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No. Topics Page No.

1. Title 2
2. Objective 2
3. Theory 2
4. Equipment 3
5. Procedure 5
6. Data and Results 6
7. Sample Of Calculation 7
8. Analysis and Discussion 9
9. Conclusion 10
10. References 10

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the effect of flow rate variation on the performance

characteristics of a counter-flow concentric tube heat exchanger.

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THEORY:

The equations for calculating the performance characteristics: power emitted, power
absorbed, power lost, efficiency (), logarithmic mean temperature (), and overall heat
transfer coefficient (U).

The mean temperature efficiency is:

ηmean = ( ηc + ηh ) / 2

The power emitted is given below (where Vh is the volumetric flow rate of the hot
fluid):

Power Emitted = Vh ρh Cph ( Th,in – Th,out )

The power absorbed is given below (where Vc is the volumetric flow rate of the cold
fluid):

Power Absorbed = Vc ρc Cpc ( Tc,out – Tc,in )

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The power lost is therefore:

ΔTm = (ΔT1 – ΔT2) / ln (ΔT1/ΔT2)

= [ (Th,in – Tc,out) – (Th,out – Tc,in) ] / ln [(Th,in – Tc,out) / (Th,out Tc,in)]

U = Power Absorbed / As . ΔTm

Where the surface area (As) for this heat exchanger is 0.067 m²

EQUIPMENT: The experiment set-up consists of:

a) Set of tube heat exchanger.
b) Cold fluids supply and hot fluids supply.
c) Digital stopwatch.

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Figure 1: Set of tube heat exchanger. Figure 2: Volumetric Flow Rate.

Figure 3: Decade Switch. Figure 4: Flow Diagrams.

This experiment can be made using either parallel or counter flow operation. This
experiment was conducted as counter flow operation.

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PROCEDURE:

1. Configure the experiment for counter flow heat exchanger operation such as turn
ON the heating elements to heat the fluids.
2. Set the required hot water inlet temperature to Th,in = 60º with the decade switch
and set the cold water volumetric flow rate (Vc) to run at a constant 2000
cm³/min.
3. Initially set the hot water volumetric flow rate Vh to 1000 cm³/min. Wait until 5
minutes before the six temperature readings are records.
4. Repeat this for volumetric flow rate,Vh of 2000, 3000 and 4000 cm³/min for hot
water. Record the temperature readings in the table.
5. After finish up the experiment, turn OFF the heating elements, close the valve for
hot and cold water.

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DATA AND RESULTS:

Vh Th,in Th,mid Th,out Tc,in Tc,mid Tc,out

(cm³/min (m³/s) (ºC) (ºC) (ºC) (ºC) (ºC) (ºC)
)
1000 1.667E- 60 53 47 30 31 35
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2000 3.333E- 60 55 50.5 30 33 38
5
3000 5E-5 60 57 53 30 34 40
3900 6.5E-5 60 58 54 30 35 41

Vh Power Power Power Efficiency ΔT1 ΔT2 ΔTm U

Emitted Absorbed Lost
cm³/ m³/s (W) (W) (W) (%) (ºC) (ºC) (ºC) W/(m². ºC)
min
1000 1.667E 891.786 693.479 198.307 77.76 25 17 20.74 499.06
-5
2000 3.333E 1302.99 1109.57 193.42 85.16 22 20.5 21.24 779.69
-5
3000 5E-5 1440.29 1386.96 53.33 96.3 20 23 21.46 964.63
4000 6.5E-5 1604.89 1525.65 79.24 95.02 19 24 21.4 1064.07

SAMPLE CALCULATION:

From table A-9 (Properties of saturated water):

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At Tc,in = 30 ºC.
Vc = 2000 cm³/min = 2000 cm³/min × 1 min/60 s × 1 m³/100³ cm³
=3.333E-5 m³/ s

ρc = 996 kg / m³

Cpc = 4178 J/kg.K

At Th,in = 60 ºC.
ρh = 983.3 kg / m³

a) Power Emitted = Vh ρh Cph ( Th,in – Th,out )

= (1.667E-5 m³)(983.3 kg / m³)(4185 J/kg.K)(333K – 320K)
= 891.786 W

b) Power Absorbed = Vc ρc Cpc ( Tc,out – Tc,in )

= (3.333E-5 m³/ s)( 996 kg / m³)(4178 J/kg.K)(308K – 303K)
= 693.479 W
c) Power Lost = Power Emitted – Power Absorbed
= 891.786 W – 693.479 W
= 198.307 W

d) Overall Efficiency, η =(Power Absorbed / Power Emitted) × 100

= (693.479 W / 891.786 W) × 100
= 77.76 %

e) Logrithmic Mean Temperature Difference, ΔTm= (ΔT1 – ΔT2) / ln (ΔT1/ΔT2)

ΔT1 = Th,in – Tc,out
= 60 ºC - 35 ºC

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= 25 ºC
ΔT2 = Th,out – Tc,in
= 47 ºC – 30 ºC
= 17 ºC
ΔTm = (ΔT1 – ΔT2) / ln (ΔT1/ΔT2)
= (25 ºC – 17 ºC) / ln [(25 ºC/17 ºC)
= 20.74 ºC

f) Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient, U = Power Absorbed / As . ΔTm

U = Power Absorbed / As . ΔTm
= 693.479 W / (0.067 m²×20.74 ºC)
= 499.06 W/ m² .ºC

ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

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Heat exchanger are commonly used in practice, and an engineer often finds
himself or herself in a position to select a heat exchanger that will achieve a specified
temperature change in a fluid stream of known flow rate, or to predict the outlet
temperatures of the hot and cold fluids stream in a specified heat exchanger.

The variation of temperature of hot and cold fluids in a counter-flow heat

exchanger is given in figure 4. Note that the hot and cold fluids enter the heat exchanger
from opposite ends, and the outlet temperature of the cold fluid in this case may exceed
the outlet temperature of the hot fluid. In the limiting case, the cold fluid will be heated to
the inlet temperature of the hot fluid. However, the outlet temperature of the cold fluid can
never exceed the inlet temperature of the hot fluid, since this would be a violation of the
second law of thermodynamics.

CONCLUSION

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It can be concluded that the experiment is done successfully. The power emitted
and power absorbed are increased when we compared the effect of changing the
volumetric flow rate of the hot fluid. Besides, the power lost that we get shows decreasing
value unless the last reading give some increased value. This is maybe because of the error
while doing the experiment that may cause by conduction and convection between hot and
cold fluid while doing counter flow operation. The overall efficiency are reasonable and
doesn’t exceed the 100%. From our experiment, the overall heat transfer coefficient will
increase when the volumetric flow rate of the hot fluid are increase. So that, the
conclusion that can be done is the overall heat transfer coefficient, the power emitted and
power absorbed are influenced by the changing of volumetric flow rate of the hot fluid.

REFERENCE

1. Heat and Mass Transfer (A Practical Approach) – 3rd Edition

Yunus A. Cengel
McGraw Hill (2006).

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