GERMANYS

FIGHTING

ERNESTHENDERSON

JO

()Op}Ti^htN

COPYRIGHT DEPOSIT.

GERMANY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

Kaiser Wilhelm II

GERMANY'S
FIGHTING MACHINE
Her Army, Her Navy, Her Ab'-skips, and
Why She Arrayed Them Aga'mst the
Allied Powers of Europe

Bv

ERNEST

F.

HENDERSON

A idhor of
Shout History of Germany
HiSTORT OF Germany in the Middle Ages
Blucher, Etc., Etc.

WITH MANY ILLUSTRATIONS

INDIANAPOLIS
THE BOBBS-MERRILL COMPANY
PUBLISHERS

Copyright

11)14

The Bobbs-Merrill Company

/t-.^
CHARr.LS FRANCIS PRESS,

OCT 26 1914

©aA388039

NEW YORK

GERMANY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

GERMANY'S
FIGHTING MACHINE
PART

I

THE WAR

Rut

a few weeks ago the author of

Germany studying

was

in

and

full

of admiration for

Two

field.

did

practically at

England soon joined

was a hunted thing on
last to a friendly fog.
its

its

institutions

achievements in every

its

war with France and Rus-

in the conflict,

Hamburg liner on which

with

and

book

days after he had taken ship for America

Germany was
sia.

the land

this little

the author

the ocean,

and the splen-

was a passenger

owing her safety

at

The great shipping company,

nearly two hundred vessels, was out of the run-

ning as a commercial enterprise, a symbol of the paralyzed industries of the whole country.

To
from

the ordinary observer the conflict
the blue, but to the historian

reads the foreign newspapers

The

historians recognized that
1

it
it

and

came

like a bolt

to the

man who

was not unexpected.

was the appointed time

FIGHTING MACHINE

GERIVIANY'S

2

for a

war between

Prussian

the great nations.

War took place

since the days

forty-three years ago.

When,

of the grandsons of Charlemagne, have

the chief powers kept out of
the ninth

The Franco-

war for

so long a time?

In

and tenth centuries the question of Lorraine

was as troublesome

as

it

has been in the nineteenth and

twentieth; in the eleventh and twelfth an expedition

against Italy was in the day's work of almost every

German emperor; and England and

were con-

Sicily

quered by the Normans; in 1215 took place the
eral international battle; in

against the

1250 the

Emperor Frederick

first

gen-

final expeditions

II; in 1272 the Sicilian

wars of the house of Anjou. The Guelphs and Ghibellines carry us

on to the Hundred Years'

burg struggles against

down

to the invasion

Ital}^

War

;

the

Haps-

and the Turks bring us

of Italy by Charles VIII of

France, to the campaigns of JNIaximilian, to the Field

of the Cloth of Gold, to the religious wars of Charles V.
Close on the heels of the latter struggles came not only
the

French

by Philip

religious wars but the invasion of

II's great

England

armada. The Thirty Years' War,

Louis XIV's war of conquest, the Spanish Succession^
the Silesian

and the Seven Years' Wars

fill

the seven-

teenth and eighteenth centuries; the Napoleonic, Cri-

mean and Franco-Prussian Wars
it

was time for a new struggle.

the nineteenth.

Yes,

THE WAR
When
is

easy,

a great and extraordinary event takes place

somewhere

in the world, to point to

prophecies that have heralded

present

war we can

from month
was
the

was

8

to

felt to be

see in the

month of

But

it.

it

omens and

in the case

of the

German newspapers how,

the present year, the struggle

more and more imminent and how Russia,

power that eventually precipitated the catastrophe,
felt to be the center

informed diplomatic

Zeitung

"In well-

of real danger.

circles," writes the

Magdehurger

in January, 1914, "the impression can not be

concealed that in Russia at present there prevails a thor-

oughly

hostile attitude to

Germany and Austria-Hun-

gary, and that the agitation in the czar's realm

even than during the
as

Balkan

to

make an

show of strength against a

distant date."

And the Deutsche

...

crisis.

though Russia were preparing

narily great

is

last

greater

is

It looks

extraordi-

specific,

not far

Tageszeitung:

"What

Russia's purpose in building a mighty fleet of dread-

naughts for the Baltic?

Surely not merely to coerce

Sweden." Again the JNIadgeburg paper: "The Russian
government,
twelve
five

which

billions,

hundred

already

has received a

millions, of

be issued in Paris.

which

owes

new

French

capitalists

loan of two billions

five million are

This whole gigantic

sum

yearly to
is

exclu-

sively to be spent for building strategic railways along

the

German-Russian boundary.

.

.

.

France com-

GERMANY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

4

The French general

pelled Russia to do this.

staff

thinks that Russia, because of her clumsiness in mobil-

of tracks leading to the

izing, but especially for lack

German

frontier, will not be able, in a

Germany,

now

to bring help to

France

new war with

in time.

Russia has

fulfilled France's wishes in this regard.

Thus does

the Franco-Russian alliance, which of late seemed to be

falling into oblivion, celebrate

its

resurrection."

In February the Hallesche Zeitung writes: "To keep
friendship with Russia

foreign policy, but
us indeed.

.

.

.

it is

one of the chief aims of our

is

sometimes made very hard for

They keep

the peace because

it is

to

the advantage of the czar's empire to do so ; but they are
to be

had for every combination directed against Ger-

many."

And

sian-German
the

the Dresdener Nachrichten:
relations leave very

much

moment. The Russian government

least

"The Rus-

to be desired at
fails to

show the

approachableness in foreign questions and Russian

society

and the press are

an extremely anti-German

in

mood. Evidences of the same thing are
their attitude to Austria.
lets itself

desires,

.

.

.

to be seen in

The Russian

policy

be taken more and more in tow by the French

and has nothing but

polite speeches left

Germany." The Weser Zeitung

for

finds the explanation

of the hostility in Germany's efforts to help the Turks
reorganize their army, and declares,

"Here we have

The Crown Prince and Crown

Princess

Prince

Henry

of Prussia, the Eiiiperor's Brother

THE WAR

o

touched one of the weakest spots in Russia's worldpoHcy, her endeavor to get to the ^Mediterranean." The

Frdnkische Kuricr thinks that Russia intends to form

Balkan

states

weapon against Austria and her

aUies:

a protectorate over the

this

endeavor

is

a

"The

mihtary
soul of

and the Servian

the Russian diplomacy

minister-president, Pasitsch."

as

The Dresdener Ajizeiger

observes that the influence of the Pan-Slavist party over

government

the Russian

is

steadily

growing and that

the extraordinary activity in military matters
the

constant

peace

assurances:

ill

"The measures

suits

are

pointed against Austria-Hungary."

On

jNIarch second

an

article in the

aroused great excitement
that Russia

threats

litical

might
years

was not yet

the

and already

over Germany. It declared

in a position to

by military

"rattle with the

all

all

Kolnische Zcitang

action,

supplement po-

however much France

Russian saber."

But

in three

enormous preparations would be completed,
"it is

openly said even in

periodicals, that Russia

many." There

is

is

official

military

arming for war against Ger-

no immediate danger, the

tinued, but the legend of the historical

article con-

German-Russian

friendship had better be thrown to the dogs.

The papers took
cle,

different attitudes toward this arti-

but there were not wanting those

warnings of the Kolnische Zeitung

who

considered the

justified.

General

GERMANY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

6

Keim,

in the

boundary

is

Tag, declares that the German-Russian

one huge camp, that the underlying thought

of the whole armament

is

an offensive war against Ger-

many, that France had proceeded
before 1870 and that the recent

of President Poincare and

same way just

in the

Petersburg

visit to St.

his chief

not been merely a pleasure jaunt.

of staff Joffre had

Had

not a French

general, only last summer, declared in a treatise published

anonymously that the tension between Russia and

Austria was ground for a European war "perhaps in

And

the near future"?

gone

had not

this

French

even

officer

so far as to spread the legend that in case of

Germany would
and Luxemburg
French

left

war

disregard the neutrality of Belgium
in order to be able

to envelop

the

wing?

Several of the JNIarch newspapers bring the Russian
hostility into connection with the

has only about two

j'^ears

more

to run.

ing a bold front, can gain from
than she has had in the past.

commercial treaty that
Russia, by

Germany

mak-

better terms

"Russia, with her military

preparations," writes the Pester Lloijd, "wishes to put

Austria and

Germany under

military pressure in order

to achieve diplomatic successes

economically."

The

crops out repeatedly.

and harm her neiglibors

idea that France

is

behind

it

all

The Neue Preussische Zeitung

speaks of the pressure "ever stronger, that the French

THE WAR
need for revenge

is

exercising on the Russian ally and

The Hannoverisclie

debtor."

French press of having

first

Courier

As

as so remarkable.

accuses

the

caused the agitation of

public opinion in Russia, on which

ments

7

it

afterward com-

far back as

1913, the Kolnische Zeitung had written:

March

10th,

"Never was

our relation to our western neighbor so strained as today, never has the idea of vengeance shown itself so

openly and never has

France the Russian

it

been made so evident that in

alliance, the

English friendship, are

claimed only for the purpose of reconquering Alsace-

In whatever corner of the world the flame

Lorraine.
starts

up

it

is

quite certain that

swords with France.

The Russian
papers

we

shall

have to cross

When that will be, no one can telL"
German
month of April also. The

military preparations cause the

much concern

in the

Vossische Zeitung considers them a gigantic bluff, and
declares that they have been worth millions to the

"For only because France thinks

sian government.

that in Russia she possesses an ally ready for

she heaped billions
loans.

.

.

.

Rus-

and

That the

billions
latest

on her

in the

French loans

war has
form of

to Russia

were accompanied by instructions seriously to take up
the anti-Austrian

doubts.

Just as

and anti-German preparations no one

little is it

doubted that Pan-Slavism

is

not pleased with the latest changes in the Balkans or that

GERMANY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

8

the freedom of the Dardanelles

stantinople

.

.

.

Con-

seizure of

present themselves as the goal of Rus-

still

Hatred of

sian policy.

and the

One thing

the

certain:

is

Germans

Russia

is

increasing.

is

arming

to a gi-

She wishes to throw a heavy weight into

gantic extent.

Germany and Auson their guard." The

the scale of the national quarrels.
tria

have every reason to he

Allgemeine Zeitung, of Chemnitz, writes that "The
goals of French and Russian policy are unattainable

without world-shattering callings-to-account," and the

Wcser Zeitung,

speaking of Pan-Slavism as

after

threatening the existence of the Austrian-Hungarian

monarchy,

can nor should

finally exclaims, "It neither

be concealed that if

—which God forbid!—

gain the upper hand in Russian politics
the very war-danger against which

it

this direction

would mean

we sought and found

refuge in the Triple Alliance."

The newspapers of

INIaj^

have a somewhat calmer

tone than those of INIarch and April.
sure," writes the
ity that the

Tag, "danger for peace
government

Another danger

Austria.

.

fect that

we

.

.

lies in

national existence,

it

may

prove

the relations of Russia
is

much

more be compelled
is

to be

will not be able to check

Although there

shall once

is,

in the possibil-

anti-German tendency in Russia

so strong that the
it.

"There

and

talk to the ef-

to fight for our

not absolutely necessary that

The Unworldly

Kaiseriii as tlie Protectress of the Fatherless

Princess Victoria Louise, the Emperor's Only Daughter

THE WAR
On

such a war shall come."

9

Admiral

the other hand.

Breusing, in the Tdgliche Rundschau of

May

the sev-

enth, writes:

"The

lian races to

extend their power and possessions will

striving of the Slavic

surely lead to an encounter with the

and Mongo-

German

race."

The

Rheinisch-Westphdlische Zeitung declares of France
that "public sentiment in military

and

political circles

has long gone over from the defensive to the offensive.

Apparently the aim

is

to create a situation

many

will

ing."

The Dresdener Anzeiger,

lations

the

where Ger-

have to choose between receding or attacktoo, thinks that the "re-

between Germany and France give the key to

grouping of the European powers," and the Berliner

Tagehlatt says, "The future and salvation of Europe

and

its

culture

lies solely in

a German-French-English

rapprochement; that alone will guarantee the worldpeace."

Toward

the end of the

month

the Dresdener

Anzeiger writes: "The German-Russian relations have
latterly taken a

remarkable change for the worse.

Cer-

tainly the nationalistic elements in Russia are once

conspicuously active.

.

the Russian people once
ality the

.

.

more

Should the whole mass of

become conscious of

its

nation-

world will see the most mighty movement both

as regards extent

and elemental

Russia, Pan-Slavism
ship over all Slavs."

is

intensity.

.

.

.

For

the idea of the Russian leader-

GERMAXY'S FIGHTIXG MACHINE

10

Already

in INIay,

more than two months before there

a sign that the conflict

is

begin to be

at hand, doubts

is

expressed whether Italy's alliance would be of any value
in case of war.

The Berlin Neueste Nachrichtcn has

acknowledge that as far as Austria
ance

is

"more a matter of the

is

intellect

concerned the

to

alli-

than of the heart

;"

while the Rheiniscli-W estphdlische Zeitung reports on

May

twelve that "in more than ten years such a senseagitation against Austria has not been seen in

less

Italy.

.

.

The

.

master of the

Italian

government

difficult situation in

by no means

is

which

it

is

placed

by the demonstrations of protest against Austria-Hungary.

.

.

Were war

.

break out to-day the easily

to

excited Italian people would compel any government

however friendly

theirs,

of

to the Triple Alliance, to

declare against Austria-Hungary/^

The
is

nearer

we approach

the situation regarded

spirit

of

sacrifice there is in

efforts that are being

more

serious

by the better newspapers.

Preussische Zeitung in June

Neue
ing

to the crisis the

made

tells

The

of the surpris-

France and of the quiet

to strengthen the

army: "If

the revenge cries have almost ceased that does not in the
least

mean

that the idea has been given

trary, they already reckon

Of

up on
;

the con-

on the war as on a sure thing."

the Russian military preparations, the

Freie Presse writes on June twelve

:

Vienna Neue

"About two months

THE WAR

11

became known that Russia had set aside two bundred sixteen million kronen (a krone is about a franc)
for military exercises and especially for a 'trial-mobili-

aero

it

zation.'

The great amount of

when one remembers
lions for all

of

its

der the harmless

sum

will be realized

md-

that Austria spends about ten

Un-

military exercises put together.

of 'trial-mobilization' and the

title

more harmless one of

still

'exercises for the reserves' Russia,

then, for a period of six weeks,

practically

this

on a war-footing.

is

placing

giant

its

army

Think of 1,800,000 men

holding military exercises at a time when Austria has
men
200,000, Germany from 300,000 to 400,000 trained
at her immediate disposal!

Whether

it

be intentional or

not this implies so imminent a threat that the neighbors
these
will need the greatest 'cold-bloodedness' to allow
'military exercises' to pass without friction.

the

ercises signify

most

colossal

These ex-

endangering of the

peace that was ever attempted under the form of a
periodically recurring measure of organization,

would not be surprising

if all those

who long

and

it

for a

peaceful turn of political affairs were to be completely
To add to this dark aspect conies
embittered.
.

the relatively

.

.

enormous

credit

demanded hy

military administration— 123,000,000.

proportion as though Austria were to

and a

half.

It

is

the Servian
as

demand

much

in

a billion

Since 1908 Servia has been arming uninter-

GERMANY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

12

ruptedly, and

now again spends

sum on

this

military

purposes the tendency of which practically amounts to

The Hallesche

a direct threatening of her neighbors."

Zeitung on the twenty-third of June discusses the

vari-

ous alliances: "Originally the Russian-French alliance

was a

militarj^ convention, in the last

has been added a naval agreement.

It

few months
is

there

desired to enter

with united forces into the great decisive struggle for
the division of the world.

Russia wants elbow-room as

far as the North Atlantic Ocean and the Southern Baltic,

besides free entry into the INIediterranean."

