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COMPILED AND EDITED BY
David J. Comp INTERNATIONAL HIGHER EDUCATION CONSULTING firstname.lastname@example.org http://international.ed.consulting.googlepages.com/internationalhighereducationconsulting
Revised: July 9, 2008
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Unknown Author, (1994, October 31). The fast track now leads overseas: Global companies want top managers who’ve been around. Career Guide, U.S. News and World Report. Unknown Author, (1995, February 2). More firms want execs with foreign experience. Arizona Republic. Unknown Author, (1995, November/December). The global job market: Why study abroad programs are often inadequate. Transitions Abroad. Adelman, M.B. (1988). The impact of an international education on college acceptance and career development. American Institute for Foreign Study. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 298 056. This study seeks to determine the impact of study abroad on students who participated in the American Institute for Foreign Study's overseas learning program (high school and college age students) between the years of 1983-1988. Approximately 714 past participants completed a survey distributed by the Institute. The purpose of the study was to understand the reactions of college interviewers and employers with regard to the student's study abroad experience. It also examines the skills students develop during their overseas study program. Results of the study indicate a difference between the experiences of college students in a summer program and academic year program. The three gains most often cited by college students on the academic year program are maturity, proficiency in a foreign language, and knowledge of a specific culture. Students on the summer program cited employment, proficiency in a foreign language, and knowledge of a specific culture. Eighty six percent of the college students from the academic year program surveyed felt study abroad was a worthwhile investment in their future. Eighty five percent of the students were employed, with 33 percent having international travel a part of their job requirements. One hundred percent of the students felt they had matured because of their experience. This report includes comments on the value of study abroad from educational professionals and prior participants, and a copy of the survey instrument is appended. [MC – Maureen Chao bibliography] Adeola, F.O., & Perry, J.A., (1997). Global study: Smooth or bumpy ride: Global study is to diversity as internship is to job experience. The Black Collegian Online, 10. [On-line]. Available: http://www.black-collegian.com/issues/1997-10/bumpy.shtml. A year or two of global study, or international study as it is often called, increases not only your value to an employer in very practical ways, but also, depending upon where you study, your racial perception of the source of the way you act, think, play, and pray. In most countries, you can expect a very smooth ride in the host country housing the international program you select; in some, you can
expect a bumpy ride. But even a bumpy, global study ride may be useful to an employer as an indicator of a resourceful, pioneering spirit. A given country may offer specific values to specific corporations because of its natural resources. Zaire, for instance, has large deposits of gold and diamonds. But except for ties of well-known corporations to internationally strategic Euro-pean countries and to Japan, these ties are difficult for you as a student to know. You need not, however, undertake global study from a basis of specific corporate ties to a country. Global study is as important as an indicator of a type of diverse person as it is an indicator of a person with specific language and cultural skills. It is important to you psychologically, for it is likely to help you understand the source of your own cultural responses, responses often thought of as racial or ethnic. This later reason is somewhat subtle, based as it is on Carl Jung's notion of the subconscious as a collection of archetypal images. The focus here is both the practical as well as the psychological reasons for global study. The easier, practical reason, diversity, first. [Authors]. Amirault, T.A. (1995, Spring). World jobs. Occupational Outlook Quarterly, p. 28ff. Armsrtrong, G.K. (1984). Life after study abroad: A survey of undergraduate academic and career choices. The Modern Language Journal, 68, 1-6. Bikson, T.K., & Sally A.L., (1995, Winter). Towards a borderless career: Corporate hiring in the ‘90s. International Educator, 4 (2), 12-15, 32-33. Comp, D.C. (2003, Fall). Education abroad and it’s value in the job market. CareerWatch, Newsletter for the American College Personnel Association Commission for Career Development, 4. [OnLine]. Available: http://www.acpa.nche.edu/comms/comm06/CommissionVI/careerwatch/index.html. Conway, C. (2003, December 8). Studying for economic development. The Globalist. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.theglobalist.com/DBWeb/StoryId.aspx?StoryId=3616 How can U.S. companies be effective exporters if they do not adequately understand the language and culture of their customers abroad? This is all the more crucial as services make up an ever higher share of U.S. exports. Carol Conway argues that the key to make U.S. companies more effective is in study abroad programs for tomorrow's workforce — that is, today's students. [Article]. Corcoran, T. (1999, November). What does industry say? Paper presented at the 52nd International Conference on Educational Exchange of the Council on International Educational Exchange, Chicago, IL. [On-Line] Available from the National Resource Center on International Engineering Education: http://www.uri.edu/iep/nrc/speech.htm Daft, D.N. (2002, Spring). International education creates understanding, opportunity: An interview with Doug Daft. IIENetworker, 31-33. Douglas N. Daft is a chairman and chief executive officer of the Coca-Cola Company. He spoke with IIENetworker about the value of international education. [IIENetworker]. Deutsch, C.H., (1988, July 15). More U.S. firms insisting on overseas experience. New York Times Service. Doorbar, A. (2003, Fall). The U.S. study abroad market: What are the barriers to purchase? IIENetworker, 58-60. This article presents the findings of a new research study on the qualities that U.S. employers seek in teir new hires…and if a study abroad experience is one of them. [IIENetworker]. Falkoff, R., (date unknown). Study abroad for an international career. Monster.com. [On-Line]. Available: http://international.monster.com/workabroad/articles/studyabroad/. Fortune Magazine, (1995, August 21). The real fast track is overseas. p.129.
