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ENGR 213 A: Statics

Fall 2010
Homework Set #5
DUE: Wednesday 10/06/2010

3.5, 3.9, 3.24, 3.25, 3.28, 3.39, 3.50, 3.55, 3.59, 3.73, 3.77, 3.80, 3.98, 3.119, 3.x

3.5 An 8-lb force P is applied to a shift lever. Determine the


moment of P about B when  is equal to 25°.

x
SOLUTION

Let’s use M = xPy  yPx to calculate the moment. In the next


problem, we will use M =  Fd to solve similar 2D problems.

For the coordinate system shown, the components of the force are

Px  P cos   (8) cos 25  7.2505 (lb)


Py   P sin   (8) sin 25  3.3809 (lb)

And the components of the position vector BA are



rA / B  xiˆ  yiˆ  8i  22 ˆj

Use the 2D equation for moment calculation, we have

M B  xPy  yPx  (8)(3.3809)  ( 22)(7.2505)  186.6 (lb  in.)


or

MB = 186.6 lbin.◄
3.9 A winch puller AB is used to
straighten a fence post.
Knowing that the tension in
cable BC is 1040 N and length
d is 1.90 m, determine the
moment about D of the force
exerted by the cable at C by
resolving that force into
horizontal and vertical
components applied (a) at Point
C, (b) at Point E.

SOLUTION

Use M =  Fd to calculate the moment.

(a) For the force at point C:


0.875 5
Slope of line EC= 
1.9  0.2 12

Therefore, the direction of the force is determined as shown, and the magnitude of the
components are (Note that this is the magnitude, it’s always positive)
12 12
T ABx  T AB  (1040)  960 (N)
13 13
12 5
T ABy  T AB  (1040)  400 (N)
13 13
Therefore,
M D  T ABx d CDy  T ABy d CDx  (960)(0.875)  (400)(0.2)  760 (N  m)
or
MD= 760 Nm◄

(b) For the force at C resolved at E, we have

M D  T ABx d EDy  T ABy d EDx


 (960)(0)  ( 400)(1.9)  760 (N  m)

or

MD= 760 Nm◄

NOTE: When we use M =  Fd to calculate moment, both F and d are the magnitudes
and hence are always POSITIVE. However, if we use M = xPy  yPx to calculate the
moment, x, y, Px and Py are components, and therefore may be positive or negative.
3.24 A wooden board AB, which is used as a
temporary prop to support a small roof, exerts at
Point A of the roof a 57-lb force directed along BA.
Determine the moment about C of that force.

rA/C

FBA

SOLUTION

We have

M C  r A / C  FBA

where,

r A / C  ( x A  xC )i  ( y A  yC ) j  ( z A  z C )k
 ( 48 in.)i  (6 in.) j  (36 in.)k
and
BA (5 in.)i  (90 in.) j  (30 in.)k
FBA  FBA λ BA  FBA  (57 lb)
BA ( 5 in.) 2  (90 in.) 2  (30 in.) 2
 (3 lb)i  (54 lb) j  (18 lb)k

i j k
M C  r A / C  FBA  48 6 36  ( 1836 lb  in.)i  (756 lb  in.) j  ( 2574 lb  in.)k
3 54  18
MC = −153 i + 63.0 j + 215 k (lb∙ft)◄
3.25 The ramp ABCD is supported by
cables at corners C and D. The
tension in each of the cables is
810 N. Determine the moment
about A of the force exerted by (a)
the cable at D, (b) the cable at C. rG/A
rE/A

SOLUTION FDE
(a) We have

M A  rE / A  FDE FCG

where,
rE / A  ( 2.3 m) j
and
DE (0.6 m)i  (3.3 m) j  (3 m)k
FDE  FDE λ DE  FDE  (810 N)
DE (0.6 m) 2  (3.3 m) 2  ( 3 m) 2
 (108 N)i  (594 N) j  (540 N)k
i j k
MA  rE / A  FDE  0 2.3 0  ( 1242 N  m)i  ( 248.4 N  m)k
108 594  540
MA = −1242 i − 248.4 k (N∙m)◄

NOTE: We can also use rD/A as the arm to calculate MA = rD/A ×FDE. However, rE/A is
simpler than rD/A for this problem.