I have quoted

they seem to

me

all these

absolutely indicative of the sentiment

that prevailed in
out,

newspaper extracts because

Germany

just before the

war broke

whether that sentiment be based on correct impres-

sions or not.
ticle

We

have the Russian side of

it

in

an ar-

written by Professor JNIaxim Kowaleski, for the

Frankfurtej' Zeitung:

"In Russia people believe that

Germany and Austria
Germany and Austria

are

opposite

To

is

arming against Russia,

in

they take for granted that the

the case."

the unprejudiced observer

it

looks very nuich as

though Servia, thinking her hour had come and feeling
sure of Russia's support, had instigated the

murder of

the heir to the Austrian throne with the deliberate intention of starting a great conflagration.

The preliminary

General von Heeringen

General von Eichhorn

THE WAR

13

inquiry into the matter, which was carried on very dehberately by Austria, with no sensational charges or
accusations, revealed a great plot reaching to the very

Around that throne, as the
world well knows, were the men who had deliberately
murdered their own previous king and queen and who
steps of the Servian throne.

had been rewarded with high positions for their share in
satisthat dark transaction. It was proved to Austria's
faction

—and she had

so

much

to lose

by a war of ag-

gression that no ulterior motive could have influenced
her—that the royal Servian arsenal had provided the

weapons of death and that a high
been directly concerned.

official in

the

army had

Servia's attitude during the

Then

preliminary investigation had been provocative.

Austria hurled her ultimatum.
It

was an unheard-of ultimatum

—that much an Aus-

acknowledged to me at the time. But, he
added, the whole situation was equally unheard of. In

trian friend

Germany, except

in the ranks of the social democrats,

having no national sentiments, Austria's
act met with the most complete approval. Truth to tell,
no one had expected such firmness and decision. The
seriousness of the matter was not for a moment over-

who glory

looked.

in

In

my own

immediate neighborliood and, I

imagine, from end to end of Germany, the

on hearing the news was

to sing national

first

impulse

hymns.

One

14

GERMAXY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

heard them throughout that whole night

—especially the

solemn ''Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser" and "Deutscli-

There was a resigned

landj Deutschland ilber alles"
feeling, too, a feeling that Servia

ace since 1908 that the time

My

must be done.

had come when something

Austrian friend believed that the

powers would sympathize with
chastise a
cially

band of

had been such a men-

assassins

would never take

;

his country's desire to

that the Russian czar espe-

sides with regicides

;

that

Eng-

land would see fair play.

To blame
the attitude

German emperor for what followed is
of the uninformed. Germany has foreseen
the

the struggle, as our extracts

from the newspapers show,

but her one idea has been self-defense.
can be said of her

is

The worst

that

that her wonderful prosperity has

made her a little boastful and that she has talked too
much about her share in world politics and her own
"place in the sun."

remark of

That indeed was an unfortunate

his imperial majesty.

In general, however,

he has honestly tried to keep the peace, and that Ger-

many, with her blooming
system and her splendid

trade, her
fleet

model educational

and army should have a

larger voice in the affairs of nations was not an unreasonable aim.

Those who accuse her of greed for

tory should look at the history of their
see if they are entitled to

throw

stones.

terri-

own country and
Nor should they

THE WAR

15

to a
attribute her recent army-increase

So hemmed

aggression.

in

is

Germany,

mere
so

spirit

of

exposed are

that she can not help
her frontiers in every direction,
neighbors. Acalarm at the movements of her

taking

nations with a total poptually touching her borders are
own, not to speak of
ulation more than doubling her

England with her enormous fleet.
England of late has stood for the

restriction

of arma-

be preserved
ments provided her own naval superiority
in the present proportions.
falsely, that before

believe,

probably

a proposition

England

Germans

making such

keels of three
hastily ordered the laying of the
tle-ships

new

bat-

would not
which in the ordinary course of events

rate England leads
have been begun until later. At any
countries with deadly
in the matter of supplying other
not unlike that of
instruments of war and her attitude is
beer-brewing families to the temperance

her

own

question.

rich

They preach

against the use of alcohol, but

The largest facgo on deriving their income from it.
Fiume, in Austria;
tory of Whitehead torpedoes is at
supand Vickers have branches in Italy and
Armstrong

while the British
ply that government with naval guns;
$350,000,000,
Engineers' Association, with a capital of
in fireendeavoring to corner the trade of the world
and not only
arms. England introduced dreadnaughts

is

builds

them for herself but

also furnishes

them on de-

GERMAXY'S FIGHTIXG MACHINE

16

mand

With

Japan and South America.

to

a

cannon

factory on the Volga and an arsenal equipped by

Arm-

strong and Vickers on the Golden Horn, England has

on war.

fairly fattened of late

Bj^ building the

dreadnaught, indeed, she did herself a poor

Germany was

Previously
the

number of

count, she

is

ships;

now, where only dreadnaughts

something more than naivete

number of

strict the

service.

out of the running as regards

Was

becoming a good second.

serious proposal that

first

in

there not

Edward Grey's

Sir

Germany and England
their battle-ships but

should re-

always pre-

serve the proportion of ten to six in England's favor?

We have here,

I think, the whole gist of

between the two countries.

tlie

England has

differences

steadily pre-

served her attitude of superiority everywhere

was disappearing.

England

and are not

upstarts

German

is

who need

These Germans are

to be kept in their place

to be allowed to have a

world-policies.

basis

She has been jealous of Germany's

commerce, of her colonial progress.
to

its

word

in the larger

Almost every Englishman

his social inferior.

feels that a

Such assumptions pro-

voke bumptiousness and self-assertion, which, I do not
deny, have at times been evidenced.

war broke

out, indeed, the feeling

seemed to be lessening.

Just before

this

of mutual antagonism

The English

fleet

was wel-

The Kaiser

witli the

Biirgemeister of Aix-la-Chapelle on

The Emperor

at

tlie

Maneuvers

Baleony of the Town Hall

Duke

Prince Rnpprecht of Bavaria

Albert of Wiirttemberg

Grand Duke Frederick

II

of

Baden

THE WAR

17

coined at Kiel, the English trade delegation in Berlin.

The

press of both countries had softened and sweetened.

As

for England's present alliance with Russia against

Germany,

modern
sis?

it

is

history.

At home

most monumental act of folly

the

Has

in

Britannia been attacked by sclero-

a maudlin sentiment keeps her from en-

forcing obedience to her laws and abroad she allows her

by the

real enemies to pull her about

though

in the

It

nose.

is

as

Henry or an Edward had
Genghis Khan or a Timour the Tar-

middle ages a

joined hands with a

Can England gain anything whatever by humiliating Germany and furthering Pan-Slavism? A little

tar.

commercial advantage, possibly, though America

will

be correspondingly strengthened and the final result will
be no better.

Britannia,

wake up!

It

is

the JNIediterranean to the Atlantic than

Pan- Slavism

Dardanelles.

Your own

Angles and Saxons

all

as are

race

your

it is

from

from

the

Gibraltar will soon be

Black Sea to the ^lediterranean.
as irksome to

less far

is

now the forts on the
made up mainly of

ideals, all

your

real in-

terests are far closer to those

of the Germans than they

are to those of the Russians.

The time may come, and

very soon, when you are only too glad to throw yourself

around Germany's neck and beg her aid

in

opposing the

hordes from the East. In Russia's wake are your

allies.

GERMAXY'S FIGHTIXG MACHINE

18

who now for the first time have taken a
hand in European affairs. Japan has been likened by
a bright American girl to a man who has never been inthe Japanese,

vited to dinner in certain circles but

vited himself

who

at last has in-

and simply can not be turned out of the

house.

Germany, though drawn

into the matter merely

by

the plain terms of her alliance with Austria, stands virtually alone, for Italy
is

faithless

is

We

Great of Prussia
that

it is

now

may

of

when for seven years Frederick

the

—of a Prussia

—held

his

own

less

The help

greater than

may

that he

than half the

size

not only against the great

Germany as
had from England was not

powers of Europe but against the
well.

as usual,

see a recurrence

only half prepared.

those exciting days

and Austria,

rest

of

be expected from Austria to-day, and

even the English deserted him at

last.

Again and again

Frederick risked, even as our contemporary Hohenzollern

is

likely to do, le tout

erick, I think that

pour

Ic tout.

And

Fred-

William, because of better equip-

ment, better discipline and better strategy,
prevail even over the

like

many millions

is

likely to

arrayed against him.

England to-day throws the whole blame
rible war on Germany, who was lukewarm,

for the terso

England

declares, in counseling Austria not to let her strained

relations with Servia develop into war;

and

in the

Eng-

THE WAR
lish press at least there are

erage Englishman, I

England joining
of Sir

to think

no words too scathing for the

by Germany of Belgium neutrality.

violation

for

19

am

av-

sure, considers that the reason

Yet what

in the struggle.

Edward

The

Grey's

own words

are

in the

we

"Cor-

respondence respecting the European Crisis" laid before
the

Houses of Parliament and received here from Lon-

don August twenty-fifth.
July 31.

—The German ambassador asked me

government

to

show good-will

military preparations.

to

...

I

urge the Russian

and

in the discussions

to

suspend their

informed the German ambassa-

dor that, as regards military preparations, I did not see

how Russia

could be urged to suspend them unless some limit were put by

Austria to the advance of her troops into Servia.

August

1.

I

told the

German ambassador

there were a violation of the neutrality of

while the other respected

it it

to-day

would be extremely

public feeling in this country.

.

.

.

...

He

difficult to restrain

asked

me

whether,

Germany gave a promise not

to violate

engage

replied that I could not say that.

to

remain neutral.

I

if

Belgium by one combatant

Belgium

neutrality,

if

we would
.

.

.

The ambassador pressed me as to whether I could not formulate conditions on which we would remain neutral.
He even suggested that
and her colonies might be guaranteed. I
any promise to remain
neutral on similar terms, and I could only say that we must keep
our hands free.

the integrity of France
said that

I

felt obliged to refuse definitely

So England,

directly

from

the

first,

took sides with

Servia in a matter that concerned only Servia and Austria.

She "could not

see

how Russia could be urged

to

GERMANY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

20

suspend preparations" and would not, even for the sake

of Belgium,

state the

remain neutral

to

tion dispute.

neutrality

foreign

is

terms on which she would agree

in the

Why

new German-Russian

Germany

mobiliza-

finally did violate

Belgian

explained by a telegram from the

German

office to

the

German ambassador

Prince Lichnowsky, on August four.
impress upon Sir E. Grey that

in

London,

.

"Please

German army

could not

.

.

be exposed to French attack across Belgium, which was

planned according to absolutely unimpeachable infor-

Germany had

mation.

gian neutrality,

it

consequently to disregard Bel-

being for her a question of

life or

death to prevent French advance."

All eyes then are likely for the next few months to

German army and

be fixed on the
while to

me

hastily to collect

it

has seemed worth

and publish

all

the items

concerning the land, naval and aerial forces that will be

of general interest in America.
hope, for

much

information

is

excellent book

originality in a

No

one will look, I

work of

this kind.

My

taken from jNIajor von Schreibershofen's

Das

deutsclie

Heer, from Colonel von

Bremen's Das deutsche Heer

nacli

der

Neuordnung

von 1913; from Lieutenant Neumann's Luftschiffe and
his Fliigzeugej

from Count Reventlow's

interesting

Deutschlarid ziw See; Troetsch's Deutscldand's Flotte

im

Entsclieidungshampf

and

Toeche-^Iittler:

Die

THE WAR
The

deutsche Kriegsflotte.

and

Von

also

21

three last mentioned works,

Bremen's, are absolutely new, having been

published in 1914; Schreibershofen's dates from 1913.

The two

others have no date but one can see that they

have appeared very recently.

Das

WIS, Deutschland unter Kaiser Wilhelm II,
Handbuch der Politik have also been of use to

JaJir

and the
me.

The large new works

For

the last six

months I have followed very care-

fully in the Zeitungs-Archiv all the newspaper extracts

bearing on our subject.

The war has

doubtless inter-

rupted the publication of the Archiv, so that I shall

main "up

to date'' for

some

little

time to come.

re-

PART

II

THE ARMY

The
in

great military authority, Bernliardi, in an article

Das Jahr

191S, points out various ways in which mili-

tary science has developed since the Franco-Prussian

War and
many

shows how completely we have had to abandon

of the conceptions gained by a study of earlier
Responsible in the main for the changes are

campaigns.

the increased size of the armies

and the new technical

inventions of our age.

Almost

all

the states of continental

Europe have gone

over to the j^rinciple of universal military service, with
the result that the armies are greater

now

in time

of

peace than ever before in time of war, and that when
mobilization
the

is

called for

number of men

first result

and the reserves are summoned,

in the field

amounts

to millions.

The

has been that far other means of transporting

and concentrating such masses have

to be

employed than

used to be the case and that networks of railroads have

had

to be built for purely strategic purposes.

maneuvers that were

autumn

make

at INIiinster in

to

have taken place

Germany

it

this

In the

coming

had been intended

to

a record in the matter of quick transportation and

to dispose

of 120,000

men

in the course

22

of a single morn-

Arrival of Recruits

The

Field Kitchen

:

THE ARMY

23

traffic.
ing without interrupting the regular passenger
The old method of victualing armies, too, has had to be

changed, for

it is

impossible for such hordes to nourish

themselves by what they chance to find in the enemy's

Problems of another kind have arisen. JNIodern armies are composed of regulars and reservists alike
and
the reservists are not so hardened as the regulars
country.

efficient, so

often not so

them

distribute
sults.

As

way

and

reservists

apparently needlessly.

instance,

difficult

enemy's

has become a custom to

as to achieve the best re-

must occasionally be
There

may

sacri-

be cases, for

where the reserves must expose themselves to

a murderous

more

in such a

it

a rule, the regulars must be spared for de-

cisive actions
ficed,

that

line

fire

but

while the regulars are engaged in the
less

dangerous task of cutting off the

of retreat.

Technical improvements, such as the longer range and

of the guns, swifter means of communication and of signaling and the like, not to speak of other

quicker

fire

considerations due to experience, have so changed the old
tactics that a line

long as

it

now more than ten times as
few years ago. At Sadowa, with

of battle

was only a

is

215,000 men, the Austrians had a front of only 10 kilometers at Mukden the attacking line of the Japanese,
;

who had only 170,000 men, extended for 110 kilometers.
"The broken line," writes Bernhardi, "is to-day the only

24

GERMANY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

battle formation

men

of the infantry."

officers

and

and take every advantage of the

fight in trenches

inequafities of the

To-day,

ground;

1870

in

it

was considered

disgraceful to take such advantages and the officers
stood erect in the most deadly

In consequence of

fire.

the length of the lines a check in one quarter
so serious a matter as

it

is

no longer

used to be; a modern battle

is

a succession of single engagements of which the victor

only needs to win a good majority.

no longer takes up a
zig,

where

the best

lie

2:>lace

position, as

Napoleon did

can oversee the whole
for him

tral telephone station,

is

The commander

field

at Leip-

of operations;

some railroad junction or cen-

with wireless and ordinary tele-

graph equipment, where messages can constantly be
sent

and

received,

and

troops, automobiles,

to

and from which he can despatch

of the chief modern problems

supplying

is

ammunition for quick-firing guns

must not be

One

motor-wagons or aeroplanes.

—the baggage

so long as to hinder the

troops, yet where there are

suflficient

trains

advance of the

many guns and

each shoots

off hundreds of shots a minute, great quantities of

am-

munition are needed.
I have spoken of military service being almost universally compulsory in Europe.

man of
strength

a certain age
is

This means that every

and with the

requisite health

obliged to report for duty.

and

It has not hither-

o

fcc

c

&C

Telegrams

Giving Orders

THE ARMY
to

meant that every

eligible recruit

25

was obliged

to serve.

In Germany a large contingent, even of the capable,
In 1910, for instance, nearly

was formerly excused.

235,000 were declared more or

though

in

France

been accepted.

thej"

for service, al-

less unfit

would probably nearly

By the German army bills of

have

all

1911, 1912

and 1913 indeed the numbers of those required for
ive service

named

were steadily increased: 9,482 in the

year,

some 29,000

in the second,

great increase of 63,000 in the third.
still,

up

to the present mobilization,

actfirst

and then the

But

some

there were

thirty thou-

sand able-bodied recruits who could not be placed.

In the Prussian military-service law of 1814, and

German Confedwas laid down that the

again in the constitution of the North
eration of 1867, the principle

army should

consist of one per cent, of the population.

