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Y. F. Li and C . C. Lau

ABSTRACT: This paper investigates the The Model Reference Adaptive Control ulate the total pressure and the level of liquid

possibility of applying fuzzy algorithms in a (MRAC) technique [2] is an approach for inside the tank.

microprocessor-based servomotor controller, coping with environmental variation and The results of those experiments showed

which requires faster and more accurate re- system nonlinearities. Its function is to com- that fuzzy controllers performed better than,

sponse compared with other industrial pro- pare the output from the process with that or at least as good as, a PID controller. They

cesses. The performance of proportional-in- from a reference model. The error is then have the common feature of not requiring a

tegral-derivative control, model reference used for adjusting the parameters of the con- detailed mathematical model. However,

adaptive control, and fuzzy controllers is troller through a suitable adaptation algo- those experiments were concerned mainly .

compared in terms of steady-state error, set- rithm, either based on physical or chemical with slow chemical processes. The objective

tling time, and response time. Limitations of laws or a parameter estimation method. of this paper is to investigate the possibility

fuzzy control algorithms are also described. These techniques are usually complex and of applying fuzzy algorithms in faster, and

require large amounts of computation time. more accurate, controllers, such as servo-

This restricts the application when a fast re- motor position controllers.

Introduction sponse is desirable. The common difficulty

Servomotors are used in many automatic with this approach lies in the attempt to for-

systems, including drives for printers, tape mulate the input-output relationship by Fuzzy Control Algorithm

recorders, and robotic manipulators. Since means of mathematical models, which may When controlling a process, human oper-

the development of microprocessors in the be difficult in many cases. Even when such ators usually encounter complex patterns of

1970s, microprocessor-based servomotor models are developed, they may be too com- quantitative conditions, which are difficult to

controllers have become more popular be- plex to compute in real time. interpret accurately. The magnitude of the

cause of their superiority over analog con- Facing these problems, investigators re- measurements is usually described as fast,

trollers. One obvious reason is that the mi- alized that incorporating human intelligence big, slow, high, etc. To represent such inex-

croprocessors can be used to implement into automatic control systems would be a act information, a nonmathematical ap-

intelligent control algorithms to cope with more efficient solution, and this led to the proach called “fuzzy set theory” was de-

varying environments as a result of load dis- development of fuzzy control algorithms [3]. veloped by Zadeh [3].

turbances, process nonlinearities, and The fuzzy algorithm is based on intuition A fuzzy subset A with an element x has a

changes of plant parameters. A micropro- and experience, and can be regarded as a set membership function of u A ( x ) , which is in

cessor-based controller can remember past of heuristic decision d e s or “rules of the interval between 0 and 1. If uA( x ) is 1,

experiences and predict future consequences thumb.” Such nonmathematical control al- then the element is a member of the set. If

caused by present inputs. This is beyond the gorithms can be implemented easily in a u A ( x ) is 0, then it is not. Consider a fuzzy

ability of an analog controller. computer. They are straightforward and subset A with five elements, which have the

Conventional digital control algorithms can should not involve any computational prob- membership functions 0.7, 0.9, 1, 0.9, and

be developed by formulating the transfer lems. 0.7. From the preceding concept, the ele-

function of the process [l]. However, in Mamdani [4] and Mamdani and Assilian ment with a membership function of 1 is a

practice it is not always easy to describe an [5] reported on the application of fuzzy set full member of A, whereas the others are

engineering object by means of a discrete theory to control a small laboratory steam only part member. The membership function

transfer function so as to realize ideal com- engine. The purpose was to regulate engine determines the degree to which the element

pensation. Thus, servomotors are usually speed and boiler steam pressure by using heat belongs to the subset. If a fuzzy set A is

controlled by proportional-integral-deriva- applied to the boiler and the throttle setting defined as “around 10” on a scale from 8

tive (PID) algorithms. Such algorithms will on the engine. At the same time, van Nauta to 12, itinight be described by the following,

be effective enough if the speed and accuracy Lemke and Kickert [6]-[8] examined the where 0.7, 0.9, and 1 are the membership

requirements of the control system are not performance of a fuzzy controller on a warm functions and 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 are called

critical. The usual way to optimize the con- water plant. The success of these studies led the universe of discourse.

