system. SAP system data is downloaded into the SAP Portal by
selecting the Sap Download, Download SAP data pull-down menu option.

Use alternative view for location label download


Alternative views are available in most SAP systems to download location label information. These
alternative views are efficient in downloading large numbers of location labels. It is recommended that
this setting is checked.

Use moving average price for materials


If this option is selected then the moving average price in the SAP system is used to determine material
costs

Use activity types to identify labor


If this option is selected SAP Portal labor objects are created using activity types when downloading
data from SAP. If this option is not selected then SAP qualifications are used.

Include operational costs


If this flag is checked operational costs (not calculated in older SAP systems) will be downloaded and
added to other maintenance order costs.

Include notifications not attached to maintenance orders


If this flag is checked notifications that are not attached to maintenance orders will be downloaded

Identify corrective notifications using breakdown flag


If this flag is checked the Portal will associate a notification and its associated maintenance order with a
corrective action if the notification breakdown flag is set.

Assign equipment to location only maintenance orders


If this option is selected maintenance orders associated with locations will be downloaded if they are
associated with a single equipment

Download characteristic values


Select this option if you wish to download characteristic values

Apply currency decimal place settings


This option should be selected if your SAP system employs a non-default decimal point scheme to store
costs (specified in SAP table TCURX)

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The SAP Portal

SAP Portal Download Filters


Options displayed in the two Download Filters tabs of the SAP Portal Options dialog are described
below.

Only download equipment maintenance orders and notifications


If this flag is checked the Portal will only download maintenance orders and notifications associated with
equipments

Disable plant filter for general task lists


In some SAP systems the existing general task lists may not be associated with any given plant (or a
different plant to the one you are analyzing). These task lists may, however be assigned to maintenance
plan items associated with the plant you are analyzing. To download such general task lists set this
option on.

Disable planning plant filter for general task lists


In some SAP systems the existing general task lists may not be associated with any given planning
plant (or a different planning plant to the one you are analyzing). These task lists may, however be
assigned to maintenance plan items associated with the plant you are analyzing. To download such
general task lists set this option on.

Controlling area
The controlling area to filter downloaded labor categories.

Material valuation area


The valuation area for filtering material costs

Material types
The SAP material type filters to be applied. A maximum of 4 characters is permitted for each type. If all
of the 8 material type values are left blank the Portal will not filter by material type. Ensure that filter type
'IBAU' is set if you wish to download PM assemblies.

Plan categories
The SAP maintenance plan categories that you wish to filter on when downloading data. Up to 8
category codes may be specified. If all the plan category code fields are left blank the Portal will not filter
on plan categories. Typical codes are PM for 'Maintenance Order', PN for 'Maintenance Notification' and
ME for 'Notification'.

Functional location categories


The SAP functional location categories to be considered when downloading data from SAP. A maximum
of 1 character is permitted for each category. If all of the 16 category values are left blank the Portal will
not filter by category.

Equipment categories
The SAP equipment categories to be considered when downloading data from SAP. A maximum of 1
character is permitted for each category. If all of the 16 category values are left blank the Portal will not
filter by category.

Planner group
The SAP planner group to be used to filter notifications. If this value is left blank the Portal will not filter
notifications according to planner group.

Maintenance order categories


The maintenance order categories to be considered for download from SAP. If this value is left blank the
Portal will not filter maintenance orders according to maintenance order categories.

BOM usage
The BOM usage code to be used when identifying BOMs. A maximum of 1 character is permitted.

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Start date for maintenance orders


The earliest creation date of the maintenance orders to be considered when analyzing SAP data. This
date is also used to filter notifications by their 'notification date'.

End date for maintenance orders


The latest creation date of the maintenance orders to be considered when analyzing SAP data. his date
is also used to filter notifications by their 'notification date'.

Cost currency code


The SAP currency code used to filter maintenance order costs when downloading data from SAP.
Typical SAP cost currency codes are USD (US dollars), EUR (Euros), GBP (GB Pounds) and AUD
(Australian dollars). If this field is left blank no filter will be applied to currency codes.

Exclude deleted SAP locations and equipment


If this option is set the Portal will not display locations or equipments with the deletion flag set on. It is
recommended that this option is checked.

Exclude inactive SAP locations and equipment


If this option is set the Portal will not display locations or equipments with the inactive flag set on. It is
recommended that this option is checked.

Exclude deleted SAP plans


If this option is selected deleted plans will not be shown in the Download Master Data to AWB tab of the
Portal.

Exclude inactive SAP plans


If this option is selected inactive plans will not be shown in the Download Master Data to AWB tab of the
Portal.

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The SAP Portal

SAP Advanced Filters


The Advanced Filters tab of the SAP Portal Options dialog allows users to set special filters when
downloading data from SAP. This will normally only be necessary if the standard filter options need to
be extended to reduce the amount of data being downloaded in a single download session. An example
would be where hundreds of thousands of locations are defined as belonging to the same maintenance
plant and an additional filter is required on the location names.

Filter conditions are defined by explicitly identifying SAP table fields together with a filter operation and a
filter value. Up to 8 such filter conditions may be specified. Multiple filter conditions are grouped together
using AND logic. For example the 3 filter conditions

Field Operation Filter Value


TPLNR like K%
TPLNR is not like K1%
RBNR equals VALVE

result in the following SQL WHERE clause to be added when downloading data from the locations table:

WHERE TPLNR LIKE 'K%' AND TPLNR NOT LIKE 'K1%' AND RBNR = 'VALVE'

Where clauses are applied to all tables that contain the specified fields.

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SAP Portal Analytics Options


Options displayed in the Analytics tab of the SAP Portal Options dialog are described below.

Default to start of malfunction date for TTF calculations


If this option is checked the Portal will use the notification start of malfunction date for TTF calculations
by default rather than the maintenance order start date date, order creation data or notification date. The
user may override this option for individual maintenance orders using the Date used for calculations
column of the maintenance order grid control.

Corrective activity types


The SAP activity types that will be used to identify corrective activityies. Up to eight types may be
specified. A maximum of 4 characters is permitted for each type.

PM activity types
The SAP activity types that will be used to identify PM activities. Up to eight types may be specified. A
maximum of 4 characters is permitted for each type.

Inspection activity types


The SAP activity types that will be used to identify inspection activities. Up to eight types may be
specified. A maximum of 4 characters is permitted for each type.

Corrective maintenance order types


The SAP maintenance order types that will be used to identify corrective maintenance orders. Up to
eight types may be specified. A maximum of 4 characters is permitted for each type.

PM maintenance order types


The SAP maintenance order types that will be used to identify PM maintenance orders. Up to eight
types may be specified. A maximum of 4 characters is permitted for each type.

Inspection maintenance order types


The SAP maintenance order types that will be used to identify inspection maintenance orders. Up to
eight types may be specified. A maximum of 4 characters is permitted for each type.

Corrective notification types


The SAP notification types that will be used to identify corrective notifications. Up to eight types may be
specified. A maximum of 2 characters is permitted for each type.

PM notification types
The SAP notification types that will be used to identify PM notifications. Up to eight types may be
specified. A maximum of 2 characters is permitted for each type.

Inspection notification types


The SAP notification types that will be used to identify inspection notifications. Up to eight types may be
specified. A maximum of 2 characters is permitted for each type.

Effect ranking order


The order (Ascending or Descending) in which effects are organized in SAP. Ascending indicates that
the severity of the effect increases as we progress down the list. Descending indicates that severity of
the effect decreases as we progress down the list. The SAP Portal uses the effect rank order when
determining the worst effect for functional locations and equipments.

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The SAP Portal

SAP Portal Upload Options


Options displayed in the Upload Options tab of the SAP Portal Options dialog are described below.

Labeling system
The SAP labeling system to be assigned to a functional location when uploading to SAP. A maximum of
1 character is permitted.

Structure indicator
The SAP structure indicator to be assigned to a functional location when uploading to SAP. A maximum
of 1 character is permitted.

Customizing request code


The customizing request code required when creating catalog profiles and code groups in SAP. In many
SAP systems this code may be left blank.

SAP duration unit


The SAP time unit to be specified for task durations in the SAP system. A maximum of 3 characters is
permitted.

SAP interval unit


The SAP time unit to be specified for task intervals in the SAP system. A maximum of 3 characters is
permitted.

Minimum duration and increment


When tasks are built in the SAP Portal (using the Sap Build, Build SAP Maintenance Plans menu
option) the program will re-align task durations according to the Minimum duration & increment
settings.

Operation grouping
This setting determines how task lists and operations will be built.

If the Group all tasks in a single operation option is selected, individual AWB tasks will be grouped
into a single SAP operation for each maintenance item.

If the Single operation for each task option is selected a separate operation will be created for each
AWB task.

If the Group tasks by labor category option is selected a separate operation will be created for each
labor category. If multiple item plans have been requested, each labor category will be assigned to a
separate maintenance item.

If the Assign operations manually option is selected operations are not created automatically when
building task lists in the SAP Portal. They may be added manually in the Task List Properties dialog

Attach PRT document to operations


If this option is selected a PRT document will be attached to operations when building task lists. PRT
documents reference work instructions automatically created when building plans and the associated
operations.

Create document object links


If this option is selected newly created PRT documents will be assigned the appropriate functional
location and equipment object links.

Create document object links from document side


Document object links may be created from the functional location and equipment side within SAP or
from the document side. As some SAP systems impose restrictions on how object links are created, this
option allows Portal users to access alternative object link creation options.

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Create multiple item plans


If this option is selected, the Portal will create a new maintenance item for each equipment, or for each
labor category, when building a new plan. Items will be split by labor category only if the Group tasks by
labor category option is selected.

Create maintenance item object list


If this option is selected the maintenance item object list will be populated with the appropriate functional
location and equipment references when building a plan.

Internal numbering for SAP maintenance plans


If this option is selected the AWB portal will allow the SAP system to automatically assign maintenance
plan numbers as a new plan is uploaded to SAP rather than use the SAP Portal plan ID If maintenance
plan numbers are automatically assigned in this way, users can then choose to assign these SAP-
generated numbers to the AWB task groups by selecting the RCM Build, Synchronize IDs for Linked
Task Groups and Plans pull-down menu option.

Always default to general task list for new plans


If this option is selected the task lists associated with each item of a maintenance plan will default to the
'general' type rather than 'functional location' or 'equipment' types. Task list types may also be set locally
in the Maintenance Plan Properties dialog before upload to SAP.

Increment task list counter for modified plans


If this option is checked the SAP Portal will create new task lists for modified plans by setting the group
counter to null. This has the effect of creating a new task list in the group on upload to SAP.

Default to internal numbering for general task list


If this option is selected the AWB portal will default to the SAP internal numbering scheme when
creating new general task lists. If this option is not set then the Portal will use the ID associated with the
task group.

Calculate operation work in SAP


If this option is selected then the uploaded operation work will be calculated directly in SAP rather than
AWB

Internal numbering for SAP equipments


If this option is selected the AWB portal will allow the SAP system to automatically assign equipment
numbers as a new equipment is uploaded to SAP rather than use the SAP Portal plan ID. If equipment
numbers are automatically assigned in this way, users can then choose to assign these SAP-generated
numbers to the AWB equipments in the RCMCost module by selecting the RCM Build, Synchronize
IDs for Linked Equipments pull-down menu option.

Folder for work instructions


The folder in which work instruction documents will be generated.