This had long been disregarded as the population increased,

and the proportion had sunk as low

tenths of one per cent.

It has

now been

as eight-

raised to a

little

The population as given offi64,925,993, while the number of com-

over the original figure.
cially in

mon

1913 w^as

soldiers (I quote the figures given

in the

by Stavenliagen

Handhucli der Politik) was 647,811.*

* It may be worth giving the exact strength of the German army on October
1913: Total 790,788 and 157,816 horses. Of these: officers, 30,253; sanitary
officers, 2,483; veterinaries, 8(55; non-commissioned officers, 104-,377; common
(Infantry, 515,216; cavalry, 85,593; field artillery, 126,042;
soldiers, 647,811.
sappers and miners, 24,010; communication troops, 18,949; army service, 11,592.)
1,

-

GERMANY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

26

The

cost

of the German army has been enormous

more than twentv-five bilHon marks between 1872 and
1910, and in 1913 alone, 1,608,653,300 marks.

The

ex-

traordinary defense contribution for 1913, 1914 and
1915, a tax, not on income but on capital direct,

mated

to bring nearly 1,300,000,000 marks.

the tax

say,

was very popular

Reichstag voted for

it,

even the

—every

is esti-

Strange to

party in the

social democrats,

whose

delight in a measure that fell most heavily on the rich

made them swallow

(small properties were exempted)
the fact that the

The yearly sums

purposes.
the

army

money was

for national and military

that the sudden increase in

entails are to be paid

by a curious tax on the

increase of property value to be estimated every three
years.

The

estimates as to

how much

the

on a war footing varies between
millions
least,

and four

tw^o

and three-fourths

Austria's army, on paper at

millions.

numbers 380,000 men

army numbers when

in time

of peace, which num-

ber gradually was to have risen to 410,000 in the next

few

years.

In war-time

it is

estimated at 1,300,000 men.

Curiously enough Italy, with a peace army of only 300,000, estimates her

about as

For

much

war army

as either

officially at 3,400,000,

Germany

the armies of the Triple

or

or France.

Entente we have an

mate published by the Deutsche Tageszeitung

in

esti-

Jan-

M
bC

Military Telephone Station

.

Putting up Camjiaign Tents

=M

THE ARMY
1914, which

iiary,
is

from

is

worth quoting at some length, as

well-known

a

27

military

it

Lieutenant

w^riter.

Colonel von Bremen:

"The

1913

basis of France's military increase in

is

the reintroduc-

By retaining these thirdtion of the three years' term of service.
ahnost a third. This year
by
year men the peace-showing is increased
peace
strength of the French
185,000 men are to be called in. The
from the autumn of 1916 on, amount to 33,000 officers and
officials and some 833,000 men, while up to that period we can
reckon with 780,000 men. One must add to this, 28,000 gendarmes,

army

will,

officials,

who

Landrvehr).

In

customs and forest

army

(like the

1914, counting

officers,

likewise belong to the territorial

Germany we have

non-commissioned

to which, in 1915, will be

added 13,000 men.

but not

if

etc.,

1913 and

who have

present strength of both armies the mere laborers

with supplies,

for

and men, 802,000,
Deducting from the

officers

Germany's peace force

is

we reckon France's gendarmerie,

to

do

momentarily the higher,
etc.

Counting

in this,

France, with 40,000,000 inhabitants, has a larger army in time of

peace than Germany, with 65,000,000.
ther advantages in

tlie

The French army has

fur-

longer training and in the increased readiness

The troops covering the eastern frontiers have two hundred men to a company (four-fifths of the war strength) and even
at the time when the recruits are being mustered in, one hundred
forty trained men; while our companies at the same time can dispose
of only half so strong a number. And what it means in case of war
for war.

to

have at hand two fully trained years' contingents (especially in

the cavalry) during the period of training the recruits

Further advantages

in the

the inactive officers

and

commissioned

officers.

French army

in the

In

tlie

good

lie in

is

jjrovision for officers

tlie

whole bod.v of

and non-

house of deputies negotiations are

pending regarding advancement regulations tending
age limit of

self-evident.

the longer training of

officers.

And, above

to lower

all, it

the

has been

28

GERMAXY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

made

possible to create a new, twenty-first

that France, in 1913, has

made

army

So we see

corps.

a very great step forward.

The Russian armaments of IQIS

The most

are also significant.

important event was the appearance in October of the draft of a

law

to

prolong the term of active service by three months and that

the decisive time from January
(fourteenth).

November

As

first

(fourteenth)

to

April

in Russia, the recruits are called in at latest

fifteenth.

Russia

will, until spring, still

in

first

by

have under arms,

besides the recruits, the trained contingents of three years in the in-

fantry

four, indeed, in the cavalry.

her readiness for war.

And

That considerably increases

in addition to lengthening the

term of

number of recruits is still further increased by twenty
thousand men. The momentary military strength of the Russian
empire is about one and one-half millions, of which about 1,200,000
concern Europe (thirty army corps and twenty-four cavalry diservice the

But already for IQli we can reckon on the formation of
new army corps and on a considerable increase of
at
least forty batteries, for which purpose three hunartillery
by
the
million
marks have been called for. To make mobilizadred twenty
tion speedier and to facilitate the march to the west boundary railroads are to be built. The estimates for this are about two hundred
visions).

from two

to three

sixty million marks.

The following

stretches are under considera-

Nowogeorgiewsk to Plozk on the Vistula. 2. Cholm
Tomoschow Belzek. 3. Schepetowka Proskurow Larga. In addition a number of lines are planned of which one is to encircle our
tion:

1.

province of East Prussia.

Along the German

frontier, too, the erec-

tion of wireless stations has energetically been taken in hand.

wise they have begun to modernize their fort and

field

Like-

artillery.

Side by side with these endeavors go intended improvements in military education and training and organized changes in the situation
officers' corps and general staff in the way of raising salaries
and of quicker advancement. Thus for the Russian army, too, and
its capacity for service the year 1913 is to be looked upon as

of the

important.

Furthest in arrears of the armies of the Triple Entente

is

the

The Crown Prince

The Crown Prince

at

Mess

THE ARMY
English, Avhich

29

made no progress worth speaking

Eng-

of in 1913.

land in her war plans against us long reckoned with landing an army

The

of invasion on our coast.

it was
army would be more needed

idea has been given up because

declared that probably the weak, active
elsewhere, especially as

its

maximum

of about 130,000

men

could

not play a decisive part against the millions-of-men armies of Ger-

Nor has

many.

the "territorial army," destined for protection at

home, shown any progress

;

of

required strength there were

its

men and
311,000 men have

lacking in October, 1913, seventy thousand

bring

it

to the

intended height of

still

all efforts to

The

failed.

thought of tunnel connection with France, however, in spite of the
dislike of the Britisher, so

proud of the

isolation the sea offers him,

has found more adherents than was formerly the case.
If

now we draw

our conclusions from our military review of the

year 1913 the armaments of Austria and Italy on the one hand and
Russia and England on the other are insignificant as compared with
those of German}' and France.

The two

latter

foreground, and indeed in a European war, too,

and foremost would have

to try conclusions

remain well

in the

who

they

it is

first

with each other.

These observations, made by an expert

at the begin-

ning of 1914, are exceedingly interesting in view of

what

is

now going

ever, there

less

Since

Von Bremen

wrote, how-

have been several interesting developments.

In February
no

on.

it

became known that of the French

than 265,000 had died, were on the

soldiers

sick-list,

or

had been discharged during the previous month. The
explanation

is,

that in order to raise the figures even

the poorest kind of material

had been accepted, that old

unhealthy barracks were overcrowded and that new ones

had been occupied while the plaster was

still

wet on the

GERMAXY'S FIGHTIXG MACHINE

30

army was

walls; that the

of

many hundreds. An

short of physicians to the extent
official

note in a Paris paper de-

clares that two-thirds of the recruits arrive in a tubercu-

Together with these revelations comes

lous condition.

a book, by a French military aeronaut, complaining of
the utter neglect of the air

and declaring that

fleet,

at

moment France has not one serviceable hydroplane.
The whole appropriation for air-ships in connection with

the

the

navy was but 400,000 francs

in 1913, as

compared

At

with millions appropriated by the rival powers.

the

same time come revelations regarding the regular navy
itself.

Although there are nine dreadnaughts building,

but two are ready, and no cruisers.

In

JNIarch

appeared the "general annual report of the

British army," published

by the

War

showed that Von Bremen's statement
of

men was

estimated.
ritorial

and

in the

as to the shortage

not only not exaggerated but greatly under-

The regular arm^^

army

explanation

Office, whicli

is

9,211

men

short, the ter-

66,969, the special reserve 29,370.

lies in

the greater attractiveness of the

The
navy

high emigration figures (178,468 males in

1913).

In April we hear of great appropriations
both for the

army and

the strength of the
critic

the navy.

army

in

Austria

Official estimates place

at 390,250

men, but a German

points out that of these 60,000 are Landtcehr, or re-

s

Rear Guard

in

Ambush

Artillery Patrol

THE ARMY
and ought not

serves,

to be counted.

31

There

to be a

is

yearly increase of 31,300 recruits, but the measure
to take full effect until 1918.

For

not

is

the navy, 427,000,000

kronen are appropriated, of which 4,000,000 are to go
for military air-ships; but the expenditures are to be

extended over a period of
tria's fate

five years.

Aus-

It has been

throughout the centuries always to be several

years behind.

In June,

finally,

we

learn that Russia has set aside

for military expenditures in 1914 alone the monstrous

sum of

2,500,000,000 marks, and by 1916 will have

added 400,000 men
to her standing

months

—more than Austria's whole force

army, which will amount, in the winter

at least, to 2,200,000

writes the Tdgliche

Rundschau

men.
in

"Characteristic,"

commenting on

the strengthening of the western boundary-strip

it,

and the

improvement of the strategic network of railroads
order to hasten the forwarding of troops."

hand, attention

is

drawn

in the

fact that Russia has at the

We

to have

shall

in

other
to the

the Baltic but four

battle-ships, all old-fashioned, although

hoped

On the

Danziger Zeitung

moment in

"is

by 1915

it

is

ready four dreadnaughts.

hear

much

fantry and cavalry, of

of pioneers, of

in the

next few months of in-

field artillery

Verhclirstruppen

and foot
or

artillery,

communication

GERMAXY'S FIGHTIXG MACHINE

32

troops,

and of the Train or transport

division.

I there-

fore preface this section with the definition of these

terms given by a staiF

officer in the

newest book of

in-

structions for the one-year volunteers.

The

infantrj" represent the

lies in their

main troops of the army.

Their value

endurance when marching, in their correct shooting and

in their brave

The infantry

dashing against the enemy.

is

armed

with the ninety-eight gun and bayonet; the sword-knot non-commissioned

officers

{Portepeeunteroffiziere) , battalion-drummers and am-

bulance-men carry revolvers.

To

the infantry belong the

taillone), the

sharpshooter battalions

guard sharpshooter battalion

(Jdgerba-

(Garde jagerbataillon)

and the guard rifle-battalion (Gardeschiitzenhataillon). The infantrymen are known as grenadiers, musketeers and fusileers.

The cavalry

armed with lance, saber and carbine. Its chief
and for precautionarj' service, but it is also used
for riding down the enemy and piercing him with the lance.
The
cavalry may also dismount and fight on foot like the infantry. For
value

is

for scouting

is

shooting

it

uses the carbine.

The cavalry consists of cuirassiers, uhlans, hussars, dragoons and
mounted riflemen. (In Saxony guard-riders (Gardereiter) and carbineers; in Bavaria heavy riders

The

field artillery is effective

and

light horse (Chevaulegers).)

through the swiftness with which

it

up and through the certainty of aim of its quick-firing guns.
The field artiller}- carries batteries of cannon for firing against
visible goals and light howitzer batteries, for shooting at objects behind cover and for demolishing light field fortifications. The drivers
carry a sword and revolver, the cannoneers a dagger and revolver.
Every man of the horse-drawn division is mounted and carries sword
rides

and

revolver.

The
as the
it

foot artillery has to serve the fort

heavy

must

artillery

guns of the

silence the enemv's

field

hcavv fort

and

army;

ffuns

siege artillery as well
in attacking a fortress

and make breaches

in the

;

THE

ARiSIY

33

when defending it must overcome the enemy's heavy
The men are called cannoneers; they carry the carbine

fortifications;
sieo-e o-uns.

and the ninety-eight bayonet.
pioneers see to the throwing up of entrenchments, the building and destroying of bridges, obstructions, etc. ; they are armed like

The

the infantrymen.

The communication
war have

in time of

troops consist of the railroad regiments, which

to see to the building

and running of railroads

of the telegraph battalions, which put up telegraph lines; of the
fortress telephone companies, which attend to all telephone matters
in the fortress

;

of the air-ship and aeroplane battalions,

who

are en-

means
trusted with spying out the land and the enemy's positions by
of balloons, air-ships and aeroplanes.

The communication troops are armed like the infantry.
The transport service (Train) supplies every kind of column of
the army with bridge materials, food, ammunition, etc. Its weapons
are swords, carbines and revolvers.

It

is

not worth while here to enter into the question of

In time of peace the blue coats and red colof the infantry, the varied colored attilas and fur

uniforms.
lars

caps of the hussars, the helms with the flying eagles of
the guards, the tresses, the gleaming epaulettes, the
scarves, the

waving plumes, are

all

especially to the other sex; but in
aside.

In order

enemy

all

gray

—a

interesting enough,

war

that

is

all laid

to be as invisible as possible to the

categories of troops

wear the same ashen

comparatively recent adaptation of the prin-

ciple of protective coloring.

In the German army the cavalry
of the infantry.

It

is

is

merely an adjunct

the infantry which decides battles

GERMANY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

34

—not the cavalr}^ not even the
infantry of to-day

is

artillery.

However, the

something very different from the

infantry of the eighteenth and even from that of a

German military
world learned new tactics

great part of the nineteenth centur}^
writers acknowledge that the

from

the sharpshooters

war of the
tion rests
vidual.

rebellion.

and riflemen of the American

The whole modern

battle

forma-

on the idea of giving more play to the

In

spite

indi-

of the technical progress that has made

of armies great machines, more weight than ever before
is

laid

on quick judgment, on good shooting, on physical

know that an idea quite conthat many consider war reduced

bravery and endurance.
trary to this prevails,
to the art

I

of setting off the greatest quantities of ex-

plosives within a given time.

the truth.

The

battles

But

this is

of the past were of much shorter

duration than are those of the present.

won

in

One

very far from

Wagram

was

two hours, INIukden took three days.
learns to adapt one's self even to quick-firing

guns and

incredible rifle-ranges.

It has been

math-

ematically demonstrated that, with the

rifles

now

hands of the German infantry, a bullet

fired

from a

in the
dis-

tance of three hundred yards will pass right through five

men
the

standing closely one behind the other and lodge in

body of the

sixth.

But men

in battle line

no longer

stand closely one behind the other, nor even closely side

a

s
3

Pursuit

Infantry Embarking

THE ARMY
by

Even

side.

in

what

35

considered a thick firing hne

is

they stand about three feet apart.
I have said that the

own

idea

Within certain

to the individual.
their

modern

position, find the

is

to give

limits the

proper

more play

men

choose

rests for their rifles,

get each the range for himself, determine the speed of
their

own

fire

and use

own judgment in the econThey are expected to advance

their

omizing of ammunition.

according as they see their opportunity.

A glance at the methods of training the infantry will
give some idea of the care and thoroughness with which
the

Germans have made

—indeed, some

old drill has not been entirel}^ abandoned

military critics think that there
goose-stejD

have

marching and of the

lost their old

years

is

much of the
parade tricks. But these
is still

too

importance and the tendency of

late

tow^ard the most realistic representation of the

The pa-

circumstances and problems of actual combat.

rade-ground has given place to the maneuvering
acres

The

their preparations for war.

and miles

many,

this

gaged

in

in extent.

For

the

first

time in Ger-

autumn, whole army corps were

mock combat with one

In the ordinary

rifle

field,

to

have en-

another.

practise the

to shoot well individually, then in

men

are taught

first

groups and detach-

ments, next in whole troops and companies and finally
in conjunction with cavalry

and

artillery.