trol action is to tune the PID coefficients, but King and Mamdani [9] to attempt to control

this cannot cope with a varying control en- the temperature of a chemical reactor by A = (0.7/8, 0.9/9, 1/10, 0.9/11, 0.7112)

vironment or system nonlinearity. using fuzzy algorithms. Furthermore, Ruth-

erford [lo] and Ostergaard [l 11 reported the

results of the experiments with fuzzy con-

Fuzzy Logic

Presented at the 1988 IEEE International Confer-

ence on Robotics and Automation, Philadelphia, trollers on a sinter strand and a heat ex- Fuzzy subset theory involves very. com-

Pennsylvania, April 24-29, 1988. Y. F. Li and changer, respectively. Lastly, R. M. Tong’s plicated theorems, but most of these theo-

C. C. Lau are with the Department of Electrical paper [12] was concerned with the control rems do not relate to the development of

and Electronic Engineering, University of Hong of a pressurized tank containing liquid. The fuzzy control algorithms. The following three

Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong. problem was to use fuzzy algorithms to reg- definitions form the basis for the decision

April 1989 65

table that will be used in the control algo- trol input equals the input applied to the pro- (3) If the error is small negative and the er-

rithms. cess. ror change is small negative, then the

In addition, it is necessary to quantize the control input is small positive.

(1) The union of two sets, A U B , corre-

qualitative statements, and the following lin- (4)If the error is small negative and the er-

sponds to the OR function and is defined

guistic sets are assigned. ror change is zero, then the control input

by

u(A O R B ) = max (U,&), ua(x)) Large positive (LP) is large positive.

( 2 ) The intersection of two sets, A f3 B , Medium positive (MP) These rules are then combined to form a

corresponds to the AND function and is Small positive (SP) decision table for the fuzzy controller. The

defined by table consists of values showing the different

u ( A AND B ) = min ( u A ( x ) , uB(x))

Zero (ZE) situations experienced by the system and the

Small negative (SN) corresponding control input function.

(3) The complement of a set A corresponds

to the NOT function and is defined by Medium negative (MN)

u(N0TA) = 1 - uA(x) Large negative (LN) Decision Table

To illustrate the application of these defi- Thus, the statement of the example control To show the preparation of the decision

nitions, consider two qualitative statements, rule will be: If the error is large positive and table, the four rules are interpreted as func-

“big” and “medium,” with the following the error change is small positive, then the tional diagrams, as shown in Fig. 1. Con-

membership functions: input to the system is large positive. sider a process having an error of -1 and

an error change of 1.5. From the diagram,

u(big) = (0, 0.3, 0.7, 1.0) it can be shown that, for such an erroderror

Membership Matrix

u(medium) = (0.2, 0.7, 1.0, 0.8) change pair, rules 1 , 2, and 4 are applicable.

Having formulated the control rule in fuzzy The points of intersection between the val-

The three definitions can be applied directly terms, the next step is to define the mem- ues of -1 and the graph in the first column

to the two membership functions. bership functions of the linguistic sets, i.e., (Le,, error) have the membership functions

large positive, medium positive, etc. The of 0.6, 0.6, 0.6, and 0.6. Likewise, the sec-

u(big OR medium) shape of the fuzzy set is quite arbitrary and ond column (i.e., error change) shows that

= {max (0, 0.2), max (0.3, 0.7), depends on the user’s preference. For sim- an error change of 1.5 has the membership

plicity, trapezoidal shapes usually are used. functions of 0.8, 0.2, 0, 0.2. The control

max (0.7, l.O), max (1.0, 0.8))

Table 1 is an example of a membership

input for the four rules is the intersection of

= (0.2, 0.7, 1.0, 1.0) matrix table for a membership function. It the paired values obtained from the graph,

includes the error, error change, and control

u(big AND medium) i.e., min(0.6,0.8), min(0.6,0.2), min(0.6,

input variables. Each table consists of five 0), and min (0.6,0.2), which reduces to 0.6,

= (min (0, 0.2), min (0.3, 0.7), sets, including LP, SP, ZE, SN, and LN, 0.2, 0, and 0.2, respectively.

min (0.7, l.O), min (1.0, 0.8)} and each set consists of nine elements, i.e., The membership functions representing the

-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4. All error, control adjustment are weighted according to

= (0, 0.3, 0.7, 0.8) error change, and control input variables are the corresponding input change and the dif-

quantized to these nine levels. ferent control contributions as shown in Fig.

u(NOT big)