Work instruction template file


The full path of the work instruction template file. Work instruction files will be created if PRT documents
are attached to operations.

Report template file


The full path of the maintenance plan report template file. Maintenance plan report files may be created
from the Maintenance Plan dialog (for individual plans) or by selecting the SAP Build, Write
Maintenance Plan Report pull-down menu option.

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The SAP Portal

SAP Portal Upload Defaults


Options displayed in the two Upload Defaults tab of the SAP Portal Options dialog are described
below.

Spare material type


The default spare material type to use when building SAP materials

Main work center


The default SAP work center ID for maintenance items. Users may override the default by typing a
different ID into the Main work center field in the Item tab of the Maintenance Plan dialog. A maximum of
8 characters is permitted.

Operation work center


The default SAP work center ID for maintenance operations. Users may override the default by typing a
different ID into the Work Ctr field in the Operations tab of the Maintenance Plan dialog. If this option is
left blank the default work center for the item will be used. A maximum of 8 characters is permitted.

Operation activity type


The default SAP operation activity type. Operation activity types will often be automatically set by SAP
based on the work center. Where SAP sets this field automatically the user should leave this field blank.

Document application
The SAP document application type to be used when building SAP documents. The default is DOC.

Task list document type


The SAP document type to be created for work instructions. The default is technical document TP1. A
maximum of 3 characters is permitted.

Task list status


The status key for the SAP task list. A maximum of 3 characters is permitted.

Task list usage


The task list usage value to be used for task list operations

Planner group
The default SAP planner group for each plan. Users may override the default by typing a different group
ID into the Planner Group field of the Maintenance Plan Properties dialog. A maximum of 3
characters is permitted.

Control key
The SAP control key for each maintenance plan. A maximum of 4 characters is permitted.

Activity type for PM


The default SAP activity type for each planned maintenance. Users may override the default by typing a
different ID into the Activity Type field of the Maintenance Plan Properties dialog. A maximum of 3
characters is permitted.

Activity type for inspections


The default SAP activity type for each inspection plan. Users may override the default by typing a
different ID into the Activity Type field of the Maintenance Plan Properties dialog. A maximum of 3
characters is permitted.

Order type for PM


The default SAP order type for each planned maintenance. Users may override the default by typing a
different ID into the Order Type field of the Maintenance Plan Properties dialog. A maximum of 4
characters is permitted.

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Order type for inspections


The default SAP order type for each inspection plan. Users may override the default by typing a different
ID into the Order Type field of the Maintenance Plan Properties dialog. A maximum of 4 characters is
permitted.

Strategy
The default strategy ID to be used when creating new strategy plans in SAP.

Functional location category


The default SAP functional location category to be used when building new functional locations. A
maximum of 1 character is permitted.

Equipment category
The default SAP equipment category to be used when building new equipments. A maximum of 1
character is permitted.

Plan category
The SAP maintenance plan category to use when building new plans. By default, the maintenance plan
category is set to PM.

System condition
The default system condition to be used when building a new maintenance plan item.

Call horizon (%)


The default call horizon percentage to be associated with new maintenance plans

Scheduling period and unit


The default scheduling period and SAP unit to be used when building maintenance plans.

Key date
The key date to be used when building maintenance plans and their associated task lists

Sort field
The default sort field to be used when building maintenance plans

Business area
The SAP business area. This value is used when building functional locations, equipments and
maintenance plans in the SAP portal. A maximum of 4 characters is permitted.

Authorization group
The SAP authorization group to be used when building locations and equipments.

Cost center
The SAP cost center to be used when building locations and equipments

Priority
The default priority to be used when building a new maintenance plan item.

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The SAP Portal

SAP Portal Connection Options


Options displayed in the SAP Connection tab of the SAP Portal Options dialog are described below.

For users connecting via the SAP connector for Microsoft .NET the options allow users to log on with a
user ID and password or using single sign on. Load balancing may also be optionally specified.

For users connecting via SAP NetWeaver Web Services the options allow specification of the service
address, user ID and password.

Application server
The SAP application server.

SAProuter string
The SAProuter string.

System number
The SAP system number.

Client
The SAP client number.

User
The default user name for SAP log on.

Load balancing
This flag indicates that load balancing is to be employed.

System ID
The system ID for load balancing.

Message server
The message server for load balancing

Group
The group name for load balancing.

Language
The language key (e.g. EN for English)

Use SAP NetWeaver Web Service


Select this check-box if you wish to connect to SAP via web services.

Read service address


The address of the ZISO_RFC_READ_TABLE web service. Typical URL to discover web service
endpoints from your browser is of the form http://sapserver.domain.com:8000/sap/bc/srt/wsil?sap-
client=800

Transaction service address


The address of the ZISO_CALL_TRANSACTION_USING web service. This web service is only required
when uploading data into SAP. Typical URL to discover web service endpoints from your browser is of
the form http://sapserver.domain.com:8000/sap/bc/srt/wsil?sap-client=800

Single sign on
This flag indicates that connection should be made to SAP using single sign on.

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Quality of protection
The quality of protection level for SAP single sign on.

SNC name
The SNC name for single sign on

External security library


The path to the external security dll to be used for single sign on.

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The SAP Portal

Downloading Data from SAP


You can download data from SAP into the Portal by selecting the SAP Download, Download SAP
Data pull-down menu option. The SAP Portal Options dialog will be displayed allowing you to select
the SAP object types for download and modify any of the download options or filters. On selecting the
OK button the SAP Logon dialog will appear (unless you have already connected to SAP). After
entering your logon credentials, and selecting the OK button, the Portal will download data from SAP.

You can abort the download process at any time by selecting the SAP Download, Abort Download
pull-down menu option.

Once data has been downloaded you will be asked whether you wish to view data in the message log.
The message log contains a record of the download process and any errors that may have occurred
during the download process.

Downloaded data is part of your current project and will be retained when you save your project.

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Building Data in RCMCost


Building Master Data
You can build RCM master data in the RCMCost module by selecting the RCM Build, Build RCMCost
Master Data pull-down menu option. Only objects that are checked in the SAP Portal tree control and
dependent objects will be converted to their equivalent RCMCost representations. SAP Portal master
data objects that may be converted in this way are technical objects, effects, ABC indicators (mapped as
criticality rankings), labor, material groups, materials (mapped as spares) and BOMs.

Building RCMCost Causes


You can build RCM causes in the RCMCost module by selecting the RCM Build, Build RCMCost
Causes pull-down menu option. Only technical objects that are checked in the SAP Portal tree control
will have their causes created in the RCMCost module. The technical objects must already exist in the
RCMCost module. The SAP Portal creates RCMCost causes by identifying the catalog profiles attached
to technical objects. Causes are then assigned to represent the code groups associated with the catalog
profile. Only code groups associated with the Cause catalog setting in the SAP Options dialog
(General tab) will be assigned.

You may also build RCM causes in the RCMCost module by selecting the RCM Build, Build RCMCost
Causes using Forms pull-down menu option. This option allows the user to select individual causes
from a list rather than have all associated causes automatically assigned to technical objects in the
RCMCost module.

Building RCMCost Tasks


You can build RCM task groups and tasks in the RCMCost module by selecting the RCM Build, Build
RCMCost Tasks pull-down menu option. Only maintenance plans that are checked in the SAP Portal
tree control will have their tasks created in the RCMCost module.

Calculating Times To Failure


Before performing a time to failure (TTF) calculation ensure that you have maintenance orders displayed
in the grid control. You must also filter the maintenance orders that you wish to be analyzed to produce
the Weibull set. This may be done using the standard Filter by Tree Selection function and setting the
standard grid control filter settings. For example you might select a technical object type in the tree
control to filter all orders associated with that technical object, followed by setting a filter on the 'Object
parts' field. Maintenance orders that were the result of a failure that require replacement of a part should
be identified as a Failure in the category field of the grid control. Maintenance orders that resulted in
replacement of a part without a failure having taken place (normally a PM activity) should be identified
as a Replacement. All other work orders (such as inspections that resulted in no change to the
condition of a part) should have the category column set to Exclude. You should also set the Date used
for calculations field.

Note that during the download process from your SAP system the Portal automatically joins notification
data to the appropriate maintenance orders. It will also download notifications that are not associated
with a maintenance order as a 'pseudo maintenance order' entry in the Portal maintenance order table
(so long as the Include notifications not attached to work orders option is selected in the Download
Options tab of the SAP Portal Options dialog).

Select the RCM Build, Calculate TTFs pull-down menu option to prompt the Portal to calculate times to
failure for the displayed work orders. The Portal calculates time to failures using the following steps:

 The work orders associated with an equipment are ordered chronologically.


 The time to failure associated with the first work order is determined by finding the difference
between the work order date and the equipment installation date.
 Subsequent times to failure are determined by finding the difference between consecutive work
orders for an equipment
 Times to failures that are associated with a replacement category are identified as
suspensions.

Maintenance orders and notifications associated with a functional location in SAP, rather than an
equipment, may be identified with an equipment by the Portal if the functional location has a single
equipment below it. To activate this function select the Assign equipment to location only
maintenance orders option in the SAP Portal Options dialog (Download Options tab).

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The SAP Portal

Note that if the Portal cannot determine a realistic TTF value for the work order (because consecutive
work orders have the same date, for example) then the TTF calculated column of the grid control will be
left un-checked and the TTF will not be included in any subsequent Weibull set creation.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Building SAP Data


Building SAP Master Data
The SAP Portal may be used to create SAP master data objects (technical objects, BOMs, material,
ABC indicators, effects and catalog profiles) by selecting the SAP Build, Build SAP Master Data pull-
down menu option.

Building SAP Maintenance Plans


The SAP Portal converts task groups to single-cycle or strategy maintenance plans in the SAP Portal on
selection of the SAP Build, Build SAP maintenance plans pull-down menu option. Task groups that
have their interval (cycle) assigned to all the associated tasks (task groups with the Assign interval to
associated tasks property set to true) will create single-cycle plans in the SAP Portal. Task groups that
have tasks with varying intervals (cycles) create strategy plans. Note that the maintenance strategy
should already exist in the SAP Portal so that the correct packages can be assigned.

Users may choose to create single item or multiple item plans using the Create multiple item plans on
upload option in the Upload Options tab of the SAP Portal Options dialog. Each task group is
uploaded to a single maintenance plan. Uploaded maintenance items are associated with a single task
list. Users may choose whether they wish to associate a single operation to the task list or whether
multiple operations should be associated with the task list. This is done by choosing the appropriate
Operation Grouping setting in the Upload Options tab of the SAP Portal Options dialog. If the
Group all tasks in a single operation option is selected, the Portal will group all the tasks associated
with a maintenance item into a single operation. If the Single operation for each task option is
selected the Portal will create an operation for each task. If the Group tasks by labor category option
is selected each operation will contain all the tasks associated with a particular labor category. If this
option is used in conjunction with multiple item plans each item will represent a different labor category.
If the Assign operations manually option is selected operations must be added manually by the user
in the SAP Portal once the plan has been created.

Building a new maintenance plan in the SAP Portal typically consists of the following operations:

 Optionally create a technical document for each operation


 Optionally create a work instruction document in Microsoft Word format for each technical
document
 Create a task list for each maintenance item with the appropriate operations
 Assign the appropriate technical document as a PRT to each operation
 Create the plan and associated maintenance items
 Attach the appropriate task list to each item

SAP maintenance plans are automatically assigned names identical to the original task group ID.
General task lists are also given the same group name as the task group ID by default when built in the
SAP Portal for the first time. Equipment and functional location task lists have their group names set to
null in the portal (they will be allocated when uploaded to SAP).