They

are

GERMANY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

36

made to adapt

themselves to the most unf amihar and un-

usual surroundings.
varied description
hit,

:

Even

the targets are of the most

targets that fall to the

ground when

targets that burst, targets surrounded by

smoking

objects or colored fires so that there will be some of the

semblance of

or that float in the
the

and targets that move

battle, fixed targets
air,

targets that have been lying

flat

ground but that suddenly appear here and there

an enemy issuing from the bushes.

on

like

The rifleman must

learn never to be surprised at anything, but to keep his

eyes open in

all directions.

The German army
in 1888,

known

and
as

so

the

much improved
ninety-eight

carry the same, for there
distinction
diers.

sible

It

of a type

rifle is

first

introduced

in

1898 that

gun.

All the

is

it

is

now

infantry

no longer any essential

between musketeers, fusileers and grenais

a quick-loading

to take

rifle

aim and shoot

times a minute.

The

caliber

millimeters, a fact which

which renders

it

as man}^ as twentj-five
is

may

seven and nine-tenths

not at

first

seem

to the

American reader of great importance, but which
comes more interesting when

pos-

it

is

be-

realized that this

is

the smallest caliber which will inflict sufficient injury on

an enemy
it

does not

to

make

kill

him

its

use profitable.

at once

and keep him out for

it

will

In other words,

if

put him out of the fight

a reasonable time.

It

was found

Cannon

for Shooting Airships

Combination Hydro and Aeroplane

in the

and

THE ARMY

37

War that a

smaller bullet could,

cases did, pass

through a foeman's

Russian-Japanese

number of

in a

body without rendering him
no

less

Iwi^s

than forty per cent, of

all

de combat^ and that

wounded were back

with their troops in three months.

There are jMaxim

rifles

which can

fire as

many

as a

hundred shots a minute and which have other advantages
too but the
;

own gun,

German government

considers

it

is

well satisfied with

superior to that of any of

its

its

neighbors' and has never seriously considered the question of changing.

It has a smokeless

of manufacture of which

A recent innovation

— for

is

is

powder, the process

a carefully guarded secret.

the supplying of the infantry

that matter of the cavalry also

—with

so-called

They are the Gatling guns of our own
and every German infantry regiment now
army reform of 1913 has a machine-gun com-

machine guns.
country,
since the

pany.
six

It consists of ninety

men and

forty horses, with

guns and three ammunition wagons. As the newest

guns can

and

the rate of six

fire at

as there are

hundred shots a minute,

more than two hundred infantry

regi-

ments, not to speak of the cavalry and artillery, which
also have their

companies of "Gatlings," one can gain

some impression of the deadliness of modern campaigning.

]Many of the quick-firing guns now are supplied

with stands on pivots so that they can be pointed in the

GERMANY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

38

air against balloons

will be in

But

their chief use

guarding bridges and narrow passes.

bullets carry for

heavy

and aeroplanes.

two

artillery far

Their

miles, but they can be silenced

beyond

this range,

by

nor can they carry

enough ammunition for long-continued

Alto-

use.

gether, however, a comparison of their fire with the simple flames of the traditional hell

makes the

latter place

seem a mere pleasure-resort.

The

training of a soldier has of late years become

more and more humane and

and

rational,

manning guns, shooting

confined to

is

no longer

rifles

and per-

Those Germans with

forming long marches.

whom

I

have spoken on the subject look back to their term of
service with pleasure,

the

army

in time

and

my

of peace

general conviction

is

tional institution in existence.

What

he learns

is

that

the most perfect educa-

With

every boy when he comes to "serve"
equipped.

is

school learning

more or

is

less

manly

esprit de corps,

bearing, endurance and the feeling that his tasks must

be quickly and faultlessly performed
regularity and discipline.

roundings and interests
the world

is

is

young men

in other words,

The mere change of

sur-

a benefit, and the outlook on

immeasurably broadened.

ment against compulsory
ly,

The

old argu-

name-

military training

in their best years are

productive work, does not amount to

that,

withdrawn from

much

in

an age

bD

Covered Field Artillery

A

Howitzer

B,-itterv Crossino: a

Pontoon Bridge

THE ARMY
where the general complaint

39

of overcrowdedness

is

The German boy

almost every calling and profession.
does his work

all

in

the better for his military training

and

the nation has thoroughly adjusted itself to the falHng
of these two years. There are dispensations for cases

out

where the boy's presence at home

is

a vital matter for the

support of others, and, as a rule, a place that he
fore

is

the pleasantest recent developments has been

the enthusiasm for sport that

The

army.
it

was

his return.

kept open for him against

One of

in

had taken hold of the

encouraged

authorities

keeping with the new

it

in every way, for

tactics

of training the

The author

individual to be efficient and independent.

had the pleasure of attending the
athletic

filled be-

meet that has ever taken

great military

first

It

place.

was held

in

June, 1914, in the great stadium that has been erected
near Berlin for the Olympic games of 1916, and that

now

army which

is

existence of

its

fighting so strenuously for the very

country was represented in

and glory.

On an elevated terrace was the

his court.

Next came

officers.

soldiers, for

had been reserved; they marched
ending

lines,

uniforms.

emperor with

A large majority

whom
in in

looking very neat in their

The

pomp

the logen or boxes which were

blue with the uniforms of the

of the spectators were

all its

exercises

whole sections
seemingly

un--

summer undress

began wdth gymnastics or

GERMANY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

40

turneiij to which, all over

portance

is

Germany,

There was the usual running,

attached.

jumping and throwing of weights
with them

it is

the greatest im-

—with us

There was a

a discus.

it is

a shot,

cross-countrj''

run

of four miles which started and ended in the stadium,

and

in which

some

or sixty officers took part.

fift}^

It

was won by a splendid young prince of the royal house,
Prince Frederick Leopold.

The

heard on him was that he looked

best

comment

like a first-class

that I

Ameri-

can.

But most
the

interesting of all

was the obstacle race for

A part

of their regular training

common

soldiers.

consists in climbing walls

grounds you

and

trees

;

and on

parade

will find special tracks with ditches, walls

and palisades while occasionally the
;

most serious kind

—iron

railings

obstacles are of the

with

twisted

through which they must make their way.

dium games

their

the soldiers lined

up on

spikes

In the

sta-

the farther side of

a great swimming-pool that runs along one end of the
field

plunged
side,

At a given signal
swam for dear life to the

below the spectators.
into the water,

they
other

climbed the low protecting wall and were off helter-

skelter for the hurdles

and other

obstacles.

Behind one

of the hurdles, concealed by green boughs, was a slimy

watery

hole, but

it

detained tliem but for a moment.

Across the track a high straight impromptu

w^all

was

§

Effect of

Two

Shells on a Six-Foot Reinforced Concrete

Scaling; Barricades

Wall

THE ARMY
held in place by soldiers and

One almost

to clamber.

up

it all

41
the contestants

stuck at the top

;

breathlessly to see if he could achieve

him

was no jeering,

as I fear there

had

you watched
it,

but there

would have been

at

home.

The whole race, in which were some fifty or more participants, was run with a wonderful freshness, joyousness and what the Germans call schneidigkeit, which
corresponds to our American slang expression "toniness."

Even

in the ordinary practise

on the parade-ground

an adjutant keeps a record of the time that the

Whole com-

need to overcome the different obstacles.

The whole thing
system that in war an officer

panies have to pass the required
is

already reduced to such a

will
his

know

men.

tests.

to the smallest detail

Great importance

soldiers

is

what he can expect of

attached to swimming, for

occasions are sure to arise in a

campaign when streams

are to be forded or where the pontoon divisions have
to be assisted.

On

the whole the rise of sport has had a great level-

ing influence

in the

army.

Soldiers

and

indeed, compete with each other as a rule

officers
;

do not,

but they take

part in the same meets, and I have observed that the
soldier

seems to

the officer

moment.

is

rise in

importance while the tendency of

to forget himself in the excitement of the

I have a vision of non-participants flying

GERMANY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

42

across the field with the tails of their long coats flap-

ping behind them to carry tidings or encouragement

to

—which denotes a very great change

some

tired

from

the unswervingly dignified bearing of other days.

Soldiers

runner

and

officers

are encouraged to join athletic

which makes for

associations,

If the infantry
the cavalry

now

is

is

the mainstay of the

been

said, carries a lance,

time

is

of hollow

steel.

mak-

Each cavalryman,

as has

a sword and a carbine.

^luch

spent in training the

is

German armj^

indispensable for reconnoitering, for

ing raids and for pursuit.

which

less exclusiveness.

men

to the use

of the lance,

^Men of straw, for instance, are

placed on the ground and the lancer, riding by, has to
inflict

a

wound

straw head

is

off in passing.
dle, are

in exactly the place designated.

Or

a

placed on a stake and must be knocked

The

carbines, which are stuck in the sad-

of a perfected modern type and are but

little

inferior to the muskets of the infantry.

Cavalry regiments, with which speed of progress
the

first

consideration, carry their

is

own bridge-wagons,

so that they can either repair bridges that have been de-

stroyed, or construct entirely

new

ones.

found that rafts made of fodder-bags

and held together by

It has been

stufl*ed

with straw

lances, boards, logs, etc., can carry

comparatively heavy weights.

Six such bags as I have

described can, at a pinch, carry six men.

Barrels and

''I

Cavalry Patrol

Building

a

Bridge with Sacks

THE ARMY
chests are

still

more useful

if

43

they happen to be at hand.

Xeedless to say, the cavalry bridge-wagons also carry
explosives for destroying the enemy's bridges and other
defenses.
It has been thought in

some quarters that aeroplanes

and other contrivances for scouting and communication

would supersede cavalry, but the German army administration evidently does not think so, as

it

has more than

In time of

150,000 horses in use even in time of peace.

war

all

private horses are subject to requisition, as are

also automobiles, motor-trucks, motor-wheels

planes.

for the

The
rest,

and aero-

better riders in a regiment train the horses

and there

is

a constant mustering out of the

inferior ones in favor of others that are stronger or

younger or more
schools at

docile.

There are military riding

Hanover, Dresden and

are taught not only to ride well

JNIunich,

and

where

officers

to instruct others

but also to break in young horses.
Prussia has her

own stud-farms

in

which the royal

family, since the days of Frederick William
the greatest interest.

small and tough.

There

is

has taken

a regular Prussian type,

The theory has

that Asiatic horses are

I,

lately been

more free from

disease

advanced

and that

they proved more enduring in the recent Turkish-Bulgarian
the

War,

while the Prussian horse, through faults in

manner of

raising, has degenerated

during the long

GERMANY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

44

period of unbroken peace.

This, however,

is

academic question and nothing short of war
demonstrate that under

simply an
can

itself

conditions another type of

all

horse will be preferable.

The Russian-Japanese

we

raid, such as

War

brought the old cavalry

associate with the

and Wilson, once more

to honor,

and an expedition of

JNIischtschenko's in February, 1905,

successful, aroused

Europe.
will

It

is

much

names of Sheridan
though not wholly

interest in cavalrj^ circles in

considered not unlikely that such "raids"

The Germans

play a great part in the present war.

word for

use the American

If cavalry

merely an adjunct of infantry,

is

more true of

still

the latest

the maneuver.

German

Its function, according to

artillery.

writers,

is

to facilitate the advance of

the infantry, or, in other words, to break

path

b}^

this is

which the infantry

and open the
It has some-

shall storm.

times been thought of the battle of the future that

would

consist of

two parts: the great

the infantry struggle;

side

is

by

the case.

German

was

over.

The

con-

two, in this coming war, will fight

side: the artillery

fantry coming

the

The

and

artillery duel

and that the infantry would have

to stand aside until the artillerj^ duel

trary

it

opening the breach, the

in-

in.

batteries consist

French have only four.

of six guns, while those of

Good

authorities,

even in

Wheel Belt

A

for

Cannon

Howitzer Batterv

THE ARMY
Germany, prefer

45

French system, but the change

the

would mean more expense than was considered war-

A

rantable.

novelty

is

that the guns

of

fiat

as to

is

great

Another most

gunners.

steel shields that protect the

useful innovation

now have

A number

the so-called wheel belt.

blocks or shoes, wider than the tire and hinged so

gun-

a great chain, protect the wheels of the

form

carriage and prevent them

from sinking

into the

mud.

Formerly a supply of beams, jackscrews and the
had

to be carried

when they stuck
has

its belt,

will, the

The

along for use

Now

fast.

in extricating the

every large

for coast defense.

and there

guns

is

guns

The

fire shells

is

much

less,

in fortresses or those

of these

size

is

is

filled

either

at,

used

The

a so-called

A

with explosive bullets

by ignition or percussion.

considered preferable to have

above the point aimed

is

a combination of the two.

a thin metal ball

of

ever increasing,

and shrapnel and there

and can be discharged

Krupp
One

is

already talk of forty centimeter guns.

"unit charge" which

is

army

guns accompanying the infantry have a

course, than the fixed

It

in the

operation lasting but six minutes.

largest

shrapnel

cannon

which can be removed and put on again at

bore of twenty-one centimeters, which

field

gun

like

it

burst in the

as the shock

is

air,

just

downward.

has patented a shell that explodes by clock-work.
further fact concerning artillery

may

interest

GERMANY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

46

who follow

those

the present campaigns.

In

older famous battles the greatest efforts were

drag the

up

artillery

According

heights.

the hills

low-lying protected spots.
over a

and have the

hill

The

other side.

and have

to recent strategy

the goal itself

shell

crown the

curve and descend on the

be invisible.

They

with regard to them.
streets

to

chooses rather

it

will

accuracy, even though
.

The guns

constantly improved, but the greatest secrecy

through the

made

calculations as to just where

may

the

Howitzers can shoot right

made with astounding

strike are

it

it

all

are being
is

observed

are shrouded as they pass

and no one can inspect them without

a written order.

The low

situation has

its

great advantages as well as

disadvantages, but the latter can be counteracted.

its

In order

now

to be able to overlook the field, each battery

has an observation ladder or column, of which the

parts can be telescoped into short space and carried be-

tween two wheels.
air.

When desired

One advantage of

this

new

it is

projected into the

invention

is

that the

wheeled observation ladder can be sent off to quite a
distance carrying a portable

which

it is

telephone

possible at all times to

by means of

communicate with the

gunners.

Many

cannon now have telescopes attached to them

to assist the

gunner

in

taking aim.

When we

reflect

Observation Column

Observation Ladder

THE

ARiNIY

47

that some of the guns can shoot five and six miles, the
necessity of this will be apparent.

For storming

A

siege guns.

from

ferent

modern

tiquity,

to the

fortress

The

in dozens

of

something very dif-

from an early nine-

old city walls, however solidly

now regarded

and

is

a medieval or even

teenth century one.
built, are

heavy

fortifications there are special

as

mere pleasant

of an-

bits

German towns have been

ground and converted

in the city of Cologne, in

razed

into rings or boulevards.

Ulm.

In

their place

So

we now

have groups of sunken guns, of protected batteries and

of underground bomb-proof rooms with walls of
inforced concrete twelve and fifteen feet thick.

and there armored

rise

from

feet above the

the rooms are large

enough for a

The sunken guns can

infantry.

their resting-places, fire their charges

back into their beds.
forts in

all,

Germany

and sink

has twenty-eight land

of which nine are modern in every regard,

and eight coast
ter Prussia

Here

few

turrets project a

Some of
whole company of
ground.

re-

fortifications.

Should the Russians en-

we may hear much of

the great forts at

Konigsberg, Graudenz and Thorn, at Danzig,

and Marienburg, or of

the Silesian forts Glogau, Neisse

and Glatz, which played a part already
Frederick the Great.

Kulm

In the west,

INIetz

in the

wars of

and Strasburg

have been immeasurably strengthened since they passed

48

GERMANY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

into

German

hands, and Mainz, Coblenz, Cologne, Ger-

mersheim and Wesel are
are

Ulm

is

position,

can

latter but a

Kustrin

few miles from

Berlin.

by reason of

its

In

natural

considered as impregnable as any fortress

be.