2. Now, for a pair of error and error changes,

= ((1 - 0), (1 - 0.3), (1 - 0.7), Control Rules three sets of control inputs exist. To deter-

(1 - 1.0)) Suppose four fuzzy rules have been for- mine the value of action to be taken from

mulated for a system; namely: these contributions, we can either choose the

= (1, 0.7, 0.3, 0)

maximum value or use the “center-of-grav-

(1) If the error is zero and the error change ity” method. In our example, the maximum

To establish the fuzzy controller, it is nec-

essary to interpret rules that are based on is small positive, then the control input value is 0.6, which corresponds to a control

is small negative. input of approximately -2 units (Fig. 2 ) . In

experience so as to form a decision table that

gives input and output values of the con- (2) If the error is zero and the error change the center-of-gravity method, the action is

troller corresponding to situations of interest. is zero, then the control input is zero. given by the center of the summed area,

A fuzzy algorithm consists of situation and

action pairs, Conditional rules expressed in

IF and THEN statements are generally used. Table 1

For example, the control rule might be: If Membership Matrix Table

~~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Quantized Levels

the output is dropping moderately, then the Linguistic

input to the system shall be increased greatly. Sets -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4

Such a rule has to be converted into a more

LP 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.6 0

general statement for application to fuzzy al-

SP 0 0 0 0 0 0.6 1 0.6 0

gorithms. To achieve this, the following

ZE 0 0 0 0.6 1 0.6 0 0 0

terms are defined: error equals the set point

SN 0 0.6 1 0.6 0 0 0 0 0

minus the process output; error change equals

LN 1 0.6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

the error from the process output minus the

Membership function

error from the last process output; and con-

- ~-

Error (e) Error change (e) Control Input (I) In general terns, the control input can be

written as follows, where U is the member-

and n the number of contributions (i.e., 1 ,

2, . . . , etc.).

0.2

-4 - 2 1 0 2 4 - A - 2 0 ’ 2 4

I Rule 1 I

I I

Figure 2 shows the control input to the

process graphically, and the contributions are

developed from rules 1 , 2 , and 4 of Fig. 1 .

In most cases, the number of rules that define

different input conditions are limited, and

~ ~~

there is a good possibility that no rule exists

-4 - 2 ’ 0 2 4 -4 -2 0 ‘ 2 4 -4 -2 0 2 4 for certain inputs. Such undefined situations

I I

Rule 2 lower the efficiency of the fuzzy controller.

I

I To overcome this, the effect of all rules is

U

spread around the input situations in all di-

rections to a distance that is determined by

the user. Thus, for a given input, the control

algorithms will check if there exists a cor-

responding rule. If no rule exists, then the

rules in the immediate neighborhood (within

-4 - 2 : o 2 4 -4 -2 0 I 2 4 -4 -2 0 2 4 the predetermined distance) will be consid-

I

I Rule 3 ered.

I

I In the following example, a distance of 1

I U

unit is chosen. Consider at one instant, the

situation where the system has an error of

-, - - -3 and an e m r change of 2. No rule ap-

pears to correspond to this situation. How-

0.2 ---- ever, rule 4 can be adopted within a distance

-4 - 2 ; o 2 4 -4 -2 0 ‘2 4 of 1 unit (Fig. 1).

I Rule 4 These calculations can be implemented on

-1

1.5 a computer. After the calculations, each er-

roderror change pair will have their corre-

Fig. 1. Graphical representation of control rules.

sponding control input values. The decision

Membership function (c)

table is stored in memory in the form of a

‘‘lookup’’ table. An example of the lookup

t

table is shown in Table 2 .

The following procedure shows how a

control input to the process is determined

nq / Contribution by rule 2 .2

from the lookup table.