See Also

Work Instruction Document Formats

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The SAP Portal

Uploading Data to SAP


Uploading Master Data
The SAP Portal allows users to upload selected master data into SAP. Users may upload technical
objects (functional locations and equipment), catalog profiles, code groups, ABC indicators and effects.

Before uploading data to SAP you should check the elements you wish to upload in the project tree
control. Checking a high level tree node will also check the tree nodes connected beneath it. To upload
data select the SAP Upload, Upload Master Data pull-down menu option. During data upload
information and error messages will be displayed in message strip at the bottom of the main window. A
message log will be displayed when the upload is complete.

Alternatively you can upload individual items using the Upload button in the appropriate Properties
dialog.

Uploading Maintenance Plans


Selection of the SAP Upload, Upload Maintenance Plans pull-down menu option prompts the Portal to
upload plans to SAP. Before uploading data to SAP you should check the maintenance plans you wish
to upload in the project tree control.. The Maintenance Plan Properties dialog will also allow you to
create new plans individually using the Upload Plan button. If the plan already exists in SAP the dialog
will allow you to activate or deactivate a plan and set or remove deletion flags for that plan.

Note that SAP requires single-cycle plan intervals to be multiples of 24 hour periods. The Portal will
adjust RCMCost intervals to comply with this requirement when building plans in the Portal.

The Maintenance Plan Properties dialog contains a Create Report button. Selecting this button will
produce a Word document containing data associated with the SAP plan and associated task group.

Maintenance plan reports are particularly useful if you wish to upload or modify SAP plans using the
SAP GUI rather than the AWB SAP Portal. You may also produce a report for all the plans in a single
Word document by selecting the SAP Build, Write Maintenance Plan Report pull-down menu option.
During data upload information and error messages will be displayed in the message area at the bottom
of the main window. A full message log will be displayed on completion of the upload process.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Analyzing Performance Data


The SAP Portal enables users to analyze performance data originating from maintenance orders that
have been downloaded into the SAP Portal from your SAP system. Performance data may be displayed
in the plot and grid control windows. Performance data consists of costs, activity durations and the
number of maintenance actions performed. You may view performance data for different types of SAP
Portal objects. For example you can view the maintenance costs associated with locations and
equipments, technical object types and classes.

Performance data allows users to identify critical areas of a system where maintenance optimisation will
potentially provide the most benefit. The Performance plot is interactive allowing you to select bars in
the plot area to drill down the hierarchy and reveal associated data in the grid control.

Downloading Criticality Rankings to RCMCost


Performance data may also be used to assign criticality rankings to equipments in the RCMCost
module. This is particularly useful when first populating RCMCost with functional location and equipment
data originating from SAP as criticality rankings may be used to prioritize equipments for RCM analysis.
If ABC indicators have already been assigned to equipments and function locations in SAP then these
rankings may be assigned to equipments in an AWB project by selecting the RCM Build, Set RCMCost
Criticality Rankings using Direct Assignment pull-down menu option. However, if these rankings
have not been assigned in SAP, the RCM Build, Set Criticality Rankings using ERP Assignment
Criteria pull-down menu option will automatically assign criticality rankings in the RCMCost module.
Rankings are assigned according to settings in the Criticality Rankings dialog in the RCMCost module
of AWB. To access this dialog select the Edit, Criticality Rankings pull-down menu option in the
RCMCost module.

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The SAP Portal

Object Properties
SAP Portal Object Properties
As in the other modules of Availability Workbench the properties of the SAP Portal data objects may be
viewed and modified using dialogs or the grid control. These data objects will normally have been
downloaded from a SAP system or automatically built from RCMCost data ready for upload to a SAP
system. In some circumstances users may wish to create SAP Portal objects manually within the SAP
Portal module. Typical SAP Portal objects are functional locations, equipments, work centers,
maintenance plans, maintenance orders etc.

Portal Object IDs


As in the other modules of Availability Workbench each object must be identified by a unique ID. For
most of the SAP Portal objects this ID will match the ID of objects dowloaded from SAP. However. some
objects downloaded from SAP can only be uniquely identified by a combination of SAP fields. An
example would be a Task List that is identified by its type, group and group counter. Therefore a task list
in SAP with type A, group number 1 and group counter 3 would be identified with the ID A-1-3 when
downloaded into the SAP Portal. For such objects the Portal provides separate fields in addition to the
unique ID to allow flexibility in naming objects when uploading back into SAP. Therefore a Task List in
the SAP Portal will have an ID field and also type, group and group counter fields. A user could
therefore modify the group counter field (e.g. set it to blank) so that when the modified task list is
uploaded back into SAP a new task list will be created with an automatically assigned group counter.

Modifying Properties
Many of the properties of SAP Portal objects will not normally be modified by the user. They will have
been downloaded from SAP and play an important role in the analyzing of SAP data. For example
classes and technical object types may be used to group work orders for processing into Weibull sets
that will be used in RCMCost for maintenance optimisation. Some fields may be modified, however, if
you are uploading data back into SAP. For example, you may wish to set a work center or modify task
list operation descriptions.

Library Comparisons
The SAP Maintenance Plan Properties and Task List Properties forms allow you to compare the
properties of matching plans and task lists in an attached library. This is useful if you have want to
compare modified plans and task lists with data currently existing in a SAP system. The library must
represent data directly downloaded from the SAP system and the current project should represent SAP
Portal data modified through the maintenance optimisation process prior to upload to SAP. Fields are
either color-coded or displayed for both the library and project data.

The SAP Portal will disable some of the fields in dialogs where there is no appropriate upload function to
SAP.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

SAP Portal Work Instruction Document Formats


The SAP Portal automatically produces a Microsoft Word document for each maintenance operation
uploaded to SAP. The layout of each document is determined from a Word template file. The locations
of the template and generated files are specified in the Upload Options tab of the SAP Portal Options
dialog. An example template file is provided in the Import and Export Templates directory of the AWB
installation. The file is named WorkInstructionTemplate.doc.

During work instruction document generation, the SAP portal inserts tables into a copy of the template
file and populates these tables with task and resource data associated with the appropriate maintenance
plan (task group). These tables are at the beginning of the file.

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The SAP Portal

SAP Portal Custom Read Table Function


In some SAP implementations the standard SAP function RFC_READ_TABLE (used to download data
from SAP using remote function calls) is restricted by buffer sizes and other limitations that will prevent
the successful download of data. For this reason an alternative function is provided. This function must
be named ZISO_READ_TABLE. A copy of the source code for this function is provided below.

To create this new function in your SAP system use the SAP GUI to copy the existing
RFC_READ_TABLE function to a new function named ZISO_READ_TABLE. This may be done using
transaction SE37. Then copy the new source code from below. The function should be identified as a
Remote-enabled module in the Attributes tab for the function. Finally save and activate the new
function.

After creating the new function ensure that the Use custom read function option is checked in the
General tab of the SAP Portal Options dialog.

ZISO_READ_TABLE
FUNCTION ZISO_READ_TABLE.
*"--------------------------------------------------------------------
*"*"Local interface:
*" IMPORTING
*" VALUE(QUERY_TABLE) LIKE DD02L-TABNAME
*" VALUE(DELIMITER) LIKE SONV-FLAG DEFAULT SPACE
*" VALUE(NO_DATA) LIKE SONV-FLAG DEFAULT SPACE
*" VALUE(ROWSKIPS) LIKE SOID-ACCNT DEFAULT 0
*" VALUE(ROWCOUNT) LIKE SOID-ACCNT DEFAULT 0
*" TABLES
*" OPTIONS STRUCTURE RFC_DB_OPT
*" FIELDS STRUCTURE RFC_DB_FLD
*" DATA STRUCTURE TAB512
*" EXCEPTIONS
*" TABLE_NOT_AVAILABLE
*" TABLE_WITHOUT_DATA
*" OPTION_NOT_VALID
*" FIELD_NOT_VALID
*" NOT_AUTHORIZED
*" DATA_BUFFER_EXCEEDED
*"--------------------------------------------------------------------
"
CALL FUNCTION 'VIEW_AUTHORITY_CHECK'
EXPORTING
VIEW_ACTION = 'S'
VIEW_NAME = QUERY_TABLE
EXCEPTIONS
NO_AUTHORITY = 2
NO_CLIENTINDEPENDENT_AUTHORITY = 2
NO_LINEDEPENDENT_AUTHORITY = 2
OTHERS = 1.
IF SY-SUBRC = 2.
RAISE NOT_AUTHORIZED.
ELSEIF SY-SUBRC = 1.
RAISE TABLE_NOT_AVAILABLE.
ENDIF.
* ----------------------------------------------------------------------
* find out about the structure of QUERY_TABLE
* ----------------------------------------------------------------------
DATA BEGIN OF TABLE_STRUCTURE OCCURS 10.
INCLUDE STRUCTURE DFIES.
DATA END OF TABLE_STRUCTURE.
"DATA TABLE_HEADER LIKE X030L.
DATA TABLE_TYPE TYPE DD02V-TABCLASS.
CALL FUNCTION 'DDIF_FIELDINFO_GET'
EXPORTING
TABNAME = QUERY_TABLE
* FIELDNAME = ' '
* LANGU = SY-LANGU
* LFIELDNAME = ' '

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Availability Workbench V3.0

* ALL_TYPES = ' '


* GROUP_NAMES = ' '
IMPORTING
* X030L_WA =
DDOBJTYPE = TABLE_TYPE
* DFIES_WA =
* LINES_DESCR =
TABLES
DFIES_TAB = TABLE_STRUCTURE
* FIXED_VALUES =
EXCEPTIONS
NOT_FOUND = 1
INTERNAL_ERROR = 2
OTHERS = 3
.
IF SY-SUBRC <> 0.
RAISE TABLE_NOT_AVAILABLE.
ENDIF.
IF TABLE_TYPE = 'INTTAB'.
RAISE TABLE_WITHOUT_DATA.
ENDIF.
* ----------------------------------------------------------------------
* isolate first field of DATA as output field
* (i.e. allow for changes to structure DATA!)
* ----------------------------------------------------------------------
DATA LINE_LENGTH TYPE I.
FIELD-SYMBOLS <D>.
ASSIGN COMPONENT 0 OF STRUCTURE DATA TO <D>.
DESCRIBE FIELD <D> LENGTH LINE_LENGTH in character mode.
* ----------------------------------------------------------------------
* if FIELDS are not specified, read all available fields
* ----------------------------------------------------------------------
DATA NUMBER_OF_FIELDS TYPE I.
DESCRIBE TABLE FIELDS LINES NUMBER_OF_FIELDS.
IF NUMBER_OF_FIELDS = 0.
LOOP AT TABLE_STRUCTURE.
MOVE TABLE_STRUCTURE-FIELDNAME TO FIELDS-FIELDNAME.
APPEND FIELDS.
ENDLOOP.
ENDIF.
* ----------------------------------------------------------------------
* for each field which has to be read, copy structure information
* into tables FIELDS_INT (internal use) and FIELDS (output)
* ----------------------------------------------------------------------
DATA: BEGIN OF FIELDS_INT OCCURS 10,
FIELDNAME LIKE TABLE_STRUCTURE-FIELDNAME,
TYPE LIKE TABLE_STRUCTURE-INTTYPE,
DECIMALS LIKE TABLE_STRUCTURE-DECIMALS,
LENGTH_SRC LIKE TABLE_STRUCTURE-INTLEN,
LENGTH_DST LIKE TABLE_STRUCTURE-LENG,
OFFSET_SRC LIKE TABLE_STRUCTURE-OFFSET,
OFFSET_DST LIKE TABLE_STRUCTURE-OFFSET,
END OF FIELDS_INT,
LINE_CURSOR TYPE I.
LINE_CURSOR = 0.
* for each field which has to be read ...
LOOP AT FIELDS.
READ TABLE TABLE_STRUCTURE WITH KEY FIELDNAME = FIELDS-FIELDNAME.
IF SY-SUBRC NE 0.
RAISE FIELD_NOT_VALID.
ENDIF.
* compute the place for field contents in DATA rows:
* if not first field in row, allow space for delimiter
IF LINE_CURSOR <> 0.
IF NO_DATA EQ SPACE AND DELIMITER NE SPACE.
MOVE DELIMITER TO DATA+LINE_CURSOR.
ENDIF.
LINE_CURSOR = LINE_CURSOR + STRLEN( DELIMITER ).

