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# 1.

How much bandwidth would be required to transmit a DS-1 signal using a four-level code assuming a
noiseless channel?
Ans: 386 Khz.
Note: The bit rate for DS – 1 is 1.544 Mbps

2. A microwave radio system uses 256-QAM, that is, there are 256 possible amplitude and phase
combinations. If it has a channel with 40-MHz bandwidth, what is its maximum data rate, ignoring noise?
Ans: 640 Mbps

3. What is the minimum bandwidth required to transmit a 56 kbps binary signal with no noise?
Ans: 28 KHz
Note: If noiseless or ideal channel, the information capacity is just twice of bandwidth

4. A telephone line has a bandwidth of 7 kHz and a signal-to-noise ratio of 40dB. A signal is transmitted
down this line using a four level code. What is the maximum theoretical data rate?
Ans: 28 kbps
Note: If binigay parehas ang signal to noise ratio at number of levels, gamitin ang dalawag formula ng
information capacity. Kung ano ang may mas mababang sagot, yun ang sagot.

5. The mark and space frequencies are synchronized with the input binary bit rate:
Ans: Continuous-Phase Frequency Shift Keying
Note: Ang normal na FSK hindi synchronized ang mark at space frequency. Sa CP-FSK, synchronized xa.
Synchronized means maayos ang transition between mark and space frequency.

## 6. It is similar with 8-PSK with phase shift similar with QPSK:

Ans: 8QAM
Note: ang 8QAM ay may apat na phase shift kagaya ng QPSK, but with 8 different states. Take note na sa
QAM, both amplitude and phase na ang nagbago

## 7. It is similar with 16-PSK with phase shift similar with 8-PSK:

Ans: 16 QAM

8. It is the regeneration of clocks at the receiver that are synchronous with those at the transmitter for the
precise timing or clock synchronization between transmit and receive circuitry:
Ans: Clock Recovery

## 9. In 16QAM, if the Q’/I’ input is high, it indicates:

Ans: 0.821 V
Note: Kapag low, it indicates 0.22 V. Nasa Tomasi ito

10. It involves using Convolutional Codes, which combines encoding and modulation to reduce probability of
error, thus improving the bit error performance:
Ans: Trellis Code Modulation or TCM
Note: Keyword – convolutional codes

11. For the given parameters, determine the energy per bit-to noise power density ratio
C = 10e-12 W
fb = 60 kbps
N = 1.2 x 10e-14W
B = 120 kHz
Ans: 22.22 dB
Note:
( )

12. Determine the minimum bandwidth required to achieve a minimum Eb⁄No=14.7dB for an 8-PSK system
operating at 10 Mbps with a C/N = 11.7 dB.
Ans: 20 MHz
Note:

13. Ten bit error occurs in two million transmitted. The bit error rate is
Ans: 5 x 10^-6

14. Given the pulse-spreading constant equal to 10ns/m and the cable length equal to 100 meters, determine
the maximum bit rate in Mbps for BPRZ transmission.
Ans: 0.50 Mbps
Note:

15. This type of coding are flash encoders and are more complex, however they are more suitable for high-
speed applications.
Ans: Word-at-a-Time

16. The input analog waveform is sampled by a sampling pulse with an output sampled waveform obtaining
the shape of the input analog waveform:
Ans: Natural Sampling

17. The random, thermal noise that is present only into the input of the PAM sampler when there is no analog
input signal.
Ans: Idle Channel Noise

18. It occurs if the magnitude of the sample exceeds the highest quantization interval:

19. This type of coding compares the PAM signal to a ramp waveform while a binary counter is being
Ans: Level at a time Coding
Note: Keyword – advanced at a uniform rate

20. The input analog waveform is sampled by a sampling pulse with an output sampled waveform that is
flattened at the top:
Ans: Sample and Hold. Also known as Flat-top sampling

21. A type of PCM code in which the first bit is the sign bit and the rest of the bits are magnitude bits.
Ans: Sign Magnitude PCM

## 22. A type of PCM in which all bits are magnitude bits

Ans: Linear PCM

23. Assuming maximum input and output voltages of 1 volt, what is the output voltage of a m-law compressor
if the input voltage is 0.388 volt?
Ans: 0.833 volt
Note:
( )
( )
Vmax is 1 V. Vin is 0.388 Volt

24. Given the pulse-spreading constant equal to 10ns/m and the cable length equal to 100 meters, determine
the maximum bit rate in Mbps for Manchester transmission.
Ans: 1 Mbps
Note:

25. Given the pulse-spreading constant equal to 10ns/m and the cable length equal to 100 meters, determine
the maximum bit rate in Mbps for BPNRZ transmission.
Ans: 0.5 Mbps
Note:

## 26. What will be the 8-bit compressed code for 100010101111?

ANs: 100010101111

## 27. What will be the 12-bit expanded code for 11000101?

Ans: 100010101100

28. This type of coding determines each digit of the PCM code sequentially.
Ans: Digit-at-a-Time Coding

29. Given the pulse-spreading constant equal to 10ns/m and the cable length equal to 100 meters, determine
the maximum bit rate in Mbps for AMI transmission.
Ans: 0.50 Mbps
Note:

30. For a maximum amplitude input signal of 3V (either 111 or 011), determine the SQR for a maximum input
signal.
Ans: 15.6 dB
Note:

( ) ( )
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## Para makuha QE – quantization error, kailangan kunin muna Resolution

Tapos, wala namang lalabas sa PET, pero pakiaral ang multiplexing, Meron nyan sa Tomasi at last
chapter ng PMM ESAT Digital Communications

## Guide sa Pagaaral ng Multiplexing:

a. Frequency Division Multiplexing
Paano magform ng group, supergroup, mastergroup, jumbogroup and so on.
Paano magcompute ng carrier frequency ng group at supergroup

## b. Time Division Multiplexing

Ano ang ibat ibang standards ng T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 carriers – standard ng US
Ano ang ibat ibang standards ng E1, E2, E3, E4, E5 carriers – standard ng Europe
Ano ang ibat ibang standards ng Japanese carriers

## c. Wavelength Division Multiplexing

d. Space Division Multiplexing
e. Phase Division Multiplexing