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Organizational

Behaviour
Behaviour at the workplace is Organizational Behaviour.

by Atul Chanodkar
Meaning, Concept and Definition of OB
- OB Models
- Feudal Model
- Autocratic Model
- Supportive Model
- Collegial Model

Organizational
- Custodial Model

Personality Concept and Determinants


Behaviour Learning and Learning Theories

Perception
- Meaning
- Process
- Factors affecting Perception
Organization
(Wikipedia)

An organization or organisation is an entity comprising multiple people, such as an institution or an


association, that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment.

A social unit of people that is structured and managed to meet a need or to pursue collective goals. All
organizations have a management structure that determines relationships between the different
activities and the members, and subdivides and assigns roles, responsibilities, and authority to carry
out different tasks. Organizations are open systems--they affect and are affected by their environment.
Organization

External
People
Environment

Structure Technology
Managerial Skills

Top
H IDEAS
Level
U Conceptual
M Skills
Middle
A Human
Level
Technical N
SKills Skills
Lower
Jobs
Level
Organization Behaviour

Organizational behavior can be defıned as the understanding, prediction, and


management of human behavior in organizations.
Organizational behavior is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals,
groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of
applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness.

OB is the study of what people do in an organization and how their behavior affects the
organization’s performance.

OB is the study of human behaviour in organizational settings, the interface between


human behavior and organization, and the organization itself.
Feudal Model

Feudal Model treats employees inferior. The concept is based upon Theory X where
actions, polices and procedures are considered superior to human beings.

In feudal model
- Employees are treated sternly and hire and fire principle is applicable in the
organization.
- A fear psychosis is created among the employees. These models have been
practiced world over by various organizations where people have been laid off for
cost cutting.
- Employee desires, value, emotions are not considered pragmatically by the
organizers.
- People are treated as another resource for all purposes.
Autocratic Model

Autocratic model is based on the concept that managers are superior. They have power to hire and fire
any employee.

Autocratic model believes in


- Power and authority of the manager. Employee have to obey the orders of the boss.
- Autocratic model proposes that minimum employee needs are met. It believes that higher salaries
given to employees is sheer waste of resources as they spend money for unproductive needs.
- Individuals are controlled by the managers based on official authority and power attached to it.
- Employees are driven to work as this model assumes that nobody wants to work unless he is forced
to do so.
- Managers are considered born leaders who are obeyed and respected in all areas.

The autocratic model is very commonly used in Indian organizations like, railways, defense organization,
police organization, banks etc.
Supportive Model
Employees are considered active workers who have their values, attitudes, desires, and preferences.
Leaders use attitude and value system to motivate employees.

Supportive model believes


- Employees are active and with ideal environment and support, they can use their energies and skill
for higher productivity of the organization.
- If employees are given opportunities, they can increase their capacity to do a particular work. Owner
has to provide and support various activities for individuals, groups and organizations.

The employees should develop sense of belonging and feeling of participation in over all organizational
growth. Employees get opportunities for recognition. They develop positive outlook towards work
culture.

Many organizations have developed as a result of adopting the supportive model. It is more effective in
developed countries. It has not been proved very effective in developing nations because of restrictive
social and cultural environment.
Collegial Model
Collegial model refers to body of persons having common objective. The basis of the model is
the partnership of the employees with owners. The emphasis is on team management
between workers and owners.

In Collegial Model:
- Employees are given responsible and trustworthy jobs.
- They are self-disciplined and self-motivated.
- Managers and workers have similar activities, work environment and understanding.
- Managerial cadre is not considered superior to the employees. They contribute jointly
rather than bosses or leaders.
- They have to develop as a team with employees and impress upon quality and
performance.
- Combined efforts contribute to the growth and performance of the organization.
Custodial Model
Custodial model imply that owners are custodian of resources in the organization and they
are bound to look after the welfare of employees.

It considers that
- Assets of organization belong to industrialist, managers and employees in equal
measures and that nobody has monopoly rights.
- Employees are given opportunities to bring their problems to the notice of the employer
and it is the duty of the latter to solve the same.
- Redressal of grievance procedure exists in the organization. Employees depend on the
organization for security and their welfare.
- The organizations provide wages and salary while employees are in service. They also
provide pension and other benefits to the employees so that they can sustain their post
retirement life comfortably.
- Employees are interested in economic rewards and benefits.
- Direct cooperation of employees is not sought.
- Employee value, preferences, attitude, emotions and psychological motivational factors
are not considered for organizational effectiveness.
OB - Contributing Fields

Organizational behavior is an applied


behavioral science built on contributions
from a number of behavioral disciplines,
mainly psychology and social psychology,
sociology, and anthropology. Psychology’s
contributions have been mainly at the
individual or micro level of analysis.
Basic OB Model
Personality

Gordon Allport defines, “The dynamic organization within the


individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his
unique adjustments to his environment.”

In simple words,
Personality is the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts
to and interacts with environment.