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The SAP Portal

ENDIF.
* ... copy structure information into tables FIELDS_INT
* (which is used internally during SELECT) ...
FIELDS_INT-FIELDNAME = TABLE_STRUCTURE-FIELDNAME.
FIELDS_INT-LENGTH_SRC = TABLE_STRUCTURE-INTLEN.
FIELDS_INT-LENGTH_DST = TABLE_STRUCTURE-LENG.
FIELDS_INT-OFFSET_SRC = TABLE_STRUCTURE-OFFSET.
FIELDS_INT-OFFSET_DST = LINE_CURSOR.
FIELDS_INT-TYPE = TABLE_STRUCTURE-INTTYPE.
FIELDS_INT-DECIMALS = TABLE_STRUCTURE-DECIMALS.
* compute the place for contents of next field in DATA rows
LINE_CURSOR = LINE_CURSOR + TABLE_STRUCTURE-LENG.
IF LINE_CURSOR > LINE_LENGTH AND NO_DATA EQ SPACE.
RAISE DATA_BUFFER_EXCEEDED.
ENDIF.
APPEND FIELDS_INT.
* ... and into table FIELDS (which is output to the caller)
FIELDS-FIELDTEXT = TABLE_STRUCTURE-FIELDTEXT.
FIELDS-TYPE = TABLE_STRUCTURE-INTTYPE.
FIELDS-LENGTH = FIELDS_INT-LENGTH_DST.
FIELDS-OFFSET = FIELDS_INT-OFFSET_DST.
MODIFY FIELDS.
ENDLOOP.
* end of loop at FIELDS
* ----------------------------------------------------------------------
* read data from the database and copy relevant portions into DATA
* ----------------------------------------------------------------------
* output data only if NO_DATA equals space (otherwise the structure
* information in FIELDS is the only result of the module)
IF NO_DATA EQ SPACE.
*DATA: BEGIN OF WORK, BUFFER(30000), END OF WORK.
*MODIFICATION FROM STANDARD FUNCTION
DATA: BEGIN OF WORK, BUFFER(30000), F TYPE F, END OF WORK.
FIELD-SYMBOLS: <WA> TYPE ANY, <COMP> TYPE ANY.
ASSIGN WORK TO <WA> CASTING TYPE (QUERY_TABLE).
IF ROWCOUNT > 0.
ROWCOUNT = ROWCOUNT + ROWSKIPS.
ENDIF.
SELECT * FROM (QUERY_TABLE) INTO <WA> WHERE (OPTIONS).
IF SY-DBCNT GT ROWSKIPS.
* copy all relevant fields into DATA (output) table
LOOP AT FIELDS_INT.
IF FIELDS_INT-TYPE = 'P'.
ASSIGN COMPONENT FIELDS_INT-FIELDNAME
OF STRUCTURE <WA> TO <COMP>
TYPE FIELDS_INT-TYPE
DECIMALS FIELDS_INT-DECIMALS.
ELSE.
ASSIGN COMPONENT FIELDS_INT-FIELDNAME
OF STRUCTURE <WA> TO <COMP>
TYPE FIELDS_INT-TYPE.
ENDIF.
MOVE <COMP> TO
<D>+FIELDS_INT-OFFSET_DST(FIELDS_INT-LENGTH_DST).
ENDLOOP.
* end of loop at FIELDS_INT
APPEND DATA.
IF ROWCOUNT > 0 AND SY-DBCNT GE ROWCOUNT. EXIT. ENDIF.
ENDIF.
ENDSELECT.
ENDIF.
ENDFUNCTION.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Sap Download Utility


The Download Utility is accessed by selecting the Sap Download, Download Utility pull-down menu
option.

The Download Utility dialog will be displayed allowing you to specify a Sap table or view, the fields you
wish to download and an optional where clause. For example specifying the table IFLO and the fields
TPLNR and PLTXT will allow you to download functional location names and descriptions. You might
also specify an optional where clause such as SPRAS LIKE 'E' to only download rows relating to the
English language. Note that you should not include the word WHERE as this is automatically added to
the where clause specified by the user. If you wish to download all the fields in a table then you may
select the All fields check box. This may result in an exception if there are many fields in the Sap table
you have specified. In such cases you will need to specify the fields explicitly.

The Download Utility dialog allows the user to limit the number of rows downloaded from the database
and listed in the dialog by setting the Maximum download rows and Maximum list rows values
respectively.

Data is downloaded when the Download Data button is selected. After data download is complete you
may export the data to a comma delimited file by selecting the Export Results to File button.

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The SAP Portal

Connecting to SAP using Web Services


If you wish to connect to SAP using Web Services you must first create two services.within the SAP
system. One web service needs to be set up for the SAP function RFC_READ_TABLE (for downloading
data into AWB) and another for the SAP function RFC_CALL_TRANSACTION_USING. These services
may be created using the SAP GUI.

Use transaction SE37 to access each SAP Function in turn. After displaying the appropriate function
select the Utilities, More Utilities, Create Web Service, From the Function Module pull-down menu
option. Enter a service definition of ZISO_RFC_READ_TABLE or
ZISO_CALL_TRANSACTION_USING depending on which service you are creating. Use the default
settings in the subsequent dialogs but check the Release Service for Runtime option.

Once the web services have been created they may be viewed using the WSADMIN transaction code. If
you select the ZISO_RFC_READ_TABLE service and then select the Web Service, WSDL pull-down
menu option, the SAP GUI will display the WSDL for that web service using the web service address.
This address may be copied into the Service address field of the SAP Portal Options Dialog
(Connection tab).

Alternatively discover the web service endpoint using

http://myserver.domain.com:8000/sap/bc/srt/wsil?sap-client=nnn

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Availability Workbench V3.0

SAP Portal Plots


SAP Portal Performance Plots
Performance plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode
menu above the right-hand window. Then select the Performance option on the Plot type selector
menu above the right-hand window.

Performance plots display data originating from the maintenance orders and notifications downloaded
from SAP.

Plot type
The type of performance plot. Options are:

 Cost
 Activity count
 Task duration

The Cost plot type is based on maintenance costs calculated by the SAP system. The Activity count
plot type is based on the number of maintenance activities performed. The Task duration plot type is
based on the duration of maintenance activities.

Object type
The object type for which performance data is to be displayed. The SAP Portal processes performance
data originating from maintenance orders and assigns this data to dependent object types.

Show grid
If this option is selected the background grid will be displayed in the plot area.

Maximum no. of bars


The maximum number of plot bars to be displayed.

Use descriptions for labels


If this option is checked descriptions will be used for labels rather than IDs.

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The SAP Portal

SAP Portal Profile Plots


Profile plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode menu
above the right-hand window. Then select the Profile option on the Plot type selector menu above the
right-hand window.

Profile plots display performance data over a time range based on the dates associated with
maintenance orders and notifications.

Plot type
The type of profile plot. Options are:

 Cost
 Activity count
 Task duration

The Cost plot type is based on maintenance costs calculated by the SAP system. The Activity count
plot type is based on the number of maintenance activities performed. The Task duration plot type is
based on the duration of maintenance activities.

Interval
The interval at which to display profile data.

Automatic
If this option is checked the time range will be based on the dates of all the maintenance orders in the
current project.

Start date
The start date for which to display data

End date
The end date for which to display data

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Miscellaneous SAP Portal Functions


SAP Portal Message Log
The SAP Portal message log displays messages from batch upload, download and build functions. The
log may be displayed after a download of data from SAP is completed or by selecting the SAP Options,
Message Log pull-down menu option.

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The MAXIMO Portal
The MAXIMO Portal - Overview
The MAXIMO Portal allows users to connect directly to their MAXIMO system from within Availability
Workbench (AWB). Historical maintenance data may be downloaded from MAXIMO into AWB,
analyzed, and then uploaded back into MAXIMO in the form of PMs and the associated job plans. If
MAXIMO has not yet been configured for plant maintenance, the portal may also be used to upload a
functional location hierarchy with installed assets and failure classes from the RCMCost module of
AWB. Alternatively, an existing MAXIMO functional location and asset hierarchy may be downloaded to
populate a new AWB project together with failure classes, spare parts, tools, labor resources, PMs and
the associated job plans.

The MAXIMO Portal functions may be summarized as:

 Uploading master data to MAXIMO


 Downloading master data to AWB
 Uploading PMs to MAXIMO
 Analyzing maintenance data for use in AWB

Requirements
Before using the AWB MAXIMO Portal you will need to install the integration objects that allow AWB to
upload and download data using web services. Further information is provided in the Integration Objects
Installation Manual.

MAXIMO Portal Data


The MAXIMO Portal data structure is organised to represent those elements of MAXIMO that are
required to perform a RCM analysis. The data displayed in the tree control and dialogs within the
MAXIMO Portal is similar to the data displayed by the MAXIMO front end and represents a subset
image of the data in your MAXIMO system. Data downloaded from MAXIMO (assets, functional
locations, PMs, job plans, work orders etc.) is stored in a standard AWB project. Once data is
downloaded it may be analyzed, trimmed and viewed in the tree control, grid control or plots. MAXIMO
portal data may be opened as a library for comparisons or for extracting parts of a larger system for
analysis in a 'sub-project'. Custom or standard reports may be created based on any of the data
elements of the MAXIMO Portal.

MAXIMO portal data elements may also represent data elements that do not currently exist in MAXIMO
but have been generated from the RCMCost module. These data elements are typically new PMs, job
plans and routes. The MAXIMO Portal may be used to upload this data into MAXIMO.

MAXIMO is a registered trademark of IBM.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Maximo Portal Options


MAXIMO Portal Options and Templates
MAXIMO Portal options may be accessed by selecting the MAXIMO Options, Modify pull-down menu
option. The MAXIMO Portal Options dialog will then be displayed allowing you to modify global settings
that will affect the way that data is transferred to and from MAXIMO.

Portal options are saved in template files. If you are accessing more than one MAXIMO system then you
can save separate template files to represent logon details and other options associated with each
system. MAXIMO portal templates may be created, saved and opened by selecting the New Template,
Open Template, Save Template and Save Template As options on the MAXIMO Options pull-down
menu.