Suppose the set point = 1 unit

Output of the system at r, =

Output of the system at f2 = 2 units

4 units

Contributed by rule 4 .4

Error at f, = 4 - 1 = 3 units

Universe of Error at r2 = 2 - 1 = 1 unit

f discourse ( U )

-4 -2 1 0 2 4 6 Error change = 1 - 3 = -2 units

I

I From the table, the quantized control input

I -0.4 (Control input to the process) for the system at r, will be 1 unit. If the

Fig. 2. Determination of the control input to process by means of the center-of-gravity scaling factor of the quantized control input

method. is 0.5 per unit, then the absolute value for

control input is 1 x 0.5 = 0.5.

which is contributed by the control inputs. Thus, for an error of -1 and an error However, the preceding rules may not be

In this study, the latter is chosen because the change of 1.5, the control input I will be adequate to cover the wide range of different

contributions have the same maximum value. situations the system may encounter. In this

Furthermore, the center-of-gravity method I = [o.6 (-2) + o.2 + respect, different lookup tables may be re-

gives a more reliable decision table com- + 0.2 X 4]/(0.6 + 0.2 + 0 + 0.2) quired in order to increase the adaptability

pared with the “maximum” operation. = -0.4 of the fuzzy controller.

Aprii 1989

67

Table 2 vide optimum control when the error is ap-

Sample Lookup Table proaching zero. This will lead to overshoot

Error Change and hunting around the desired position.

Thus, Table 4 is used only for coarse control

Error -4 -3 >-2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 and a second lookup table is formulated for

fine control (Tables 5 and 6).

-4 5 4 4 3 3 2 1 1 -1

The two lookup tables are stored in the

-3 5 4 3 2 2 1 0 0 -2

memory of a 6502-based microcomputer,

-2 4 3 3 2 1 1 0 -1 -3

which checks whether the error is within the

-1 4 3 2 1 1 0 1 -2 -3

predetermined limit and then assigns the cor-

0 3 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -3

responding lookup table to the control func-

1 3 2 >1 0 -1 -1 -2 -3 -4

tion. In this application, the limit is set be-

2 3 1 0 0 -1 -2 -3 -3 -4

3 2 0 0 -1 -2 -2 -3 -4 -5

+

tween 100 and - 100. When the error falls

within such limits, the computer will switch

4 1 -1 -1 -1 -2 -3 -4 -4 -5

to the fine control lookup table. This speeds

Control input

up the response at regions around the set

The notation > illustrates the example. point. A block diagram of the fuzzy con-

troller is presented in Fig. 3.

Fuzzy Control Algorithms (3) If e is ZE and e is SP, then zl is ZE.

for Servomotors (4) If e is ZE and e is SN, then v is SN.

Simulation Results

The task of the control algorithm is to ro- (5) If e is SN and e is SN, then v is SN.

tate the shaft of the motor to a set point with- For comparison purposes, three different

(6) If e is LN and e is any, then v is LN

out overshoot. It is necessary to write a set control algorithms are implemented in a

of fuzzy control statements based on the er- Rule 1 implies a general condition when 6502-based microcomputer with a BASIC

ror signal between the set point and the mea- the present position of the shaft is very far interpreter. The first is a conventional digital

sured shaft position and the change of error away from the set point. Therefore, it re- PI controller, the second is an MRAC con-

so as to adjust the output of the drive unit. quires a large drive output to turn the motor troller. The third is the fuzzy algorithm de-

The inputs of the fuzzy controller are de- shaft to the set point quickly. Rule 2 imple- scribed in the previous section.

noted by the following, where 0 is the out- ments the condition when the error starts to A servomotor having the following param-

put from the shaft encoder, S the set point, decrease and the motor is approaching the eters is chosen for this simulation: moment

e , the error of the servo system at t , , and e2 required position. Thus, a small drive output amplification (K,) equals 1.088 Nm/A; elec-

the error of the servo system at r2. is given. Rule 3 implies that the set point is trical amplification (K,)equals 1.1 V/rad/

very nearly reached. Because of the inertia sec; armature inductance (La)equals 10 mH;

e = O - S of the motor, it is necessary to stop the drive armature resistance (R,) equals 3.5 Q ; and

at this instant to keep the overshoot at a min- the moment of inertia of the motor ( J ) equals

e = e, - e2

imum. However, rule 4 deals with the con- 0.0945 kg-m. Using these constants, the

The output is denoted by U , which is the dition when overshoot does occur. A small poles of the transfer function of the motor

voltage output from the servo drive unit. reverse drive signal is given to bring the mo- are found to be the following:

In this investigation, the shaft encoder is tor to its set point. Rule 6 implies the reverse

an incremental type having a resolution of condition of rule 1.