(b) We have

M A  rG / A  FCG
where,
rG / A  ( 2.7 m)i  ( 2.3 m) j
and
CG ( 0.6 m)i  (3.3 m) j  (3 m)k
FCG  FCG λ CG  FCG  (810 N)
CG ( 0.6 m) 2  (3.3 m) 2  (3 m) 2
 (108 N)i  (594 N) j  (540 N)k
i j k
MA  2.7 2.3 0  ( 1242 N  m)i  (1458 N  m) j  (1852 N  m)k
 108 594  540

MA = −1242 i + 1458 j + 1852 k (N∙m)◄

3.28 In Problem 3.22, determine the perpendicular distance from Point O to cable BC.
rB/O
PROBLEM 3.22 Before the trunk of a
large tree is felled, cables AB and BC
are attached as shown. Knowing that FBC
the tensions in cables AB and BC are
555 N and 660 N, respectively, d
determine the moment about O of the
resultant force exerted on the tree by
the cables at B.

SOLUTION

We have

M O  rB / O  FBC
where,
rB / O  (7 m) j
and
BC (4.25 m)i  ( 7 m) j  (1 m)k
FBC  FBC λ BC  FBC  (660 N)
BC ( 4.25 m) 2  ( 7 m) 2  (1 m) 2
 (340 N)i  (560 N) j  (80 N)k
i j k
MO  rB / O  FBC  0 7 0  (560 N  m)i  (1380 N  m)k
340  560 80

Therefore, the magnitude of the moment is

MO  (560 N  m) 2  (1380 N  m) 2  2445.0 N  m

However, we know that M O  TBC d . Hence,

M O 2445 (N  m)
d 
FBC 660 N
d = 3.7 m◄

3.39 Consider the volleyball net shown. Determine the angle formed by guy wires AB
and AC.
SOLUTION

It is easy to see that

AB  ( 6.5 ft)i  ( 8 ft) j  ( 2 ft)k


AB  ( 6.5 ft) 2  (8 ft) 2  ( 2 ft) 2  10.5 ft
AC  ( 8 ft) j  (6 ft)k
AC  ( 8 ft) 2  (6 ft) 2  10 ft

By definition
AB  AC  ( AB )( AC ) cos 
or
(6.5 i  8 j  2 k )  ( 8 j  6 k )  (10.5)(10) cos 
Or
( 6.5)(0)  ( 8)(8)  ( 2)(6)  (10.5)(10) cos 

cos   76 / 105  0.72381


 = 43.63°◄

3.50 To lift a heavy crate, a man uses a block and


tackle attached to the bottom of an I-beam at
hook B. Knowing that the man applies a 195-N
force to end A of the rope and that the moment
of that force about the y-axis is 132 N m,
determine the distance a.

SOLUTION rA/O

The rectangular components of the tension are:


TAB
BA  (2.2i  3.2 j  ak )
d BA  (2.2) 2  (3.2) 2  (  a ) 2  15.08  a 2
 195 N
TBA  TBA ˆBA  (2.2i  3.2 j  ak )
d BA

The position vector r can be chosen as OA or OB. We will use OA in this solution.

rA / O  ( x A  xO )i  ( y A  y O ) j  ( z A  z O )k  (2.2 m)i  (1.6 m) j

Now we can use the equation My = zTABx  xTABz to solve this problem. For this problem,

x  rA / O _ x  2.2 m z  rA / O _ z  0

Therefore,

 429    195a  429a


132  (0)   (2.2)   a = 1.256 m◄
 2   2 
 15.08  a   15.08  a  15.08  a 2

We can also solve the problem from the definition of moment about an axis. By definition

0 1 0
195 195 429a
M y  j  (r A / O  TBA )  2.2 1.6 0  ( 2.2a ) 
d AB d AB 15.08  a 2
2.2  3.2 a
i.e.,

429a
132  a = 1.256 m◄
15.08  a 2

3.55 The frame ACD is hinged at A and D


and is supported by a cable that passes
through a ring at B and is attached to
hooks at G and H. Knowing that the
tension in the cable is 450 N, determine
the moment about the diagonal AD of
the force exerted on the frame by
portion BH of the cable.
TBH

SOLUTION
rB/A
By definition,

M AD  λ AD  (rB / A  TBH )
where,

AD (1 m)i  (0.75 m)k


λ AD    0.8i  0.6 k
AD (1 m) 2  (0.75 m) 2

rB / A  (0.5 m)i

BH (0.375 m)i  (0.75 m) j  ( 0.75 m)k


TBH  TBH  ( 450N)
BH (0.375 m) 2  (0.75 m) 2  ( 0.75 m) 2
(0.375 m)i  (0.75 m) j  ( 0.75 m)k
 ( 450N)
1.125 m
 (150 N)i  (300 N) j  (300 N) k

Therefore,

0.8 0  0.6
M AD  λ AD  (rB / A  TBH )  0.5 0 0  (0.5)[(300)(0.6)]
150 300  300

MAD = −90 N∙ m◄
3.59 A regular tetrahedron has six edges of
length a. A force P is directed as shown
along edge BC. Determine the moment of
P about edge OA.  OA

