by
JOHN C. DUNFIELD
ABSTRACT
They give insight into the physical processes involved but are of
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Deborah l owe much appreciation for many long hours away from the
home.
\
1
CLAIM OF ORIqINALITY
..
To the best of the author's know1edge, the fo11owing
contributions are original:
imental verification.****
(5) Derivation of approximate equations which illustrate
60
* I.E.E.E, P.A.S., paper by Barton and Dunfie1d •
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ADSTRACT
',i
ACKNOW...EDGEMENTS
il '
CLAIM' OF ORIGINALITY
iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
iv
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
vii
LIST ,OF TABLES
x
NOMENCLATURE
xii
CHAPTER 1  1 NTRODUC'l'I ON
1
CHAPTER 2  INDUCTANCES OF A PRAC'l'ICAL SLIPRING PRIMITIVE
8
PART l, AN ANALYTICAL STUDY
8
Introd uction 8
Defin ition of Induc tance 9
Radia l Airga p Flux Densi ty in an
Elect ric Machine Il
The Gener al Induc tance Expre ssion 14
SlipR ing Primi tives 16
Windings on the Salie nt Member 16
Windings on Oppos ite Sides of the Airg~p 18
Windings on the Cylin drical Member 18
Two Phase Windings 19
Three Phase Windings 19
Induc tance Ratio s in the Primi tive Machines 20
Concl usions 24
PART 'II, AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY
25
Introd uction 25
The Test Machine 25
Induc tance Measurements 26 '
Induc tance Ident ificat ion 28
The Field Induc tance , 28
The Field Stato r Hutua l Induc tances 30
The Stato r Induc tances 35
Corre lation of the Stato r Induc tances 40
The Speci fie Airga p permeance 41
The Airga p Equiv alent of the Field Winding 43
Corre lation of Theor y and pract ice 46
Concl usions 48
v
(
PART III , THE DAMPER WINDING EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
50
An Exper iment 51
The Analy sis 60
CHAPTER 3  AXIS TRANSFORMATION FOR PRACTICAL PRIMITIVE MACHI
NES 62
l NTRODUCTI ON
62
PART '1, THE TWO PHASE TRANSFORMATI ON
64
Tne dand qAxis Equiv alents of a Single
Winding 64
The MMF Equiv alence of the SlipR ing and
Commutator Primi tives 65
Voltag e Equiv alence 68
Resis tance and Leakage Induc tance 70
Equiv alence of Impedances 71
Trans forma tion to the Commutator Primi tive 75
Torque Relat ionsh ips 77
Torque of the Cbmmutator Primi tive 78
Summary 82
Physi cal Analy sis 84
Concl usions 87
PART '11, THE POLYPHASE, TO TWO AXIS TRANSFORMATION 88
The Two Axis Equiv alent of a Polyp hase
Winding 88
The Gener al Conne ction Matri x 90
Voltag e Trans forma tion 91
Impedance T r a n s f o r m a t i o n 9 2
Impedance Assoc iated with the Airga p Flux 94
Resis tance and Leakage Induc tance 94
Torque th 95
Harmonies Highe r than the N Negle cted 95
The Ideal Winding 97
The Three Phase Winding 97
Harmonies Highe r than the Third Neg1e cted 98
The Squir rel Cage Winding 99
Concl usions 100
CHAPTER 4  NUMERI CAL SOLUTI ON OF SYNCHRONOUS MACHI NE
STEADYSTATE PERFORMANCE
101
Solut ion by 4 Point Runge Kuttu Method
Trans cende ntal Equat ions Solved by Gener a1ized 105
NewtonRaphson Method 112
CHAPTER 5  THE THREE' WIM STAR CONNECTED SYNCHRONOUS MACHI
NE . 123
The ory
123
vi
," "
,. )
Theory 136
Comparison of Calculation Methods 136
Experiment 138
Conclusions 140
CHAPTER 7  CONCLUSIONS 144
BIBLIOGRAPHY 148
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure 36 The Three Phase Winding aud Its 'l'woAxis Equivalent 93
)
x
( )
LIST OF TABLES
NOMENCLAWRE
A connection matrix
C connection matrix
G torque matrix
i winding current
f field winding
h, k winding factors
L, M winding inductance
P d/dt operator
p power
0<.,(3 displa cemen t betwe en a windi ng axis and the direc t axis
/'\
"',~t
(:l const ant of integ ration
fi angul ar separ ation of phase s
& hyste resis angle
6 load angle
,
0 displa cemen t betwe en two windi ng axes
coil span
() positi on of direc t axis relati ve to stato r vhase
CHAPTER l
this effort by some of the best minds of this era many problems arose,
3
sorne of which remain with us today. For example, Oberretl states that
utilization. These authors as weIl as others set the stage for three
machine.
By the 1930's much of the foundation of electric machine desigq
and analysis was established. Each class of machine was considered essent
l" ially on separate grounds. However, the design of electric machines in
variably required calculations based upon the magnetic circuit and the
2.
cated that the· basic similarit~es ben7een the vast majority of electric
Kron showed that the slipring primitive ac machine and the commutator
a time lag of near1y a decade, the genius of Kron was recognized and many

3.
(b) commutation
be considered in turne
back to this approach is the length of time required for solution even on
)
howev er, proba bly be neces sary to map exper iment ally the
state of the mach
ine consid ered for aIl combi nation s of excita tion that
would be expec ted
to occur in opera tion.
Alger and Bewley36 summa rize the class ical treatm ent of
commu
tation  that of treati ng it as a separ ate proble m di~tin
ct from other
aspec ts of machi ne perfor mance . Jones and Barton37 showed
that a linea r
slipr ing machi ne of const rained geome try and windin g distri
butio n with
perio dicall y altere d rotor conne ctions posse ssed the mathe
matica l prop
erties requi. red to enable its replac ement by a comm utator
mach~ne. Thus
the transf ormat ion betwe en Kron' s two primi tive machi nes
could be con
sidere d as more th an simply a fortui tous applic ation of
Floqu et's 38
theore mreg arding the transf ormat ion of diffe rentia l equat
ions with time
varyin g coeff icien ts to a simpl er forme
harmonics, nmlf harmonics, terminal voltages, winding currents and torque but
fails to link these quantities together in a forro suitable for the production
evaluate hysteresis motor operation. However, the area is still very much
Chapter 2 indicate.
46
Silvester and others listed in the references of this author
have considered in depth the problem of eddy currents. The analysis is, in
c· general, constrained to very::simple situations although Silvester makes the
imate methods of calculating the power 108s resulting from pole face eddy
the stator and damper windings and the resulting synchronouB torques which
52
can prevent starting. Nasar has erroneously claimed to justify the assump
has shown how A.C. machine windings may be arranged to reduce harmonic content.
6.
( 51;
V. P. Anempodistov et al have considered harmon~cs in design of 750 MW
J
56 57 58
turbo generators. Koenig , Prescott and E1Kharashi ,Jones ,Carter
60
et a1 59 and Barton and Dunfield measured flux linkages and obtained
agreement with that assumed by Kron and his disciples. The messurements
. 61
were verified by the theoretical work of Robinson and B~rton and Dun
60
field an~as will be seen, arise because of winding configuration and
r 1
of machine analysis because of transient Dlodel complexity and difficulties
....~
in ana1ysie. Various transformations are availab1e to simp1ify the ana
62
1Y8is. The works of Clarke , Kimbark and contributors to discuss1.on of
63 64 65 66 67 68
his paper·' ,Wagner and Evans , Lyon ,Rsiao ,Hwang ,and Rao
and Ra0 69 best summarize considerations regarding transformations of
70
mations in terms of machine harmonics. Wahl and Ki1~ore and Maginniss
....... ,
.INTRODUCTION
It is now more than thirty years since Kron unveiled his gener
alized electric machine theory and, while interest in it was only slowly
issues that attention can now be fruitfu11y turned to the closer corre1~
of practical machines. In this context may be cited the work of Jones 37 ,58,
59 61
Carter et al , and Robinson • The latter three papers are aIl concerned
with the inductances of actual machines and their variation with saturation
level and rotor position, a Most pertinent topic since the basic the ory
winding distribution.
20
White and Woods on' gave a detailed theoretical treatment of
firet to show by measurement that the standard assumptions were far from
practical rea1ity for the case of cornmutator machines. This study had
circuits such as damper windings and solid iron and to waveform distort
circuits.