Friedhelm, M., & Teichler, U., (1996). Study abroad and early career: Experiences of former ERASMUS students. London; Bristol, PA: J. Kingsley Publishers. Gates, K. (date unknown). Preparing yourself for a job overseas. The Black Collegian Online/College Journal.com from the Wall Street Journal. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.black-collegian.com/career/wsj/overseas600.shtml. Gergen, D. (1996, April 15). Looking beyond our borders. U.S. News & World Report. Hannigan, T.P. (2001, Fall). The effect of work abroad experiences on career development for U.S. undergraduates. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 1-23. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.frontiersjournal.com/back/seven/hannigan.htm. The purpose of this research was to examine the effect of vocational exploratory behavior on vocational self-concept crystallization (VSCC) and work commitment for U.S. undergraduates who participated in practical experiences overseas, compared to two groups: 1.) students not involved in practical experiences, and 2.) students who participated in practical experiences within the U.S. The above constructs are well-established in the vocational psychology literature and will be discussed later. In reviewing the literature, the effect of learning experiences in the workplace on work commitment and vocational self-concept crystallization has not been clearly demonstrated. In spite of the lack of definitive empirical support for this relationship, a long historical tradition exists for the learning-by-doing method, and this tradition is an important means of training students in a profession or trade. [Author]. Hannigan, T.P. (2002, May). Career development of U.S. undergraduates who participate in work abroad experiences. Presentation at the 54th NAFSA Annual Conference, San Antonio, TX. Four hundred and forty-two undergraduates from seven northeastern institutions of higher education and one agency promoting volunteer work overseas completed a series of instruments at the beginning and end of a semester to measure changes in their work commitment and vocational self-concept crystallization resulting from a semester-long work experience in their major area of study. A control group consisted of students from the same institutions who studied in a classroom setting without participating in a work experience. Findings included a significantly larger increase in vocational self-concept crystallization for students participating in practical experiences both abroad and stateside. There was no significant change in work commitment for any of the three groups: Nonpracticum, overseas practicum, or stateside practicum students. Other findings included: -75% of overseas group reported being “satisfied” or “very satisfied” with the work experience. -54% perceived the overseas experience as “important” or “very important” in achieving career goals. -46% rated supervision as “adequate” or “nearly adequate” suggesting that International Educators need to pay particular attention to recruiting and training overseas supervisors. The overseas work group tended to have a broader array of concerns than the stateside group including foreign language competency, concerns about coworkers and supervisors and level of difficulty of work. [Author]. Harpur, J., (date unknown). The impact of exchange programs on student’s personal and professional development. Center for International Business Studies, Memorial University of Newfoundland. Higgins, M.A. (2003, November 20). International exchange: A valuable step in career focus and employment. NCDE Forum Listserv, National Clearinghouse on Disability and Exchange.
This article appeared previously in the following publications: - ILRU (Research and Training Center on Independent Living at TIRR) online newsletter The News Stand at web site: www.ilru.org - August 2000 edition - The Spina Bifida Association of America Insights to Spina Bifida May/June 2000 Hooper, L.N. (1998). The impact of study abroad on initial job experiences. Unpublished B.S. thesis, Butler University. Hunter-Gault, C. (Director). (1997). Careers [Video]. (Available from Nicole Morris, The Global Center, 1600 Broadway Suite 700, New York, NY 10019; tel: 212.246.0202; fax: 212.246.2677) Kepets, D., (1995). Back in the USA: Reflecting on your study abroad experience and putting it to work. Washington, D.C.: NAFSA Association of International Educators. Koen, D. (date unknown). Will studying abroad give you an advantage? CollegeJournal.com/WSJ.com. [On-line]. Available: http://www.collegejournal.com/careersqa/findcareerpath/20010621-koen.html. IIE Network. (2002). International education makes a difference: Interview with Doug Daft, Chairman and CEO of Coca-Cola. IIE Network. Macalester College, (2001, July 18). Alumni survey 2000: Class of 1995. St. Paul, MN: The Institutional Research Office, Macalester College. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.macalester.edu/~instrsch/alumsvy.htm The Alumni Survey was administered in the spring 2000 to Macalester College graduates from the class of 1995. This survey covered numerous aspects of student and academic life during the students’ studies at Macalester with brief data and comments on the effect study abroad has had on their academic and professional careers. One highlight of the survey is that academic courses and study abroad are the activities that contributed the most in preparation for post-baccalaureate activities and towards personal development. [Survey]. Mason, J. & Stanley, D., (1997). Preparing graduates for the future: International learning outcomes. British Columbia Centre for International Education (BCCIE). What competencies do students require to succeed as citizens and professionals in today’s global society? This report identifies the international knowledge, skills and abilities required of today’s postsecondary graduates and provides a framework for the effective internationalization of the postsecondary curriculum. The report’s findings which were based on a series of focus groups and interviews with professionals in international business and education in BC, will be of interest to faculty, instructors and international education practitioners at colleges, universities and institutes. pp. 61 [BCCIE]. Mccall Wiles, M. (1996, October 25). GE seeks employees with international experience. The Business Review. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.bizjournals.com/albany/stories/1996/10/28/smallb4.html. Myers, E. Jr. (1997, Summer). Some benefits of an education abroad program for elementary preservice teachers. Education, 117 (4), 579. Rigdon, J.E., (1993, May 20). Glut of graduates lets recruiters pick only the best. Wall Street Journal, p. B1. This article contains quotes from General Electric recruiters stating that language experience is not enough and that they are looking for students who have lived abroad. [DJC]. Seo, W., Teng, C, DeMicco, F. J., Wortman, T. I., & Martin, L., (2001). The international hospitality study abroad program: A strategy leads to future career success. Unpublished manuscript.