SOLUTION

By definition,
rC/O
M OA  λ OA  (rC / O  P)

OAx
It is easy to see that C
O x
30°
rC / O  ai 60° OAz
P 3P
P  P cos 60i  P sin 60k  i k
2 2

Determining  OA is a little tedious. From OBC, we have


z B
OAx  a / 2
OAz  OAx tan 30  (a / 2)(1 / 3 )  3a / 6

Since
OA 2  OAx2  OA y2  OAz2 or a 2  ( a / 2) 2  OA y2  ( 3a / 6) 2
we have
a 2 3a 2 6
OA y  a 2    a
4 36 3

Therefore,
a 6a 3a
OA  OAx i  OA y j  OAz k 
i j k
2 3 6
OA a 6a 3a 1 6 3
λ OA  ( i j k) / a  i  j k
OA 2 3 6 2 3 6

Finally,
1/ 2 6 /3 3/6
6  3  aP
M OA  λ OA  (rC / O  P)  a 0 0  ( a )  P 
3  2  2
P/2 0  3P / 2

MOA = aP / 2◄
3.73 Four 1-in.-diameter pegs are attached to a board as shown. Two strings are passed
around the pegs and pulled with forces indicated. (a) Determine the resultant couple
acting on the board. (b) If only one striing is used, around which pegs should
F1 it pass
and in what direction should it be pulled to create the same couple with minimum
tension in the string? (c) What is the value of that minimum tension?

SOLUTION

(a) There are two couples in the problem. Use the 2D equation, we have

M = F1d1 + F2d2 = (35 lb)(7 in.) + (25 lb)(9 in.) = 470 lb∙in.
M = 470 lb∙in.◄
Note: we can also use the vector equation to solve the problem.

M = M1 + M2 = rD/B × F1 + rD/C × F2
= (−7 in.)j × (35 lb )i + (9 in.)i × (25 lb )j = 470k (lb∙in.)

(b) With only one string for an equivalent couple of


470 lb∙in., either pegs A and D, or B and C should be A
used to minimize the tension when the distance is d
maximized. Also, when the direction of the force is F

perpendicular to the center line AD or BC, the
−F  D
perpendicular distance d between the two forces are
maximized (see figure).

tan   6 / 8  0.75
 = 53.1°◄
(b) The distance between the centers of the two pegs is (8 in.) 2
 (6 in.) 2  10 in.
Therefore,

d  10 in.  2(1/2 in.)  11 in.

From M = Fd, we have

F = M/d = 470 lb∙in./11 in.


F = 42.7 lb◄
3.77 If P 0, replace the two remaining couples
with a single equivalent couple, specifying
its magnitude and the direction of its axis.

SOLUTION F1
F2
There are two couples in the problem,

M 1  rOC  F1  [(30 in.)i ]  [( 16 lb) j]


 ( 480 lb  in) k
M 2  rBE  F2
where,

DE (5 in.) j  (10 in.)k


F2  F2 λ DE  F2  ( 40 lb)  (8 5 lb) j  (16 5 lb)k
DE (5 in.) 2  (10 in.) 2
rBE  (15in.)i  (5 in.) j
Therefore,
i j k
M 2  rBE  F2  15 5 0  80 5 i  240 5 j  120 5 k (lb  in.)
0 8 5  16 5
 178.885 i  536.656 j  268.328 k (lb  in.)
Hence,

M  M1  M 2  (480i )  (178.885 i  536.656 j  268.328 k ) (lb  in.)


 178.885 i  536.656 j  211 .672 k (lb  in.)
and

M  (178.885) 2  (536.656) 2  ( 211 .672) 2  603.99 (lb  in.)

M = 604 lb∙in.◄

cos  x  M x / M  178.885 / 603.99  0.29617 x = 72.8°◄


cos  y  M y / M  536.656 / 603.99  0.88852 y = 27.3°◄
cos  z  M z / M  211 .672 / 603.99  0.34045 z = 110.5°◄
3.80 Shaft A and B connect the gear box to the wheel assemblies of a tractor, and shaft C
connects it to the engine. Shafts A and B lie in the vertical yz plane, while shaft C is
directed along the x axis. Replaces the couples applied to the shafts with a single
equivalent couple, specifying its magnitude and the direction of its axis.