Recently Robinson
61 made a theoretical study of machine in
duc tances based upon conductor and air gap permeance distributions and
was able to draw extensive conclusions which are backed by some exper~
Robinson.
DEFI NI TI ON OF INDUCTANCE
The circuits of electric machines are invariably embedded in
10.
results ia to consider the d and q axis fluxes produced by aIl the cir~
of each separate circuit through its self inductance and its mutual
case. Not surprisingly the answer to this problem depends upon the mean'
abl~ from the linear case, flux linkages per unit current, rate of change
of flux linkage with current and twice the ratio of electromaglletic stored
of ,machines.
11.
'fbe radia l airgap flux densi ty can be expre ssed as the produ
ct
of a speci fie airgap permeance and an airgap mmf. The form of the airgap
speci fie permeance depends on the length of the airgap and
the shape of
the salien t member but for pract ical machi nes, which are
magn etical ly
symm etrica1 about bath the d.and q axes, it can be expre ssed
in terms of
the elect rical angul ar disp1a cemen t }t from the d axis by
an even cosine
serie s; 1. e. ,
Doher ty and Nicke l 10 estab1 ished that, for the relati ve1y
short
airgap s employed in pract ical machi nes, radia l airgap flux
densi ty can
be expre ssed as the produ ct of an airgap mmf and a uniqu e
speci fie air gap
perme ance; a conclu sion suppo rted by the later work of Bet·dey74
if the
12.
machine is assumed to contain a 1inear iron flux path. The first order
that the specifie afrgap permeance can be a function of the airgap mmf
excitation level but not of the excitation, i.e., the airgap specific
total turns per pole and whose axis is inclinedat 0( electrical degrees
centrated winding having the same number of turns per pole. Thus if
the two mmf's are in phase, the sign of the winding factor is positive,
13.
CI AXIS
m q sin mU sin
, 2
B (1t) c LI JJ.L
11l= =0
P/) Fm cos
~
ll, cos m (1!0()
or, by simple trigonometric expansions
B <~) a t: 1; !II./m f
cos (<1+ m)'J  mot) +
from U1S?lY such interactions. Further, aince l is even and m odd, a11
flux harmonics are odd.
fluxes, but these can be taken into account by the Iater addition of
other terme.
(i
at f electrical degrees to the direct axis and whose winding factor to
th
the r flux harm0nic is k :
r
À
foC
== f!.
.R=o m=l
D being the mean diameter of the air gap and L the effective
expressions yields the mutual inductance L fOC of the two windings as:
co .
J.;: r~m
CIO
taking the summations of the two righthand terme separately. Thus, the
last term can be sunnned over a dummy variable r replacing the odd integer
m: GO
~
rel cos (ro(+ (lr),)
that h
m
=_C\\\
h and that cos (6) = cos 9 yields
) ~ .hm
~ m
kil. +nt
~
cos (mo<. (li +m)A)
t"
16.
'!his expre ssion is, excep t·for the 1imit s of summation, identi~
cal with the first term of equat ion 25. Interc hangi ng the order of
summation yie1d s
"'00 +00
4 Ac W~W~
2
L.L.
.1=0 m=tO
P.Q cos Jhr hm k..Q+m
7T 2 m .Il. +m
cos (mo( (~+m)p) 26
A simi1 ar expre ssion can be obtain ed for ~@ which , sinceJ
and m
range over a11 possi ble value s, yie1d s a resu1 t ident ical
with the above
althou gh the terms are in differ ent order , thus eotab lishin
g tbe neces sary
recip rocity of mutua l induc tance.
To avoid const ant repet ition in subse quent work the 8ign~
+co +00 is
taken to denote ;?:. m=ex>
~.
L where
0
m 1s an odd and..l is an even integ er.
SLIPR ING PRIMITIVES
Here the angle s 0( and ~ are fixed so that the induc tances
are,
as expec ted, inde pende nt of rotor positi on. LU is obtain
ed by puttin g
both 0( and ~ equal to zero and km = hm; L b.y puttin g 0(
22 and fJ equal to
n/2 and hm = km; and L by puttin g 0( equal to zero and (J
2l equal to ."./2
17.
(/)
x
«

18.
29
ing as on the cylindrical member; the angle Pis then a fixed quantity
is only necessary to consider the mutuals L14 and ~24' windings 3 and
winding
Thus,
1,'
B, band c differing from 4 only by a fixed angular disp1acement. For
L = 4 Ac W 14J 4
14 "Ir 2
L PJ cos .l1T hm k,q +m
T m :y:;;
cos me 210
In this case the angleso( and ~ are both dependent'on the salient
(
in equat ion 2:..() and also to note that, since the windin gs are
balan ced,
CA = 6J~ and lt = h. l'hus,
P n n
The induc tance ia here repres ented by anere nharm onic serie
s,
again in accord with expec tation s •
,_. ;
1
~34
~4
ii2 Ac W 4
2
2: P.Jl sin m1T
T
hm h.f+m sin ~ Q 214
m "Tkil
It is of intere st to consi der the component sin (m.,.. 12)
hm/m h R+ml1l +m of the latte r equat ion. Again replac ing m by a dummy variab le
r yield s sin (rn 12) hr/ r h Jl+rl .f +r. As m. has aU possi ble odd value s
it is alw~ys possi ble ta choos e a value of r = (l+m ), corres
pondi ng ta
any partic ular value of m, ta yield  sin (1 +ID) 7f 12 h .1
+ml ~ +m ~/m.
Expanc;1ing the sine term and noting that .JI. is even yields
 cos· ( l1112)
sin (m 71' 12) hm/m h R +ml .Q +m. ThuB if J. is amuI tiple of four this term
will cance l the origin al term and the sume f the series is
zero. There
are theref ore no harmo nics of the mutua l for these value s
of J i.e., the
zero, fourth , eighth ; etc.
Three Phase Windings
The self induc tance of the 'a' windi ng is ident ical in form
with
L44 and the self induc tances of windi ngs·'b ' and 'c' diffe
r only by the
20.
that the second harmonie eomponénts of the self and mutual inductances,
for bath the two phase and three phase primitives, be of equal magnitude.
~
m=tD
sin m1f
T
hm hm+2
m ïii+2'
M
~
.22 216
L2 '" ~ ~2
mcco m nt+2
te
~
cos (m+l) 2n' hm hm;2
M m=(lC) 3 rn ~
32 '"
~
L2 217
hm ~+2
m=eo m m12
Il.
21.
leakage components.
218
windings, ~ is zero for aIl values of m other than unity. The ratios
then becorne:
1.0
219
These are the values necessary for the simple transformation. Cons id
indicated by Figure 23, which shows the ratios for equ~tions 216, 217
and 218 plotted as:functions of coil span for windings uniformly dis n
~132 6 () SPREAD
l2
2.0
(1)
o 1.5
fr
cC[
r+~1~4
. . 7 ::;;;;
1 • l
M22 
l2 90~ SPREAD
lŒ:
@
I?JJ M32 120 SPREAD
U 1.0
z
41:
6
;:) 0.5
~
/.
M30
l
0
120 SPREAD
Cl ~  ..0 0
~ M3() 60 SPIREAD
1
~ .
•
1
1
1 11ft 1
lO
Ol 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
COlL SPAN
.
N
N
POLEPITCH
FIGURE 23 INDUCTANCE RATIOS AS FONCTION OF COlL SPAN
23.
w
,~
~
0:
ü)
..J
8
rr~~rT~+~r__+~3
0)
ci
cr
ifJ
':)
Q r1J
0:: 0
§Ç
a::
~ "'"
N
1
;
!lll~
i'
t,!)
ci H
~ .
~
~~r_+~r__+~~
Ô
~~~~~~~8
o o o
M c\J d
ou.v~ 3:>NV.l.::>nONI
24.
any 'tvinding spread when the coU pitch 1s 2/3 and for any coU pitch
when the winding spread is 120°. These are situations where the third
and also suggest a reason for the Buccess of the idealized theory in
third harmonic effect in such machines being zero except in those rare
CONCLUSIONS
machines indicate that large divergences from those for the idealized
(
PART II. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY
INTRODUCTION
Part l of this chapt er discus sed the theor etical impli cation
s
of windi ng mmf and airgap permeance harmo nies for the self
and mutua l
induc tances of windi ngs. This part descr ibes the resul ts
of an exper~
iment al inves tigati on design ed to check these conclu sions
and to
estab lish the induc tances of some test machi nes. Part III
of this
chapt er is conce rned with measurement of param eters of couple
d coils
with no access ilble termi naIs.