Personality
Personality Determinants

Heredity Environment

Personality

Situation

Personality
Personality Determinants

- Heredity
- Physical stature, facial attractiveness, gender, temperament, muscle
composition, reflexes, energy level

- Environment
- Environmental factors
- Socio-economic conditions
- Norms, ethics and values
- Cultural background

- Situation(Person – situation interaction)


- No. of problems that arise

Personality
Personality Traits
Personality traits are the characteristics of an individual when exhibited in large
number of situations. There are many number of traits which can be identified.

G. Allport and H.S. Odbert identified 17953 traits in personality. They reduced it to
4500 personality-describing adjectives which they considered to describe observable
and relatively permanent personality traits.

Cattell isolated 171 traits but concluded that they were superficial and lacking in
descriptive power. What he sought was a reduced set of traits that would identify
underlying pattern. The result was the identification of 16 personality factors, which
he called the source, or primary traits.

Personality
Personality Traits by Cattell

Reserved vs Outgoing Trusting vs Suspicious


Less Intelligent vs More Intelligent Practical vs Imaginative
Emotionally Weak vs Stable Forthright vs Shrewd
Submissive vs Dominant Self assured vs Apprehensive
Serious vs Happy go lucky Conservative vs Experimenting
Timid vs Venturesome Group dependent vs Self-sufficient
Expedient vs Conscientious Uncontrolled vs Controlled
Tough minded vs Sensitive Relaxed vs Tensed

Personality
The Mayers-Briggs Type Indicator(MBTI)

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is the most widely used


personality assessment instrument in the world. It is a 100-question
personality test that asks people how they usually feel or act in particular
situations.

Respondents are classified as

Extraverted Sensing Thinking Judging


Or or Or Or
Introverted Intuitive Feeling Perceiving
(E or I) (S or N) (T or F) (J or P)

Personality
…MBTI…
Extraverted (E) versus Introverted (I) Sensing (S) versus Intuitive (N)

Sensing types are practical and prefer


Extraverted individuals are routine and order. They focus on details.
outgoing, sociable, and assertive. Intuitive rely on unconscious processes
Introverts are quiet and shy. and look at the “big picture.”

Thinking (T) versus Feeling (F) Judging (J) versus Perceiving (P)

Thinking types use reason and logic Judging types want control and
to handle problems. Feeling types prefer their world to be ordered and
rely on their personal values and structured. Perceiving types are
emotions. flexible and spontaneous.
…MBTI…
These classifications together describe 16 personality types, identifying every person
by one trait from each of the four pairs.

For example,
Introverted/ Intuitive/ Thinking/ Judging people (INTJs) are visionaries with original
minds and great drive. They are skeptical, critical, independent, determined, and often
stubborn.

ESTJs are organizers. They are realistic, logical, analytical, and decisive and have a
natural head for business or mechanics.

The ENTP type is a conceptualizer, innovative, individualistic, versatile, and attracted to


entrepreneurial ideas. This person tends to be resourceful in solving challenging
problems but may neglect routine assignments.
Extraa Shot: MBTI is widely used in Apple Computer,
Personality AT&T, Citigroup, GE and 3M Co.
The Big Five Personality Model

Personality
The Big Five Personality Model
Many contemporary personality psychologists believe that there are five basic
dimensions of personality, often referred to as the "Big 5" personality traits. The five
broad personality traits described by the theory are extraversion, agreeableness,
openness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism.

Extraversion: The extraversion dimension captures our comfort level with


relationships. Extraverts tend to be gregarious, assertive, and sociable. Introverts tend
to be reserved, timid, and quiet.

Agreeableness: The agreeableness dimension refers to an individual’s propensity(to


behave in a particular way) to defer to others. Highly agreeable people are cooperative,
warm, and trusting. People who score low on agreeableness are cold, disagreeable,
and antagonistic(hostile)

Personality
The Big Five Personality Model
Conscientiousness: The conscientiousness dimension is a measure of reliability. A
highly conscientious person is responsible, organized, dependable, and persistent.
Those who score low on this dimension are easily distracted, disorganized, and
unreliable.

Emotional stability: The emotional stability dimension—often labeled by its converse,


neuroticism—taps a person’s ability to withstand stress. People with positive emotional
stability tend to be calm, self-confident, and secure. Those with high negative scores
tend to be nervous, anxious, depressed, and insecure.

Openness to experience. The openness to experience dimension addresses range of


interests and fascination with novelty. Extremely open people are creative, curious,
and artistically sensitive. Those at the other end of the category are conventional and
find comfort in the familiar.

Personality
Locus of Control
Major personality attributes which affects organizational behaviour is locus of control,
that is the degree to which people believe that they are masters of their own fate. It is
the concept, which determines whether an individuals control events or the events
control the individuals and that they become only the pawns of situation. People have
both internal locus of control and external locus of control, only the degree varies.

Internal Locus of Control: Persons having internal locus of control believe that they can
manipulate events to their advantage and therefore they are capable of deciding their
fate.