Thompson, J.W. (2004). An exploration of the demand for study overseas from American students and employers. A report prepared for the Institute of International Education, the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD), the British Council, and the Australian Education Office. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.iienetwork.org/file_depot/0-10000000/0-10000/1710/folder/10528/JWT+Study.doc. An analysis of how future employment considerations are likely to impact students' decisions to study overseas and employers' perceptions of candidates with overseas qualifications. [Author]. Tillman, M. (2005, July/August). The right tool for the job. International Educator, 14 (4), 4-7. In an ever more globalized economy, educators need to assist students in building a sophisticated “toolkit” to market the value of their varied portfolio of international experiences to employers. [Author]. Time Magazine., (1999, November 15). It’s a great education at a reasonable cost. And a degree from a foreign university has a great cachet. Time Magazine. Toncar, M. F. & Cudmore, B. V., (2000). The overseas internship experience. Journal of Marketing Education, 22 (1), 54-64. This article describes an overseas internship program designed expressly for undergraduate business students. Developed for students who were unable to participate in lengthier, more traditional study abroad programs, the program consists of a 6-week supervised internship in Oxford, England. The article discusses the development, administration, advantages, and disadvantages of the program. Perspectives of students, faculty, home and host colleges, internship hosts, and future employers are represented. [MC – Marueen Chao bibliography]. U.S. Department of Education., (1994, August/September). Putting international skills to work: What employers expect of college graduates. U.S. Department of Education Research Report, NAFSA: Association of International Educators Newsletter. U.S. Office of Educational Research and Improvement., (1994, July). What employers expect of college graduates: International knowledge and second language skills. Washington, DC: Office of Research, U.S. Department of Education. (OR-94-3215). [On-Line]. Available: http://www.ed.gov/pubs/OR/ResearchRpts/employ.html Van Hoof, H.B., (1999, Fall). The international student experience: A U.S. industry perspective. Journal of Studies on International Education, 3 (2). This article reports on a study done among U.S. job recruiters to determine their perceptions of the value of a student’s international exchange and/or international work experience to their companies. Results of the study indicate that job recruiters do not value the international exchange very highly, and that they favor national work experience over international work experience. Company characteristics were found to have some effect on perceptions, yet the recruiters’ personal international backgrounds did not affect perceptions at all. The article contends that education may have to step up its efforts to persuade industry of the value of the international experience. [Author]. Wallace, D.H. (1999). Academic study abroad: The long-term impact on alumni careers, volunteer activities, world and personal perspectives. (Doctoral dissertation, The Claremont Graduate University). Dissertation Abstracts International, 60 (02), 365A. Many studies have been conducted to assess the short-term impact of study abroad on students, but far fewer have examined the long-term impacts. This study seeks to expand the body of knowledge in this area, by looking at how program alumni perceived their experience and its impact ten years later. Specifically, questions were asked to assess the impact of the study abroad experience on careers, volunteer activities, world, and personal perspectives. Students who had participated in 1985 and 1986 study abroad programs through Pomona College were contacted for the study. Out of the 79 students who participated in the programs, 48 returned the survey that was mailed to them. Of these, 38 students also agreed to be interviewed by telephone. In general, the findings indicate that, for the most
part, participants viewed their study abroad experience in positive terms. Most reported the experience influenced their career selection, as well as enhanced their awareness and appreciation of other cultures and international issues (which was sustained over the ten year period). Additional and more detailed findings are discussed in the study. [MC – Marueen Chao bibliography].
© 2002-2008 David J. Comp
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