The field windi ng is on the rotor and there are four salien
t
poles each havin g a 600 turn exciti ng wi,nding" a 2 turn search
coU at "'"
each end of the main field windi ng and a damping cage in
the pole face.
The 48 slot stato r carrie s a balan ced, three phase , double
layer windin~ of 5/6 pitch and 52 turns per pole and phase .
The stato r ie also equipp ed with a compl ete set of full pitch
search coils mounted immed iately in the slot openin gs so
that it will
be possi ble to measu re, as close ly as possi ble, the radia
l component
of the airgap flux. The slot flux can be measured by conne cting adjac ent
coils in series oppos ition.
26.
INDUCTANCE MEASUREMENTS
in Figur e 25. The Maxw ellRa yleigh bridge is balanc ed by adjust ment
of the Latto arma Rl and R2' the drift rate of the integ rator
being
,
then ideal ly zero, in pract ice very small . The revers ing awitch , which
ia motor izeQ for conve nience , is then operat eçl. At the end of the
curre nt rever saI the bridg e is aga in in balan ce but, during
rever saI,
the emf induce d by the chang ing flux in th~ induc tanceL xprod
uces a
voltag e which ia integ rated by the detec tor. The final outpu
t of the
integ rator is then a measu re of the chang e in flux linkag
e and is
unaff ected by other passiv e circu its couple d to Land by
x
satur ation ,
these merel y affec ting the rate at which the outpu t is estab
lished .
The measurement of mutua l induc tance is simil ar to that of
self induc tance but ia simpl er in that the bridge c.ircu i t
is not
neces sary.
1
c
Motori zed
Oc
Supply

!!!!!!!!I
Reversing·
Switch Electronic
5 Integrator
Trigger
Pulse
"
>
The windi ng induc tances were also measu red contin uousl y as
functi ons of rotor positi on by plotti ng flux linkag e at a
const ant
curre nt, and rotor positi on on an XY record er. The effec t of damper
windi ng eddy curre nts on these resul ts was elimin ated by
drivin g the
rotor at a very.l ow speed of appro~imately l rpm. Unlike
resul ts
obtain ed by curre nt rever saI these show the effec ts of magne
tic hyste r
esis, a most intere sting featu re which will be commented
on later.
1 NDUC.TANCE 1 DENTI FI CATIJlli
The point at which the direc t axis coinc ides with the axis
of the a phase is taken as the origin of rotor posito n.
THE FIELD INDUCTANCE
The induc tance varied with excita tion curre nt, i.e. with
satura tion level , in the expec ted manner as shown in Figur
e 26. The
induc tance at first rises with increa sing curre nt as the
initia l bend
of the magn etizat ion chara cteria tic is traver sed, then the
induc tance
decre ases as the knee of the chara cteris tic is reache d and
the machi ne
begin s to satur ate. Althou gh the stato r slots were not skewe
d, the
rotor induc tance was found to be inde pende nt of rotor positi
oq. The
._~
J2 ·aIaoot . .1
. lf
elt 800~ ~
~
%
..
%
1
::e
t;
::lE
1\11 $ f ~
4t 400p~~~~~t
These resul ta are both curre nt and positi on depen dent. The
value of the mutua l induc tance betwe en the stato r a windin
g and the
field windi ng is shm~n in Figur e 26. as a funct ion of field
curre nt
and as a functi on of stato r curre nt in Figur e 27 for zero
rotor angle ,
i.e. when the axes of the two windi ngs coinc ide. Since mutua
l induc t
ance must be recipr ocal under simil ar magne tic condi tions,
these two
curve s enabl e the ratio of field turns per pole to effec tive
windi ng
turns per pole to he determ ined. The value thus found 'is
10.8, in
reason able accord with the value of Il.55 computed from the
design
data.
Simil ar resul te to the above sh~ :.~_n !!'igl\re 29 were taken
on a XY record er with the rotor contin uousl y, slowl y turnin
g, firat
forwa rds then backw arda.
, o
N
El
on
1~
~
~
CIl
en CIl
:::
0 f;I;l
E ~
m El
0
::;,
!@
......." H
t C
C ....
r'
CU
:.a
1 ~
~
U
L.
.a '0
CIl
S
~ t:
,
Cl
o
O.
v
400
.r:.
E
~
(.)
~
c 80 100
Position
c
.
w
~.
800
flJ
C6
~ 180 " 360
POSITION. DfEGRIE_E S
Ga800
w
w
:r:
~500
m
et
~
360
1 1
POSITION, DEGRE ES
œ.500
tbat the hysteresis angle results from the combination of airgap and
nonexcited member and is therefore much smaller than for the iron alone.
in Appendix 1.
The self inductance L of the red phase and its mutual induct
a
an~e M with the c phase are shawn as functions of rotor position in
ca
Figure 211 "t\lhich app1ies for an a phase current of 6 amperes. Similar
.nature of the variation and the appreciable higher harmonie content are
apparent.
Figures 212a and 212b. These curves have the Bame general form as the
curves of. Figure 211 but with modifications due to hysteresis. The
influence of hystere~is is particularly marked in the cal3e of the
mutual inductance of Figure 212b which shows both horizont~l and vert
iea1 displacernents.
X6
::E
w
"
z
<t4
lm
(.)
:l
Cl
Z
.."...
20
W
0\
2 4 6 8 10
STATO"R 'CURREI~Tt A
FIGURE 210 DIRECT AND QUADRATURE AXIS INDUCTANCES VS STATOR CURRENT
80
:x;
I&B
o
z40
~
(J
::')
c
z

80 120 200
POSITION, 1 DEGREES
W
...J
~
FIGURE 211 STATOR S.:.'LF INDUCTANCE AND STATO'R MUTUAL INDUCTANCE
VS POSr.ION FOR 1.., = 6.0 AMPS.
..
, ~
%40
:!
:20
..si
.w
00
39.
JI
zm
..0 I,+~~~~::::.._L
o 8
2

i=
( 1),
o
an8
•
40.
axis of the coil to be advanced, thus increasing the coupling with the
b phase and reducing it with the c phase. When the rotor is moved back
esis, if the shi ft in axis is~o electrical, then the angular separation
between the forward and reverse curves will be 2~ and the ratio of the
two mean mutual inductances is cos (120 + â ) /cos (120  & ). Thus, the
components of the stator mutual and self inductances are solely depend
ent on the winding configuration and not at aIl on the airgap permeance.
The winding factors for this machine are listed in Table 21.
215, 217 or 218 of Part l yields the predicted values of the harmonic
ratios. These are listed and compared with the measured values for
be noted that the agreement between the two sets of values is good, the
higher than the fourth are too small for reliable experimental deter
mination.
41.
{
1
Harmonic, m 1 3 5 7 9 11
0 .456* .472
2 1. 765 1.86
4 .613 .72
before this test can be applied it is necessary to determine the air gap
radial airgap flux density to the airgap mmf and was determined by
exciting the machine from the stator, i.e. with windings of known mmf
and measuring the resultant mean tooth flux with the search coils. The
~
N Co il Axi~ Along d Ax is
Ec
,~
ln.

0·
Coi[ Axis Along q Axis
'Q.. Coit Axis Midway Between
~
cu
i 1.2 d . Ax is and q Ax is  t       +      _ + _
~ , ....."
1
l~
M
'0 /.
~
/.
x Ces
QJ
o
c
co
QI
E
t
rf. De4
0,\ 1 1'}
O_e_._
,~
.,. . .
..... ."
~
0
15 30 45 60 75 90 .po
Position, mechanical degrees ~
waveform of the airgap flux density was calculated from these values.
This waveform was divided, point by point, by the known airgap mmf, to
the specifie permeance series. Figure 213 shows typical results taken
at ~ current of 6 amperes and with the coil axis along the direct axis,
the quadrature axis, and midway between:these two axes. When weight
is given to the fact that flux measurements in the low flux density
zones close to 90° from the coil axis are subject to appreciable in
axis. This results from two holes drilled into the poles along the
saturation.
215, the winding factors for this equivalent rotor winding being tab
of trapezoidal form having the expected amplitude of 600 turns over the
N fl8  
Ec 1 1 1 1 1
~5
L..~
œJ:.l., (PO
..cE
Ql} nJ
3: 
(1,6  :..
('f'J),
'0 .
r
..
x tP:l
cu 
~ QA    ~ .....;
tU
cu
E
L
W
0..