S(l + Sl3.6) (1 + S/350)

1000, and the servo amplifier has an output These rules are then combined to form the Because the electrical time constant

range of k 3 0 V. The universes of discourse decision table (lookup table) shown in Table (0.00285 sec) is much smaller than the me-

of these functions are as follows: e equals 4. However, the lookup table may not pro- chanical time constant (0.28 sec), the trans-

- 1000 to + 1000, e equals - 100 to 100, +

and v equals -30 to +30. Table 3 shows

the quantized variables. A pure verbal for- Table 3

mulation is then carried out to control the Quantized Variables (Coarse Control)

servo system.

Counterclockwise and clockwise rotations Quantized

are defined as positive and negative, respec- e e v Level

tively. A corresponding output is given for - lo00 - 100 - 30 -5

the error and error change detected in each - 800 - 80 - 24 -4

sampling interval. For example, if the error - 600 - 60 - 18 -3

is positive large and the error change is pos- - 400 - 40 - 12 -2

itive small then a large positive drive is used. - 200 - 20 - 6 -1

All of the preceding strategies are com- 0 0 0 0

bined to form a series of rules and six num- 200 20 6 1

bers as follows: 400 40 12 2

(1) If e is LP and e is any, then v is LP. 600 60 18 3

(2) If e is SP and e is SP or ZE, then v is 800 80 24 4

SP. lo00 100 30 5

Table 4 comes

Lookup Table (Coarse Control)

C(Z) = O.l65Z/[(Z- 1)

Error Change

. (Z - 0.4)+ 0.16521

Error -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

The transfer function of the servo system

-5 -5 -5 -4 -4 -3 -1 0 1 1 2 2 (Fig. 4) is transformed into the following

-4 -5 -5 -5 -4 -3 -1 0 1 1 2 2 difference equation:

-3 -5 -5 -5 -4 -3 -1 0 1 2 2 2

-2 -5 -5 -4 -4 -3 -1 1 2 3 3 3 Y,, = 1.235Y,-I - 0.4Yn-l

-1 -5 -5 -4 -3 -2 0 1 2 3 3 4 + 0.165Xn-]

0 -5 -4 -4 -2 -2 0 1 3 4 4 4

1 -4 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 2 3 4 4 4 During the simulation, the sampling time

2 -4 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 5 4 5 and the set points were common to all three

3 -3 -4 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 5 4 5 algorithms and of the values 0.25sec and 23

4 -2 -3 -2 -1 0 1 3 3 5 5 5 deg (360 X 64/1OOO),respectively. In order

5 -2 -3 -1 -1 0 1 3 3 5 5 5 to test the adaptability of the controllers, a

Control input disturbance is simulated in the servo system.

This disturbance results in a slight change in

the mechanical time constant (from 3.6to 4)

after the servo has settled. The difference

Table 5

equation of the modified system transfer

Quantized Variables (Fine Control) function is

Quantized

e Y,, = 1.21Yn-l - 0.368Y n - l

e U Level

100 60 20 4 + 0.158X n - ]

75 45 15 3 PI Controller

50 30 10 2

25 15 5 The digital controller used in this investi-

1

0 0 0 0 gation is in the usual form, where U is the

25 15 - 5 output of the controller, E the output of the

- - -1

- 50 - 30 system minus the set point, and K1, K2, and

- 10 -2

- 75 -45 - 15 -3 K3are the coefficients of the controller.

-100 - 60 -20 -4 U, = K,(E,+ K2 X lJ-1)

Table 6

Lookup Table (Fine Control) The coefficients for the PI controller are

tuned for best performance, i.e., with min-

Error Change imum overshoot and no steady-state error,

and the values are found to be A equals

Error -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4

~ -2.79,B equals 0.90625,and C equals

-4 -4 -4 -3 -3 -2 -1 -1 0 1 -0.001,

-3 -4 -3 -3 -2 -2 -1 0 1 1 MRAC

-2 -3 -2 -2 -1 -1 -1 0 1 2

-1 -2 -2 -1 0 1 0 1 2 2 A block diagram of the MRAC loop is

0 -2 -2 -1 0 0 0 1 2 3 shown in Fig. 4,with the reference model

1 -2 -2 0 1 1 1 2 3 3 being described by

2 -1 -1 0 1 1 1 2 3 4 I/S(S+ 3.6)

3 0 0 1 2 2 2 3 3 4

4 0 0 1 2 3 3 3 4 4 Variation on any parameter of the servo sys-

Control input tem can be adjusted by K X e; e = Y,,, -

Yp, where Y,,, and Yp are the outputs of the

model and process, respectively. The refer-

fer function of the motor is simplified to for this system becomes ence model is of the same order as the pro-

cess and is linear as well.