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The MAXIMO Portal

MAXIMO Portal General Options


Options displayed in the General tab of the MAXIMO Portal Options dialog are described below.

AWB time unit


The time unit for data residing in the current AWB project. The MAXIMO portal needs to know how to
convert time related parameters such as intervals when transferring these quantities to and from
MAXIMO.

Organization
The MAXIMO organization. This value is used when uploading and downloading data to and from
MAXIMO. A maximum of 8 characters is permitted.

Site
The MAXIMO site. This value is used when uploading and downloading data to and from MAXIMO. A
maximum of 8 characters is permitted.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

Maximo Portal Download Options


Options displayed in the Download Options tab of the MAXIMO Portal Options dialog are described
below.

Objects to download
The objects to download from the MAXIMO system. MAXIMO system data is downloaded into the
MAXIMO Portal by selecting the MAXIMO Download, Download MAXIMO data pull-down menu option.

Download oil and gas fields


Select this option if you are running the oil and gas version of SAP and wish to download the additional
oil and gas fields associated with work orders.

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The MAXIMO Portal

MAXIMO Portal Download Filter Options


Options displayed in the Download Filters tab of the MAXIMO Portal Options dialog are described
below.

Location systems
The MAXIMO functional location systems to be considered when downloading data from MAXIMO. A
maximum of 8 characters is permitted for each system. If all of the 4 system values are left blank the
Portal will not filter by system.

Location types
The MAXIMO functional location types to be considered when downloading data from MAXIMO. A
maximum of 16 characters is permitted for each type. If all of the 4 type values are left blank the Portal
will not filter by type.

Location status values


The MAXIMO functional location status values to be considered when downloading data from MAXIMO.
A maximum of 14 characters is permitted for each status value. If all of the 4 status values are left blank
the Portal will not filter by status value.

Locations starting with


The MAXIMO functional location partial strings to filter on. For example, if ISOD is specified then all
locations beginning with ISOD will be included such as ISOD-ABC, ISOD-ABCD-1 etc. If all of the 4
values are left blank the Portal will not apply this type of filter.

Item set ID
The MAXIMO item set ID for filtering items and commodities. If left blank an item set ID filter will not be
applied.

Work order classes


The MAXIMO work order classes that will be used to filter work orders. Up to four classes may be
specified. A maximum of 16 characters is permitted for each class.

Work order status values


The MAXIMO work order status values to be considered when downloading data from MAXIMO. If all of
the 4 system values are left blank the Portal will not filter by status value.

Start status date for work orders


The earliest date of the work orders to be considered when analyzing MAXIMO data. The
STATUSDATE field is used to determine the date of the work order.

End status date for work orders


The latest date of the work orders to be considered when analyzing MAXIMO data. The STATUSDATE
field is used to determine the date of the work order.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

MAXIMO Portal Analytics Options


Options displayed in the Analytics tab of the MAXIMO Portal Options dialog are described below.

Corrective work order types to filter on


The MAXIMO work order types that will be used to identify corrective work orders. Up to eight types may
be specified. A maximum of 5 characters is permitted for each type.

PM work order types to filter on


The MAXIMO work order types that will be used to identify PM work orders. Up to eight types may be
specified. A maximum of 5 characters is permitted for each type.

Inspection work order types to filter on


The MAXIMO work order types that will be used to identify inspection work orders. Up to eight types
may be specified. A maximum of 5 characters is permitted for each type.

Use actual date for TTF calculations


If this option is checked the Portal will use the actual work order date for TTF calculations rather than
the failure date. The user may override this option for individual work orders using the Use actual date
column of the work order grid control.

Failure PROBLEM alias


The alias to use when identifying PROBLEM codes

Failure CAUSE alias


The alias to use when identifying CAUSE codes

Failure REMEDY alias


The alias to use when identifying REMEDY codes

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The MAXIMO Portal

MAXIMO Portal Upload Options


Options displayed in the Upload Options tab of the MAXIMO Portal Options dialog are described
below.

Location system
The MAXIMO functional location system to be used when uploading data to MAXIMO. A maximum of 8
characters are permitted.

Top level location


The MAXIMO top level functional location to be used when uploading functional locations from AWB.
This top level location must be specified and must already exist in MAXIMO. RCMCost top level
locations will be uploaded to this MAXIMO location.

Asset type
The MAXIMO asset type to be used when uploading data to MAXIMO. A maximum of 25 characters are
permitted.

PM upload scheme
The upload schemes available are

 Map RCMCost task to Maximo route stop


 Map RCMCost task to Maximo job sequence

Uploading a new PM to MAXIMO using the Map RCMCost task to Maximo route stop scheme
consists of the following operations:

 Create a route in Maximo with a route stop for each RCMCost task
 Create a job plan for each route stop and assign the appropriate resources to the job plan
 Create the PM and assign the route to the PM

Uploading a new PM to MAXIMO using the Map RCMCost task to Maximo job sequence scheme
consists of the following operations:

 Create a PM sequence in Maximo with an entry for each RCMCost task


 Create a job plan for each sequence entry and assign the appropriate resources to the job plan
 Create the PM and assign sequence entries to the PM

Create PM hierarchy
If the Create PM hierarchy option is selected in the PM tab of the Maximo Portal Options dialog the
Portal will create parent PMs to match the task group type structure in RCMCost

Folder for PM report


The folder in which the PM report will be generated.

Report template file


The full path of the PM report template file. Maintenance plan report files may be created by selecting
the MAXIMO Build, Write Maintenance Plan Report pull-down menu option.

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Maximo Portal Upload Defaults


Options displayed in the two Upload Defaults tab of the MAXIMO Portal Options dialog are described
below.

Asset/location priority
The default priority number to use when building MAXIMO assets and locations

Item set id
The default item set ID to use when building items and commodities

Item storeroom
The default storeroom to use when building MAXIMO items

Item issue unit


The default issue unit to use when building MAXIMO items

PM work type
The default work type to use when building MAXIMO PMs

PM frequency unit
The default frequency unit to use when building MAXIMO PMs

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The MAXIMO Portal

MAXIMO Portal Connection Options


Options displayed in the MAXIMO Connection tab of the MAXIMO Portal Options dialog are described
below.

Web services address


The MAXIMO web services address

User
The default user name for MAXIMO logon.

Data transfer options


The data transfer options Timeout, Block size and Number of retries normally only need to be
modified if the data transfer speed from MAXIMO to the Portal is slow. If you experience difficulties in
downloading data from MAXIMO then contact Isograph support for advice on how to change these
settings.

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Downloading Data from MAXIMO


You can download data from MAXIMO into the Portal by selecting the MAXIMO Download, Download
MAXIMO Data pull-down menu option. The MAXIMO Portal Options dialog will be displayed allowing
you to select the MAXIMO object types for download and modify any of the download options or filters.
On selecting the OK button the MAXIMO Logon dialog will appear (unless you have already connected
to MAXIMO). After entering your logon credentials, and selecting the OK button, the Portal will download
data from MAXIMO.

You can abort the download process at any time by selecting the MAXIMO Download, Abort
Download pull-down menu option.

Once data has been downloaded you will be asked whether you wish to view data in the message log.
The message log contains a record of the download process and any errors that may have occurred
during the download process.

Downloaded data is part of your current project and will be retained when you save your project.

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Building Data in RCMCost


Building Master Data
You can build RCM master data in the RCMCost module by selecting the RCM Build, Build RCMCost
Master Data pull-down menu option. Only objects that are checked in the MAXIMO Portal tree control
and dependent objects will be converted to their equivalent RCMCost representations. MAXIMO Portal
master data objects that may be converted in this way are assets, functional locations, failure classes,
items, and crafts. Note that Maximo crafts are downloaded to RCMCost labor types. Individual Maximo
craft skills are downloaded to the RCMCost labor table. Each craft skill is given an ID in the format
CRAFTID-CRAFTSKILLID when downloaded to RCMCost. This naming convention must also be used
when uploading labor resources as part of a Maximo job plan.

Building RCMCost Causes


You can build RCM causes in the RCMCost module by selecting the RCM Build, Build RCMCost
Causes pull-down menu option. Only assets that are checked in the MAXIMO Portal tree control will
have their causes created in the RCMCost module. The assets must already exist in the RCMCost
module. The MAXIMO Portal creates RCMCost causes by identifying the failure classes attached to
assets. RCMCost functional failures and causes are then assigned to represent the MAXIMO problem
codes and causes.

Building RCMCost Tasks


You can build RCM task groups and tasks in the RCMCost module by selecting the Build RCMCost
Task button in the appropriate Job Plan Properties dialog.

Calculating Times To Failure


Before performing a time to failure (TTF) calculation ensure that you have work orders displayed in the
grid control. You must also filter the work orders that you wish to be analyzed to produce the Weibull
set. This may be done using the standard Filter by Tree Selection function and setting the standard
grid control filter settings. For example you might select a failure class in the tree control to filter all
orders associated with that failure class. You may also use the grid filter facility to specify other filter
fields and values. Work orders that were the result of a failure that require replacement of a part should
be identified as a Failure in the category field of the grid control. Work orders that resulted in
replacement of a part without a failure having taken place (normally a PM activity) should be identified
as a Replacement. All other work orders (such as inspections that resulted in no change to the
condition of a part) should have the category column set to Exclude. You should also set the Date used
for calculations field.

Select the RCM Build, Calculate TTFs pull-down menu option to prompt the Portal to calculate times to
failure for the displayed work orders. The Portal calculates time to failures using the following steps:

 The work orders associated with an asset are ordered chronologically.


 The time to failure associated with the first work order is determined by finding the difference
between the work order date and the asset installation date.
 Subsequent times to failure are determined by finding the difference between consecutive work
orders for an asset
 Times to failures that are associated with a replacement category are identified as
suspensions.

Note that if the Portal cannot determine a realistic TTF value for the work order (because consecutive
work orders have the same date, for example) then the TTF calculated column of the grid control will be
left un-checked and the TTF will not be included in any subsequent Weibull set creation.

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Building MAXIMO Data


Building MAXIMO Master Data
The MAXIMO Portal may be used to create MAXIMO master data objects (functional locations and
assets, parts lists, items, failure classes and crafts by selecting the MAXIMO Build, Build MAXIMO
Master Data pull-down menu option.

RCMCost equipments are mapped to assets in the MAXIMO Portal. If you wish to distinguish
equipments from functional locations in the RCMCost location hierarchy you must assign an equipment
type to each root location in the RCMCost module. Users must ensure that MAXIMO naming
conventions for functional locations and assets are adhered to.

MAXIMO failure classes and causes are determined by grouping causes belonging to the same
equipment types and functional failure categories in the RCMCost module. Failure classes will be
attached to the appropriate assets.

Building MAXIMO PMs


The MAXIMO Portal converts task groups to PMs in the MAXIMO Portal on selection of the MAXIMO
Build, Build MAXIMO PMs pull-down menu option.