Q,2  ~

r
(P,
1 1 1
f
~ J 1 ft
1
ft R ~
~
~6 7 8 .9 10
stator Current v amps
FIGURE 214 HARMONIC COMPONENTS OF SPECIFIC AIRGAP PERMEANCE. AS A FUNCTION OF STATOR
CURRENT
         _ . ,.. _._.__.__._ ... .~"._
'.
mmf
·amp
600
400 ~!~+
Experi mental
200 ~
 TrapezoidaL
Approxima tion
pole arc. Table 23 includes the winding factors of the trapezoidal
form for the purpose of comparison with the actual equivalent rotor
Harmonie Order m 1 3 5 7
of field leakage fluxes. In the reglon between the pole tips, the
ance of the winding leakage path. Thus a lower level of airgap flux
density is recorded by the search coils which are distributed along
the stator side of the airgap. Clearly, this equivalent rotor winding
field and stator, and the component of field self inductance not attrib
The winding information of Table 21 and 23 and the permeance
,
The excellent agreement between the ory and practice is typical
CONCLUSIONS
equivalent air gap windings and mmf and permeance harmonies which is
data for one machine is given here the the ory has been applied with equal
the interaction of the third harmonic component of mmf with the first
mmf. Other mmf harmonics do play a part but this is small due to the
Chapter 3.
50.
cuits are present in many electric machines. They result from closed
eddy current paths and squirrel cage type windings. The question of
direct axis of the machine and the other along the quadrature axis.
77
Sylvester has shawn that eddy currents in solid iron may
are different, the stator of the machine being designed to carry the
stator eddy currents but that the rotor may contain significant eddy
77
current path. A calculation based on the work of Sylvester for
of the order of 1 cps for the first equivalent eddy current winding.
damper bars and rotor eddy currents although the complicating affect
AN EXPERIMENT
along the direct axis and then its axis along the quadrature axis of
the machine and of the rotor winding was determined with the aid of
78
the circuit of Figure 216. The power amplifier constructed by Birch
higher frequency than the source frequency. Phase angle was deter
pattern for Vin and lin and subtracting the readings indicated on a
Fig~res 217 and 218 show the normalized amplitude and the
phase plot of Yin for a stator axis along the direct axis and the
quadrature axis for about two and onehalf decades. Figures 219 and
220 respectively show the normalized amplitude and the phase plot
of Yin for the rotor winding. These experimental results are curve
fitted with t.hree break points of equation 220  that is one zero
52.
.E

\
1
, j
( )
r~
fi~orm. 1
F HZ.
10 100
db. ,
5
o DA Measurements
D QA Measurements
10
15
il
.
I.n
W
0 §g
........
z~
~
~
~
Ei
CIl
<Xl
"
.. ~
) N 0
% rz:I
~
EI
~
f:l
rz:I
 ~p,.
e =•~
QJ
00
rI
1
t; ::1
N
ua
CI
CD
en
Cl ~
CD t!
:i :E
<C ct
Q 0
, 0 Q
)
>:Ji
~ ~
0
V
•
0
,
CD ,
0
" ,55. '
· '0
"0
t
z~
m
0 M
== ~M
~
~
~
,t
~',
~
~
' .
m
aa. ' ' 1
56.
o
o

o
o
o
57.
,"
and two poles.
K ( 1 + Ta s)
220
ment, but the phase fit begins to deviate from the experimental results.
equation 221.
y ..= 221
1n
) where
Gl = l/R
1
Tl = LI/RI
T2 = L2/R2
2
T3 = M /RIR2
Comparison of equations 220 and 221 leads to four equations for the
Gl = K 222
T2 = Ta 223
Tl + T2 = Tb + Tc 224
Tl T2  T3 = Tb Tc 225
)
58.
Ef
§p::
~
N ~
0: N !:il
...:1
....J g
f u
~
H
:! CIl
~
\ !:il
zt3
\ !ri
0::: <Xl
.1
N
1
N
~
~
59.
WINDING EXClTED Tl T2 T3
msec msec msec
Ld Lq Lf
mh mh h
(
ANALYSIS
=  4.35 mh 226
The value s of the direc t axis and quadr ature axis damper
windi ng para
meter s are calcu lated from equat ion 226 and the numbers
of table 26
and are presen ted in table 27.
Table 27. Self Induc tance and Resis tance of Equiv alent
Damper Windi ngs and Maximum Value of Stato r
, 
Damper Mutua l Induc tance
Axis Aligm œn t M L2 R2
mh mh ..tl.
Direc t Axis
Damper 65.8 100.3 3.65.
Quadr ature
Axis Damper 49.5 141.2 11.97
agreement.
M L2 R2
mh mh ,.S'l
Chapters 5 and 6, the damper winding data referred to the stator will
be used with the mutual inductance between the direct axis damper
)
62.
CHAPTER 3
l NTRODUCTI ON
as the extension of normal static circuit the ory to the case of circuits
cribing the system from the periodic time varying coefficient to the
,,,
\. } constant coefficient type, an enormous mathematical simplification.
comprising only the zero and second harmonies. These constraints are
not usually directly apparent but appear in the guise of equal ampli
tudes of the second harmonie components of the two phase winding self
58 59 61
and mutual inductances. Jones , Carter et al ,Robinson and Barton
60
and Dunfield in a paper based on Chapter 2 have aIl demonstrated that
,' ')
the inductances of practical machines show wide divergences from the
63.
( )
above simple types of varia tion due to the negle cted harmo
nies of mmf
and perme ance.
Althou gh the above restri ction s appea r sever e, the the ory
develo ped on this basis is in agreem ent with the class ical
theor ies
andth ere has theref ore been little incen tive to inves tigate
this
aspec t of the proble m, atten tion being more profi tably direc
ted to
exten sion of the gener alized the ory in bread th rathe r than
depth .
White and Woodson 20 appea r to be the only inves tigato rs
who have con
sidere d this aspec t of the slipr ing to comm utator primi
tive transf or
matio n but their work is restri cted to unifor m airgap machi
nes and is
not develo ped to astat e suited to the numer ical soluti on
of proble ms.
Omiss ion of the salien t pole situa tion and restri ction to
'. purely theor etical studie s lende a decep tive simpl icity
to the. topic .
Consi derati on of mmf harmo nics,e ven witho ut the added compl
exity of
perme~nce harmo nies, resul ts in an extrem ely complex situa tion in
which the effici ency of the dq axis transf ormat ion is lost.
It is the
inten tion in the next sectio n to develo p the gener al transf
ormat ion $nd
to illust rate the proble ms which arise in its appli cation
.
64.
( 1
PARTI  THE mo PHASE TRANSFORMATION
series in the angle x  0(, x being the angular dis placement of a point
l twill be noted that the harmonie series eovers the range  Go to + OC>
\,
axis eomponents.
2
F c w hm sin m Tf i cos mo( cos mx 32a
dm 7T m '2
ing w hm sin m ~ 1 (11 m/2) turns per harmonie pole will reproduee
th
exaetly the m harmonie mmf.
Sinee both the winding turns per pole and the winding currents
,/" ,
()
" requi red for every mmf harmo nie, a situat ion repres ented
diagra mmati 
cally in Figur e 31. Figur e 31 shows the actua l windi ng, Figur e 3lb
shows it decomposed into its harmo nie equiv alents , aIl carryi
ng the
same curre nt and ther.e fore series conne cted, and Figur e
3lc shows the
d and q axis equiv alent, aIl the windin gs carryi ng differ
ent curre nts
and theref ore separ ate.
and
r' \.
(\
/
67.
tIl AXIS·
.t Si
. \  0(4)1
92
. \a
~. )
~
'. "
'"
i:
~  cos m 0< sin m 7f /2
sin m 0<
ib  sin m 7T /2 cos m 0(
sin mc:>(
cos m 0( sin m 71 /2
sin m0<
35
sin m 7f /2 cos m D(
sin m 0(
37
and 38
where
VOLTAGE EQUIVALENCE
The above procedure endows. the commutator primitive with an
airgap mmf, and hence flux, identica1 with that of the slipring
in a manner similar to that just emp10yed for the mmf equiva1ence, but
(
\.
sine functions ensures that instantaneous power is on1y produced by
the interaction of mmf and flux waves of the same numerical order.
vary round the rotor periphery but the resultant of these forces is
~ th
Interaction of the m mmf harmonie and the .1 permeanee harmonic (l being
V
r
= L
m=œ
310
r
The voltage matrix Vm, i.e. the voltages indueed in the windings by
th th
the component of the r flux harmonie produced by the m mmf harmonic,
ili ili
and that portion of the r flux harmonie contributed by the m mmf
r
harmonie is Vmt i while the same quantity in the commutator prim
r
r
itive is Vcmt i  The requirement of power invariance therefore
cr
yields
...