G ( S ) = (K/S)(S + 3.6)

(Z - 1) (Z- 0.4)+ 0.165 KZ = 0 In order to get the two identical responses,

The partial fraction expansion for G(S) is the parameter K must be adjusted. It is ob-

By using the Routh criteria, the system is vious that K should be increased, and a rea-

[(l/S) - 1/(S + 3.6)]

C(S) = (K/3.6) sonable choice for adjustment of K seems to

shown to be unstable for K > 16.97.In this

Taking the sampling period Tequal to 0.25 investigation, K is chosen to be 1. Finally, be

sec, the characteristic equation (Z-transform) the transfer function of the servomotor be- K(t) = K(0) +B e dt

April 1989 69

7 for comparison purposes. A plot of fuzzy

controller output against time is shown in

Fuzzy

Rules subsets Fig. 6.

To prevent instability problems, the gain

for the fuzzy controller is kept as low as

Limits for possible so that the system remains stable

fine control within the range of operation. Unfortu-

nately, this will increase the response time

of the system. To overcome this, a third

output

Error (e) lookup table may be needed for varying the

T

system gain so as to increase the adaptability

of the controller.

The simulation programs were written in

change BASIC. It can be expected that, in practical

I & L A

L implementation, where control programs are

written in assembly language, faster re-

sponse times can be expected.

I I The parameters of the controller should be

Fig. 3. Block diagram of fuzzy controller. designed so that the servo system can have

fast response and minimum steady-state er-

these tables are initially estimated based on ror. To achieve this, the quantization of the

set

point+ - ' the characteristics of the servomotor. Then

they are fine-tuned by repeated trials. Sim-

parameters is arranged so that the full lookup

table can be utilized. Also, two sets of al-

+ Gain ( K )

dation results are shown in Fig. 5 and Table gorithms are used to describe the control

4 t

I I 1 1L.

25

0 1 2 3 4

3 6 7 8 Time (sec)

Degree

23.0429' '22.4928'

With the gain B, the speed of adjustment

can be set, and the desired memory function

is realized by means of integration.

Note that when the input signal U is in- Time (sec)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

verted, the adjustment of K will be in the

wrong direction because of the negative sign PID controller

Degree

of e . This will result in an unstable system.

Thus, it is necessary to include the sign of

the input signal. For instance, by multiply-

ing e and U , the result of the parameter ad-

justment will conform to the adaptation cri-

teria. The adjustment law is modified as

follows, where B equals -0.007.

loo

0

t/

Y

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Time (sec)

MRAC

K(t) = K(0) +B (e X U) dt Degree

Converting this into a difference equation

gives

9 Time (sec)

Fuzzy Control 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

ment the fuzzy control algorithm. Entries in Fig. 5 . Simulation results for three different controllers.

70 I t E t Control Systems M o g o r i n e

Table 7 the fuzzy controller has more adaptive

Comparison of Simulation Results capability.

PI MRAC Fuzzy (3) By using different sets of control rules,

the fuzzy controller can operate for a

Settling time, sec 2.5 2 1 large range of inputs.

Overshoot, % 10 6 0

Effect of disturbance Yes No No However, certain challenges remain for

(Steady-state their use, including the following:

error of 3%)

(1) Completeness of the rule base,

(2) Guidance on the shape of the fuzzy lin-

Fuzzy controller output guistic functions,

(quantized)

(3) Guidance on the overlapping of subsets,

and

(4) Practical methods for controller calibra-

4 h tion.

References

111 Raven, Automatic Control Engineering, In-

ternational Student Edition, McGraw-Hill.

1968.

A. J . Dymock, “Analysis of a Type of

Model Reference Adaptive Control Sys-

tem,” Proc. IEE, vol. 112, pp. 743-753,

1965.

I31 L. A. Zadeh, “Fuzzy Sets,” Inform.

Contr., vol. 8, pp. 338-353, 1965.

[41 E. H. Mamdani, “Application of Fuzzy Al-

gorithms for Control of a Simple Dynamic

0

L . Time (sec)

Plant,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 121. pp. 1585-

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1588, 1974.

Fig. 6. Fuzzy controller output. E. H. Mamdani and S . Assilian, “A Fuzzy

Logic Controller for a Dynamic Plant,” Intl.