Whether

the

Germans

will ever be forced

these strong positions remains to be seen.
is

the south

in the north are

the Konigstein, which,

is

To

formidable.

and Ingolstadt, while

and Spandau, the

Saxony

all

to

much

back into

Their policy

keep to the offensive and spare their own land as

However, what strength of arms may

as possible.

fail to accomj^lish

may

be reserved for famine.

With

her commerce entirely cut off, the food supply for the
nation at large will be but scanty, and of
cisms I have read on the
six

all

the criti-

German army during

the last

months those on the commissariat department have

been the most severe.
tration

A

change

in the

whole adminis-

was ordered a few months before the war broke

out, but

it

has scarcely as yet had time to go into full

effect.

The Ariny of

the

Air

Probably the greatest difference between ancient and

modern warfare

made of balloons,

lies in

the systematic use that

air-ships, aeroplanes

and

is

now

kites, also

of

telegraphy, both fixed and wireless, and of the tele-

THE

ARINIY

49

phone. I should add to these, automobiles, motor-trucks,
motorcycles and simple bicycles.
It

may

known

not be generally

that as far back as

1870 Germany attempted to make regular use of military balloons, and that two balloons and equipment were
Several ascents

purchased from an English aeronaut.

were successfully made with a member of the general
Before Paris, however, it proved
staff as passengers.
impossible to obtain the gas for inflation, and the whole

Fourteen years

balloon detachment was dissolved.

later,

in 1884, regular experiments regarding the taking of

observations and the exchanging of signals were be-

Fifty thousand marks a year were

gun.

the purpose,

and

so satisfactory

set aside

for

were the results that in

1887 a regular balloon corps was organized with a major, a captain, three Heutenants and fifty non-commissioned officers and men.

The

discovery that the gas

could be transported in steel cases in a greatly condensed

form placed military ballooning on
basis

and the

much

securer

corps, greatly increased, has taken part in

the yearly maneuvers since 1893.
is still

a

The

captive balloon

used as a sort of training-ship for recruits, but

the free balloon has been practically superseded.

The first Zeppelin and

the

first

Parseval air-ships were

acquired in 1907 and, in spite of frequent accidents,

have become as much a part of the armed forces as have

GERMANY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

50

There are now no

batteries or battle-ships.

air-ship battalions

less

than

five

under the "general board of inspec-

tion of military, air

and power transport matters."

The

combined appropriations of Prussia, Bavaria and Wiirt-

temberg for

their air fleets in

000 marks.

The

1913 amounted to 70,000,-

recent ships, which are not necessarily

confined to the Zeppelin type, though built along the

same

lines, are

year the

"L

almost as large as ocean steamships. Last

II" carried twenty-eight passengers on

trial

trip.

It exploded in mid-air

were

killed,

among them

almost

all

"L

military aeronautic experts.

The

largest

and twenty-seven

of Germany's chief

III," which

completed, will have a displacement
meters.

its

of

and newest ship

is

32,000

nearly
cubic

at present, the

Schiitte-Lanz II, has a displacement of between 23,000

and 24,000 cubic meters,
tors,

is

run by four ]Maybach mo-

each of one hundred seventy horse-power, and beats

the previous Zeppelin record for speed

(

seventy-nine kil-

ometers or forty-nine and three-eighths miles an hour)

by

six kilometers.

can in any
is

No other country has any air-ship that

way compare

with

this.

Under

construction

the twenty-fifth Zeppelin, which will have a length of

some four hundred

fifty feet.

All modern air-ships are

equipped with wireless telegraphy having a range of
about four hundred kilometers, and can carry light Gatling guns.

They can

lift

a weight of some 16,000

c
o

Gondola of the Schiitie-Lanz I

Airship Parseval

Airsliip

THE ARMY
pounds and
Tlie

their cost

Germans have

is

51

from 700,000 marks upward

practised very industriously
with

then-

an-ships-only the other day a
seven hundredth trip.

Whether

in

war

the

army

to

pilot

completed

Iiis

Zeppelins «-ill come up to the
expectations that have been formed
of them remains of
course to be seen. One
can conceive of a single ship
under favorable conditions,
throwing down enough explosives on an

the Zeppelin

enough
sia

is

noise to

put

it

completelv to rout. But

a very big target and

warn a whole

its

motors make

of its approach. Rusand Germany herself now have
many vertical guns
city

for shooting air-ships.

On the other hand, a Zeppelin
very high and can take
refuge behind a cloud
Its chief objects of
attack will doubtless be
can

fly

arsenals

dockyards, bridges and
tunnel-mouths, though no fleet
near the shore and no camp
can feel quite safe from it
in future.

It would be so tempting
to drop a shell in
the midst of an enemy's
general staff and thus bring
confusion into the whole
guidance of the

army!

The Zeppelin has dangerous
enemies in the ordinary
aeroplanes.
A Frenchman has just vowed to run
the

nose of his "plane" into the
first air-ship that
appears
over Pans. It is possible
for the airman to shoot, too.
at
close range, or to fly
above the

monster and

ropes with hooks that shall
tear

its

sides.

down
The new

let

GERMANY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

52

however, as I have said, can carry Gatling guns,

ships,

and

it is

how they can

only a question of

on the enemy.

Tlie latest idea

is

best trail

them

a shaft that shall ex-

tend right through the body of the Zeppelin and come
This arrangement has been

out on the upper surface.
tried

on the newest Schiitte-Lanz.

To the value of
Germany awakened

aeroplanes as instruments of war

Not

late.

until after

an exhibition

of the American, Orville Wright, on the Templehof
field

near Berlin in 1910 was the matter taken very

seriously.

Now

army with nearly

there are four flying battalions in the
fifteen

that the machines are
the French.

hundred men, and

more

solid

and

stable than those of

German maPrince Henry

All records were broken by

chines during the past year, and the great
races in jNIay,

believed

it is

though fatal accidents occurred, demon-

strated very well about

what may be expected from a

The

troop of airmen in time of war.

conditions were

extremely severe and the weather was not favorable, yet
twelve out of twentj^-nine starters achieved the final goal
within the time limit.

The

favorite machine in the

German army

batross-Taube, which looks quite warlike with

armor covering motor and
biplanes are used.
the

stock

in

trade

all.

is

the Al-

its

metal

Both monoplanes and

In case of war

all

aeroplanes, even

of the manufacturer, are com-

Marine Airship

A

Zeppelin over the Kiel

Bay

THE

53

These aeroplanes are easily transportable

mandeered.

by

AR.AIY

rail so that a

number of them can be concentrated
of action.

close to the scene

They

will be

used for scout-

and dropping bombs, and un-

ing, carrying despatches

doubtedly will have a great effect upon warfare.
likely that

more maneuvering

It

is

done under the

will be

cover of night than formerly in order to escape the spy-

ing eyes of the birdmen, that false marches and maneuvers

be undertaken,

^vill

that

bivouac

will

fires

be

lighted in unoccupied places merely for the purpose of
deceiving.

It will be easy to conceal

cannon by covering

them with green boughs.

The German
these

new night

soldiers are already

being trained for

operations which the aeroplane and air-

ship will necessitate.

by the moon and

They

are taught to

make

their w^ay

stars, to place their ears to the

and catch and interpret sounds.

It

ground

possible for a

is

finely trained ear to tell in the case of a passing horse

whether

it

is

running free or whether

load, also to estimate the

it

is

carrying a

approximate number of a pass-

ing troop. Silent marching

is

practised, too, the greatest

care being taken that the objects carried shall not clash

or rattle.

The enemy

carries

powerful

electric search-

lights against aeroplanes; a single apparatus requires

several vehicles, each

drawn by four

horses.

There must

be a motor, a dynamo, a great mirror, a water

wagon

GERMANY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

54

and a portable tower

The infantry

high.

thirt}^ feet

carries lighter apparatus, too, that can

now

be loaded on

an automobile, the motor of which can be used for running the dynamo.

Aeroplanes, too,

now

carry search-

lights.

An

enormous number of automobiles are used

army.

The German government has

ment with motor-truck owners
steamship companies) by which

new

it

a special arrange-

same

(the

in the

is

done with

pays a subsidy for

trucks on the understanding that they shall be at

its

It has been estimated that nine

disposal in time of need.

motor-wagons can replace one hundred thirty-nine horses

and

will

need thirty instead of one hundred two men.

Such a wagon

Avill

carry easily four tons of baggage.

The

With

all

Officers

and inventions, however,

the technical aids

the decisive factor in a

war remains

men and more

the

especially the officers.

I recently overheard a well-known Boston

woman

teacher holding forth with the positiveness of complete
conviction on the subject of the

miserating him on the

life

German

officer

and com-

of idleness circumstances

forced him to lead "except, of course, during the three
or four hours a day

when he

remark was addressed

is

obliged to exercise."

to a distinguished

The

Harvard pro-

Albatross-Taube Model 1914

Albatross-Taube Packed

for

Shipping

Double Monoplane

Albatross

Hydro and Aeroplane

THE ARMr
fessor— anti-military, however,

55

to the core

marked both of

I should have

contradiction to offer.

—who had no

these great people zero for flat ignorance of the subject

had I had them

may

The German

in a class.

occasionally seem as idle

and

officer,

I grant,

as frivolous as the son

of a new American millionaire: the only diff'erence
would be that the American conceals his idleness under
a show of industriousness, sending telegrams when he
has nothing else to do, while the
fact that he has been

up

German

since four in the

conceals the

morning

train-

ing a mass of raw recruits, that he has spent several
hours at the Krie gsakademie studying languages, geography, political economy and the like and that he has as

permanent job some important problem in tactics to
work out. Those who know the methods of the Prussian
a

government could never accuse it of giving
too

little

work.

A

list is

is

noted.

The

work and

ideal that

but

them may not be exactly our

ideal,

one of knightly virtue

the same.

never forget that he
his standard

is

all

a leader of

of honor, such as

it is,

be willing unhesitatingly to lay

employees

all officers in

kept of

their industry, their interest in their

eral ffood conduct

its

is

it is

which

their gen-

kept before

a wonderful

The man may

men; he must grip
like

down

grim death and

his life for

it.

If

he flinch or falter in physical encounter or in any way
has to
is "guilty of conduct unbecoming an officer" he

GERMAXY'S FIGHTIXG MACHINE

56

He

resign his position.

has to conform not only to the

rule of his superiors hut also to the code of his fellow

There are things

officers.

in that code that

not to see there and one misses

like

down

well be included, but to

much

one would
that

might

the profession as a sine-

cure "except, of course, during the three or four hours

a day"

is

And

the purest folly.

peace-time

is

mere waiting-period, the period

the

of training for the real work.
the

In war-time the fate of

whole country hangs on the

An

officer.

Italian,

Mangiarotti, recently inquired of some two thousand
soldiers

paign

who had
regarding

enemy.

just taken part in the African cam-

"The great

when facing

sensations

their

ideals

the

of God, king and father-

land," he writes, "incorporate themselves in one single

who

personality, the officer."

The

duty

an absolute hero

in the firing line

But only
him

is

real superiority

lieutenant

does his

to his

men.

of mind and body can keep

at this height.

There are more than thirty thousand

officers in the

regular standing army, the great majority of them be-

longing to the

nobility,

who

feel that they liave a heredi-

tary right to these positions.

I

am

inclined to think

that this feeling of caste will not be disadvantageous in

war.

The

military career

from youth up has been the

one serious object and occupation in

life.

The memory

A

Taube over the Military Flying Grounds

at Johannistlial,

near Berlin

Biplant-

Airship Transportation

Wagon

THE ARMY

57

of Jena has been preventative of pride and an incentive
to

The

hard work.

lord of the

manor

habit of

commanding gained

Herr Graf

as

Herr Baron

or as

as

will not be useless in the field.

Price Collier, in his

Germany and

the Ger^nans, gives

and instances

the officer a bad character for arrogance

the fact that an officer will

walk.

crowd a woman off the

side-

Such cases are very rare to-day, much rarer than

The Zabern

they were some thirty years ago.

affair,

however, has tlirown a glaring light on a certain pre-

sumptuousness

in the

bitter passions.

army and aroused

There was a contempt for the ordinary

laws of justice connected with the

avenge

itself in

no human

at the time very

time if

institution

it

is

trial that is likely to

has not already done

perfect,

and the

so.

But

has at

officer

present far other things to think of than presumptuousness.

In time of war manj' more
time of peace.
different

and

This

less

is

needed than

in

Germany by

a

officers are

provided for in

From

perfect system than in France.

the one-year volunteers, of

whom

there are about 15,000

yearly, are taken the "officer aspirants,"

who then un-

dergo supplementary training, returning at intervals
later life

for further instruction and practise.

general structure of the

of war.

army does not change

Instead of numbering

five or six

in

The

in time

hundred men

GERMANY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

58

the size of a battalion

There are supplementary troops in

more.

hundred or

raised to eleven

is

all

branches,

consisting party of retired soldiers and partly of

raw

who must be licked into shape as quickly as posbut who serve mainly to fill up the ranks at the

recruits,
sible,

Every able-bodied man

front as they become depleted.

must leave

his occupation

and take

to the ranks

Even

he has had military training or not.

a

whether

German

in

foreign lands, if he fail to report for duty to his consul,
is

liable

on

his return to a sentence

How many

penitentiary

will

themselves in other countries

is

of six years in the

hasten to

naturalize

one of the problems of

the war.

Horses, too, are called in in great numbers as soon as
mobilization
five

army

is

ordered.

In time of peace the twenty-

numbering about forty thousand

corps, each

men, require 157,000 horses

;

in time

of course, will be much larger, and

by instant
census

is

requisition.

But not

at

of war the demand,
this is

random.

regularly kept of practically

the country

;

it is

provided for

A

list

or

all

the horses in

revised at stated intervals

and commis-

sioners note the adaptability of every animal to this or

that purpose.

brought before

In times of mobilization the animals are
final

commissions, consisting partly of

military, partly of civilian

members, who appraise their

value and declare them confiscate.

The transferring of

Uhlans Crossing: River

Patrol of Uhlans

Uhlans Fordins: River

Kasily Upset

THE ARMY
horses to the rallying centers

the state

one of the chief

is

of the railroads, which, as

ties

59

is

difficul-

well known, belong to
to general traffic dur-

and are altogether closed

ing the mobilization period.

Germany
million men
the

war

putting, so

is

into the field.

last long, are

it

is

some four

estimated,

And

behind them, should

who belong

nearly a million boys

Jung Deutschland and to the Bavarian
Wehrhraftverein, Boy scouts, we should call them in
our country, but in Germany they are regularly trained

to the

by

Prussian

officers in tlie

army

—an occupation of these sinecureThey

holders that I omitted to mention.

are taken in

squads on long tramps, are trained to use their eyes and
ears

and enjoy the

life

of the

hills

carry their cooking utensils and
meals.

and woods.
prepare their

The government encourages

They

own

the institution

by

large grants and often places barracks and tents at the
disj)osal

Public and

of the boys for longer expeditions.

private generosity, too, has provided

homes

in out-of-

the-way places where the boys can take shelter over
night.

How

deadly an instrument for war

army remains
plished

Not

many

to be seen.
fine things in

the least of these

is

That

it

is

the

German

has already accom-

time of peace

is

undoubted.

the spread of hygienic knowl-

edge and the encouragement of manliness.

GERMANY'S FIGHTIXG MACHINE

60

By
is

the terms of the

German

constitution the Kaiser

head and chief of the whole German army and, not-

withstanding concessions made to Bavaria, Wiirttem-

berg and Saxony for the period when
peace-footing,

Whether he

is

absolute

commander

it

remains on a

in time of war.

will personally take the field or not

other question.

an-

If he does he will be upheld by an

enormous wave of

loyalty, but,

presence of a monarch in
the operations.

is

camp

on the other hand, the
often a hindrance to

is

His own great-grandfather, and

same time the Austrian emperor, made

life

at the

very bitter

for Bliicher and the other real fighters in 1814.

The

real business

of commanding a modern army

done by the chief of the general

a Moltke.

On him

falls the

is

again

for carrying out of the plans, though he has un-

hundred

in all

—whose

duty

is

"The make-up of

—more
The

older JNIoltke

the headquarters of an

army

is

ized.