Conservation of energy requires that Rck' the resistance of
't= Pp ek ... Pp
Ld =~ Ckt Lcr ek Ck
71.
the author , in the absence of physical criteria for making the sel
EQUIVALENCE OF IMPEDANCES
The voltage component V: i6 related to the current matrix,
r
i m by the impedance matrix zm. This defines the coupling, by way of
th
the appropriate permeance harmonic, between the m harmonic mmf wave
th
and the r harmonic flux wave.
:::: 313
sunnnillg both of the odd integers m and r independently over the range
and wf (r) :: wp r
A point which, while not relevant to the present discussion,
~ r o(m
Lo< m' and Lts r That this anomaly is' apparent rather than real is
arises because the mth mmf harmonie reacts with the,ith permeance
by the upper row of Figure 33. The lower row of this figure shows
the correct angles 0( and ~ and the correct number of turns. Thus to
toO( and the number of turns w pris put equal to Wo( r. To obtain
~<"~
I=m+r ...
" .+ ln
. fjlllm Y3m ~ "m
rr
sI s2 a b
316
W
s1m ws1:r wam ws 1r sin m7T 12
81 1
cos me:< w w
am s1r
sin m 0(
second order harmonics. Flux harmonics of first and third order are
1
1
\.
317
 ('if 0 + ~ 2)
wal w
sII
sino<
( go  lf2 )
wal ws2l
cos~
L=2
( II 0 + l( 2) wal (~ 0  ~ 2) wal « wal2 +
0
2
wal (f 2
wsll cos 0< 2
ws2l sin 0( ';J 2 wal cos 20< sin 20<
2 2
 nf 0 + ~ 2) ( li 0 + ~2) wal ~2 wal Ko
The induc tance matri x of equat ion 316 transf orms accor ding
to equat ion 314 to yield the corres pondi ng induc tance matri
x for the
commutator equiv alent. From equat ion 35 it is seen that
the approp 
riate value s of Cm and C~ are
1
Cm =
cos m 0( sin m1l /2 318
sin ml)(
sin m7f /2 cos mO<
sin mo(
)
76.
(
;
1:
1
r
C t = 319
cos r f>( sin r 7T /2
sin rD(
TItus,
( .
\
320
yielding
321
W s 1m wslrP wam wslrP
( do  t 2) Cd 0  '(f 2)
ws212 p ws 2l walP
TORQUE RELATIONSHIPS
AlI standard worka on generalized machine theory show that
T = 1/2Y it ~
~.
i 323
the matrix dL/doC being the torque matrix, G. Implicit in the torque
324
ëquation323. The physieal basis of this can be seen from Figure 33
keep the two rows of Figure 33 separate and torque mustbe expressed as
T  1/2 ~
m=Q)
'f r=oo
326
th
Since, in conjunction with L!, i represents the mthand it the r mmf
T~ + ~ = 327
d~
T~ + ~ ~ 1/2 Y f J. ert c\ dO< 328
Expanding
79.
)
329
sin r'1l'/2
Wam ws lr
m
sin m 7T/2
r wam 'tV's2r
Cr dLm
t dO< m
C =
m
Ifr+m sin r 11'/2 sin r 11' /2
war ws2m W w
am ar
r (m+r)
W W W W
. ar sIm . am ar
r (m+r)
and
330
sin m7T /2
. ar wsIm
W
m sin r 71' /2
cmdLr . C ID
t"dO[ r war ws 2m
't m+r r
m (m+r)
m (m+r)
80.
,.'
w
,sIm w,ar wam war
332
TIl
Gcr ... m sin r1T12 m sin rTT 12
)1 
m+r ws2r wa!Il war wam
r r
dLm r
Ct Cm III Gm+G
"""do< cr cmt
'l'r
Ïll
+ Tm
r = 1/2 Y f i crt (G cr
m + Gcmt
r )
+ i cmt (G r
cm
+ Gcrt
m)
T = 1/2 Y i c1t 15 2 1 + 2 G ~l
Gcl 2 1
c _ l + GC_ l
I
T= 2 Y i c1t ( Gc11 + G1
c1
] icI
ws 21 wal . w 2
al
wsll wa1 w 2
al
w w w 2
s21 al al
Hence
ws2l wal w 2
al
 ( ~ 0 + )/2)  (U 0 + 11 2 )
wsll wal wal2
SUMMARY
been established and it has been shawn to reduce to Kron's classic case
of the transformation does not guarantee its utility and in fact the
.V e+ V< = (R + Le( p) i
vc r = ~
m=n
a balanced two phase two pole induction motor with rotor windings
120 volt, 60 cps source and were obtained by numerical solution of the
are obtained when the speed of rotation is not thus simply related ta
waveformae
. PHYSICAL ANALYSIS
Consider balanced two phase currents of frequency f to be
flowing in the stator windings. These create two pole, six pole and
10 pole fields rotating with speeds noted in Table 31. Consider now
the f/2 component of the rotor emf. This will cause balanced rotor
\.
CURRENT A.
10
10
",<"
Table 32. Effec t of the Magne tic Field of the f/2 Component
of the Rotor Curre nts
('
\. harmonies modulate both the stator currents and the rotor currents 
CONCLUSIONS
mmf and permeance harmonies has been derived and has been shawn to re
applied.
the original.
The three phase to two phase transf ormat ion will be con
sidere d. Some. insigh t into the physi cal nature of the 0( pC and
relate d transf ormat ions is gained . Althou gh, with the excep tion of
squir rel cages , three phase windin gs are now almos t unive
rsal, certa in
aspec ts of the analy sis are clari fiedi f the gener alized
N,to two phase
1
transf ormat ion is first de:t'iv ed. This proce ss is theref ore adopte d.
THE NO AXIS EQUIVALEN'r OF A POLYPHASE WINDING
To simul ate the magne tic effec t of these windi ngs, curre
nts
iam,an d ibm are passed throug h orthog onal mth harmo nie
windi ngs of
Figur e 35b. G7neral izing equat ion 33 and a8sign ing ~~ ~
sin m2?T / ~ turns to the a and b axis windi ngs gives
N
lam = Ln=l ~ cos m(nl ) S' in
334
N
ibm = Ln=l ~sinm7f/2sinm(nI)S in
In matri x notati on
i CI
2m 335
89.
:1
:)
.... z
ct "'l..
C
...
~
t~  ....
~
a
11"\
M
~
1
~ ~
~
)h
90.
Since the matriJe A ie noni nvert able, the orthog onal curre
nts
may be expre ssed in terms of the N phase curre nts but in
gener al not
visav ersa. This· .is an expre ssion of the fact that a given mmf can be
produ ced by many differ ent curre nt combi nation a in the N
phase windi ng
but by only a uniqu e set of pairs in the two phase system
. The number
of orthog onal curre nts requir ed for compl ete model ling is
not unlim ited
being N if N is odd and N/2 if N is even as shawn in Appen
dix VI.
THE GENERAL CONNECTI ON MATRIX
1
and AN is the first row of AN in accordance with equation 5 of
Appendix VI.
The square matrix A2N may he inverted so as to express the
orthogonal as
m .;,. N
m = N
Thus
338
where
C
N2 (n, m) =./2iN cos m(nl)6
CN2 (n, m+l) = /2ïN sin mI'" sin m(nl) 6
CN2 (n, N) =~
VOLTAGE TRANSFORMATION
th
The m mmf harmonie by interaction with an appropria te per
th
meance harmonie, produces a component of the r flux harmonie. This
th
flux can interact on1y with the r harmonicwindings and induces a
voltage V~ in them, che subscript m signifying the order of the mmf wave
) r th
harmonie winding current i r yields the component Pm of the r harmonie
power pro Physical identity between the actual machine and its ortho
i.e.
::
The N phase voltages are therefore expressible in terms of the two phase
harmonie flux wave has only two degreea of freedom, being conlpletely
Vn
r
=2":m V~ = Art ~m r
V2m
V. r
n = Art V2r 340
IMPEDANCE TRANSFORMATION
In discussing impedance transformations it is convenient to
fDATUM
1 ,~ 1
al . 03
!DATUM R ft a
Ld' Lq
'.