External Locus of Control: Person having dominant external locus of control believe
that what happen to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance. These
types of people lack initiative, decision-making and do not even take calculated risk.
They wait and see events take place and things happen.

Personality
Perception

Perception is a process by which individuals organize


and interpret the sensory impressions in order to give
meaning to their environment.

Why is perception important in the study of OB?


Simply because people’s behavior is based on their
perception of what reality is, not on reality itself.
Factors Affecting Perception
Factors Affecting Perception
A number of factors operate to shape and sometimes distort perception.
These factors can reside in the perceiver; in the object, or target, being
perceived; or in the context of the situation in which the perception is made.

When you look at a target and attempt to interpret what you see, your
interpretation is heavily influenced by your personal characteristics—your
attitudes, personality, motives, interests, past experiences, and expectations.

Characteristics of the target also affect what we perceive.

Context matters too. The time at which we see an object or event can
influence our attention, as can location, light, heat, or any number of
situational factors.
Attribution Theory
When we observe people, we attempt to explain why they behave in certain
ways. Our perception and judgment of a person’s actions, therefore, will be
significantly influenced by the assumptions we make about that person’s
internal state.

Attribution theory tries to explain the ways in which we judge people differently,
depending on the meaning we attribute to a given behavior. It suggests that
when we observe an individual’s behavior, we attempt to determine whether it
was internally or externally caused.

That determination, however, depends largely on three factors:


(1) distinctiveness,
(2) consensus, and
(3) consistency.
Attribution Theory

Internally caused behaviors are those we believe to be under the personal


control of the individual. Externally caused behavior is what we imagine
the situation forced the individual to do.

Distinctiveness refers to whether an individual displays different behaviors


in different situations.

If everyone who faces a similar situation responds in the same way, we can
say the behavior shows consensus.

Does the person respond the same way over time? It is Consistency.
Attribution Theory
Errors and Biases
Fundamental Attribution Error
When we make judgments about the behavior of other people, we tend to
underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of
internal or personal factors.

Self-serving Biases
Individuals and organizations also tend to attribute their own successes to internal
factors such as ability or effort, while blaming failure on external factors such as bad
luck or unproductive co-workers.

Halo Effect
When we draw a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single
characteristic, such as intelligence, sociability, or appearance, a halo effect is operating.
Errors and Biases
Contrast Effect
Evaluation of a person’s characteristics that is affected by comparisons with other
people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics. We
don’t evaluate a person in isolation.

Stereotyping
When we judge someone on the basis of our perception of the group to which he or
she belongs, we are using the shortcut called stereotyping .
Learning involves Features of Learning
1) Change 1) Change in Behaviour
2) Behaviour 2) Permanent Change
3) Observation, experience

It is continuous process, which occurs all the time. We cannot see learning but
we can see changed behaviour as a consequence of learning.
Classical Conditioning
by Ivan Pavlov
Classical conditioning can be defined as a process in which a formerly
neutral stimulus when paired with an unconditional stimulus, becomes
a conditioned stimulus that illicit a conditioned response.

A learning process that occurs through associations between an


environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus.

In Pavlov's classic experiment with dogs, the neutral signal was the
sound of a tone and the naturally occurring reflex was salivating in
response to food. By associating the neutral stimulus with the
environmental stimulus (the presentation of food), the sound of the
tone alone could produce the salivation response.
Operant Conditioning
By B.F. Skinner
It is a form of learning in which an individual's behavior is modified by its
consequences; the behavior may change in form, frequency, or strength.

He said that behavior is the function of its consequences. People learn to


behave to get something they want and avoid something they do not
want. Behaviour is voluntary in nature.

Skinner demonstrated that people will most likely engage in desired behaviors if they
are positively reinforced for doing so; that rewards are most effective if they
immediately follow the desired response; and that behavior that is not rewarded, or
is punished, is less likely to be repeated.
Types of Operant Conditioning

• Behavior is strengthened by the


Positive consequence of experiencing a positive
Reinforcement condition.

• Behavior is strengthened by the


Negative
consequence of stopping or avoiding a
Reinforcement negative condition.

• Behavior is weakened by the


Punishment consequence of experiencing a negative
condition.

• Behavior is weakened by the consequence


Extinction of not experiencing a positive condition or
stopping a negative condition.
Social Learning
It is an extension of operant conditioning.

Individuals can learn by observing what happens to other people as well as


by direct experience. This is called social learning.

It assumes that behavior is a function of consequences, it also


acknowledges the existence of observational learning & the importance of
perception in learning.
• in order for an individual to learn
Attention
something, they must pay attention to the
processes
features of the modeled behavior.

• humans need to be able to remember


Retention
details of the behavior in order to learn
processes
and later reproduce the behavior.

• the behavior must be converted to doings,


Reproduction which then demonstrates that individual can
processes perform the modeled activities

• there must be an incentive or motivation


Reinforcement driving the individual’s reproduction of the
processes behavior.
Studies further:
MBTI
Type A Personality
Machiavellian Personality

by Atul Chanodkar