Some commanders need no

of an importance not always

decide things for themselves.

than two

to collect information,

reports and even tender advice.

once wrote:

sufficientlj^ real

advice, but

weigh and

Their subordinates have

merely to carry out instructions.
first

of good

is

planning and the respon-

der him a huge staff of subordinates

make

It

that the present holder of that position

augury

sibility

staff.

is

But such

stars

of

radiance are only to be found about once in a cen-

THE ARMY

61

Only a Frederick the Great takes counsel with
no one and determines everything himself. As a rule
tury.

the leader of an

army can not do without

old plan was to hold a council of
decisions; the

new one

to use every aid

for the

is

from

advice."

The

war and abide by its
commanding general

others but to take the whole re-

sponsibility himself.

Headquarters travels with the army and with
the imperial chancellor, ready to take

every happening in the
negotiations.

The

it

goes

advantage of

field to influence the

course of

war remains

minister of

at home to
prompt forwarding of troops and supplies. In
1870 and 1871 Bismarck had much to suffer from fe-

see to the

male influences

—royal

bardment of beautiful

ladies
cities

present no royal ladies in
interfere.

and the

like.

Germany who

to the

bom-

There are at
are likely to

Bliicher used to insist that the most merciful

way of making war was
pursuit

who objected

to the last

to be absolutely relentless in

man and

worst thing that can happen

The
campaign

to the last horse.
is

to have the

drag on slowly with necessity of renewing battles. This
phase of the matter royal ladies do not always understand.

If the example of the Franco-Prussian War is followed the Germans will put as many as six different
armies into the

field,

each with some four army-corps.

GERMA]NY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

62

There are twenty-five army-corps, and the fighting part
of a single army-corps, which numbers some 41,000

men, strings out on an ordinary road

of

to a distance

As

twenty-six kilometers or more than sixteen miles.
the food supplies, medical

and surgical apparatus and

ammunition wagons have

to follow at a considerable

distance

umn

at

we may

estimate the length of the whole col-

more than double

amount.

this

Were

the whole

standing army (not to speak of the reserves) to travel

along the same road
pass a fixed point.

it

It

would take twenty-five days

may

be said here that the

of direct roads passing from

Germany

into

to

number

France

is

small and that for purposes of invasion the possession

of Belgium was a strategic necessity.

meant victory or defeat

in the great struggle

French have

so trusted to the forts

Liege and Namur, which they believed
nable, that they have done

and the

Belgium and France are

devil take the consequences.

so at one that the

Its occupation

little

to be

of

impreg-

to fortify their

own

borders in that direction.

Who

the

commanding

generals of the

are to be has not yet been

made

German army

public in America.

Judging by

the holders of high positions in peace-time

they will be

Grand Duke Frederick II of Baden, Duke

Albert of Wiirttemberg, Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria

and the generals Biilow, Eichhorn, Heeringen and

THE ARMY
PrittAvitz.

Wliether or not the

will be given a

command

is

G3

German

doubtful.

He

crown-prince
is

brave and

dashing but impetuous and unbalanced, and his relations with his father have been

am

told that at

somewhat

strained.

I

maneuvers he expects far too much from

men and horses, though his pleasant manners and his
joking way make him very popular. He may, of covu'se,

his

prove the Frederick the Great of the campaign should
it

last sufficiently

perience.

long for him to gain the proper ex-

PART

III

THE NAVY
In 1848 the German Confederation was at war with
Denmark on account of Schleswig-Holstein. The national parliament voted six million thalers for the crea-

tion of a fleet

it

;

might

as well have voted sixty millions

as far as the possibility of collecting

circumstances was concerned.

it

in such disordered

But on June

fourth,

1849, a squadron of three steamships, the BarbarossUj
the

Hainhurg and

mouth of

the Liihech did set out

the Elbe, with decks cleared for action.

admiral was a Saxon, Rudolph Bromme.
that a

from

Danish corvette was becalmed

of Helgoland.

in the

The

was known

neighborhood

She was sighted and some shots had

already been sent through her rigging,

from another

It

the

direction,

when suddenly

from Helgoland

British possession, a shot

was

fired.

itself,

then a

It signified that

the ships were within the three-mile limit over which then

and now a

state's

sovereignty extended, and that

land was forbidding the fray.

The

"fleet"

Eng-

complied

with the order and Lord Palmerston took occasion to

send a diplomatic note to

tlie
0)4

German Confederation

THE NAVY

60

stating that ships had been seen in the

North Sea flying

a black-red-gold flag and conducting themselves as warships

;

that

England would not recognize such

a black-red-gold flag as war-ships, but

need

if

would

ships with

treat them,

be, as pirates.

England has more

or less preserved this attitude to

day and has been righteously indignant

the present

whenever Germany increased her

fleet.

A

first

lord of

the admiralty once publicly declared that Britain's rule

of the sea was part of the

common

treasure of

mankind

and that England could never endure that another
power should be able to weaken her political influence

by exerting naval

pressure.

would unquestionably lead

The attempts
failed, the fleet

The

state

to

Such a

position, he said,

to war.

weld Germany into a nation having

was put up

at auction

and sold

in 1852.

of Prussia, however, which was one of the

purchasers, had by this time started her

own

fleet

and

soon began to build the harbor in the Jadehuclit, which
is

now

called Willi elmsliav en.

Adalbert, was

fired

in

the cause of

Himself an intrepid

an encounter with Morocco

fleet consisted

leader, he

pirates,

on one of the small boats of the Danzig.

however, the
the

the royal princes,

made admiral and furthered

the fleet in every way.

was wounded

One of

who

In 1863,

of but four corvette cruisers,

Arhona, Gazelle and Vineta, which had each twenty-

GERMANY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

66

eight cannon, and the

Add

Nymphe, which had but

twenty-one cannon boats, four of which

to these

carried three cannon, the rest but two.

Prussian

seventeen.

fleet

merged

In 1867 the

of the North

in that

German

Confederation, which in turn, in 1871, merged into that

of the new

German Empire.

In the war with France the German
role whatever, there

being but

fleet

played no

five ironclads in all,

two

of them small coast defenders, to oppose to France's
fifty-five.

There were but one or two insignificant en-

—one

between the

in the Baltic,

and one be-

counters between small single ships
Grille

and the Hirondelle

tween the Meteor^ whose whole crew numbered sixtythree,

and the French despatch -boat Bouvet, with

The two had come upon each

eighty-three.

other in

Havana and then tried conclusions on the
I5iit the German victories on land had been

the harbor of

high

seas.

so quick

and

decisive that the fleet as a

whole never came

into action.

Even the successful outcome of the war did not spur
Germany on to build up a strong navy. A general, not
a seaman, was made chief of the admiralty and, although

Von

Stosch brought in a building plan accord-

ing to which the navy, by 1882, would have had fourteen large ironclads, seven monitors, twenty cruisers

and twenty-eight torpedo-boats,

it

was carried out only

THE NAVY

Stosch deserves credit, however, for insisting

in part.

that

67

Germany

should build

all

her

own

ships.

The

sink-

ing of the Grosse Kurfilrst in 1879, which was run into

by one of her own
and the

the navy,
officers

sister ships,

loss

was a great calamity for

of her two hundred sixty-five

and men caused wide-spread

grief.

Caprivi, the later chancellor, followed

He

1883 as head of the admiralty.
but,

He

it

was

Stosch in

conscientious,

would seem, altogether without fruitful

placed

all his

much

Von

ideas.

hopes in the torpedo-boat, and from

1883 to 1887 not a single battle-ship was
not so

Von

It

built.

to be credited to Caprivi, but to a

was

young

now grand admiral and state secretary for the navy office, that the German torpedoboat fleet became the best in the world. Tirpitz made a
new weapon of it, one that could be used not merely for
officer.

Tirpitz,

coast-defense, but also for fighting on the high seas.

But

the fact remains that the torpedo-boat under Ca-

privi's

regime was greatly overestimated and that

usefulness has more and more been checked by
ventions

search-lights,

Gatling

guns,

new

its

in-

torpedo-boat-

destroyers and the like.

Toward
see the

the end of his term indeed Caprivi began to

importance of a strong

ground that "a navy which has
or near shore

is

fleet
its

and the idea gained

center of gravity on

not worthy of the name."

In 1887 was

GERMAXY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

68

begun

Wilhelm canal between

the Kaiser

North Sea, which enables

the

the one fleet to operate in

Mean-

both waters without fear of being intercepted.

Germany had

while

and

the Baltic

started on her career as a colonial

power, having acquired by purchase and by treaty tracts
in

Africa and islands in the Pacific Ocean more than

Some of

twice the size of her possessions in Europe.

her

little

cruisers

and cannon boats had even seen

against unruly natives.

was not

to be

won

The Reichstag, however, showed

government's colonial policy and

interest in the

little

service

for the building of large war-ships.

A change came soon after the accession of the present
One of

emperor, William II.

his first acts

was

to reor-

ganize the whole naval system, separating the administrative part

from the purely

miral von Tirpitz

Henry of

is

at the

military.

latter.

Brandenburg

class,

Four great

battle-ships

were begun in 1889.

by ceding Helgoland

fifty

in

scientifically,

,

of the

all

England

re-

return for a correction of

dreadnaughts.

was any tangible

fleet

own com-

battle-ships, but in 1890,

boundaries in East Africa, she gave

vantage worth

Ad-

head of the former and Prince

sponded by ordering ten new

how a

present

Prussia, subject to the emperor's

mands, of the

there

At

fleet at all

Germany an

And

ad-

almost before

Germany was

at

work

learning both by theory and by practise

should be

managed and maneuvered.

THE XAVY
"How few
little in

69

these ships were," writes a vice admiral, "and

accord with modern warfare on the high seas, we

Imagination often had to substitute what was lacking.
still

with

all their old full rigging,

all

how

know.

School-ships,

represented ironclads

;

torpedo-

boats served as cruisers, and the Mars, built to be an artillery train-

acted as

ing-ship,

in the history

of

In those next few years we went

ilag-ship.

through a period which

—we can say

it

— unique
—much that
been superseded —but

without boasting

is

Not but that we made mistakes

fleets.

then seemed to us indubitably right has since

the German fleet, wliich had fewer and less available ships than
many other countries, has outdistanced them all in tactical develop-

ment.

.

.

The

.

stake,

is

it

true,

became greater as ships repre-

senting a capital of millions and carrying hundreds of

men

took the

method remained the same. Commander and crew, by progressing from easier to more difficult and
more warlike maneuvers, achieved that feeling of security which is
place of the

little

boats, but the

not a foolish scorn of danger but the knowledge of power to cope

with

That

it.

is

the state of mind which makes for success in war

and wliich enables one

The

to

win

fleet legislation

all

by risking

all."

of 1898 for the

first

time looked

ahead and established rules as to the future number of
ships

and the time-limit within which they should be

built,

and

the fleet

also laid

down

principles as to the tasks that

was intended to accomplish.

Two

squadrons,

of eight battle-ships each, were to be in constant readiness

and were

to have a flag-ship at their head. Six large

and sixteen small

cruisers

were to act as scouts, three

large and ten small cruisers as a "foreign fleet"; two
battle-ships, three large cruisers

and four small ones

were to form the reserve, and the whole reorganization

70

GERMANY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

was

to be completed in six years

—that

had heretofore been provided that
ship should give

for the

up half of

new crews of

its

trained

It

of war each

in case

men

as a nucleus

This greatly

the reserve ships.

weakened the fighting power of the ships

moment, and the

by 1904.

is,

at the crucial

1898 abolished the com-

legislation of

pulsion for one at least of the two squadrons.

Between 1898 and 1900 came events which greatly
disquieted

Germany:

Wars and

disturbances in Samoa.

the Spanish-American

were amenities between the

Off Manila there

German and American

mirals which might have ended

former had he been able to
legislation of 1900

and Boer

ad-

more creditably for the

disi^laj^

more

was influenced by

force.

The

all these factors

and has a wider perspective than any that had gone

The preamble

before.

have a

battle-fleet so

declared that

strong that even for the most pow-

erful naval opponent a

war

gers that that opponent's

connected with such dan-

is

own

And

further:

imperative that the

German

be impaired."

"Germany must

position as a

"For

this

power may

purpose

battle-fleet be as

it is

not

strong as

that of the greatest maritime power, for, as a rule, a

great maritime power will not be in a position to concentrate

its

though

it

whole fighting force against

us.

But even

should succeed in opposing us with greatly

superior forces the subjection of a strong

German

fleet

n

THE XAVY
would
he

so

weaken an enemy

may win,

his fleet will

ful to assure his

that, in spite

no longer be

own predominant

of any victory

sufficiently

power-

"For

position."

the

time," writes Mittler, "the so-called risk idea which

first

was henceforth

to be a

determining factor in our

fleet

development was clearly expressed."

The
fleet

legislation of

1900 amounted to a doubling of the

provided for only two years previously.

battle-ships, four large cruisers

ers

and sixteen small

ships of each of the three types were to be

In 1906,

kept, partially manned, in reserve.

number of submarines,

squadron" were provided
the

cruis-

were to be in constant readiness, while exactly as

many more
to a

Seventeen

in addition

six cruisers for the

for,

and

number of torpedo-boats and

it

"foreign

was voted

to raise

also to provide auto-

matically for their renewal, the life of a torpedo-boat

being estimated at twelve years.

This meant that twelve

torpedo-boats would have to be built each year.
land's

example

in building

Eng-

dreadnaughts necessitated

greatly raising the appropriation for battle-ships and
also influenced the legislation of 1908,

normal

life

of a battle-ship was declared reduced from

twenty-five to twenty years.
finally, increased the

The

number of

eight, of large cruisers
six,

by which the

legislation of 1912,

active battle-ships

by four and of small

cruisers

not to mention that the number of submarines

is

by
by
to

GERMANY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

72

be brought
to be

up

to seventy-two, fifty-four

always ready for

finishing all the

new

ships

part in the present war.
will all

now

But

service.
is

of which are

as the period for

1920 they will play

The

little

reserve ships, of course,

be called into action.

To resume, then, and to be more specific, the actual
German fleet, counting ships expected to be ready in the
course of 1914, numbers thirty-eight ships of the line,

fourteen armored cruisers, thirty-eight protected cruisers,

two hundred twenty-four tor])edo-boats and thirty

submarines.

There are no torpedo-boat-destroyers as

in other navies, the small cruisers

take their place.

The

being supposed to

battle-ships are

There are three of the "King

class"

ranged
(the

in classes.

Konig, the

Grosser KurfUrst and the Marhgraf), which have a
displacement of nearly 26,000 tons and are equipped
with every possible modern improvement, such as net
protection against torpedoes, turbine engines, provision

for oil-fuel, torpedo tubes,
sters,

It

is

from

these

mon-

of which each carries ten of the largest guns, not

to speak

most

etc.

of the smaller ones, that we

in the course

shall

probably hear

of the war, though not perhaps

beginning, as they are not fully completed.
to be joined in

The Konig

1915 by a
class

is

in the

They

are

sister-ship, the Kronpriiiz.

to be

larger in dimension, in

horse-power and in displacement, though not in speed or

H, M. Ship Seydlitz

Signalinff on

in

Dry-Dock

Submarine

THE XAVY
armament than

the Kaiser class, of which there are five

The Kaiser,

ships:

73

the

Kaiserin, the Friedrich

Grosse, the Prinzregent Luitpold and the

Next come

bert.

the

Helgoland

friesland, Thiiringen,

class

der

Konig Al-

(Helgoland, Ost-

Oldenburg) and the Nassau

class

{Nassau, Westfalen, Rheinland, Posen) after which,
with the DeutscJdand class (13,200 tons),

we

are out of

the region of the dreadnaughts.