There are two schemes available (the appropriate scheme must be selected in the MAXIMO Portal
Options dialog, Upload Options tab)

 Map RCMCost task to Maximo route stop


 Map RCMCost task to Maximo job sequence

The Map RCMCost task to Maximo route stop scheme consists of the following operations:

 Create a route in the MAXIMO Portal with a route stop for each RCMCost task
 Create a job plan for each route stop and assign the appropriate resources to the job plan
 Create the PM and assign the route to the PM

The Map RCMCost task to Maximo job sequence scheme consists of the following operations:

 Create a PM sequence in the MAXIMO Portal with an entry for each RCMCost task
 Create a job plan for each sequence entry and assign the appropriate resources to the job plan
 Create the PM and assign sequence entries to the PM

MAXIMO PMs are automatically assigned names identical to the original task group ID. Job plans are
given the ID of the task IDs in RCMCost.

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The MAXIMO Portal

Uploading Data to MAXIMO


Uploading Master Data
The MAXIMO Portal allows users to upload selected master data into MAXIMO. Users may upload
functional locations, assets, failure classes, items and crafts.

Before uploading data to MAXIMO you should ensure that the system and top level location are
specified in the Master Data tab of the Maximo Portal Options dialog. The top level location must
already exist in Maximo and cannot be created using the Portal. Also select the elements you wish to
upload in the project tree control. Checking a high level tree node will also check the tree nodes
connected beneath it. To upload data select the MAXIMO Upload, Upload Master Data pull-down
menu option. During data upload information and error messages will be displayed in message strip at
the bottom of the main window. A message log will be displayed when the upload is complete.

Alternatively you can upload individual items using the Upload button in the appropriate Properties
dialog.

Uploading PMs to MAXIMO


Selection of the MAXIMO Upload, Upload PMs pull-down menu option prompts the Portal to upload
plans to MAXIMO. Before uploading data to MAXIMO you should check the PMs you wish to upload in
the project tree control.. The PM Properties dialog will also allow you to create new PMs individually
using the Upload to MAXIMO button.

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Analyzing Performance Data


The MAXIMO Portal enables users to analyze performance data originating from work orders that have
been downloaded into the MAXIMO Portal from your MAXIMO system. Performance data may be
displayed in the plot and grid control windows. Performance data consists of costs, activity durations
and the number of maintenance actions performed. You may view performance data for different types
of MAXIMO Portal objects. For example you can view the maintenance costs associated with functional
locations, assets and failure classes.

Performance data allows users to identify critical areas of a system where maintenance optimisation will
potentially provide the most benefit. The Performance plot is interactive allowing you to select bars in
the plot area to drill down the hierarchy and reveal associated data in the grid control.

Downloading Criticality Rankings to RCMCost


Performance data may also be used to assign criticality rankings to equipments in the RCMCost
module. This is particularly useful when first populating RCMCost with functional location and equipment
data originating from MAXIMO as criticality rankings may be used to prioritize equipments for RCM
analysis. If asset priority values have already been assigned to assets and functional locations in
MAXIMO then these rankings may be assigned to equipments in an AWB project by selecting the RCM
Build, Set RCMCost Criticality Rankings using Direct Assignment pull-down menu option.
However, if these rankings have not been assigned in MAXIMO, the RCM Build, Set Criticality
Rankings using ERP Assignment Criteria pull-down menu option will automatically assign criticality
rankings in the RCMCost module. Rankings are assigned according to settings in the Criticality
Rankings dialog in the RCMCost module. To access this dialog select the Edit, Criticality Rankings
pull-down menu option in the RCMCost module.

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Object Properties
MAXIMO Portal Object Properties
As in the other modules of Availability Workbench the properties of the MAXIMO Portal data objects
may be viewed and modified using dialogs or the grid control. These data objects will normally have
been downloaded from a MAXIMO system or automatically built from RCMCost data ready for upload to
a MAXIMO system. In some circumstances users may wish to create MAXIMO Portal objects manually
within the MAXIMO Portal module. Typical MAXIMO Portal objects are functional locations, assets,
failure classes, PMs, job plans, works orders etc.

Portal Object IDs


As in the other modules of Availability Workbench each object must be identified by a unique ID. For
most of the MAXIMO Portal objects this ID will match the ID of objects dowloaded from MAXIMO.
However. some objects downloaded from MAXIMO can only be uniquely identified by a combination of
MAXIMO fields. An example would be a Craft Skill that is identified by its parent craft and skill level.
Therefore a craftskill in MAXIMO with skill level FIRSTCLASS and a parent craft MECH would be
assigned the ID MECH-FIRSTCLASS when downloaded into the MAXIMO Portal.

Modifying Properties
Many of the properties of MAXIMO Portal objects will not normally be modified by the user. They will
have been downloaded from MAXIMO and play an important role in the analyzing of MAXIMO data. For
example failure classes may be used to group work orders for processing into Weibull sets that will be
used in RCMCost for maintenance optimisation. Some fields may be modified, however, if you are
uploading data back into MAXIMO. For example, you may wish to set the tasks for a job plan.

The MAXIMO Portal will disable some of the fields in dialogs where there is no appropriate upload
function to MAXIMO.

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MAXIMO Download Utility


The Download Utility is accessed by selecting the MAXIMO Download, Download Utility pull-down
menu option.

The Download Utility dialog will be displayed allowing you to select a MAXIMO object, the fields you
wish to download and an optional filter type and value. The fields specified must be available in the
MAXIMO integration object. You can automatically assign default fields for the integration object by
selecting the Set Default Fields button. You may also specify a WHERE clause at the bottom of the
dialog. An example WHERE clause would be

JPNUM = 'JP1284' OR JPNUM = 'JP4362'

The Download Utility dialog allows the user to limit the number of rows listed in the dialog by setting
the Maximum list rows value.

Data is downloaded when the Download Data button is selected. After data download is complete you
may export the data to a comma delimited file by selecting the Export Results to File button.

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MAXIMO Portal Plots


MAXIMO Portal Performance Plots
Performance plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode
menu above the right-hand window. Then select the Performance option on the Plot type selector
menu above the right-hand window.

Performance plots display data originating from the work orders downloaded from MAXIMO.

Plot type
The type of performance plot. Options are:

 Cost
 Activity count
 Task duration

The Cost plot type is based on maintenance costs calculated by the MAXIMO system. The Activity
count plot type is based on the number of maintenance activities performed. The Task duration plot
type is based on the duration of maintenance activities.

Object type
The object type for which performance data is to be displayed. The MAXIMO Portal processes
performance data originating from work orders and assigns this data to dependent object types.

Show grid
If this option is selected the background grid will be displayed in the plot area.

Maximum no. of bars


The maximum number of plot bars to be displayed.

Use descriptions for labels


If this option is checked descriptions will be used for labels rather than IDs.

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MAXIMO Portal Profile Plots


Profile plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode menu
above the right-hand window. Then select the Profile option on the Plot type selector menu above the
right-hand window.

Profile plots display performance data over a time range based on the dates associated with work
orders.

Plot type
The type of profile plot. Options are:

 Cost
 Activity count
 Task duration

The Cost plot type is based on maintenance costs calculated by the MAXIMO system. The Activity
count plot type is based on the number of maintenance activities performed. The Task duration plot
type is based on the duration of maintenance activities.

Interval
The interval at which to display profile data.

Automatic
If this option is checked the time range will be based on the dates of all the work orders in the current
project.

Start date
The start date for which to display data

End date
The end date for which to display data

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Miscellaneous MAXIMO Portal Functions


MAXIMO Portal Message Log
The MAXIMO Portal message log displays messages from batch upload, download and build functions.
The log may be displayed after a download of data from MAXIMO is completed or by selecting the
MAXIMO Options, Message Log pull-down menu option.

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The Ellipse Portal
The Ellipse Portal - Overview
The Ellipse Portal allows users to connect directly to their Ellipse system from within Availability
Workbench (AWB). Historical maintenance data may be analyzed and downloaded from Ellipse into
AWB. An existing Ellipse equipment location hierarchy may be downloaded to populate a new AWB
project together with failure codes, resources and scheduled maintenance tasks.

The Ellipse Portal functions may be summarized as:

 Downloading master data to AWB


 Analyzing maintenance data for use in AWB

Requirements
Before using the AWB Ellipse Portal you will need to set up a link to your Ellipse database using the
Windows ODBC Data Source Administrator. The Ellipse Portal connects to the Ellipse database using
the Data Source Name.

Ellipse Logon
Before entering the Ellipse Portal ensure that the AWB project you wish to download data to is already
open. Then select the File, ERP Portal, Ellipse Portal pull-down menu option. You will then be
presented with the Ellipse Logon dialog. If you have previously entered logon details for your Ellipse
system, and saved these details to a Ellipse Portal template file, these details will already be entered
(except for the password). Enter the password and select the Log on button to connect to Ellipse.

Refreshing Data and Saving Data Images


All download operations require the Portal to obtain an image of all relevant Ellipse data before the
operation can take place. Download operations need to be able to display the Ellipse data to the user
for selection before the actual download takes place. Users must therefore select the Connection,
Refresh Data pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button to obtain an image of the relevant
Ellipse data. Selection of this option will extract all data that matches the filter options specified in the
Ellipse Portal Options dialog.

Typically the data extraction operation may take a few minutes and so the Portal provides a facility to
save an image of this data once it has been obtained. This is useful if you intend to re-enter the portal
frequently for downloading data and the Ellipse database is not likely to have changed since the last
refresh operation. Images may be saved to a file using the Connection, Save Ellipse Data Image pull-
down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. They may later be retrieved using the Connection,
Open Ellipse Data Image pull-down menu option.

Ellipse is a registered trademark of Mincom.

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Downloading Master Data to AWB


The Download Master Data to AWB tab of the Ellipse Portal enables you to view functional location
and equipment data originating from your Ellipse system and download all or part of that data to AWB.
You may also download resources, failure codes and maintenance data.

Displaying Ellipse Master Data


Before downloading master data to AWB you must first select the Connection, Refresh Data pull-down
menu option or equivalent toolbar button to populate the left-hand tree controls with the functional
location, equipment and other data originating from the connected Ellipse system. Alternatively, select
the Connection, Open Ellipse Data Image pull-down menu option to open a previously saved data
image.

Functional locations will only be displayed for the district code specified in the General tab of the Ellipse
Portal Options dialog. Functional location and equipment attributes must also match the filter values
set in the Master Data tab of the Ellipse Portal Options dialog.

Once data is displayed in the tree controls, nodes may be expanded or collapsed using the ‘+’ and ‘-‘
icons to the left of each node, or by selecting a node and using the View, Expand Tree or View,
Collapse Tree pull-down menu options.

Downloading Master Data to AWB


Before downloading data to AWB you should select the functional locations, equipments, causes and
PMs you wish to download. Selection of a high level node will also select the nodes connected beneath
it. To download data select one of the Download Data pull-down menu options or equivalent toolbar
button.

Selection of the Download Data, Download Selected Master Data to AWB pull-down menu option will
download selected functional locations, equipments and resources.

Selection of the Download Data, Download Root Causes to AWB pull-down menu option will
download selected root failure codes to the appropriate location in the AWB project.

Selection of the Download Data, Download Selected Maintenance Task(s) to AWB pull-down menu
option reveals the Scheduled Maintenance Task dialog for the selected plan. This dialog enables
users to download the associated standard job tasks and resources. To download all Ellipse tasks to a
single AWB task select the Download All button. To download selected Ellipse tasks to a single AWB
task first select the appropriate Ellipse tasks in Standard Job Tasks tab and then select the Download
Selected Tasks button. The Link Ellipse Task to AWB Task dialog will then appear allowing you to
specify the existing AWB cause and task to attach the Ellipse task(s) to. You may create a new task in
the AWB project or choose an existing task.

