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BLOOD TYPES AND BLOOD GROUPING

Introduction

The blood contains either A or B agglutinogen occurring on the surfaces of the RBC which
determine the blood group of an individual.
When neither A or B agglutinogen is present, the blood group is O; whn only type A
agglutinogen is present, the blood group is A; when only typ B agglutinogen is present, the blood
group is B; and when both A and B agglutinogen are present the blood group is AB.
When type A is agglutinogen is not present in the person’s red blood cells, antibodies known
as anti-a agglutinogen develop in the plasma, when type B agglutinogen is not present in the red
blood cells antibodies known as anti-b agglutinogen develop in the plasma.
It will be observed that group O blood although it does not contain agglutinogens, it contain
both anti-a and anti-b agglutinins. Group AB which contain both A and B agglutinogens does not
contain any agglutinins.
Prior to giving of transfusion, it is necessary to determine the blood group of the donor and the
recipient, so that the blood will be appropriately matched, to prevent agglutinination.
There are three methods used in determining blood groups, typing sera method, standard
serum method, and standard cell method. The usual method performed in laboratory is the typing
sera method.

Materials

Slide
Blood Lancet
Typing Sera
70% alcohol
Cotton balls

Procedure

1. Sterilize the tip of the finger with 70% alcohol.


2. Prick with blood lancet.
3. Wipe the first drop of blood with cotton balls.
4. On a slide, place a drop of blood on each side.
5. Add a drop of anti-b serum on one drop of blood and anti-a serum on the other drop, then
separately mix both drops.
6. Note the reactions in both drops. Determine the blood groupbased on the reactions.

Group O - red cells have no agglutinogens and therefore not clump with either anti-a and anti-b
serum.
Group A - red cells have A agglutinogen and therefore does clump with anti-a agglutinins.
Group B - red cells have B agglutinogen and therefore does clump with anti-b serum.
Group AB - blood has both A and B agglutinogens and clump with anti a and anti-b.

NATS S13 BIOLOGY ACTIVITY2


Note: if clumping or agglutinations occur, the reaction is positive, if there is no agglutination, it
is negative.

What is your blood type? What is your parent’s blood type?

ANALYSIS and INTERPRETATION of RESULTS


CONCLUSION

QUESTIONS

1. Why is type O considered a universal donor and type AB as a universal recipient? Explain
your answer.

2. If your blood is AB, could be a son or a daughter of type O individual? Why?

3. What is cross-matching? Give its significance.

4. What are some other antigens aside from A and B agglutinogens found in the red cells?
Give its significance.

NATS S13 BIOLOGY ACTIVITY2