There

is

a dreadnaught cruiser, the Derfflinger, just

ready, with a greater displacement (28,000 tons), and

of course, with far greater speed than any of the

Next comes

ships.

battle-

the Seydlitz (25,000 tons), then the

Moltke and the Goehen (23,000 tons), and the Von der
Tann (19,500 tons). The Goehen has already been
practically captured, as has also the Breslau

tons)
ish

They

.

are

government

now

in the Dardanelles,

three of the protected cruisers bear the

man

cities (like

and the Turk-

considering their purchase.

is

(4,550

Twenty-

names of Ger-

the Breslau, Colherg, Dresden, Konigs-

herg), while the rest for the most part have such names
as the Gazelle, the

Some

fifteen

Medusa, the Niohe, the Undine.

of the largest and best-known passen-

ger ships of the

Hamburg and Bremen

lines

were to

have served as auxiliary cruisers, but a number of these

now

are in foreign ports and far

tection

of their

fleets.

from

the needed pro-

It remains to be seen

what use

GERMANY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

74

made of
Hamburg.

will be

or

the Imperator, which

In concluding our

may

list

Americans

interest

the Alice Roosevelt.

is still

of ships in the
to

It

know

is

at

Cuxhaven

German navy

that there

is

one called

not likely to influence the

progress of the war or even to come into action.
special title

is

Stations jacht, and

it is

general inspector of the navy, Prince

Germany's

ally,

it

of the

at the service

Henry of

Its

Prussia.

Austria, although in ]May, 1914, she

appropriated more than 400,000,000 hronen for her

makes

fleet,

at present a very

fifteen ships of the

naughts,

line,

two armored

weak showing.

She has

of which three are dread-

cruisers

and seven protected

cruisers.

England, Germany's chief naval opponent, has
three ships of the line as
eight,

to seventeen.

cruisers,

many has
still

boats

thirty-

England has forty-four

but fourteen armored cruisers, and but

more

in

Germany

as
ar-

five

In protected cruisers the

of

ratio

England's favor, while with torpedois

hundred fifty-four

mav

own

of which ten are dreadnaughts; Ger-

them are dreadnaughts.
is

to her

and of these twenty-four are dreadnaughts,

compared

mored

compared

sixty-

comparatively well provided
as against one

—one

hundred ninety.

It

be mentioned here, as a bit of interesting history,

THE NAVY

75

that the majority of great
naval victories have been

over numerically superior

won

fleets.

France has ten dreadnaught
battle-ships, on paper,
but no dreadnaught cruisers,
and is said to have had
difficulty in officering the
ships that she has.

Moreover,
of the ten dreadnauglits six
are only what are called
half-dreadnaughts and only three of
the others are ready
for service. Russia is
practically without a

fleet, thou-ii
she has four battle-ships
and fourteen cruisers in the
Baltic and four battle-ships
and two cruisers in the
Black Sea. Next year she expects
to have ready for
use in the Baltic four new

dreadnaughts.

Naval warfare has been

many

these

that

from our thoughts
become so unfamiliar

so far

years, its terms have

worth dwelling for a while on
the difl-erent
types of ships and showing their
special uses and their
it is

special tasks in battle.

Most important of all, with their
supremacy unassaded by any of the newly
invented types,
are the bat-

tle-ships or ships
line because that

of the
is

line.

They

position that renders the fire
of their
ive.

a

are called of the

their natural position in
battle, the

guns most

effect-

This does not mean that their
bows are to be

line,

though that position

may

all in

sometimes have to be

adopted; but rather that they
are to string out, one be-

;

76

GERMANY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

hind the other at stated intervals, so as to be able to
a vast broadside often miles in length.
the line

may

It

must be slanting or again that the

must be constantly changed

The ruling

idea,

of course,

as
is

new

fire

be that
position

exigencies arise.

to strike the right bal-

ance between the amount of surface presented as a
target for the enemy's guns and the ability to keep
the most effective running

fire.

All

up

this is diligently

practised in time of peace in the so-called maneuvers.

The utmost exactness of

calculation

is

required, for the

nearer together the ships the more effective

is

their fire

indeed the great distinction between modern naval encounters and those of former times

work, if we

may

call it so.

lies

in this

team

The great dreadnaughts,

with their turbine engines and carefully adjusted steer-

ing apparatus, are much more manageable and can be

brought much closer to one another than was the case
with old-fashioned battle-ships.

bow of one

ship

in practise at a

an advantage
all

The distance between the

and the stern of the next one
hundred yards or

it is

less

;

is

reckoned

one can see what

to have the eight ships of a squadron

of about the same

carried so far in the

size

and speed.

German

This idea has been

fleet that,

even after the

superiority of the turbine engine had been demonstrated
the ships required to complete a squadron were built in

the old style.

Single encounters like those which

make

For Raisinc: Sunken Submarines

The Second Squadron Passing

the I'riedrichsort Light

H. M. Cruiser Breslau

H. M. Royal Yacht Hohenzollern with His Majesty on Board

in the

Lock

at Kiel

!

THE XAVY
up such

thrilling

to occur again,

pages

and

if

77

in history are not likely often

they do, will not come to board-

ings and to hand-to-hand conflicts.
Tlie range at which the great naval battles of the

future will be fought will be A^ery great,

up

all

the

The great guns can

to ten thousand yards.

way

easily

shoot that distance, while a reason for not coming nearer
until, at least, the heav}^

ammunition

is

gone,

that range each fleet will be practically safe

torpedoes of the other.
tises at that

The German

that at

from the

often prac-

fleet

range, firing at a moving target which

dragged along by another
is

is

On

boat.

each modern

is

gun

a telescope, and there are instruments for determining

the distance at

any given moment,

as well as compli-

cated adjustments for sighting and aiming.
jectiles

used in the biggest guns weigh each nearly a

ton and cost well
caution

The pro-

is

up

into the thousands, so every pre-

We

taken not to waste them.

can no longer

speak of a cannon-ball, for the modern charges are
cylindrical, pointed
inflict

the utmost

and

filled

damage

with explosives so as to

for the money.

Experience

has shown that at very close range they will pass through
blocks of steel

The bore of

more than a yard

thick

guns

in the

the greatest

hitherto been a

little

German navy has

over thirty centimeters, but

reaching the forty centimeter

mark

;

the

is

fast

guns themselves

GERMANY'S FIGHTIXG MACHINE

78
are

forty-five to fifty-eight feet long

from

correspondingly.

The

Krupp, who, when he

woman

in

best are

from the foundries of

died, left his

daughter the

The Krupps have

Germany.

is

made of

cavated or bored;

a single block, which

The gun-

on when red-hot, and

The "kick" of

after.

the

gun has been

nated by an ingenious contrivance.

non of to-day have become
fect as instruments that

them than
navv

it

It

is

is

said that

it

barrel,

after

The

firmly ever

entirely elimi-

Altogether the can-

and

so complicated

so per-

orders for them about six months before
laid.

And

the life of such a

gun

is

short.

some of the guns on the new English,

ha\'« fired eighty shots;

dred.

sit

takes longer to manufacture

Japanese and Italian ships

German

regularly ex-

does to construct the ship, and the English

iJ^ives its

even the keel

is

then protected by innumerable

it is

rings, which are put

richest

a special steel

of the utmost toughness and resistance.
barrel

and weigh

will be useless after they

on the American, French and

from one hundred and

difference

lies

fifty to

in the construction of the

and there are controversies and

which methods are the

two hun-

rivalries

best, just as there are

gunover

over almost

everything else that pertains to warfare: over the best
shells, the best

powder, the best mechanical contrivances

for loading, for getting the range, etc.

Dreadnaughts

have scarcely vet been tried in actual warfare, and the

THE NAVY
nation that has

them

made mistakes

79

in theory

may

live to

rue

bitterly in practise.

The guns
battle-ships,

be they can

are placed,

two and two,

and can be turned
fire

in

any

in turrets

on the

direction; if need

a whole broadside; while, as two turrets

are elevated above the rest, a volley can be fired of four

guns

from

direct

the

bow

mored with tough hard
so that a

or stern.

steel

and

The

turrets are ar-

their surface

is

curved

The King and

shot will glance off.

the

Kaiser classes carry ten great guns, the Helgoland

and Nassau

more

classes

they have not the two elevated turrets

efi'ective, as

for shooting

even twelve, but the latter are no

o^.^er

the other guns.

French and American ships are
four guns to a turret, but the
tive

enough not

to

Some of

number of

German navy

is

conserva-

to wish to try the experiment.

Xot only
cells

new

have three and even

Theoretically at least a great dreadnaught
unsinkable.

the

is

its

is

almost

hull divided into a great

and compartments but many of the

cells

themselves are armored, so that even if a torpedo penetrates to

them

it

will not

All vulnerable places,
plates that extend

have things

too,

are heavily

away below

own way.

all its

armored with

the water line

;

while the

powder magazines and torpedo tubes are well down

in

the depths of the ship.
It

is

the heavv

armament

that has conditioned the size

GERMANY'S FIGHTIXG MACHINE

80

of the ships, for they have few other advantages than
the abihty to carry the extra weight,

and they have

creased the cost of navies enormously.
tions

far

in-

The appropria-

of eight great powers for 1914-1915 come to not

from three bilHon

hundred milhon marks, Eng-

five

land leading with more than one

billion.

And

the ex-

penses do not cease with the building of the ships, for
docks, dry docks, canals,

have to be enlarged ac-

etc.,

The Kaiser Wilhelm

cordingly.

the years 1887
six million

and 1895,

canal, built

at a cost of one

marks, had already outgrown

ten years after

its

opening.

between

hundred

fifty-

its

usefulness

Its widening,

which will

not be fully completed until 1915,

is

to cost

two hun-

dred twenty-three millions in addition.

We

have thus far spoken only of ships of the

and, although

we

shall

line,

have to return to them in a mo-

ment, a few words must

first

be said as to the use of the

Armored
cruisers in themselves are nothing new.
England has
forty-four of them, France nineteen, Japan fifteen and
Germany and the United States each fourteen. But

other categories of ships in actual warfare.

great armored battle-cruisers have existed only since

1907 and are possessed as yet by only three powers:

England has
Goehcn

is

ten;

Germany

has, or had, five

out of the running)

The big

battle-cruiser

is

,

(for the

and Japan has two.

as long as a battle-ship, or

THE NAVY
even longer;

guns

as large, but fewer of

Where,
lines,

and

also, is called

it,

then,

is

a dreadnaiight.

ten.

;

The

which are long and slender,
is

It has

them eight instead of

the difference ?

in the speed, which

81

difference

like those

is

in the

of a yacht,

from twenty-eight

to thirty

knots instead of twenty-two or twenty- three.

The

cruiser has been described as a sort of naval cavalry that

can

fly to

any weak point of the enemy, can chase a

single ship or can outflank a line of ships, bring

between two
ers

fires,

thus deciding the battle.

can also fight each other.

A

The

contests thrilling

cruis-

new instrument of

war has thus been introduced that may, after
more make naval

them

all,

once

and dramatic instead

of being mere pounding competitions.

The small

cruiser, in contradistinction to the large

armored one, has but a light iron
light
to

guns and deck torpedo

engage

in battle, unless

rather to avoid

it.

it

belt

tubes.

and

Its

carries only

purpose

is

not

be with a torpedo-boat, but

It combines the qualities of scout

and of torpedo-boat-destroyer, which

latter

type

is

alto-

German navy. Its chief quality
swarm of small cruisers accompanies

gether lacking in the
is

swiftness,

the fleet

make
is

and a

when

it

puts to sea, darting here and there to

sure that none of the much-dreaded

little

enemies

approaching.

Of

large torpedo-boats the

German

fleet

has one hun-

GERMANY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

82

dred fifty-four,

all

of

own

its

special type.

The value

of the type has at times been overestimated, at times
underestimated, but the recent gains in speed and in sea-

made

worthiness have
Practically

ing which

its

it

no contemptible adversary.

only weapon

the torpedo, for project-

is

on deck;

carries four tubes

it

its

small guns

are merely for use against other torpedo-boats.
chief defense

is its

Its

extreme swiftness, for some of the

boats have a speed of thirty-eight miles an hour.

can turn,
the

bow

too, incredibly quickly, for

as well as in the stern.

painted black for

its

the night, stealing

weapon and

It

protection.

up

it

It

has a rudder in

unarmored, but

is

For

it is

is

a creature of

in the darkness wath

its

deadly

scarcely ever exposing itself to the enemy's

guns by the

It has one

light of day.

dreaded above

all others,

enemy, to be

the search-light.

There are hundreds of the

little

black devils in the

navy, and they have every sort of trick for concealment

By

and escape.

smoke from

running very swiftly they can keep the

rising vertically

from

thus betraying their presence.
flotillas

and

if

their funnels

They often go

and

forth in

an enemy start to chase them they

scatter,

having previously arranged where they are to meet
again.

They come bow on

to the ship they

injure, for the distance between

more

rapidly.

them

mean

to

will then increase

If brought to bay a torpedo-boat turns

Submarine Fleet

in

Harbor

Armored Cruiser Moltke

at Kiel

THE NAVY
its

own

sel

and

search-light on the

commander of

him with

tries to blind

business, that of torpedo-boat

men of

83

its

go

The

and courage.
little

craft

that

is

bottom in the course of a

to the

Germany

campaign.

a risky

is

commander, and requires

the very highest training

are sure to

It

glare.

reason there are such numbers of the

many

the other ves-

expects that her

flotilla will

be of

when a torpedo
Dynamite is mild

great help in a war with England, for
hits the

damage

compared

to the

is

apt to be severe.

new melanite and

lyddite that are used

in charging.

If the torpedo-boat
night,

its sister,

is

a fiend that works mainly at

the submarine, works only

the submarine has not, as

was

at one time expected,

pletely revolutionized naval warfare,

far asserted itself that
the reckoning.

Its

it

by day.

it

If

com-

has at least so

can never be left wholly out of

improvement has kept pace with

that of the torpedo-boat in stability, in size

and

in

man-

The newest boats have a displacement of
thousand tons, and long sea voyages are now possible.

ageableness.
a

German}^ has far fewer torpedo-boats than has England, but claims that hers are

better adapted for service in

high

much

stronger and

much

rough weather and on the

seas.

When

there

is

no enemy

submarine rides the waves

in the

immediate vicinity the

like

any other boat; when

:

84

GERMANY S FIGHTING MACHINE

there

danger she dives hke a duck.

is

Just before firing

her torpedo she comes to the surface for an instant to
get one last good look.

She

is

helpless at that

moment,

When

of course, but trusts to not being seen in time.

under water her speed
as the pressure

is

only about ten miles an hour,

very great; on the surface she can

is

Her

travel about sixteen.

slowness

is

a disadvantage,

for she can only lurk for and intercept a
sue and overtake

fleet,

not pur-

She labors under another disad-

it.

vantage, too, for she has to carry two motors and can

Why?

not use the same one above and under water.

Because the one

is

an

oil

which would be fatal when
other

run by an

is

motor and generates gases
all outlets

The

are closed.

electric storage battery, the filling

of

which requires time and patience.

How
fleet?

can the submarine communicate with
It has wireless telegraphy

signals, but these
sired.

as

and

its

own

also deep-water

do not work so well as might be de-

It has one other connection with the visible world

wonderful as anything described by Jules Verne

his Ttcenti)

Thousand Leagues Under

scope, or literally the "looker round."
ter than describe

it

in the

in

the Sea, the periI can not do bet-

words of a naval

officer.

Count

Ernest zu Reventlow

Roughly speaking,
the boat

is

the apparatus consists in this:

imder water and yet wishes

to see

what

If
is

THE NAVY
going on above,
surface

end of

is

pushes up a long thin pipe until the

it

reached and a
pipe

this

from

little

At

beyond.

the farther

a contrivance with glass prisms, or

is

This throws down the image re-

mirrors and lenses.
flected

85

the surface of the water, through the ver-

tical pipe, into the interior

of the boat.

The image

is

caught on a plate and the commander of the submarine,

may

although he

everything that

be several yards under water, can see
floating

is

face and consequently can

guidance of

this

and happening on the sur-

make

image and

his attack with the sole

steer the boat until

it is

at

the right distance for firing the torpedo.
It sounds like magic,
in

it

ence.

when

it

and indeed the witches were not

comes to the achievements of modern

But Reventlow has

periscope

The splashing of

it

sounds in theory.

the salt water, unless the sea be per-

fectly calm, which
efl'aces the

to confess that in practise the

not so wonderful as

is

sci-

image.

seldom

it

It

is,

soon dims and even

was long before the inventors

could bring the periscope to reflect more than a small
section of the horizon, but that difficulty seems to have

been overcome.
It

is

possible, with

map, clock and compass,

reckonings and keep on a course even

under water.
seldom goes.