SOLUTION

Represent the given couples by the Cartesian components:

M A  1600 sin 20 j  1600 cos 20k  547.232 j  1503.51k (N  m)


M B  1200 sin 20 j  1200 cos 20k  410.424 j  1127.63k (N  m)
M C  1120i (N  m)

Therefore,

M  M A  M B  M C  1120i  136.808j  2631.1k (N  m)

M = −1120i −136.808j + 2631.1k (N∙m) ◄


The magnitude and direction are
d = 135 mm◄

M  ( 1120 ) 2  ( 136.808) 2  ( 2631.1) 2  2862.8 (N  m)

Mx  1120
 x  cos 1  cos 1  cos 1 (0.3912)  113 .0
M 2862.8
M y  136.808
 y  cos 1  cos 1  cos 1 (0.0478)  92.7
M 2862.8
M 2631.1
 z  cos 1 z  cos 1  cos 1 (0.9191)  23.2
M 2862.8

M = 2862.8 N∙m, x = 113.0°, y = 92.7°,z = 23.2° ◄


3.98 A 77-N force F1 and a 31-N m couple M1 are applied to corner E of the bent plate
shown. If F1 and M1 are to be replaced with an equivalent force-couple system (F2,
M2) at corner B and if (M2)z 0, determine (a) the distance d, (b) F2 and M2.

M2

F2

SOLUTION

M 2  M 1  rH / B  F1

where,

EJ  di  (0.03 m) j  (0.07 m)k


M 1  M 1λ EJ  M 1  (31 N  m)
EJ ( d ) 2  (0.03 m) 2  ( 0.07 m) 2
 31di  0.93 j  2.17 k
 (N  m)
d 2  0.0058

EH (0.06 m)i  (0.06 m) j  (0.07 m)k


F1  F1λ EH  F1  (71 N)
EH (0.06 m) 2  (0.06 m) 2  (0.07 m) 2
 (42 N)i  (42 N) j  (49 N)k

rH / B  (0.31 m)i  (0.0233 m) j

Therefore,
rH / B  F1  [(0.31 m)i  (0.0233 m) j]  [ (42 N)i  (42 N) j  (49 N)k ]
i j k
 0.31  0.0233 0  1.1417i  15.19 j  13.9986k (N  m)
42 42  49
Therefore,

M 2  M 1  rH / B  F
 31di  0.93 j  2.17 k
  1.1417i  15.19 j  13.9986k (N  m)
d 2  0.0058

(a) Since (M2)z = 0, we have

 2.17
 13.9986  0  d = 0.135 m
d 2  0.0058
d = 135 mm◄
(b) F2 and M2 are given by

F2  F1  (42 N)i  (42 N) j  (49 N)k

 31di  0.93 j  2.17 k


M2   1.1417i  15.19 j  13.9986k (N  m)
d 2  0.0058
 ( 25.858 N  m) i  ( 21.190 N  m) j

F2 = (42 N) i + (42 N) j – (49 N) k◄


M2 = – (25.9 N∙m) i + (21.2 N∙m) j◄
3.119 Four forces are applied to the machine component ABDE as shown. Replace these
forces by an equivalent force-couple system at A.
MAR

F1

F2

F3

F4
SOLUTION

It is easy to see that

R  F1  F2  F3  F4  (50 N) j  (300 N)i  (250 N)k  (120 N)i


 ( 420 N)i  (50 N) j  (250 N)k

rB / A  (0.2 m)i
rD / A  (0.2 m)i  (0.16 m)k
rE / A  (0.2 m)i  (0.1 m) j  (0.16 m)k

Therefore,

MR
A  rB / A  F1  rB / A  F2  rB / A  F3  rE / A  F4
 (0.2 m)i  ( 50 N) j  (0.2 m)i  ( 300 N)i  (0.2 m)i  ( 250 N)k
 [(0.2 m)i  (0.1 m) j  (0.16 m)k ]  ( 120 N)i
 (10 N  m)k  0  (50 N  m) j  [ (12 N  m)k  (19.2 N  m) j]
 (30.8 N  m) j  ( 22 N  m)k

So the force-couple at A is

R = – (420 N) i – (50 N) j – (250 N) k, MAR = (30.8 N∙m) j – (22 N∙m) k◄


3.x Replace the force and couple system acting on the member by an equivalent
resultant force and couple acting at point O.
F1

MOR
Rx
F2

Ry R

SOLUTION

Force Summation. It is easy to see that the couple forces of 200 N are equal but
opposite, and they produce no resultant force. Therefore,

R  F1  F2  (500 N)(3/5)i  (500 N)(4/5) j  (750 N) j


 (300 N)i  (350 N) j

Moment Summation. For a 2D problem, it is easy to do a scalar analysis.

R
MO   M O  (750 N)(1.25 m)  (500 N)(4/5)(2.5 m)  (500 N)(3/5)(1.0 m)
 (200 N)(1 m)  37.5 N  m

Therefore,

R = (300 N) i – (350 N) j, MOR = – (37.5 N∙m) k or MOR = 37.5 N∙m  ◄