J . Man-Machine Stud., vol. 7, pp. 1-13,

function of the servo system; namely, coarse ler has been dimensioned and formulated in 1975.

a very straightforward way on the basis of I61 H. R. van Nauta Lemke and W. J. M. Kick-

and fine control. This greatly reduces the

ert, “The Application of Fuzzy Set Theory

system settling time. the basic operational characteristics of the

to Control a Warm Water Process,” Jour-

By comparing the simulated results ob- servomotor. The limited sets of rules and nal A I 7 , vol. A17, pp. 8-18, 1976.

tained from the fuzzy, MRAC, and PI con- lookup tables restrict the adaptability of the I71 W. J . M. Kickert and H. R. van Nauta

trollers, it can be seen that the performance controller. Lemke, “Application of a Fuzzy Controller

of the fuzzy controller is better than that of Since there is no mature guidance in fuzzy in a Warm Water Plant,” Automatica, vol.

the PI controller and as good as that of the set theory for the determination of the best 12, pp. 301-308, 1976.

MRAC. As can be seen, the settling time of shapes for fuzzy sets, it is suggested that I81 W. J. Kickert, “Further Analysis and Ap-

the fuzzy controller is only one-half that of different shapes for different set points need plication of Fuzzy Logic Control,” Internal

the MRAC controller and two-fifths that of to be studied to obtain an optimum solution Report F/WK 2/75, Queen Mary’s College,

the PI controller. Both the MRAC and fuzzy for various ranges of erroderror change pairs. London, 1975.

I91 P. J . King and E. H. Mamdani, “The Ap-

controllers are insensitive to the simulated The amount of overlap with the fuzzy sets

plication of Fuzzy Control Systems to In-

disturbance, which is done by slightly alter- affects the efficiency of the fuzzy controller. dustrial Processes,” Auromarica, vol. 13,

ing the mechanical time constant. It is im- In case of too much overlap, many rules will pp. 235-242, 1976.

portant to note that the fuzzy algorithms have be applied for a single-input pair, and the D. Rutherford and G . Z. Carter, “A Heu-

the distinct advantage of not relying on a situation will not be represented accurately. ristic Adaptive Controller for a Sinter

mathematical transfer function for formulat- If there is too little overlap, it will be difficult Plant,” Proc. 2nd IFAC Symp., Johannes-

ing control rules. Instead, the fuzzy algo- to derive the lookup table. burg, 1976.

rithms rely mainly on the overall knowledge In summary, it has been shown that fuzzy J . J. Ostergaard, “Fuzzy Logic Control of

of the designer. However, an optimum re- controllers offer the following advantages: a Heat Exchanger Process,” Internal Report

sponse of the fuzzy controller can be ex- 7601, Electric Power Engineering Dept.,

(1) They do not require a detailed mathe- Tech. Univ. of Denmark, 1976.

pected only for a limited range of inputs, and

matical model to formulate the algo- R. M. Tong, “Some Problems with the De-

it is necessary to retune the controller (ad- sign and Implementation of Fuzzy Control-

justing the scaling factor and, in some cases, rithms.

lers,” Internal Report CUEDIF-CAMS/

the magnitude of the parameters) for other ( 2 ) Because both error and error change are TR127, Engineering Dept., Cambridge

ranges of input. This is because the control- required to evaluate the control input, Univ., 1976.

April 1989 71

Y. F. Li received the First C. C. Lau received the the availability of new sensor technologies,

Class Honours degree in M.Phil. and Ph.D. de- which open new possibilities for data collec-

instrumentation and sys- grees from the University tion and experimental research on control.

tems engineenng in 1980 of Hong Kong in 1974and The panel avoided the all-too-easy

from Teerside Polytech- 1983, respectively. His re- approach of calling US. federal government

nic in England. Until search interests include agencies to double or triple the dollar amounts

1983, he was an Assistant microprocessor-based spent on research in this area, relying, instead,

Electronic Engineer of the controllers and hypercube on the importance of the field and the con-

Hong Kong United Dock- supercomputers. He is tinuing high quality of research as the guaran-

yard. He is currently an currently a lecturer of the tors of future funding. Questions were raised,

I Electronic Engineer of the Department of Electrical however, about the continuing supply of

Marine Department of the and Electronic Engineer- young talent, training opportunities, and

Hong Kong Government inn, University of Hong communication barriers.

and a M.Phil. degree candidate at the University Kong.

of Hong Kong. His research interests include fuzzy

theory and its application to microprocessor-based Recommendations

controllers.