Deeper than ninety
It has

to take

when deep down

feet the submarine

found a new and unexpected enemy

GERMANY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

86

in the air-ship or aeroplane, for

that

from a height on a

clear day, at least,

But what, one

very far into the water.
the aeroplane do about

a well-known fact

it is

it

even

if

it

you can

will ask,

see

can

sights a submarine

down beneath the surface? Projectiles would not
likely to do much damage. At the same time it can

far

be

warn

ships

That the

and can pursue and worry the submarine.
latter

not a perfect instrument goes with-

is

out saying; indeed,

comes a menace to

when

its

own

it

darts about blindly

ships.

Its

and providing

tors

service

men and extremely

the

Yet

all

the

and out of

coming up, the changing of mo-

artificial air that

The

go wrong.

to

is

things are very apt

extremely exhausting for

dangerous.

same the value of submarines

is

universally

acknowledged and every great navy has them.
will

They

probably prove useful in planting that new instru-

ment of

destruction, the floating mine, about which a

few words must be

said here:

"It

is

to be presumed,"

writes Reventlow, "that in the next naval
tle

be-

arrangements are

so complicated, too, with all the letting in

water, the diving and

it

war [how

lit-

he dreamed in November, 1913, that that war was so

close at hand!]

mines will play an important part not

merely in coast defense but also

in sea fights as a

weapon

with the same justification as artillery and torpedoes and
that their use will materially influence the tactics to be

^.:.aM

A

Submarine

Flotilla

Torpedo Boat

Search Lights

A

Submarine About

to

Dive

THE NAVY
As

emploj^ed."
first

87

such a weapon of attack mines were

used in the Japanese-Russian War.

A mine, as the reader probably knows,

is

a cask

filled

with high explosives and fastened by means of weights

and anchors
JNIines

so that

it

floats

can be planted in

some feet below the surface.

fields, as it

were, by torpedo-

boats or submarine and then a hostile fleet can be lured

or chased in
is

among

The North

them.

at present thickly strewn with

Sea, as

them and

we know,

fatal results

have already been chronicled. Air-ships and aeroplanes
can help by finding the whereabouts of the hostile

and designating by

wireless the spots

fleet

where the mines

should be planted.
Air-ships and aeroplanes will possibly find their chief

use as coast-defenders.

they can

retire,

But along

They need refuges

which

which limits their use on the high

the shore they can scout for hostile ships

also can detect submarines

down

to

and mines.

seas.

and

They can throw

explosives and, if they are near

enough

to the

enemy's harbors, can destroy docks and demoralize shipping.

Already there

and of great iron

is

talk of specially

grills for

armored decks

protecting the openings of

funnels.

More than

six

months ago a thoughtful German,

Rudolf Troetsch, wrote a book

called

Germany's Fleet

—a

GERMANY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

88

in the Decisive Struggle, in

ent tasks the

which he weighs the

differ-

be called upon to perform in case

fleet will

of war, and comes ever and again to the conclusion that
a battle on the high seas
battle

im grossen

enemy's

fleet is

is

the only possible

Stile, in the

grand

not conquered

ened and strategy and

option—

Even

style.

if the

can be greatly weak-

it

go far

tactics will

to

make up

for

want of numbers.
Troetsch begins by showing the different methods an

enemy

Avill

that he has

be likely to pursue

England

as has already

in

;

mind.

happened

and one

sees

First of

—the

throughout

all will

so-called cruiser

come

war

or

attempt to destroy the country's commerce by snapping
\\\)

her merchant ships.

This can eventuallj^ end the war

by the starvation process that
;

and other
tional

supi^lies.

According

agreement of 1856 there

which means that individuals
take prizes, but does not

mean

viduals, if they are subjects

ring powers,
either be

may

may

not

cargo.

no privateering,
fit

out ships and

of one or other of the war-

not be seized.

all their

food

that the property of indi-

Prizes of

towed into the nearest port

bottom with

all

to the Paris interna-

shall be

and passengers have been taken

this

by cutting off

is,

off,

To

or,

war may

after the crews

may

be sent to the

be effective, however,

metliod of warfare must be methodically pursued,

which means regularly employing a force of swift

cruis-

THE NAVY
erSo

The method had

especially in

its

89

warm advocates

game

a strong feeling at present that the
the candle
to

in naval circles,

France about thirty years ago.
is

There

not worth

and that there are other tasks for the

perform which are of more importance.

try which has

few foreign coaling

the prizes can be towed but very

while a naval battle

an enemy try these

is

is

cruisers

For a coun-

stations into which

little is

to be gained;

greatly to be preferred to having

tactics.

Another method that may be applied against Ger-

many

North Sea

the blockading of her

is

coast.

A

blockade, according to the Paris declaration of 1850

and again according

must be

to the

London conference of

effective in order to be binding

not, in other words,

;

1908,

a country

may

simply declare an enemy's coasts in

a state of blockade, but must have enough ships there to
enforce the regulations.

A successful blockade hinders

even neutral ships from landing and

is

the best

way of

preventing the entry of contraband of war and of paralyzing

all

commerce. The form of Germany's coast

line

much more than do

the

fairly invites to a blockade,
coasts either of

Holland

to

England

or France.

Denmark would form

triangle including the

the hypothenuse of a

mouths of Germany's chief

her main seaports as well as

The

A line drawn from

all

rivers,

her North Sea islands.

Baltic, too, could be easily shut off

from

the ocean,

GERMANY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

90

and with the enemy's ships

all

bottled

up

there

would be

no fear of a descent on the coasts of England.
This sounds well in theory, but in practise the difficulties will

the coast will

remember

the miles

—the so-called Wattcnmccr
time of war
if

Those who know

be well-nigh insuperable.

all

and miles of shallows
In

so difficult to navigate.

lighthouses and buoys are removed and,

they approach the shore, the English ships will in-

evitably run aground, while the

and submarines

German

torpedo-boats

will be in their very element.

Floating

mines, too, will get in their deadly work, as will also the
strings of fixed mines which are ignited not
sion but

by means of an

the shore.

by percus-

electric current controlled

The German

fleet

great streams and menace the

from

can retire well up the

enemy

there; while

it

must not be forgotten that the great cannon of the coast
defenses can shoot fifteen kilometers (nine and threeeighths miles) or more.

borhood, notably

and
sea.

last

but not

A whole

North.

German

Finally the islands in the neigh-

Borkum and Wangerood,
least, there is

fleet

are fortified,

Helgoland far out

in the

could not take this Gibraltar of the

The rocky walls

are very hard indeed, with true
;

thoroughness, they have been tested to see if

they would successfully withstand bombardment.

Un-

der their shelter a harbor for torpedo-boats and subma
rines has been built at a cost of thirty million marks.

THE NAVY
From

91

here they can issue forth and here, protected from

afar by the great guns, they can take refuge and form

new

projects.

Troetsch considers

it

more than

likely that

England

will proceed to a blockade, but a blockade not in the nar-

row but

in a

One

broader sense.

objection to the nar-

rower blockade would be that her naval bases, necessary
for repairs, fuel and ammunition, would be very far

But

away.

this

can be obviated

if the

blockading line

begin somewhere between Dover and Calais, extend

along the east coast of Scotland, with bases at Rosyth

and Scapa Flow, and end near the southernmost point
of Norway, Cape Lindesnaes.

from

exit

the

time encircle

Rak and

North Sea
all

This would shut every

to the Atlantic

the exits

and

at the

same

from the Baltic the Skager
:

Cattegat and the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal. Here

England could carry on what

known

is

tion blockade," biding her time to fall

as

an "observa-

upon

the enemy's

fleet.

The great disadvantage

is

will

have to be so very long.

Sea

is

The surface of

about equal to that of the whole

and such a
hundred
if

that the blockading line

line as

we have

fifty or three

ships.

North

German Empire,

traced would extend for two

hundred

even England's enormous

number of

the

miles.

fleet

It

is

a question

can spare the requisite

Such a blockading

fleet consists

not

GERMANY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

92

only of a long chain of vessels close together but also of
a

supportmg

and, behind that, of the real battle

fleet

The whole

squadrons.

of the enemy, as

it

must be nearly double that

much broader

operates on a

foggy stormy weather
Sea

force

that

is

The

line.

apt to prevail in the North

will also render the blockade less efficient.

Germany

is

likely to

attempt to break

it

and

to bring

about a great naval battle at the earliest opportunity.

But

that opportunity

may

not come so very soon.

Re-

ventlow, speaking indeed of a hypothetical war, declares
that such a blockade

many

has too

much

may

last

Ger-

a year or longero

at stake to risk her small but excel-

lent fleet before the tactical

moment

her Zeppelins help her to victory?

They

that all are asking now.

Will

has come.

That

is

the question

are but fragile toys in

a stormy sea, but, with circumstances in their favor,

may

achieve wonderful results.

When

it

does come to the battle on the Iiigh seas into

which Germany will surely force England, we

modern

tactics ]^ut to their

tactical superiority

can

supreme

test,

Germany hope

shall see

for only by

to win.

In an

old-fashioned battle in which the ships rushed at each
other pellmell, or in one in which the rival fleets simply
lie

to

and pound each other she would be sure

modern

battle

v^ictory is

is

much more a game of

to lose.

skill in

A

which the

not to the strongest but to the cleverest.

THE NAVY
In a modern

Not

moving.

93

and always

battle the ships are ever

that the

maneuvers are necessarily com-

plicated, but there goes

on the whole time a constant

There are different kinds of encoun-

thrust

and parry.

ters.

First there

fleets,

the vessels one behind the other, run in the

direction, firing all the while.

Here

same

the strength of the

power of the guns and the quickness of the

ships, the

gunners play the decisive part.
nels,

two

the running fight, in which the

is

The more

fun-

turrets,

engine-rooms and stearing gear put out of comso

mission,
fight,

much

where the

the better.

The

so-called

run not

in the

same but

fleets

site directions, is

apt to be preferred by a

numerically weaker.
escape

is

which the

The agony

Then

easier.

there

fleets are like

one another's

tails.

The

after the passing fight

is

is less

passing-

oppo-

in

fleet

that

is

prolonged and

the circular fight, in

great serpents trying to catch

circular fight can follow directly

when

the fleets have not been

seriously crippled.

But

the

crown and acme of

maneuvers

all fleet

is

the

so-called crossing of the T.

"The maneuver of
sists in

the crossing of the T," writes Troetsch, "con-

endeavoring to bring one's

head, or also across the

tail,

ovi^n line

at right angles across the

of the hostile line

renders

it

possible to concentrate the entire

.

enfilading

it,

as

come
Such a movement
into the relative

the expression goes, so that the opposing lines
positions of the two bars of the Latin T.

—of

.

fire

.

of one's

own broad-

94

GERMANY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

sides

on the ship that

at the

is

head of the enemy's

one increases the eflectiveness of one's own

In

fleet.

fire to

this

way

the very highest

degree, inasmuch as all the shots which go too far to one side will

The

strike the hinder ships of the long hostile line.

head must gradually succumb to the concentrated

own
fire

line

is

exposed only

guns

to the

fire^

in the opponent's

ships at

its

while one's

bow and

to the

of the few guns which can be pointed from the sides at such an

angle as

reach the enfilading ships.

still to

This position

signifies

for the fleet that succeeds in shoving itself across the head of the

enemy's line the most

application of the principle of the

eft'ective

concentration of power, which

is

based on the endeavor always to

bring into play when attacking the enemy a greater number of guns

than he in his momentar}^ position has at his disposal.

open

fire in this

position

the whole battle.
this position

is

.

.

it

.

may prove

There are cases where the advantage of
fleets come

gained by mere chance, as when the two

ujDon each other in that formation in thick or
It is difiicult to

ing

The

fleet

foggy weather,

assume the position of crossing the

already in progress.

is

.

.

its eff"ect

T when

.

,

the fight-

.

against which the crossing of the

seek to lessen

If one can

of the greatest significance for

T

is

by various counter maneuvers.

attempted can
It

can turn

in

the same direction and take a parallel course with the enveloping
fleet,

whereby

if it

be swift enough

it

lias

the advantage of being on

the inner or shorter line: the battle then becomes a simple running
fight, or it

can simply turn and follow the

engage with the head of the

We

tail

of the hostile line or

line in a passing fight."

can even imagine the line of ships, the bow of

which has been crossed, executing a sort of dance with
its

opponent

—the

first

in order to bring its broadsides into play

ship turning to the right, the second to the

left, the third to the right

again and so on until

opposite and parallel to the enemy.

all

are

THE NAVY
And

war

is

and army into play

We

so the

95

on which brings Germany's

man and

to the last

fleet

to the last gun.

have suddenly found ourselves in the midst of a

struggle which makes even the wars of Napoleon seem
trifling.

As many men

are

now engaged
in the course

were then called out

simultaneously as

of years.

And

the

instruments of death are a hundred times more deadly.

From

the skies above destruction rains

down from
;

terranean forts and from the depths of the sea
up.

The

difl*erence

may

next.
to

we have

arti-

As

The

War of

1914? But

on into the next year, and the next and the

last

I

know Germany

she will never

being conquered unless the

upper hand.

social

now submit

democrats gain the

And even then I am not sure that the

democrats are prepared to draw the
their

;

earthquakes and eruptions.

How shall we name the war?
it

wells

it

between hand labor and machinery

has been transmitted into terms of killing
ficial

sub-

last

social

consequences of

long agitation against the imperial, or against any

Our descendants may look back
on it as the Thousand Years' War, for one fails to see
how the passions now unchained can ever again be
calmed. And there are signs that we are at the beginning of a colossal shoving around of races that will make
national government.

our children mock at the awe with which their fathers

GERMANY'S FIGHTING MACHINE

96

read of the so-called wandering of the nations.

All the

Suevi and Allemanni and Goths, Vandals and Visigoths
that ever overran
in the great

Gaul would have made but a few corps

Teuton army that

is

now

pressing into

France.
Russia, with her one hundred sixty millions,
to claim a

much

is

likely

vaster influence than she has yet had.

Napoleon would once have been willing

to share

Europe

with Czar Alexander; will some such partition enter
into the

new

tween Teuton and Slav and
to

Canada and France

any

case, that

now by

Will

treaty of peace?

Germany

will

perhaps be be-

England have

to Africa?
will

it

to

move

I can not believe, in

succumb. She

is

reproached

sentimental ladies with having devoted such

serious study to the

work of

She devotes

destruction.

Only

serious study to everything that she attempts.

re-

cently I was initiated into the splendid methods by which
she runs her labor-exchanges and also into the workings

of her prisons and penitentiaries.
seen, everything provided for.

fighting force.

Everything

And

Everj^ single ])roblem

retically as well as practically,

and

so
is

it

is

is

fore-

with her

attacked theo-

in almost every re-

gard we other nations are but as untrained children

to

her.

Once more, who

is

clever writer, such as

to

blame for the horrible war?

we have

A

for detective stories, would

THE NAVY
have

little difficulty

in convincingly foisting the guilt

on each of the great powers
to blame for her

flict

when

for

demanding Russian

Germany

demobilization,

is

side,

Japan for her

self-assertion.

the twilight of the gods.

halla that

Germany
England for
all,

back when she was already

in the

struggling with enemies on either

It

is

France for entering the con-

the matter did not concern her at

bumptious

Austria

in succession.

ultimatum to Servia, Russia for mo-

bilizing against Austria,

stabbing

97

is

to fall in ruins?

Is

Or

is

Germany

the

Wal-

she merely about to

build a Walhalla that shall project over all other political edifices?
icans.

The moment

Where

shall

is

we stand

a serious one for us

Amer-

new order of

things ?

in the

Will a Japan that has conquered a China, a Russia and
a

Germany submit

fleet

American exclusion

to

already outnumbers ours in ships of

acts?

all

Her

types ex-

cept ships of the line, and her naval appropriations are

progressing more steadily than our own.

Japan

secures

what she wishes from

ready to make the same demands.
Austria interpreted the

Erdreich

ist

five

It

us,
is

And when

China

a far cry since

vowels in her favor: Alles

Osterreich unterthan (all earthly

are subject to Austria)

.

will be

Which

power?

THE END

will be the

kingdoms

next world-

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