1
.if t~t~1
1
+
12
~~
1 ...
brR LA" .15 17
r ' 
5 Il 11 .w
\CI
b
FIGURE 36 THE THREE PHASE WINDING AND ITS TWOAXIS EQUIVALENT
94.
actual winding to that for the two phase equivalent is fixed by the ortho
phase equivalent windings are readily derived from the actual values by
using the phase appropriate to the winding axis and by increasing the
concerned.
Rab = RN 341
342
f"
.... ) completed by the addition of the phase resistance and leakage inductance
in series with each of the coil groups.
TORQUE
th
The torque, T!, is produced by the interaction of the r mmf
wave with the r th flux component due to the mth mmf wave must be invar
343
ion matrix CN2 can be employed for aIl transformations instead of the
transformation matrix ~.
96.
The "oltage matrix, Vab ' of the two phase equivalent is the
sum of the leakage impedance component, Va~' and the harmonie components,
LVrb
r a
cr ~ r
V 1 LV
ab r ab
~vr
r· ab
= V1
a
V1
b.
3
Va
··
·
VN
a 345
Since 1 AIt 1 A3t 1······ 1~t 1::: CN2 equation 346 by comparison with
344 and 345 may be written
97.
Renee for situations in which harmonies higher than the Nth can be
neglected.
==
and m rf. 3
m::: 3
. .
r~ h
 1/.[6 1//2 1
rr 349
 1/[6  l/JT .J...
. J3
Essentially this is the 'orthogonal transformation employed
by a number of authors 62 , 63, 67, 68, 69, 80 Numerical coefficients
Hwang 1 1 1
Lewis 1 1 1/./3
Clarke /JIn. ~.n .f3
Kimbark .r3lfi  3/./2 fil 2
Boyajian ../3112 Ji lin
may be neg1ected 'is of ·the particularly simple class. The winding has
the particu1ar1y simple two phase equivalent shawn in Figure 39, the
laws of the transformation being given by equation 347 with the conn
ection matrix of equation 348. They have the great tnerit of separating
circuited two phase winding8, one for each significant harmonic. The
CONCLUSIONS
latter windings from the voltages app1ied to the actua1 windings un1ess
the winding current8 are known. Since in the majority of practica1 pro
blems, voltages are known and currents are unknown, the transformation
is of 1itt1e merit.
separation of air gap space harmonic effects, then has full play and per
('
'" CHAPTER 4
NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE
STEADYSTATE PERFORMANCE
the field windingand 1 and 2 respectively the direct axis and quarl
rature axis damper windings. The equations re1ating the voltages and
stator supply is of the infinite bus type and that the field is
)
102.
DA 1
~
f
\
VF ~ ~1 ~a ~b ~c if
0 ~1 Zn ZIa Zlb Zlc il
0 Z22 Z2a Z2b Z2c i2
where
VF = VF
Va = fi V cos W t
Vb = /2 V cos W t  120
Vc = J2 V cos W t + 120
~ = RF + ~P
... ~ii'1P
~1
Z:Fa = Msf P cos 9 + Maf' P cos 3 9
~c
1::1
Maf P cos (9 + 120) + Msf' P cos 3 9
Zn ... RI + LIP
Z22 = R2 + L2p
Thus = wt + ~ 43
~ = constant of integration
The angle ~ is related to S,the load angle of the machine,if
5 is defined in terms of the applied stator voltage rather than this
5= 3 7f /2  ~ 44
where & is a positive quantity for motor operation and a negative
is complicated by the fact that the voltages are known rather than the
v = Xi 45
several factors
does not act on the inductance coefficients and X of equation 45 may
be expanded to yield
47
, ,
~1 cos 3 9 cos 3 Q +Msf cos 3.9
~ +Msf +Msf
 ~
   
....o
.
0\
107.
RF
RI
R2
R = Ra 48
Ra
Ra
, ..
)
CI
r.. /",
,~.
49
, , ,
3Ms f sin 3 9 3Ms f sin 3 9 3Msf sin 3 9
G  Mgf sin 9 Ms1 sin 9 Ms2 cos 9 2L 2 sin 2 9 2M2 sin 2(960) 2M2 sin 2(9+60)
1
3Msf sin 3 9 4L4 sin 4 9 +4M4 sin 4(960) +4M sin 4(9+60)
4
 Msf sin(9+120) 2M sin '2(9+60) 2M sin 2 9 ~2L2 sin 2(9~60)
2 2
, Ms1 sin(9+120) Ms2 cos (9+120)
3Mgf sin 3 9 +4~ sin 4 (Q+60) +4Mq. sin 4 Q 4L4 sin 4(9~~~)
            
t'
.
o
00
109.
or V = A (pi) + Bi 411
o
where B = R + e G.
Rearranging equation 411 gives
out a solution.
need not fear that this torque will be translated into asignifieant
413 and the faet that the inertia of thi.s machine set ia not negligible
J = inertia
,, K = viacous friction of this màehine set ..
)
TL = load torque
110.
'..
At any particular time,. to, the entries in the matrices A,
B and V are known and thus Al. (an illconditioned determinant re
and the quadrature axis inductance can be determined from equation 26
P.Il = 0 for ~> 2. The well known phasor diagram 17, 27 of figure 4 2
then results since the three phase slipring to the twophase commutator
= 414
= 4·15
la =j ID2 + IQ
2
417
La =+4
H2
A W 2 Po
c a (h )2
1 425
+2 2
Lb = 7r~ Ac Wa P2 (h 1 )2 426
both motor and generator action and for several load'ang1es revea1ed
the time harmonies present in the steady state solution were rapidly
attenuated. Since on1y the steady state solution was desired, another
1 cos
Fz (61A) t
 0( F6)
IFO
cos
(6cJ t I F6 42
 0( 16)
cos 1
(6W t 16
 0( 26)
cosqoJ t 1 26
cos cos(.?4AJ t cos(>w t
i (6.1 t  0(3)  0( 5)  0( 7)
a
ot 1)
Il
co~ t cos{3 li) t cos(>W t co(7w t
0<1  0< 3) 0(5 0(7
120) +120) 120) 13
following information:
(a) =
in aIl there were seven equations, four equations from the stator funda
mental, third, fifth, and seventh harmonies and three equations of the
6th harmonie respeetively in the field, lst damper winding and 2nd
damper winding. These seven equations eaeh eontain sine and eosine
terms. Eaeh equation yielded two equations sinee both the sine and
eosine terms on the left hand side and on the right hand side must be
of the fourteen unknowns  Il' 0(1' 13' 0(3' 15, 0(5' 17, 0< 7' I F6, 0<' F6,
(
·115.
,fs/nat, ~6léS~
Wno X4CoS~
otj",)(C1; ""~cQ
J~OS; "~~21~ ec,S9.P'''~
<éSo(4~fi 1;
,.fâtS"0(, 1
V~~ X'q Sl/)O(; ~,s.SiN~, XCI! • "'"
V?: ~~Xë" ..lB
o"'QP' ~St;'2~ ~/Q#P~3 sli7~
, ,.
W~· 3.r66(éS~ ~"',.;"0(.1 ~~6° I..1Xc CI KsI' ~
'€11
~S.3
~3Xc° .1~
f.oS 4.6'''~ C:CSeJ(/J
• t'oS~~ ("4S'fP,I~ Cc.s;r~ Zs
, 6
xb = W(M2 + L2/ 2)
Xc = W(Mt. + L4) /2
~6 = 6 Lp W
Mo = Lo/2
,
xsf = xaa = xbb = Xc = x cc = 0
Thus xa = 3/2 W Lo
xb = 3/2 W L2
117.
429 since
13 = 15 = 17 = I F6 = 1 16 = 1 26 = 0
and I FO = if
X sf IF
V+ fi sin' = x a la sin 0( 1  x b la sin 2 fi' + c( 1 429
xsf IF 3
V = fi cost; +'2 W {L a  Lb) la sin~ cos 60(
... xsf IF 3 3
0 =
=n sin' + 2' W La la cos IX  2' W Lb la cos 2S 0(
xsf IF
~
3
V = 12 cos, + W la La sin 0(  2' W Lb la sin 2'  0(
432
Since Xa = 3/2 WLa and xb = 3/2 W Lb, equations 430 and 432 are
equal.
118.
Subtracting the left hand side of 428 from both sides yields
Yi = Fi (xi) i = 1, , 14 433
where Yi is zero for aIl i when the correct set of XilS are found.
x014 and taking only the first terms of the eJcpansion yields
o = ~ FI
FI ( xOl' ••• , x014 ) + (xl  xOl)  
() xl
, x014
+ ...