The panel recommended that academic in-

stitutions promote the development of the

field by training Ph.D.s in both mathematics

Future Directions and engineering and by facilitating com-

munication across departmental lines. The

critical mass of faculty interested in control

research.

The panel further recommended that the

A major report on the status and future In spite of the rapid growth of the field, mathematical and engineering aspects of fun-

directions of control theory, entitled “Future the panel found that many fundamental damental control research become an integral

Directions in Control Theory: A Mathemati- problems-such as control of nonlinear part of new research initiatives sponsored by

cal Perspective,” was released in December multivariable systems, especially those with the federal agencies in many areas of science

1988 and is being distributed by the Society many degrees of freedom, and control of and technology, such as robotics, space struc-

for Industrial and Applied Mathematics nonlinear distributed parameter systems (e.g., tures, and computation.

(SIAM). Wendell H. Fleming of Brown those governed by nonlinear partial differen- The control science community, the

University chaired the panel of 17 mathemati- tial equations)-are not yet understood. These academic institutions, and the federal agen-

cians and engineers that produced the report. fundamental problems give rise to difficult cies were encouraged to promote greater ex-

During various stages of its preparation, the mathematical questions, many of which can- change of ideas among mathematicians,

panel solicited, and received, valuable input not be answered within the current theoretical engineers, and computer scientists. One of the

from more than 50 members of the control framework. goals in this area is integration within the field

community. For a copy of the report, write to overcome the internal communication bar-

to SIAM at the address listed at the end of Advances riers; another is facilitation of the flow of

this article. ideas from other rapidly progressing fields of

The report describes both striking recent mathematics into control theory.

Challenges advances in the mathematical theory, such as The panel members were the following:

the robust control theory for linear systems, H.T. Banks, G. Blankenship, R. Brockett,

Control theory has grown dramatically and successful applications t o control J.A. Burns, W.H. Fleming, R.V. Kohn,

from the linear systems, optimum control, technology. Among the latter are the space A. Krener, A.J. Laub, J.L. Lions, S. Markus,

and linear filtering of noisy signals of the shuttle control systems, a new hormone J.E. Marsden, S. Mitter, E. Polak, R.T.

1960s into a vastly diverse family of theories therapy that is programmed by a nonlinear Rockefeller, D. Russell, E.D. Sontag, and

of nonlinear, stochastic, adaptive, distributed feedback linearization and decoupling tech- G. Stein.

parameter, discrete event, and intelligent con- nique, the fly-by-wire F-16 jet, the hot strip In the process of assembling the report, it

trol. Because control research is driven by the steel mill computer control, and a variety of has become clear that perceptions of the

diverse and changing needs of applications, “small” applications that make modern con- future directions vary widely among the

the wide variety of mathematical techniques trol systems pervasive in today’s technological members of the control science community.

included in control theory go beyond those environment. For instance, some believe that the field will

associated with traditional applied The report also identifies a strikingly evolve more in the direction of software

mathematics. diverse range of areas in science and engineering, artificial intelligence, and in-

Control theory faces particular challenges technology that could benefit from research telligent control, with mathematical research

arising from its diverse origins and the wide in control theory; e.g., robotics, combustion taking second place to computer science.

applicability of its research. The field is both control, fluid flow control, solidification pro- These views, however, were not strongly em-

a n engineering discipline and applied cesses, biomedical research, hydrology, and phasized in the report. In fact, the report

mathematics discipline and, in addition, is ex- economics. definitely takes a mathematical perspective

periencing increasing interaction with com- The report strongly encourages control and emphasizes the need to continue the

puter science and computation. The creative scientists to make the fullest possible use of creative interaction of mathematics, computa-

interplay between mathematics and engineer- advanced scientific computing as a research tion, and engineering.

ing in the solution of control problems has tool. It predicts that major new advances may Copies of the report can be obtained by

been a major strength of the field, bu_tit also become possible because of the dramatic in- writing to: Customer Service, SIAM, 117

raises questions about the raison d’etre and creases in computing power, the proliferation South 17th St., 14th FI., Philadelphia, PA

the future direction of the field. of new computing tools, and, to some extent, 19103-5052.

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