During data download information and error messages will be displayed in the list to the right of the tree
controls. If you wish to clear these messages after the upload has been completed select the View,
Clear Messages pull-down menu option.

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The Ellipse Portal

Analytics
The Analytics tab of the Ellipse Portal enables users to analyze work orders in the connected Ellipse
system and download historical failure data into AWB Weibull sets. The Analytics tab is organized into
a plot area (top left), an equipment grid control (top right) and a work order grid control (bottom). The
plot area may alternatively display messages when downloading data from Ellipse.

After obtaining an image of the data in your Ellipse system you will be able to click on data displayed in
the plot area to drill down to the equipment you wish to analyze. You will also be able to review all the
data associated with an equipment group.

Displaying Ellipse Data


In order to analyze data in your Ellipse system you must first select the Connection, Refresh Data pull-
down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. The Portal will then analyze the work orders in Ellipse
together with other relevant data and display both summary and detailed information in the plot area and
grid controls.

During data download information and error messages will be displayed in the top left of the Analytics
tab. Once the data download is complete the message area will be replaced with a plot showing
analytics data. You can toggle between displaying the messages and displaying the analytics plot by
selecting the View, Show Plot pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button.

The Analytics Plot


The analytics plot displays summary data derived from the maintenance work orders downloaded from
Ellipse. Users may change the data displayed using the Plot type and Plot variable combo-boxes. The
plot displays data for corrective (red bar) and PM (blue bar) work orders. If you hover the mouse cursor
over the bars in the plot the Portal will display the associated data.

The Location combo-box may be used to filter data for Location and Equipment plot types. This
combo-box also applies a location filter to equipments displayed in the grid control to the right of the plot
area.

You may also affect various settings by pressing the mouse button with the cursor positioned over a bar
in the plot area. For example, selecting a location bar will automatically drill down one level in the
location hierarchy.

The Analytics Equipment Grid Control


The analytics equipment grid control is positioned to the right of the plot area and displays equipment or
equipment group details depending on the setting of the Plot type combo. Equipments (but not
equipment groups) may be filtered by the setting in the Location combo-box positioned above the plot
area.

Work Order Grid Control


Users can determine which work orders are displayed in the work order grid control by selecting an
equipment or equipment group in the equipment grid control. Alternatively, selecting an equipment or
equipment group bar in the plot area will also change the displayed work orders. Each row of the work
orders grid represents a single work order. Each work order is color coded to identify failure and PM
work order types. Work orders are filtered according to the settings in the Maintenance type and
Failure cause combo-boxes. Failure cause filters are not applied to PM work orders.

Calculating Times To Failure


Before performing a time to failure (TTF) calculation ensure that you have filtered the work orders that
you wish to ultimately appear in the AWB Weibull set and that you have identified the category of work
order in the Category column of the grid control. Work orders that were the result of a failure that
require replacement of a part should be identified as a Failure. Work orders that resulted in replacement
of a part without a failure having taken place (normally a PM activity) should be identified as a
Replacement. All other work orders (such as inspections that resulted in no change to the condition of a
part) should have the category column set to Exclude.

Select the Download Data, Calculate TTFs pull-down menu option to prompt the Portal to calculate
times to failure for the displayed work orders. The Portal calculates time to failures using the following
steps:

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 The work orders associated with an equipment are ordered chronologically.


 The time to failure associated with the first work order is determined by finding the difference
between the work order date and the equipment installation date.
 Subsequent times to failure are determined by finding the difference between consecutive work
orders.
 Times to failures that are associated with a replacement category are identified as
suspensions.

Note that if the Portal cannot determine a realistic TTF value for the work order (because consecutive
work orders have the same date, for example) then the TTF calculated column of the grid control will be
left un-checked and the TTF will not be included in any subsequent download to AWB.

Downloading Weibull Set Data to AWB


Once the times to failure have been calculated you may download the data to an AWB Weibull set by
selecting the Download Data, Download Weibull Set to AWB button. The Weibull set will be
automatically named using the equipment or equipment group name and failure cause description (if
one has been identified).

Downloading Criticality Rankings to AWB


The analytics facility may also be used to assign criticality rankings to equipments in the AWB project.
This is particularly useful when first populating an AWB project with functional location and equipment
data originating from Ellipse as criticality rankings may be used to prioritize equipments for analysis in
AWB. The Download Data, Set Equipment Criticality Rankings using ERP Assignment Criteria
pull-down menu option will automatically assign criticality rankings in the AWB project. Rankings are
assigned according to settings in the Criticality Rankings dialog in the RCMCost module of AWB. To
access this dialog select the Edit, Criticality Rankings pull-down menu option in the RCMCost module.

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The Ellipse Portal

Ellipse Portal Options and Templates


Ellipse Portal options may be accessed by selecting the Options, Modify pull-down menu option. The
Ellipse Portal Options dialog will then be displayed allowing you to modify global settings that will
affect the way that data is transferred to and from Ellipse.

Portal options are saved in template files. If you are accessing more than one Ellipse system then you
can save separate template files to represent logon details and other options associated with each
system. Ellipse portal templates may be created, saved and opened by selecting the New Template,
Open Template, Save Template and Save Template As options on the Options pull-down menu.

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Ellipse Portal General Options


Options displayed in the General tab of the Ellipse Portal Options dialog are described below.

AWB time unit


The time unit for data residing in the current AWB project. The Ellipse portal needs to know how to
convert time related parameters such as intervals when transferring these quantities to and from Ellipse.

District code
The Ellipse district code. This value is used as a filter when downloading data from Ellipse.

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The Ellipse Portal

Ellipse Portal Master Data Options


Options displayed in the Master Data tab of the Ellipse Portal Options dialog are described below.

Download active equipment only


If this flag is set only active equipment will be downloaded from Ellipse.

Plant numbers to filter on


The Ellipse plant numbers to be considered when downloading data from Ellipse. Only equipments with
plant numbers that match one or more of the filters will be downloaded. Filter values may include
standard SQL wild-card characters such as %. If all of the 8 values are left blank the Portal will not filter
by plant number.

Equipment status to filter on


The Ellipse equipment status values to be considered when downloading data from Ellipse. A maximum
of 2 characters is permitted for each status type. If all of the 4 values are left blank the Portal will not
filter by status.

Only download resources assigned to tasks


If this flag is set the Portal will only download labor, equipment and spare resources that are associated
with tasks downloaded in the location hierarchy.

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Ellipse Portal PM Options


Options displayed in the PM tab of the Ellipse Portal Options dialog are described below.

Folder for PM reports


The folder in which PM report documents will be generated.

Report template file


The full path of the PM report template file. PM report files may be created by selecting the PM Report
pull-down menu option from within the Download Master Data to AWB tab.

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The Ellipse Portal

Ellipse Portal Analytics Options


Options displayed in the Analytics tab of the Ellipse Portal Options dialog are described below.

Corrective maintenance types


The Ellipse work order types that will be used to identify corrective work orders. Up to eight types may
be specified. A maximum of 2 characters is permitted for each type.

Planned maintenance types


The Ellipse work order types that will be used to identify planned maintenance work orders. Up to eight
types may be specified. A maximum of 2 characters is permitted for each type.

Secondary action maintenance types


The Ellipse work order types that will be used to identify secondary action maintenance work orders. Up
to eight types may be specified. A maximum of 2 characters is permitted for each type.

Inspection maintenance types


The Ellipse work order types that will be used to identify inspection work orders. Up to eight types may
be specified. A maximum of 2 characters is permitted for each type.

Corrective work order date


The date to be used to identify when a corrective action took place.

Planned work order date


The date to be used to identify when a planned action took place.

Secondary work order date


The date to be used to identify when a secondary action took place.

Inspection work order date


The date to be used to identify when an inspection took place.

Work order types to filter on


The Ellipse work order types that will be used to filter all work orders. Up to eight types may be
specified. A maximum of 2characters is permitted for each type.

Completed codes to filter on


The Ellipse work order completed codes that will be used to filter all work orders. Up to eight codes may
be specified. A maximum of 2characters is permitted for each code.

Maximum number of plot bars


The maximum number of plot bars to display in the analytics plot.

Minimum plot width (pixels)


The minimum width to be used for analytics plots. If the plot will not fit into the available space in the plot
area the Portal will display scroll bars to allow the user to view hidden areas of the plot.

Minimum plot height (pixels)


The minimum height to be used for analytics plots. If the plot will not fit into the available plot area the
Portal will display scroll bars to allow the user to view hidden areas of the plot.

465
Availability Workbench V3.0

Ellipse Portal Connection Options


Options displayed in the Ellipse Connection tab of the Ellipse Portal Options dialog are described
below.

DSN
The Ellipse Data Source Name specified in the Windows ODBC Data Source Administrator.

User
The default user name for Ellipse logon.

Table prefix
Specifies the prefix to Ellipse database tables. For example if the Ellipse tables commence with MSF
then no prefix should be specified. However, if tables begin with Ellipse_MSF the prefix 'Ellipse_' should
be specified.

SQL Server database


Check this option if the Ellipse system is based on SQL Server rather than Oracle.

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The Ellipse Portal

Ellipse Download Utility


The Download Utility is accessed by selecting the Download Data, Download Utility pull-down menu
option in the Download Master Data to AWB or Analytics tab of the Ellipse Portal.

The Download Utility dialog will be displayed allowing you to specify an Ellipse table or view, the fields
you wish to download and an optional where clause. For example specifying the table MSF600and the
fields EQUIP_NOand PLANT_NO will allow you to download equipment names and plant numbers. You
might also specify an optional where clause such as DSTRCT_CODE=1234 to only download rows
relating to the specified district. Note that you should not include the word WHERE as this is
automatically added to the where clause specified by the user. If you wish to download all the fields in a
table then you may select the All fields check box.

The Download Utility dialog allows the user to limit the number of rows downloaded from the database
and listed in the dialog by setting the Maximum download rows and Maximum list rows values
respectively.

Data is downloaded when the Download Data button is selected. After data download is complete you
may export the data to a comma delimited file by selecting the Export Results to File button.

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The Dynamic Link Library
The Dynamic Link Library - Overview
The Availability Workbench Dynamic-Link Library (DLL) enables users to seamlessly link their
databases or external applications to Availability Workbench projects. For example, the DLL may be
used to create a custom link between a CMMS database for importing RCM data into an Availability
Workbench project. The custom link may then be used to transfer data from the project back to the
CMMS database after the RCM analysis has been completed using Availability Workbench. In
summary, the DLL allows programmers to directly access project data without using the Availability
Workbench application interface.

In addition to accessing data you may also programmatically request the AWB DLL to perform
simulations and calculations. The following simulations and calculations may be performed:

 Perform a RCMCost system simulation


 Automatically optimize maintenance plans for RCMCost tasks or task groups
 Perform an AvSim system simulation
 Perform a Weibull analysis
 Perform a LCC calculation
 Perform a process reliability analysis

The Availability Workbench DLL is a .NET assembly that runs under the Microsoft .NET Framework
Version 2.0. No separate installation is necessary to access the DLL. The DLL is part of the
AvailabilityWorkbench.exe file. You will, however, require a DLL license to access the main functionality
of the DLL. In addition, if you use any of the analysis or simulation methods provided by the DLL you will
require the appropriate module license.

In addition to the Availability Workbench DLL you will also require a .NET assembly development tool
such as Microsoft’s Visual Studio.

