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You are on page 1of 40

This all came about in the 1930's when Bell

Telephone had problems sending telephone

signals over long distances….

amplifiers sensitive to temp and humidity

variable phone reception

1

Recall Voltage divider with Load RL

• "no-load" vo = 75V

• attach RL = 150k,

vo drops to 66.6 V

2

Amplifiers

• Amplifiers are devices that magnify signals,

and also remain mostly unaffected by

changing load resistance.

and electronic devices (iPod, cell phone,

EEG) to boost signals (music, brainwaves)

and buffer (isolate) them from loads.

3

Agenda

• Basic Amplifier Concepts

• The Op-Amp Model

• How to solve using KCL/KVL

• Standard Op-Amp Circuit Patterns

• Cascaded Op-Amp Circuits

4

CircuitLab Model of an Op-Amp

5

Non-ideal (realistic) Op-Amp model – use this

on Assignment 6 prob5

• Typically:

– Ri is very large 1M-ohm

– Ro is small

– A is 105 – 106

– model applies to

linear range only

6

The Operational Amplifier

sometimes we use vp and vn

• vo = A(v+ - v-) , ie. A times voltage across the input

• Vcc, -Vcc are power supply inputs, usually +/-15V

7

Op Amps can be used "open loop"

outside linear range, v+ ≠ v-

• Ideal Comparator and Transfer Characteristic

Heart of Solid

so good State Relay

for telephone use! Cntrl

8

2 Ways of Using Op-Amps

– Useful for comparing 2 voltages

– Fixed gain, always at MAX OUTPUT!!

• “Closed Loop” with negative feedback

– Useful for amplifying, adding, subtracting,

differentiation and integration (using capacitors)

– Variable gain, controlled by resistor selection

9

Linear Operation –

vd = Vp-Vn is from -Vcc/A to +Vcc/A

10

Ideal Op Amp Model -- Closed Loop

• Ri = infinity

• Ro = 0

• A = infinity

• i+ = i- = 0

• v+ = v-

11

Standard Form 1: Inverting Amplifier

Rf

vo vi

R1

12

Example Inverting Op-Amp Problem

a) Calculate Vo for

Vs=0.4, 2, 3.5, -0.6, -1.6, -2.4

13

1) Problem 1 INVERTING OP AMP

find the voltage vo across the 1kΩ resistor. [-5V]

14

How to Approach Op-Amp probs

1. Check for negative feedback

All of our Op-Amp ccts will be “Closed Loop” with negative feedback

2. Assume current flowing into Vp/Vn terminals of op-amp = 0

3. Assume Op-Amp in linear range

This means Vp must = Vn

otherwise A(Vp-Vn) takes us to saturation

4. Determine value of Vp

5. Set Vn = Vp

6. Set up nodal equation at Vn node and solve for Vo

7. Check that Vo does not exceed power supply voltages +/- Vcc (if given)

If so, then assumptions 3 and 5 do not hold

Set Vo to the power supply voltage and recalculate

If you recognize common forms you can use formulas related to them

– Very helpful in cascaded Op-Amp problems

– Best not to depend too much on these

– You should always be able to go back to KCL/KVL

15

Standard Form 2: Summing Amplifier

Rf Rf Rf

vo v1 v2 v3

R1 R2 R3

16

Summing Amplifier Example

Calculate vo and io in the op amp circuit shown below.

17

Ans: -8V, -4.8mA

2) Problem 2) Summing Op-Amp

Find Vo in the circuit shown if Va=0.1V and Vb= 0.25V [-7.5]

18

Standard Form 3: Non-Inverting Amplifier

Rf

vo 1 vi

R1

19

Find Vo for the Non-Inv Op-Amp

20

3) Problem 3) Non-Inverting

Find the output Voltage when Rx is set to 60k

What Rx will cause saturation? [4.8V, 75k ]

21

Difference Amplifier

R2 R1 R3

vo (v2 v1 ) , if

R1 R2 R4

22

Find the output voltage vo [-80]

23

4) Problem 4 Difference Amplifier

If Vb=4.0V, what values of Va will keep linear operation? [2<=va <=6]

24

Cascaded Op Amps

• A head-to-tail arrangement of two or more op amp

circuits such that the output to one is the input of

the next.

vo

Gain A1 A2 A3

vi

25

Another way to make a Difference Amp

Find the formula for Vo in the circuit below.

Ans:

vo = -5v1+3v2

26

Find the output voltage vo [900 V]

27

Find vo and io in the circuit shown below.

If v1 = 1V and v2 = 2V, find vo in the op amp circuit shown below.

29

Ans: 8.667 V

5.5 Application

• Digital-to Analog Converter (DAC) : a device which

transforms digital signals into analog form.

weighted ladder type

Rf Rf Rf Rf

V0 V1 V2 V3 V4

R1 R2 R3 R4

where

V1 – MSB, V4 – LSB

V1 to V4 are either 0 or 1 V

30

5.5 DAC Example

For the circuit shown below, calculate vo if v1= 0V,v2=1V and v3 =

1V.

Ans:-0.75V 31

Handouts

32

1) Problem 1 INVERTING OP AMP

find the voltage vo across the 1kΩ resistor. [-5V]

33

2) SUMMING OP-AMP

Find Vo in the circuit shown if Va=0.1V and Vb= 0.25V [-7.5]

34

3) NON INVERTING Find the output Voltage when Rx is set to 60k

What Rx will cause saturation? [4.8V, 75k ]

35

4) Problem 4 Difference Amplifier

If Vb=4.0V, what values of Va will keep linear operation? [2<=va <=6]

36

5. Another way to make a Difference Amp

Find the formula for Vo in the circuit below.

Ans:

vo = -5v1+3v2

37

6. Find the output voltage vo [900 V]

38

7. Find vo and io in the circuit shown below.

How to Approach Op-Amp probs

1. Check for negative feedback

All of our Op-Amp ccts will be “Closed Loop” with negative feedback

2. Assume current flowing into Vp/Vn terminals of op-amp = 0

3. Assume Op-Amp in linear range

This means Vp must = Vn

otherwise A(Vp-Vn) takes us to saturation

4. Determine value of Vp

5. Set Vn = Vp

6. Set up nodal equation at Vn node and solve for Vo

7. Check that Vo does not exceed power supply voltages +/- Vcc (if given)

If so, then assumptions 3 and 5 do not hold

Set Vo to the power supply voltage and recalculate

If you recognize common forms you can use formulas related to them

– Very helpful in cascaded Op-Amp problems

– Best not to depend too much on these

– You should always be able to go back to KCL/KVL

40

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