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Radiographic Testing

3rd CLASS
Lecture 6

Dr. Atef Saad Al-Bashawaty

Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering


Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering

Suez University
Dr. Eng. Atef Saad Al-Bashawaty 1 Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Eng.
Radiography is based on the fact that radiation will be absorbed by the material
through which it passes. Variations in thickness or homogeneity will give
corresponding variations in the amount of radiation transmitted

Dr. Eng. Atef Saad Al-Bashawaty Suez University


Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Eng.
Shadow

Ionization

when the radiation penetrates the film, it is exposed because the rays ionize
the tiny silver bromide grains in the film emulsion.

Dr. Eng. Atef Saad Al-Bashawaty Suez University


Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Eng.
RT
♥ production of a radiographic image: source of radiation on one side of the
object and a recording device on the other.
# X and gamma radiations are identical in nature, the only difference being the
process by which they are produced. X raysare generated when electrons
collide with atoms whereas gamma rays are emitted when unstable atoms
transform into a more stable state.

#Advantages of Radiography (RT)


1.Can be used with most materials
2.Provides a permanent visual image
3.reveals the internal nature of material
4.Discloses fabrication errors

Dr. Eng. Atef Saad Al-Bashawaty Suez University


Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Eng.
Limitations of RT
1. Safety considerations must be considered
2. Relatively expensive means of NDT
3. Impracticable to use on specimens of complex geometry
4. the specimen must lend itself to two side accessibility
5. Laminar type discontinuities are often undetected by RT

# Properties of Ionising Radiation - X and Gamma rays


1. The Inverse Square Law
Radiation travels in straight lines with an intensity which varies inversely with the
square of the distance from the source, an effect known as the inverse square law.

1
Intensity = 2
d

Dr. Eng. Atef Saad Al-Bashawaty Suez University


Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Eng.

!
2 I1 =Intensity 1 at d1
I1 d 2 I2 = Intensity 2 at d2
= 2 d1 = Distance 1 from source
I2 d 1 d2 =Distance 2 from source

Dr. Eng. Atef Saad Al-Bashawaty Suez University


Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Eng.
Example:
A source is producing an intensity of 456 R/h at one foot from the source.
What would be the distance in feet to the 100, 5, and 2 mR/h boundaries.

2. Absorption
Radiation is absorbed by matter, the rate of absorption increasing as the density and
thickness of material increases

3. Ionisation/Fluorescence
Radiation ionises gases and causes visible light fluorescence in some materials. These
properties are used in instrumentation for radiation detection - Geiger Muller tubes
(ionisation) and scintillation counters (fluorescence).

4. Biological Effects
Radiation cannot be detected by any of the human senses and can be harmful to living
tissue.
Dr. Eng. Atef Saad Al-Bashawaty Suez University
Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Eng.
3. Radiation Measurement Units

Dr. Eng. Atef Saad Al-Bashawaty Suez University


Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Eng.
Safety
1. Personnel
All forms of ionising radiation can be harmful to living tissue, and the use of x-rays and
gamma rays must be strictly controlled. Personnel working with radiation are registered
as Classified Persons and are subject to radiation dose monitoring and regular medical
examinations

2. Controlled Areas
Areas which can be entered and where instantaneous dose rates exceed 7.5
microsieverts per hour are designated controlled and must be delineated by barriers
and warning signs and be cleared of all personnel during radiography.
Areas where instantaneous dose rates exceed 2.5 microsieverts per hour are supervised
areas and must be monitored.
The general public should not be exposed to dose rates above 2.5µSvh

Dr. Eng. Atef Saad Al-Bashawaty Suez University


Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Eng.
X-ray Production
X-rays are emitted when a beam of high energy electrons collides with a dense metal
target. A heated filament provides the source of free electrons which are accelerated by
a high voltage potential applied between cathode and anode within an evacuated glass
tube.
X-rays are emitted in all directions from a small area of the target which is called the
focal spot. Only about 1% of the electron energy is converted to X-rays, the remainder
appears as heat, and the anode must be cooled to prevent the target material, usually
tungsten, from melting.

The X-rays generated have a broad continuous spectrum, the peak energy (penetrating
power) being determined by the applied voltage, the intensity (quantity) of radiation
being determined by the electron current flow (tube current) between them.

Dr. Eng. Atef Saad Al-Bashawaty Suez University


Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Eng.
Dr. Eng. Atef Saad Al-Bashawaty Suez University
Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Eng.
Gamma Ray Sources:
gamma radiation sources are used particularly where access and portabilty are
the main requirements.

Gamma Radiation
Gamma radiation is emitted from certain isotopes by the radioactive decay process. As
an example, the unstable isotope Cobalt 60 will decay to Nickel 60 with the emission of
gamma rays at two characteristic energy levels, 1.17 and 1.33 Mev.
The quantity, rate of decay and the energy (penetrating power) of the radiation emitted
will be specific to a particular radioisotope

Dr. Eng. Atef Saad Al-Bashawaty Suez University


Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Eng.
Iridium Decay Chart

The rate of decay is defined by the half-life of the isotope, half of the atoms in an
Iridium 192 isotope, for example, transforming over a period of 74.4 days. For Cobalt
60 the half-life is 5.3 years.