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Availability Workbench V3.0

How the Dynamic Link Library Works


The Availability Workbench DLL provides a DataSet class that may be used to hold project data in
memory. A DataSet contains tables, columns and rows. The DataSet constructor automatically
constructs all the tables and columns representing the Availability Workbench project schema. However,
no rows are added when a DataSet object is created, i.e. a DataSet object contains no data on
construction.

A DataSet object may be initially populated with the very minimum of default data for a project by calling
the DataSet New method. This method would be called if you are intending to populate a project with
data from scratch.

A DataSet object may also be initially populated with data using the DataSet Read method. In this case
data is extracted from an existing Availability Workbench project file.

The DataSet class provides methods for writing and reading data to and from the DataSet. Tables and
columns in the DataSet are identified by unique string identifiers. These identifiers are listed in the
document Availability Workbench DLL Reference Manual.

If you wish to write modified project data to a new or existing Availability Workbench project file then
simply call the DataSet Write method. If you wish to validate the data first then call the DataSet Verify
method.

The Availability Workbench DLL DataSet class also provides methods for performing simulations and
analyzing data. You must have the appropriate module licenses to use these methods. The analysis and
simulation methods are:

 RCMPerformSystemAnalysisRun
 RCMPerformAutoTaskOptimizationRun
 RCMPerformAutoTaskGroupOptimizationRun
 AvsimPerformRun
 WeibullPerformAnalysis
 LCCPerformAnalysis
 ProcessPerformAnalysis

Only create one instance of the DataSet class during a program session. If necessary use the
New method to clear all the project tables.

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The Dynamic Link Library

The Dynamic Link Library - Sample Code


The sample code below (C#) demonstrates how a programmer would add a new spare to the ‘Spares’
table of an existing project and then save the data to a new project file.

A sample project ‘AWBDllSample’ is also provided with the Availability Workbench installation and
illustrates the creation of structured data.

// Create a new DataSet object


DataSet dataSet = new DataSet();
DataTable dataTable;
// Initialize your DLL license
LicenseConfiguration licenseConfiguration = new
LicenseConfiguration(AvailabilityWorkbench.LicenseSettings.LicenseType.SERVER, "@ABC");
dataSet.InitializeLicense(licenseConfiguration);
// Read existing project data into dataset
dataSet.Read("c:\\temp\\dlldemo1.awbx");
// Add a spare
dataTable = dataSet.GetTable("Spares");
int newRowIndex = dataTable.AddRow();
DataRow newDataRow = dataTable.GetRow(newRowIndex);
DataValue dataValue = newDataRow.GetValue("Id");
dataValue.SetString("ABC123");
dataValue = newDataRow.GetValue("Description");
dataValue.SetString("Centrifugal pump");
dataValue = newDataRow.GetValue("UnitCost");
dataValue.SetDouble(25400.0);
// Validate data
string[] errorMessages = dataSet.Verify();
// If OK write to new project file
if (errorMessages.Length == 0) dataSet.Write("c:\\temp\\dlldemo2.awbx", false);
// Release DLL license
dataSet.TerminateLicense();

471
Availability Workbench V3.0

DLL Class Reference


DataSet Class
Constructor

DataSet()
Constructor method. Initializes a new instance of the DataSet class. Automatically creates the tables
and columns that represent the Availability Workbench project schema.

Public Methods

bool InitializeLicense(LicenseConfiguration licenseConfiguration)


Checks out a DLL license. If no valid license is available returns false and methods belonging to this
class will be disabled.
licenseConfiguration: Specifies the type and location of the DLL license.

void TerminateLicense()
Terminates the current license and releases it to other users.

int TableCount()
Returns the total number of tables in the project schema.

DataTable GetTable(int tableIndex) : DataTable GetTable(string tableID)


Overloaded method to obtain the DataTable object for the specified table. Returns null if an invalid table
index or ID is specified.
tableIndex: Zero-based index of the table.
tableID: String ID of the table.

int GetTableIndex(string tableID)


Returns the index corresponding to the specified table ID or –1 for an invalid ID.
tableID: String ID of the table.

bool New()
Populates a DataSet with basic project data.

bool Read(string fileName)


Reads data from an Availability Workbench project file to a DataSet.
fileName: Full path name of the file.

bool Write(string fileName, bool useIndicesForForeignKeys)


Writes data contained in DataSet tables to an Availability Workbench project file.
fileName: Full path name of the file.
useIndicesForForeignKeys: Indicates whether foreign key data values will represent the zero-based
index or the string ID in the foreign table.

string[] Verify()
Checks data contained in the DataSet tables for errors.

public bool AvsimPerformRun(bool useIndicesForForeignKeys)


Performs an AvSim simulation
useIndicesForForeignKeys: Indicates whether foreign key data values will represent the zero-based
index or the string ID in the foreign table.

public bool RCMPerformSystemAnalysisRun(bool useIndicesForForeignKeys)


Performs a RCMCost system analysis

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The Dynamic Link Library

useIndicesForForeignKeys: Indicates whether foreign key data values will represent the zero-based
index or the string ID in the foreign table.

public bool RCMPerformAutoTaskOptimizationRun(bool useIndicesForForeignKeys)


Performs a RCMCost automatic optimization for all tasks
useIndicesForForeignKeys: Indicates whether foreign key data values will represent the zero-based
index or the string ID in the foreign table.

public bool RCMPerformAutoTaskGroupOptimizationRun(bool useIndicesForForeignKeys)


Performs a RCMCost automatic optimization for all task groups
useIndicesForForeignKeys: Indicates whether foreign key data values will represent the zero-based
index or the string ID in the foreign table.

public bool LCCPerformAnalysis(bool useIndicesForForeignKeys)


Performs a LCC analysis.
useIndicesForForeignKeys: Indicates whether foreign key data values will represent the zero-based
index or the string ID in the foreign table.

public bool WeibullPerformAnalysis(bool useIndicesForForeignKeys, bool selectDistribution)


Performs an analysis for all automatic Weibull sets in the project
useIndicesForForeignKeys: Indicates whether foreign key data values will represent the zero-based
index or the string ID in the foreign table.
selectDistribution: Indicates whether the best-fit distribution should be automatically selected

public bool ProcessPerformAnalysis(bool useIndicesForForeignKeys)


Performs an analysis for all process sets in the project
useIndicesForForeignKeys: Indicates whether foreign key data values will represent the zero-based
index or the string ID in the foreign table.

public string RCMSimulationProgressMessage()


Provides a message indicating the progress of a RCMCost simulation

public string AvsimSimulationProgressMessage()


Provides a message indicating the progress of an AvSim simulation

public bool ResetCulture(string culture)


Overrides the default culture setting for messages
culture: The new culture string for messages

public void EnterpriseSetBindingConfiguration(string bindingConfiguration, string scheme,


string host, int port, string userPrincipalName)
Sets the binding configuration of the Enterprise System
bindingConfiguration: The binding configuration string for the Enterprise system
scheme: The scheme to use (leaving blank uses the default scheme)
host: The host name
port: The port number
userPrincipalName: The user principal name if required

public bool EnterpriseCheckout(Form mainForm, string ID)


Reads data from a Reliability Workbench Enterprise project to a DataSet. Project is checked-out of the
Enterprise System.
mainForm: The parent form for any Enterprise check out message forms
ID: The Enterprise project ID

public bool EnterpriseCheckin(Form mainForm, bool useIndicesForForeignKeys, string


description, bool newVersion)
Writes data contained in DataSet tables to an Reliability Workbench project and checks it in to the
Enterprise system.
mainForm: The parent form for any Enterprise message forms

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Availability Workbench V3.0

useIndicesForForeignKeys: Indicates whether foreign key data values will represent the zero-based
index or the string ID in the foreign table.
description: A description for the project version
newVersion: If set to true a new version of the Enterprise project will be created on check-in

public bool EnterpriseView(Form mainForm, string ID)


Reads data from a Reliability Workbench Enterprise project to a DataSet.
Project is read-only with respect to the Enterprise System.
mainForm: The parent form for any Enterprise message forms
ID: The Enterprise project ID

public string EnterpriseBrowse(Form mainForm)


Provides a browse dialog to select an Enterprise project. Returns the Enterprise project ID.
mainForm: The parent form for any Enterprise message forms

public void EnterpriseAdministration(Form mainForm)


Provides access to the Enterprise Administration dialog and associated functions.
mainForm: The parent form for any Enterprise message forms

public bool EnterpriseProjectExists(string ID)


Determines whether an Enterprise project exists with the specified ID
ID: The Enterprise project ID

public string BuildUrl(string tableId, string objectId, string objectGuid)


Builds the Url representing the specified object in the current project
tableId: The table identifier for the object
objectId: The object ID
objectGuid: The object GUID

public string GetUrlProjectFile(string urlString)


Retrieves the project file from a Url string
urlString: The Url string

public string GetUrlProjectGuid(string urlString)


Retrieves the project GUID from a Url string
urlString: The Url string

public string GetUrlTable(string urlString)


Retrieves the project table identifier from a Url string
urlString: The Url string

public string GetUrlObjectId(string urlString)


Retrieves the object ID from a Url string
urlString: The Url string

public string GetUrlObjectGuid(string urlString)


Retrieves the object GUID from a Url string
urlString: The Url string

public string[] GetSelectedRBDDiagramObjectUrls(string tableId)

Retrieves a list of the URLs of selected RBD diagram objects


tableId: The table ID of the objects to be considered

public string[] GetSelectedFTDiagramObjectUrls(string tableId)


Retrieves a list of the URLs of selected fault tree diagram objects
tableId: The table ID of the objects to be considered

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The Dynamic Link Library

public string GetSelectedObjectTable()


Retrieves the table ID for the currently selected object

public int GetSelectedObjectRow()


Retrieves the table row index for the currently selected object

public bool DiagramToClipboard()


Copies the currently displayed diagram to the clipboard
THIS METHOD MAY ONLY BE CALLED FROM A PLUGIN

public bool DiagramToMetafile(string fileName)


Copies the currently displayed diagram to a metafile
THIS METHOD MAY ONLY BE CALLED FROM A PLUGIN
filename: The table ID of the objects to be considered

See Also

LicenseConfiguration Class
DataTable Class
DataColumn Class
DataRow Class
DataValue Class

475
Availability Workbench V3.0

LicenseConfiguration Class
Constructor (overloaded)

LicenseConfiguration(LicenseSettings.LicenseType licenseType, string licenseLocation)

LicenseConfiguration(LicenseSettings.LicenseType licenseType, string licenseLocation, bool


checkoutRCMLicense, bool checkoutAvSimLicense, bool checkoutLCCLicense, bool
checkoutWeibullLicense, bool checkoutProcessLicense)

Initializes a new instance of the LicenseConfiguration class. The properties of the LicenseConfiguration
class specify the type and location of the DLL license.
licenseType: The licenseType must be set to HARDWARE, SERVER or STANDALONE.
licenseLocation: Must be set to the path name of the standalone license file or the server location. A
server location is specified as <server port number>@<server host name or IP address>. The
licenseLocation does not need to be set for the HARDWARE licenseType.
checkoutRCMLicense: Check out a RCMCost module license (required if performing RCM simulations)
checkoutAvSimLicense: Check out an AvSim module license (required if performing AvSim simulations)
checkoutLCCLicense: Check out a LCC module license (required if performing a L