434
which may be rearranged as
=
~ xj 435
(,
, !
with i = 1, ••• , 14 j = 1, ••• , 14
119.
(
\.
~ Fi 1
The matrix :;: may be inverted numerically to yield
CI Xj
1
~ xj = 436
initial Xoj' Thus ~Xj is determined using 436. This in turn yields
repeated until 2:
j=1, ••• ,14
Àj F j =, where f is a small number
i.e. the i's of the form given hithertofore and T, for the same starting
seconds.
4 pole machine.
120.
Teons = Tl + T2
Tl = 3,[2 MsfI 2
FO Il sin (, +()( 1)  6L b 1 1 sin(2 p + 20< 1)
+12 1317 (L P
bb sin (6Wt + 2 + 0(3  0(7)+ 2Le sin (6fA)t  4 ~  D<3  0(7»
2
12 Il Lee sin(6w t + 4~  20(1)
2
+ 12I S Lee sin(~t  20(S + 4(:1>
)
The 6th harmonie of torque can rare1y 1ead to stabi1ity pro
the mechanica1 system. In other words this, for a 60 cps system, 360
butput"torque.
compare the expected torque from equations 437 and 438 with that for
p = 3 VI cos 0(
p = 3· Re V • 1*
T = pl w/Y
3Y ~ ~
T = ~ Re V • 1* 440
Substituting for V and l from the phasor diagram of Figure 42 yie1ds
3Y Ref xfsf1f ..
T = W
i
 xdld + j xqIQ (IGa + jI D)
J
T = w
3Y Re { xsfif
fi
 xèd + j XqIQ (I~  JIn> J
122.
Rearranging
T f
= 3'Y ()~if  Ld 1 sin(~  o(») 1 cos($  c()
'.
c:
123.
CHAPTER 5
THEORY
star connection the sum of the stator currents is zero, equation 51,
51
if 1 if
il 1 il
i2 1 i2
ia 1 ia
ib 1 ib
1...
ic 1 1 52
124.
VF ~ ~1 ~a~c ZFb~c
equation 54.
,"
125.
~~~~~r~~'I
IXsf'IFo ct l'(Sil1o(, .. v "
X4 CoSo(i /\(.'c
JE
cosfJ ~Cas2M 'OS~1';fB
I~~~~~rTr~
D0So(,J \/
V+Xsf1Po IX~ Sll)~" ,,~ ..
1
o~ )(~"2~ Sli?tX$#lj; ~
5..rcc" 'R SIÏ10â ," 5 Xb" .• Si2 ><sr. % XsI" .5J.z XSi! " .z:,
0
(f)S~.. or,~~a,sc;(.s CoS2p.Jol,. Cosc:<~) li$ottl~P S/n~/f ~
5)«<· RCbSoé;I 5Xh" SXz }6f· V2~1 ~ ><52
()
f.rIÎJ9~ ~Xq SlÎ1'D(;~i'J211D<1 Sin~r/J S'Ii, ~t?(J (Os ~ffJ {
I~~~~+~+r;~
coefficients arising only from the ~ and 4'2 permeance terms, the
current time harmonics greater than the fundamental would aIl be zero
= 55
phase of the stator windings. These voltages do not appear when voltage
they can give rise to a winding voltage gradient higher than that
expected on the basis of the applied stator voltage and thereby reduce
any stator voltage on the left hand side of equation 41 and the product
of the resulting currents and impedance matrix of the same row yield
the triplen harmonic voltage variation between source neutral and machine
neutral. The same procedure may be used to evaluate the voltage for
,
the case of solution by NewtonRaphson method to yield Vnn ' n denoting
,
source neutral and n denoting the stator neutral.
127.
Vnn ' = 3V3 ' J2 cos 3lA1t + 3V3" J2 sin 3t.)t 55
V'
3 = (Xbb sin 2 p  0(1 + Xc sin 4~ +0( 1) Il
X '
+.....ê.L I FO cos 3 ~ 57
3 fi
The equations solved by the NewtonRaphson method give more insight into
cular load angle of 10 degrees,are typical of aIl load angles. The
of measured data.
128.
Amp1itude* phaseDegrees
Parame ter Harmonie Runge Newton Runge Newton
Order Kutta Raphson Kutta Raphson
11 .001 226.9
Amps 12  
Torque  0 1.596 1.597
NM 6** .033 .033 108.8 . 109.2
CurrentAmps
15 .002 270.6
** Peak values
128.
Amplitude* PhaseDegrees
Parame ter Harmonie Runge Newton Runge Newton
Order Kutta Raphson Kutta Raphson
11 .001 226.9
Amps 12  
Torque  0 1.596 1.597
CurrentAmps
CurrentAmps
15 .002 270.6
** Peak values
129.
EXpERlMENT
measured with a meter built along the lines of a phase angle meter.
This approach was judged to be simpler than some of the devices reported
meter was used to supply a reference signal to the load angle meter. It
was necessary ta divide the frequency of the applied voltage signal input
to the load angle by two, in order to compare signaIs at the same frequency.
Torque was detected with a torque meter similar in design ta that reported
90
by Barton and Ionides • The constant component of electromagnetic torque
)
was calculated fram shaft torque and no load torque. Photographs of line
current, field current, and stator neutral  source neutral voltage were
Oc
Synchronous Machine Machine
Torque
~ ; J ...",._ .....
  Jl Jl Tube ':
Ac
Scapa' 1 Tachometer
.~n# Power
.Flo\'J
IL
•
1'
W
o
~
':"
Lo ad Angle Meter
FIGURE 51 THREE WIRE STAR MEASUREMENTS
"
1
,
'
«·
·2
1
z
1IJ
a:
Il:
::,) 180 360
o
bJ
z . . 2
...J
::>
I.IJ
20
(!)
~.
:.J
o
>
<l .....
0:20
1
W
t'
::>
1LI
z
FIGURE 5~2 LI NE CURRENT AND NEUTRAL VOLTAGE OF THREE WIRE
0
STAR SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE AT A LOAD ANGLE OF  25.6
132.
17/11 are given in Table 52. They are sma11 and essentia11y independ
of field eurrent, for various load angles if Figure 53. Figure 54
shows the ea1eu1ated 6th harmonie of damper winding eurrents and e1eetro
terms.
, ..
,_. Table 52. Comparison of Computed and Measured
5th and 7th Stator Line Current Harmonies
% 1 5 /1 1 % 17/1 1
% 1.6 2.2 17 .5 80 21
~
, l
/ <IL\
,' '
•
<[
.. . MEASUREMENTS
!:':> .
~'«D Torque
~, aU)()
Z~~ Neutral 3d Harmonie Voltage
rJ.:>_O Fundammtal line Current
A 6 th Harmonie Field Current ..
mOIa)
'~TO
•
r 1 . 11J) 2.Lo<D
•
'1 '= ~
Olq
vt\ltO m
' ..... 1 '
.... ',..
•
1'
W
W
80 40 40 , 80
o
(5
FIGURE 53 c!oMPUTED AND MEASURED LlNE CURRENT, TlITRD HARMONIC NEUTRAL VOLTAGE, TORQUE
Al.'ID SIXTH BARMONI C OF FIELD CURRENT FOR VARr OUS LOAD ANGLES
~ ..
"'
.
c
• ~co
1 d!i
.!'I co
.~
.
t ID
0
•
N T
..
0
•
1
8S
/_" / ~
, , :: Il fi';::"
w
80 40 4 (l sa
FIGURE 54 COMPUTED SIXTH HARMONIC OF ELECTROMAGNETIC
& @
CONCLUSIONS
steady state and the use of the clasaical dq axis method of prediction
CHAPTER 6
THEORY
ion allows third harmonie stator line current to flow which, as inspect
and fifth and seventh harmonies of stator current. The analysis of this
difference is that the third harmonies are not present in the line
".  . . ..
Amplitudew Phaae",Degreea
Para1l'.9ter Harmonie Runge ... Newton... Runge ... Newton...
Order Kutta Raphson Kutta Raphson
Stator Current 1 1.047 1.047 154.7 154.6
Amps 3 1.096 1.086 314.0 314.0
5 .229 .224 110,5 110.7
9 .117 246,7
Il .022 4409
13 .005 22.9
,
'\
15 .012 181.0
(~i * Values sma11er than .001 are neg1eeted for Runge~utta solution
** Peak amplitude
138.