Dr. Eng. Atef Saad Al-Bashawaty Suez University


Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Eng.
Penetrating Ability
Each type of isotope has a fixed energy distribution which determines its ability to
penetrate materials. The characteristics and applicable thickness penetrating ability
of commonly available gamma sources

Dr. Eng. Atef Saad Al-Bashawaty Suez University


Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Eng.
Source Containers
Gamma radiation is continuously emitted by the isotope source and cannot be
“switched off”. The gamma source is a piece of the isotopic material, typically 1 to 3
mm diameter and 2 mm long, sealed in a stainless steel capsule. The capsule has a short
length of steel cable attached to allow connection of remote handling equipment.
It must be safely stored in a locked and shielded container when not in use.

Dr. Eng. Atef Saad Al-Bashawaty Suez University


Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Eng.
Exposure Parameters
1. Selection of Radiation Source
# Selection of a radiation source will be influenced by the location of the item to be
radiographed with gamma ray sources being the more portable.

# X-Ray sets generate much greater quantities of radiation than gamma ray isotopes
and therefore have the advantage of shorter exposure times.

# The higher output of X-Ray sets enables longer focus to film distances to be used
which reduces geometric unsharpness and gives better definition on the radiograph.

# The energy of the radiation emitted by an X-Ray set can be adjusted and is usually
lower than that of gamma radiation - which can’t be adjusted - resulting in better
radiographic contrast- greater sensitivity

Dr. Eng. Atef Saad Al-Bashawaty Suez University


Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Eng.
2. Exposure Time
Radiographic exposures are expressed as the product of radiation intensity and time.
For X-rays this is milliampere minutes (mA min.) and for gamma it is curie minutes or
curie hours (Ci hrs).

The exposure time required to produce a radiograph of acceptable quality depends on


the radiation source output, thickness and material to be penetrated, type of film,
source-to-film distance and the density required.
The calculated exposure time can be corrected by applying the inverse square law for a
change in the source to film distance (sfd).

Dr. Eng. Atef Saad Al-Bashawaty Suez University


Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Eng.
Dr. Eng. Atef Saad Al-Bashawaty Suez University
Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Eng.
3. Geometric Unsharpness
Geometric unsharpness i.e., the size of the penumbra or shadow, is determined by the
source size F, source to object D and object to film distance d and can be simply
calculated.
Compliance is usually achieved by controlling the minimum source to film distance sfd
(D + d).

Dr. Eng. Atef Saad Al-Bashawaty Suez University


Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Eng.
When the object being radiographed is placed in direct contact with the film, the
following equation can be used to calculate the amount of geometric unsharpness in
a radiograph. t
Ug = f "
where f = X-ray source focal-spot size.
d
t = distance from the source side of part to the film surface.
d = distance from the source to the near surface of the part.

!
Example: If the source spot size 0.100-inch and a 3-inch
thick part is placed 25 inches from the source,
what is the geometric unsharpness?

M = (a + b) / a
Where: M = magnification
a = distance from source to object
b = distance from object to detector

Dr. Eng. Atef Saad Al-Bashawaty Suez University


Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Eng.
1. The penetrating ability of an X-ray beam is governed by:
A. Kilovoltage or wavelength
B. time
C. milliampere
D. source-to-film distance

2. Cobalt-60 used in nondestructive testing emits:


A. alpha particles
B. neutrons
C. gamma rays
D. X rays

3. The most widely used unit of measurement for measuring the rate at which
the output of a gamma ray source decays is the:
A. Curie
B. Roentgen
C. half-life
D. MeV

Dr. Eng. Atef Saad Al-Bashawaty Suez University


Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Eng.
4. The time required for one-half of the atoms in a particular sample of
radioactive materials to disintegrate is called...........
5. The term R/hr refer to the radiation .........and it means .......

6. The ability to detect a small discontinuity or flaw is called:


A. radiographic contrast
B. radiographic sensitivity
C. radiographic density
D. radiographic resolution

7. The difference between the densities of two areas of a radiograph is called:


A. radiographic contrast
B. subject contrast
C. film contrast
D. definition

Dr. Eng. Atef Saad Al-Bashawaty Suez University


Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Eng.
8. In order to decrease geometric unsharpness:
A. radiographic should proceed from as small a focal spot as other considerations will allow
B. radiographic should proceed from as large a focal spot as other considerations will allow
C. the film should be as far as possible from the object being radiographed
D. the distance from the anode to the material examined should be as small as is practical

9. As the kilovoltage applied to the X-ray tube is raised:


A. X-rays of longer wavelength and more penetrating power are produced
B. X-rays of shorter wavelength and more penetrating power are produced
C. X-rays of shorter wavelength and less penetrating power are produced
D. X-rays of longer wavelength and less penetrating power are produced

10. In order to increase the intensity of X-radiation:


A. the tube current should be increased
B. the tube current should be decreased
C. the test specimen should be moved further from the film
D. a lower kilovoltage should be applied to the tube

Dr. Eng. Atef Saad Al-Bashawaty Suez University


Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Eng.
False or True
1. An advantage of radiography is that it reveals internal discontinuities with access to
only one side of the part being inspected.

2. Both X and gamma rays have the ability to penetrate castings and weldments.

3. To work in radiography, the technician must have all five of his/her physical senses
tested by a doctor to help protect against excessive radiation exposure

4. Radiography provides a permanent visual record of internal discontinuities

5. Hugh frequency and short wavelength rays are the best able to penetrate opaque
materials
The most important difference between LIGHT rays and X and Gamma rays?

Dr. Eng. Atef Saad Al-Bashawaty Suez University


Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Eng.
Dr. Eng. Atef Saad Al-Bashawaty Suez University
Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Eng.