EXPERIMENT
of load angles with both motor and generator synchronous machine action
under derated conditions of 120 phase volts and an average field current
degrees iri Figure 61. The so11d lines are from a photograph and the
both amplitude and phase are in good agreement and that the third
computed with the RungeKutta method since higher stator harmonies, the
9th , llth, etc. are not neg1igible,
% 15/1 1 % 17/1 1
<[
IF
Z
lLLI~
a:
ttt:
:l
(.)
.,.J, wt
~
•
•
« 1C
~
.....
..,....
.....
Z
LLI
Z
0
0..0 1'
:lEU')
1
.
W
\0
0
(,)
•
(,)
<[
. FIGURE 61 LINE CURRENT AND A.C. COMPONENT OF FIELD CURRENT FOR A FOUR WIRE STAR
:' CONNECTlON OF SYNCHRONOUS MACmNE AT A LOAD ANGLE OF 22°
140.
magnetic torque, and 6th harmonic field current. The large harmonic
effects result in considerable losses and very inefficient operation.
Figure 63 depicts the supposed damper winding currents and 6th
two axis approach can result with either a delta or fourwire star conn
ected synchronous machine. The most predominant effects are the third
and the resulting high losses. Many large salient pole synchronouB
machines have stator windings which are very nearly sin.usoidally dis
tributed and thtis produce few harmonics. However, for large installations

N
•
IfS 1 
CD
ft)
c • MEASIJRE~iENTS
 .....CD
CI Torqu~
1.
t'
~
t'
80 40 40 80
FIGURE 62
b
PREDICTED AND EXPERIMENTAL VALUES OF ELECTROMAGNETIC TORQUE, FUNDAMENTAL AND3rd HARMQNIC LlNE
CURRENT, AND SIXTH HARMONIC FIELD CURRENT FOR THE FOUR mRE STAR COl'."'NECTEDSYNCHRONOUS MACHINE AT VARIOUS LOAD ANGLES
~1 ,. "'
•
..c 1 fi) :E•
z
..!fI
G.
•
t

'" GD N
'"< ,( ... 
~
....
~
N
80 40 6 @ 80
FIGURE 63 PREDICTED SIXTH HARMONIC DAMPER. WINDING CURRENTS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC TORQUE AT VARIOUS
LQ\ D ANGLES J!OR THE FOUR WIRE STAR CONNECTED SYNCHRONOUS MACHI NE
143.
CHAPTER 7
CONCLUSIONS
the other hand, the framework of generalized machine the ory is consid
it in a forro suitable for the calculation of bath the steady state and
ines which are generally assumed. High power electric machines are often
distributions and suitable airgap geometry forro, but even a small per
centage loss in these machines can be costly. These deviations are mani
machines which have damper windings and indicates the realm of validity
pursued with an eye to the modification of the two axis the ory of
32
synchronous machines in a manner similar to that proposed by HamdiSepen.
esis is not negligible and should be modelled. This was not attempted
of more consideration.
although the equations which result shed sorne light on voltage and
higher than the third. Analysis of nphase to twophase slip ring trans
significant time harmonics of w:i.nding current and los ses may result.
selves was dependent upon the way the threephase winding was connected;
whereas the four wire star and three wire delta connection allowed con
winding currents and torque for a three wire star connected synchronous
machine aince the third harmonic winding factor was effectiv~ly zero. The
required more time to produce numbers than the second method utilized.
has been extended both by the use of improved test methods and by
BIELt bGltAPHY
(
\.
Vol. 52, pp. 352355.
14. Tensors in E1ectric Machine The ory , W. J. Gibbs, Chapman and Hall,
London, 1952.
21. The Torque Tensor of the General Machine, Y. Yu. Trans. A.I.E.E.,
Vol. 81, Part III, Feb. 1963, p. 623628.
pp. 140151.
61. Inductance Coefficients of Rotating Machine Expressed in.Terms of
Winding Space Harmonies, R. B. Robinson. Proc.I.E.E.,
Vol. III, No. 4, pp. 769774.
64. Power System Stabi1ity, Vol. III, E. W. Kimbark. John Wi1ey &
Sons, New York, 1956.
pp. 350353.
88. Deviee for Measuring the Angle Between the Voltage and the (EM]'
of a Synchronous Machine. M. Z. Gurgenidze and J. Ro
Swryngin. E1ektrichestro, No. 7, 1958, pp. 6567.
\
Al
"
APPENDIX l
As seen in equation 28 the mutual inductance Msf between rotor and
where ~
o
denotes the frequency of the stator voltage. The rms stator
2 2 1/2
E = + 9M3 + 2SMS + •••. ) 4
Since the harmonic content of both the measured and calculated mutuel
inductance between stator and rotor was .less than 1%, the expression
E = 5
320
80
>.r>
APPENDIX II
of the ratio of the second harmonic armature self inductance and armature
analysis. At the same time, the large errors which can arise as a result
, C
~
U
...Il
;:
Z
QA&
~
.....
..... «it!
Cl antl
1 0 lai L
)(
If w
f!!
~
Bd 1
œ
Œ
•
:)
0
1
en
•
::.
 '"
0
G:
==
Œ:
0
La..
,
:I~ ..
21
l
A o
. V c.
:: N
C\I

fi)
•
"'"
•

0
• o
A5
APPENDIX III
INFLUENCE OF SATURATION
series th an 21 is
00
MMF and its inclination, 0( , to the direct axis. Such a series, while
evidence based on equation 217 and depicted in Figure AJl shows that the
2.8
2.0
   ~


"

.
.... D_
..
1.2
~<=== PREDICTED
EXPERIMENTAL
.4
:r
0\
4 a 12
AMPE RES
FIGURE A31
__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _0 ________ _
' _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ , _ _ _ ._ _ _ _ _ _ _ . . . . _
~_.
'_....... ....:..~
APPEl'~~X IV
CONNECTION OF THREEPHASE WINDING TO SIMULATE
0
A MACHINE WITH 120 SPREAD
common to both the winding under test and this resistance. With refer
"
,"
,'
" '\
R2
c
RED
R S
YEllOW
~~
RI
•
,
/", ,r
1
c
R S R2
.,YELlOW
BLUE
•
R,
•
APPENDIX V
series
00
~
Q~) = L QJ! cos 11l
1=00
QI = P~ .P= 0
The flux density is
00
Lm=oo F
QR m
2
f cos + cos
c 1. =00
The sum of the second term is equal to that of the first term,
BE)!.) = L
m=oo
<A.  m)"," +mo( 1
1.=00
th th
The component of the r harmonic flux wave created by the m
in Chapter 2 gives
A11
~r
Le( m = ~ ~c Wc<. W~ Qr+m sin m"lT /2 sin r1T /2 :m ;
Simi1ar1y
0( r 4
L t9 m = :;;:zAc . . WA
fPIV
f'
Qr+m sinm 271 sin r1T
2
hr / r 1l'/
A'tll m
cos rq{ + mf
It is evident that~: ri: ~~ i.e. reciprocity of components
does not ho1d unti1 the summation over a11 rand mare taken. However,
o(m tir
L
fr
= Lo(m·
W pr = W~ ~r sin r tr/2
and v 4Ac Q
o r+m =........ r+m
7T 2
so that ~: = ~ r+m ~ m W pr cos r~ + m 0( 3
A12
APPENDIX VI
Am+2N = Am 1
Am+2N = U Am 2
where U =QCJ
LW
provided the turns ratio Km+2N i8 chosen equa1 to Km.
Thus by appropriate series aiding or opposing connection of the
when N is even
= 4
~+j
provided KN+j is equa1 to KN_ j •
their combined magne tic effect can be reproduced by either one carrying
the algebraic sum of the two currents. Thus the system has only N/2
Axn+N :: Am 6
i\n.rN = U Am 7
, ..
A14
APPEND1JC VII
MOMENT OF .l NERTIA
constant J/K
!..{& = K (1 + Ts) 2
w(s) C
If ST »1 equation 2 may be written as
~ J
w(s) =
C s 3
Equation 3 is valid for frequencies greater than .1 cps for the test
APPENDIX VIII
be calcu1ated from 440. The neutral voltage is, from equation 55
Thus Vnn'1 ia, from equation 1 and 2 of a form suitab1e for representat
ion on the modified dq axis phasor diagram of
J::o . e j (wt . )
= 3V 2 Il ~b 3
where
(
A16
,ft
v'nn 1
1
d